WorldWideScience

Sample records for bone seekers

  1. Light seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Mestres Sierra, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Light Seekers represents a light and colour allegory, becoming a tribute to the French Impressionism. This audiovisual piece is a travel through the artist’s creative process from a magic point of view: the alchemy. A conceptual tour starting from the usual mundane things until the achievement of the mind’s spiritual ascension. A collection of emotions and sensations interlaced through music and landscapes, rhythm and colour

  2. Expert Seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  3. Student Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Helen

    1978-01-01

    The problem of graduate unemployment in India is examined in a study of 650 job seekers in Madras City. The relatively long period of waiting before a graduate actually finds and takes a job is attributed often to high income expectation. Correlations between job and studies preference of students are among the factors discussed. (LBH)

  4. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    Asylum seekers often find themselves in a situation where the structure and content of daily occupations have been disrupted and they might have limited access to paid work and education. Studies have shown that asylum seekers experience occupational deprivation and a change in daily occupations...... which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... torture survivors suffer from ill health. Pain and psychological symptoms are among the most frequent health issues for both asylum seekers and torture survivors and may cause occupation-related problems. The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate how staying in an asylum centre influenced...

  5. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  6. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides complete open-loop test capability for semi-active laser (SAL) seekers/sensors operating at 1.064 microns. ALSPES provides characterizations...

  7. Reasons for Attrition Among Public Adoption Seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Weissinger, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the main reasons public adoption seekers do not complete the adoption process. I conduct interviews with public adoption seekers from two California counties who dropped out of the process. I find that the most common reasons given for dropping out of the process are -changes in personal circumstance (for reasons such as losing a job or becoming ill); -dissatisfaction with agencies (for reasons such as poor customer service, the process being too len...

  8. Occupational change and mobility among employed and unemployed job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Labour Force Survey to show that employed and unemployed job seekers in Great Britain originate from different occupations and find jobs in different occupations. We find substantial differences in occupational mobility between job seekers: employed job seekers are most likely to move to occupations paying higher average wages relative to their previous occupation, while unemployed job seekers are most likely to move to lower paying occupations. Employed and unemployed jo...

  9. Health issues of asylum seekers and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Stephen; Stevens, Margaret; Hart, Bret; Douglas, Charles

    2002-02-01

    This paper is written on behalf of the West Australian Branch of the Australasian Faculty of Public Health Medicine. As public health physicians, we feel it is important that public health professionals should contribute constructively to address the needs of a socially deprived, marginalised group with high rates of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Depending on the definition, there are between 18 and 48 million asylum seekers and refugees in the world. Most seek protection in neighbouring countries, largely in Africa and Asia, rather than coming to North America, Europe and Australasia. Contrary to popular belief, numbers of successful applications to Australia's humanitarian program have actually fallen. This article attempts to correct misperceptions and misapprehensions about the effect of asylum seekers on the public health. Public health professionals should lobby for changes to Govemment policy that at present leave asylum seekers vulnerable to a cycle of poverty, ill-health and limited access to health services.

  10. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  11. Age assessment of young asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjern, Anders; Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    During 2009, 15,100 unaccompanied children sought asylum in Europe. Many of them came from 'failed states' like Somalia and Afghanistan where official documents with exact birth dates are rarely issued. This has led to requests to health care professionals in many countries to assist migration....... CONCLUSION: To improve care for young asylum seekers with undetermined age, we suggest better legal procedures for the determination of age and a more flexible approach to chronological age....

  12. Signal processing method of a novel polarized array radar seeker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhong Song; Xiaolin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel polarized radar seeker based on the polarized antenna array. A ful y polarized signal processing method for the proposed radar seeker is studied un-der the environments with electromagnetic interferences. A dual polarized antenna array is employed to transmit and receive the radar signals. The instantaneous polarization signal processing technique is used to detect and recognize the targets. The di-rection of arrival (DOA) of the target is measured through the spatial spectrum with high resolution for the polarized array radar seeker system. The ful y polarized signal model of the polarized array radar seeker is formulated and a specific signal processing algorithm is expounded. The theoretical research and numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed radar seeker has good performances in target detection and electronic warfare. The research results can provide an effective technical approach to develop and research the new generation radar seeker.

  13. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  14. Cultural competence among nurse practitioners working with asylum seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Suurmond; C. Seeleman; I. Rupp; S. Goosen; K. Stronks

    2010-01-01

    Asylum seekers often have complex medical needs. Little is known about the cultural competences health care providers should have in their contact with asylum seekers in order to meet their needs. Cultural competence is generally defined as a combination of knowledge about certain cultural groups, a

  15. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  16. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  17. Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orton Lois

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small body of evidence demonstrates the challenges faced by migrant communities living with HIV but has yet to consider in-depth the experience of asylum seekers whose residency status is undetermined. The overall aim of our study was to explore the experiences of those who are both living with HIV and seeking asylum. This paper focuses on the stressors precipitated by the HIV diagnosis and by going through the asylum system; as well as participants’ resilience in responding to these stressors and the consequences for their health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study. Fieldwork took place in the UK between 2008–2009 and included: 350 hours of observation at voluntary services providing support to black and minority ethnic groups living with HIV; 29 interviews and four focus group discussions with those who were seeking asylum and living with HIV; and 15 interviews with their health and social care providers. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Results There were three main stressors that threatened participants’ resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support. Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing. Conclusions Asylum seekers living with HIV in the UK show immense resilience. However, their isolation

  18. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  19. Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers and participation in everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Rajšter, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers receive little attention by the media and the general public, which is why I decided to look into and clarify their situation in Slovenia. In the theoretical part legal issues concerning refugee policy, the origin, numbers and vulnerability of asylum seekers in Slovenia and the rest of the world are explained. Furthermore the topic of participation is presented from different points of view. The second, empirical part of the thesis is aimed to find out ...

  20. Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The job search literature suggests that on-the-job search reduces the probability of unemployed people finding a job. However, there is little evidence that employed and unemployed job seekers are similar or apply for the same jobs. We compare employed and unemployed job seekers in terms of their individual characteristics, preferences over working hours, job-search strategies and employment histories, and identify how any differences vary over the business cycle. We find systematic differenc...

  1. Cooled and uncooled infrared detectors for missile seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi

    2014-06-01

    Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.

  2. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  3. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  4. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  5. Outcomes among Asylum Seekers in Atlanta, Georgia, 2003--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dabney P; Donato, Caitlin E; Malewezi, Bridget A; Li, Anyie J; Corea, Mario J; Mitchell, Andrew B

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Asylum seekers face a wide array of challenges, including the need for a fair and just adjudication process. In the state of Georgia, the Atlanta Asylum Network addresses the needs of such individuals by providing them physical, psychological and gynecological assessments, the results of which are presented to the courts in the asylum appeal process. OBJECTIVE As a component of the Network's program evaluation, assess outcomes among asylum seekers using its services, as well as relation of outcomes to type of service provided, the individual's geographic origin and English language proficiency. METHODS A retrospective examination was conducted of program data gathered by the Network between 2003 and 2012. Subjects included asylum seekers who received assessments by the Network during this period. The primary variable of interest was the final case outcome, defined as determination of asylum status: granted, withholding of removal, administrative closure and prosecutorial discretion, denied or voluntary departure. Outcomes were subsequently collapsed into a single positive or negative outcome variable. Positive outcomes included asylum granted, removal withheld, administrative closure and prosecutorial discretion. Negative outcomes included asylum denied and voluntary departure. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses, relating final case outcomes to Network services, geographic origin and English language proficiency, among the key variables. RESULTS A total of 69 of 120 asylum seekers in the study had a known final case outcome, and of those, 63.8% (44) had a positive outcome; or 37% of the total number of asylum seekers (n = 120). Among the 20 who received 2 of the 3 types of assessment (physical, psychological, gynecological), 16 (80%) received a positive case outcome. Most persons with a known final outcome came from Africa (41), where 78% (32) of cases resulted positive. Asylum seekers not proficient in English were 2.4 times more likely

  6. Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia: Problems and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzafar Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Indonesian West Java town of Cisarua, asylum seekers and refugees face prolonged periods of waiting in limbo. Australian government policies have contributed to the lengthy waiting times, particularly Operation Sovereign Borders. Those in protracted situations have found ways to ensure that during their time in Cisarua their basic needs are met and they demonstrate creativity and resilience in difficult circumstances. Education for children is a priority for asylum seeker and refugee communities and a learning centre developed by the community has provided hope for children and their families. The paper draws on the experiences of Author One during his waiting time in Cisarua and research conducted by Authors Two and Three in late 2013.

  7. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe asylum seekers' satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level while in a Danish asylum centre, and whether this changed over time. Another aim was to describe whether exposure to torture, self-rated health measures, and ADL ability were related...... to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. METHODS: A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social...... information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. RESULTS: The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow...

  8. Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia: Problems and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muzafar; Briskman, Linda Ruth; Fiske, Lucy Imogen

    2016-01-01

     Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia increasingly experience protracted waiting times for permanent settlement in other countries. They have few, if any, legal rights, coupled with extremely limited financial resources and no access to government provided services. In response to the prospect of living for many years in this difficult and liminal space, a small community of refugees in the West Java town of Cisarua has built relationships, skills and confidence among themselves and with ...

  9. High School Students: Information Seekers and Technology Users

    OpenAIRE

    Pope Gotschall, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This research paper examines the community of young people, specifically high school students who use various strategies and methods of seeking information. In this examination, the notion of information seeking behavior of student and librarian will resonate thematically and the focus will be on students as a whole community, inclusive of race, gender, and socio-economic status. The hope is to define and identify the major characteristics of this community as seekers of information as well a...

  10. Pursuing happiness in everyday life: the characteristics and behaviors of online happiness seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Acacia C; Della Porta, Matthew D; Pierce, Russell S; Zilca, Ran; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-12-01

    Although the last decade has witnessed mounting research on the development and evaluation of positive interventions, investigators still know little about the target population of such interventions: happiness seekers. The present research asked three questions about happiness seekers: (1) What are their general characteristics?, (2) What do they purposefully do to become happier?, and (3) How do they make use of self-help resources? In Study 1, we identified two distinct clusters of online happiness seekers. In Study 2, we asked happiness seekers to report on their use of 14 types of happiness-seeking behaviors. In Study 3, we tracked happiness seekers' usage of an iPhone application that offered access to eight different happiness-increasing activities, and assessed their resulting happiness and mood improvements. Together, these studies provide a preliminary portrait of happiness seekers' characteristics and naturalistic behaviors.

  11. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  12. Forensic dental investigations and age assessment of asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Di Vella, Giancarlo

    2008-06-01

    Age estimation is useful in forensic investigations to aid in the process of identifying unknown victims as well as living individuals. In many countries age estimation is commonly used to assist immigration authorities in deciding whether refugees or illegal migrants have reached that designated age that separates a juvenile from an adult. This is particularly important for the protection of unaccompanied minors. Italy is a country of great appeal for immigration as people from other Mediterranean countries can easily reach Italian coasts. In Italy, as in other western world countries, unaccompanied asylum seekers deemed to be under 18 face a very different path through the immigration system. They cannot be deported and are sent through a juvenile system where they have access to education programmes and may be granted a residence permit. The Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Bari was approached by Judges and Immigration Police with the question to assess the age of unaccompanied asylum seekers who claim to be below 18 years of age. The contribution of forensic odontologists for age estimation was recognised and since November 2006 age estimation of asylum seekers in Bari (Italy) relies on clinical and dental examination together with skeletal maturation as seen on radiographs of the left hand and wrist, the pelvis for iliac crests and root development and mineralisation of third molars as seen on an orthopantomogram. PMID:18630106

  13. Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Bice, Sara J

    2005-01-01

    Since the tightening of Australian policy for protection visa applicants began in the 1990s, access to health care has been increasingly restricted to asylum seekers on a range of different visa types. This paper summarises those legislative changes and discusses their implications for health policy relating to refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Of particular concern are asylum seekers on Bridging Visas with no work rights and no access to Medicare. The paper examines several key quest...

  14. Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Hansen, Anne R; Staehr, Mia A;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers has claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders. We used records from a large, multiethnic...

  15. Science Seeker: A New Model for Teaching Information Literacy to Entry-Level Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Jacquelyn; Winterman, Brian; Montooth, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    In order to integrate library instruction seamlessly into an introductory biology course, two librarians collaborated with a biology faculty member to create a three-part series of instruction sessions known as the Science Seeker. The Science Seeker taught students about the structure of scientific information by tracing the path that discoveries…

  16. 75 FR 33641 - Announcement of the Career Videos for America's Job Seekers Challenge; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement of the Career Videos for America's Job Seekers Challenge... the Career Videos for America's Job Seekers Challenge. The dates for all phases of this Video... public, associations, and/or employers can submit their occupational video for one of the 15...

  17. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  18. What Factors Drive Job Seekers Attitude in Using E-Recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzky Karina Brahmana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a digital world, job seekers prefer to use e-recruitment for a vacancy searching. Thus, the expla- nation of the determinants of their attitude in using this technology is left unobserved. This article reports the result of a survey study on how users utilize e-recruitment to search for works. Three hundred eighty-five just-graduated undergraduate students answered questions regarding their intention of using the e-recruitment under Theory of Acceptance Model. We propose Perceived Use- fulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Perceived of Enjoyment as the determinants of the job seekers intention. Results showed that those three variables influence the decision making of job seekers. We found also Perceived Usefulness is the mediating effect for jobs seekers in easy-to-use and enjoy feeling. This article provides evidence that e-recruitment has to be friendly user and fun to use to attract job seekers intention.

  19. The long road to employment: Incivility experienced by job seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdifatah A; Ryan, Ann Marie; Lyons, Brent J; Ehrhart, Mark G; Wessel, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses how job seekers' experiences of rude and discourteous treatment--incivility--can adversely affect self-regulatory processes underlying job searching. Using the social-cognitive model (Zimmerman, 2000), we integrate social-cognitive theory with the goal orientation literature to examine how job search self-efficacy mediates the relationship between incivility and job search behaviors and how individual differences in learning goal orientation and avoid-performance goal orientation moderate that process. We conducted 3 studies with diverse methods and samples. Study 1 employed a mixed-method design to understand the nature of incivility within the job search context and highlight the role of attributions in linking incivility to subsequent job search motivation and behavior. We tested our hypotheses in Study 2 and 3 employing time-lagged research designs with unemployed job seekers and new labor market entrants. Across both Study 2 and 3 we found evidence that the negative effect of incivility on job search self-efficacy and subsequent job search behaviors are stronger for individuals low, rather than high, in avoid-performance goal orientation. Theoretical implications of our findings and practical recommendations for how to address the influence of incivility on job seeking are discussed. PMID:26436441

  20. Penetration Capability Comparison of the Same Anti-ship Missiles Between Millimeter and Centimeter Wave Seekers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jia-you; WANG Na; SUN Tao

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the penetration capabilities of the same type anti-ship missiles with millimeter wave (MMW) seeker and centimeter wave seeker, and constructs mathematical models of penetration probability and saturation attack number for all anti-ship missiles used in the countermeasure system, according to the rule which makes the ship-borne air defence system oppase as far as possible and equally, and combining the actual combat situation. It can be seen, from analysis of the countermeasure process between anti-ship missile and surface naval ship, that for the same type of anti-ship missile with different seekers, the main influence on the penetration capability is from electronic jamming system. Based on the built model, the penetration capabilities of the same type anti-ship missiles with MMW and centimeter wave seekers are simulated. The simulated results show that the penetration capability of MMW seeker is slightly better than that of the centimeter wave seeker and its saturation attack number is also influenced by the discovering probability greatly. Finally, some suggestions to get superior penetration effect are given for a commander to choose seeker type suitably.

  1. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma

    2000-01-01

    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  2. Ethical and professional considerations providing medical evaluation and care to refugee asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Smith, Clyde L

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of asylum seekers who largely survived torture live in the United States. Asylum seekers have complex social and medical problems with significant barriers to health care access. When evaluating and providing care for survivors, health providers face important challenges regarding medical ethics and professional codes. We review ethical concerns in regard to accountability, the patient-physician relationship, and moral responsibilities to offer health care irrespective of patient legal status; competing professional responsibility toward society and the judiciary system; concerns about the consistency of asylum seekers' claims; ethical concerns surrounding involving trainees and researching within the evaluation setting; and the implication of broader societal views towards rights and social justice. We discuss contributing factors, including inadequate and insufficient provider training, varying and inadequate institutional commitment, asylum seekers' significant medical and social problems, and the broader health and social system issues. We review existing resources to address these concerns and offer suggestions. PMID:23767428

  3. Websense Publishing ThreatSeeker Cloud Security Service%Websense发布ThreatSeeker Cloud安全服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 由Websense推出的Websense ThreatSeeker Cloud安全服务,通过可靠的云架构交付Web、数据及邮件安全智能,适用于其所有的内容安全产品,包括SaaS安全服务、V10000 Web安全网关设备等.该安全服务进一步扩大了ThreatSeeker网络的保护范围,通过云架构帮助运营商和方案提供商将业界最领先的安全智能交付给目标市场及最终用户.

  4. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Schock; Rita Rosner; Christine Knaevelsrud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asylum interviews within the asylum procedure are associated with psychological stress for traumatized asylum seekers. This study investigates the impact of asylum interviews on the mental health in a sample of 40 traumatized asylum seekers. The comparison group consisted of refugees (N=10) that had not been invited to an asylum interview. Additionally, the moderating effects of trial-related variables such as perceived justice of the trial, stress of giving testimony, and stress ...

  5. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in Asylum Seekers in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Kart Yaşar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in asylum seekers in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The data about asylum seekers who applied in Istanbul between March 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic features and markers of blood borne infections (HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV results of asylum seekers were reviewed. Results: In total 3043 asylum seekers were included into the study. The leading origin countries of the refugees were from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan and majority of them (2328 people, 77% were male. The young adults between 25 and 45 years constituted the most crowded group. Overall prevalence of HCV, HBsAg and HIV/AIDS were 12.2%, 5.9% and 0.7%, respectively. The highest seropositivity rate for anti-HCV, HBsAg and anti-HIV were found in Georgian males (47.1%; in Moldovan males (13.2% and in Somali males (3.1%, respectively. Conclusion:Mostly asylum seekers who have migrated to our country were young adult males from Asia. The highest prevalence rate of HCV was found in Georgian males. Therefore, the increased potential of migration to our country along the recent years necessitates development of an appropriate health approach concerning asylum seekers. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 20-25

  6. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  7. After Wilberforce : an independent enquiry into the health and social needs of asylum seekers and refugees in Hull.

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, P; Brown, S. R.; Thornton-Jones, H.

    2010-01-01

    Commissioned by NHS Hull, this project has four aims: a. to gather the views of asylum seekers and refugees in Hull about their lives, and health; b. to consult with all relevant agencies in the city concerned with the health and social care of asylum seekers and refugees; c. to identify best practice in asylum seeker and refugee care in other parts of the country; d. to propose a strategy for the health and social care of asylum seekers and refugees in Hull. We car...

  8. Rapid trade-space realization of IR missile seeker design with a dynamic performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, John D.

    1996-06-01

    Tactical air-to-air or ground-to-air IR missile seeker design involves a vast number of interrelated design criteria spread over a very large parameter space. To further exacerbate matters, many of these critical parameters are dynamic in nature. A common approach to seeker design is to model the behavior of each critical component, or set of components, with a mathematical simulation of its predicted behavior. While this approach is generally very high in fidelity, it tends to be very computationally (and man-hour) intensive, requiring a large number of iterations for each component. Furthermore, many of these modeled components, for example, signal processing, are both space- and time-dependent in nature, and hence are dynamically related to the missile flyout (dynamics) model; consequently, they cannot be fully modeled by a purely static model. An end-to-end (launch to closest approach) dynamic seeker performance model is briefly described herein, which allows for rapid trade space realization over all relevant seeker parameters, and an example seeker design flowdown using the dynamic performance model is presented.

  9. [Taking Care of Asylum Seekers: Occupational Health Aspects with a Special Focus on Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, S; Hörmansdorfer, S; Ackermann, N; Höller, C; Brenner, B; Herr, C

    2016-04-01

    Employees and volunteers often feel insecure about the potential transmission of infectious diseases when taking care of asylum seekers. It could be shown that overall only a minor risk of infection emanates from asylum seekers. However, aspects of occupational health and vaccination should be kept in mind.Besides the standard vaccination the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends for occupational indication, which is given for employees and volunteers in asylum facilities, vaccination against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio (if the last vaccination was more than 10 years before) as well as influenza (seasonal).According to the German Occupational Safety and Health Act taking care of the employer has to determine which exposures might occur at the workplace (risk assessment) and define necessary protection measures. Depending on task and exposure when taking care of asylum seekers different acts (e. g. biological agents regulation) and technical guidelines for the handling biological agents (e. g. TRBA 250 or TRBA 500) have to be applied.The Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) has published several information sheets regarding "asylum seekers and health management" for employees and volunteers from the non-medical as well as the medical area (www.lgl.bayern.de search term "Asylbewerber"). With theses publications insecurities in taking care of asylum seekers should be prevented. Furthermore the employer gets support in the implementation of legal obligations to ensure occupational safety for the employees. PMID:27078829

  10. Psychosocial problems in asylum seekers' children : the parent, child, and teacher perspective using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, P.A.; Stellinga-Boelen, A.A.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Children of asylum seekers are at risk for psychosocial problems because of their flight history and exceptional living circumstances. This study aims to assess the association of sociodemographic factors and asylum procedural factors with psychosocial problems of asylum seekers' children, and diffe

  11. Will a Quota Plan for Asylum Seekers Plan Work —and Why Not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    the EU-Commission of a mandatory quota plan for asylum seekers will not work, because too many states will pretend, that the problem does not really belong to them. They fear that accepting a system according to which each state has to accept a fixed quota of asylum seekers in a recent context might......The article describes the recent situation in the Mediterranean, where the number of asylum seekers arriving from countries south and east of the Mediterranean Sea is increasing significantly. The European Commission has suggested a plan, “A European Agenda on Migration”, which will redistribute...... the migrants arriving mainly in Italy and Greece, so that all 28 EU member states will take their part of the responsibility. The plan should – according to the EU-Commission – be mandatory and this has resulted in criticism from several member states, not least the UK. The article claims that the idea from...

  12. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27068422

  13. A Research of the Employment Problem on Common Job-seekers and Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Da Qu

    2009-01-01

    A problem on the employment market swarming with both multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates was studied. The employment situation in the market was analyzed firstly. Based on the analysis, the situation was dynamically modeled. The model was properly processed and simplified. A control model corresponding to the method was deduced. As a result, a control solution for the model is obtained, and an example with Simulink demonstrates the control effect. By means of the proposed method, an optimal control for the dynamic balance between multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates can be obtained.

  14. Discursive Representations of Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrants are often referred to as an all encompassing group of people and the “many faces of migration”, the variety of people, legalities and complexities involved, can be overlooked. The same can be said for non-EU migrants in the Irish context. Non-EU migrants (or those that are not Caucasian are generally viewed to be a distinct cohort of comparable migrants. Indeed, these migrants are often portrayed in a broadly negative way by key Irish institutions (such as the parliament or the media, and these representations impact upon how Irish society views non-EU migration and indeed migration in general. While Ireland is by no means the only European country in which this type of practice occurs, this paper aims to draw attention to generalized, inaccurate and misleading representations of non-EU migrants in Ireland, by specifically examining representations of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. There can be an overlap in how these “types” of migrants are conceptualized and this paper therefore aims to develop an understanding of the implications involved for migrants categorized as an “asylum seeker” or an “illegal immigrant.” Furthermore, these topics are under-researched within the Irish context, yet they receive much political and public attention. At the same time however, this paper aims to challenge the labels assigned to non-EU migrants and the terminology that is used to define their identity so concretely. In the Irish context there is much confusion in relation to the multiple “faces” of non-EU migration, as a range of terminology is used to refer to them. This terminology is often used in an interchangeable manner, in an array of societal contexts. There is a consistent (whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally is debatable misuse of categories and migration terminology in Irish institutional discourses. Quite often those seeking asylum are referred to as illegal immigrants and vice versa

  15. Perception, Evaluation, and Performance in a Neat and Messy Room by High and Low Sensation Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, David J.; Lindauer, Martin S.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes two studies that investigated the relationship between the effects of room environment (neat versus messy) and high and low sensation seeker's perception, evaluation, and performance. Elapsed time estimation did not vary as a function of room condition and personality. Sex differences were not found to be critical. (BT)

  16. Benefits of Job Clubs for Executive Job Seekers: A Tale of Hares and Tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Christopher T.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative research study compares the experiences of 2 groups of executive job seekers--job club members and nonmembers--through thematic analysis of open-ended interviews. The findings indicated that job club members benefited from group learning, increased accountability, networking opportunities, emotional support, helping other members,…

  17. EMDR versus Stabilization in traumatized Asylum Seekers and Refugees: Results of a pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.J. ter Heide; T.M. Mooren; W. Kleyn; A. de Jongh; R.J. Kleber

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) or Eye Mov

  18. Asylum Seekers and Resettled Refugees in Australia: Predicting Social Policy Attitude From Prejudice Versus Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Hartley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While most of the world's refugees reside in developing countries, their arrival to western countries is highly politicised, giving rise to questions about the types of entitlements and rights that should, or should not, be granted. In this study, using a mixed-methods community questionnaire (N = 185, we examined attitudes towards social policies aimed at providing assistance to two categories of new arrivals to Australia: resettled refugees (who arrive via its official refugee resettlement program and asylum seekers (who arrive via boat and then seek refugee status. Social policy attitude was examined as a consequence of feelings of anger, fear, and threat, as well as levels of prejudice. Participants felt significantly higher levels of anger, fear, threat, and prejudice towards asylum seekers compared to resettled refugees. For both resettled refugees and asylum seekers, prejudice was an independent predictor of more restrictive social policy attitudes. For resettled refugees, fear and perceived threat were independent predictors for more restrictive social policy whereas for asylum seekers anger was an independent predictor of restrictive social policy. The qualitative data reinforced the quantitative findings and extended understanding on the appraisals that underpin negative attitudes and emotional responses. Practical implications relating to challenging community attitudes are discussed.

  19. Seekers after Truth? Images of Postgraduate Research and Researchers in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Western cultural practices contribute to our understanding of the purpose of higher education and how we are to conduct ourselves in educational contexts. In this article, entitled "Seekers after truth?", I analyse recent works of popular fiction which draw on and contribute to the idea that postgraduate research is a process of locating and…

  20. Factors That Influence Self-Disclosure for Job Seekers Using Social Networking: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence the extent and type of information job seekers reveal about themselves when using social networking to search for employment opportunities and advance their careers. It examined how user concerns regarding privacy influence the level of content they provide and their interactions with fellow community…

  1. Examining recruiters’ assessment of impression management tactics as used by job seekers on social networking sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, T.V.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Molenaar, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recruiters nowadays have started focusing their attention towards Social Networking Sites (SNS) for they provide an ideal basis to judge one’s personality on, and deal with on-line Impression Management (IM) tactics among job seekers and/or candidates in job seeking behavior. Impression Management i

  2. Politicised Notions of Professional Identity and Psychosocial Practice among Practitioners Working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidou, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study undertaken in the UK that investigates the notion of professional identity among practitioners who work with asylum seekers and refugees. Drawing on a social constructionist epistemology and a Foucauldian theoretical and methodological framework of power and discourse, I analysed extracts from semi-structured interviews…

  3. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  4. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  5. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged refugees and asylum seekers at that time.

  6. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy. PMID:27436307

  7. From commitment to compliance? Norway's international human rights obligations and practice towards asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, Tonje Falstad

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines what international human rights obligations Norway has towards asylum seekers through international treaties and conventions and its compliance with these obligations. The study applies case study methodology and through four cases it lays out some of the disputes between the Norwegian government and asylum authorities, and human rights advocates such as NGOs and lawyers. The theoretical framework for the dissertation is compliance theory which focuses on how states...

  8. Mental Health and asylum seekers/refugees – interview based research

    OpenAIRE

    MGuiness, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced people worldwide is continually growing. Alongside this, increasingly restrictive policies are being developed, limiting access to support and healthcare and also enforcing detention and destitution on those seeking asylum in the U.K. The adverse effects these policies have on a person’s emotional and psychological health can cause further distress to this population who have already experienced overwhe...

  9. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Modeling Based on Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; DAI Chao-hua; Chen Wei-rong; JIA Jun-bo; HAN Ming

    2008-01-01

    Seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) has applications in continuous space of swarm intelligence. In the fields of proton ex-change membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) modeling, SOA was proposed to research a set of optimized parameters in PEMFC polariza-tion curve model. Experimental result showed that the mean square error of the optimization modeling strategy was only 6.9 × 10-23. Hence, the optimization model could fit the experiment data with high precision.

  10. EMDR versus Stabilization in traumatized Asylum Seekers and Refugees: Results of a pilot-study

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, ter, H.; Mooren, T.M.; Kleyn, W.; de, Jongh, Petra; Kleber, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead...

  11. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M.; Kleijn, Wim; de Jongh, Ad; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead...

  12. Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and present...

  13. IMPACT OF E-RECRUITMENT AND JOB-SEEKERS PERCEPTION ON INTENTION TO PURSUE THE JOBS

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed R. KHAN; Marinah AWANG; Arsalan Mujahid GHOURI

    2013-01-01

    The study highlighted the significance of e-recruitment in the firms. In current epoch technology integrated the information in a sophisticated manner and has influenced on every setting of daily affaires. Hence job seekers are also get benefited with the internet era and start searching the jobs on internet. This study examined the relationship between the recruitment sources, job seekers’ perception and intention to pursue the job. Data was collected from 257 respondents and analysed in rel...

  14. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatised asylum seekers: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Kissane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD, a construct associated with early onset and repeated interpersonal trauma, has not previously been assessed in asylum seekers who have experienced major human rights violations. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the cPTSD symptom profile in asylum seekers, and to compare this profile between three groups of people who have experienced: human trafficking, domestic violence and/or torture. Methods: Over a period of eight weeks, clinicians working at the Helen Bamber Foundation charity invited 48 patients currently receiving psychotherapy to take part in the study, of whom 30 (62.5% agreed. The structured interview for disorders of extreme stress (SIDES was used to assess cPTSD in 29 asylum seekers, as one patient withdrew during the interview. Results: Participants originated from 18 countries, 72.4% were female, the median age at trauma onset was 17 years and the duration of trauma was ten years. Eight (27.6% participants were found to have cPTSD, defined as having all six symptom clusters, and 15 (51.7% had five or more cPTSD symptom clusters. Age at trauma onset, duration of trauma, last trauma experience, gender and trauma type were not found to be associated with cPTSD presence. Conclusions: Extensive cPTSD symptoms were common in all participants, regardless of the nature of the trauma experienced. Future research is needed to enable generalisability of cPTSD symptom profile in asylum seekers.

  15. Representations of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the Irish Print Media

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    This study examines media representation of asylum seekers and refugees in Ireland. The research is based on a detailed content analysis and discourse analysis of media coverage of the issues involved in immigration in five national newspapers over selected periods. The contention of this work is that much of new public opinion has originated from, and gradually gained strength through, the ideology of the Irish print media.

  16. Transcultural Spirituality: The coping mechanisms of Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Grounded Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Murgatroyd, Tamaryn

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence in the literature to suggest that Spirituality and Culture are neglected in nursing care (Greenstreet, 1999, Fernando, 2004). This has been attributed to lack of understanding and knowledge of how to deliver appropriate spiritual and cultural care, possibly due to the ambiguity of the two concepts. Refugees and Asylum Seekers appear to be vulnerable to mental health problems due to the experiences that they have had, and the lack of social support that they receive in the...

  17. A Study of Asylum Seeker/Refugee Advocacy: Paradoxes of Helping in a Climate of Hostility.

    OpenAIRE

    Wroe, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the extent to which hostility towards asylum seekers/refugees frames advocacy talk. Using a dialogical approach, I analyse how the identities of asylum claimants are dealt with by refugee advocates, in order to counter this hostility. My analysis is based on the collection of publicity materials from four refugee organisations, and from Narrative Biographical Interviews conducted with their staff, volunteers and asylum-seeking clients. Using the notion of dialogi...

  18. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  19. Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garåsen Helge

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of new tuberculosis cases in Norway occur among immigrants from high incidence countries. On arrival to the country all asylum seekers are screened with Mantoux test and chest x-ray aimed to identify cases of active tuberculosis and, in the case of latent tuberculosis, to offer follow-up or prophylactic treatment. We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment and follow-up of tuberculosis infection and disease in a cohort of asylum seekers. Methods Asylum seekers ≥ 18 years who arrived at the National Reception Centre from January 2005 to June 2006, were included as the total cohort. Those with a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm or positive x-ray findings were included in a study group for follow-up. Data were collected from public health authorities in the municipality to where the asylum seekers had moved, and from hospital based internists in case they had been referred to specialist care. Individual subjects included in the study group were matched with the Norwegian National Tuberculosis Register which receive reports of everybody diagnosed with active tuberculosis, or who had started treatment for latent tuberculosis. Results The total cohort included 4643 adult asylum seekers and 97.5% had a valid Mantoux test. At least one inclusion criterion was fulfilled by 2237 persons. By end 2007 municipal public health authorities had assessed 758 (34% of them. Altogether 328 persons had been seen by an internist. Of 314 individuals with positive x-rays, 194 (62% had seen an internist, while 86 of 568 with Mantoux ≥ 15, but negative x-rays (16% were also seen by an internist. By December 31st 2006, 23 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (prevalence 1028/100 000 and another 11 were treated for latent infection. Conclusion The coverage of screening was satisfactory, but fewer subjects than could have been expected from the national guidelines were followed up in the community and referred to an internist. To

  20. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  1. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Measles, Rubella and Varicella among Asylum Seekers Arriving in Lower Saxony, Germany, November 2014-October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikkanen, Salla E; Baillot, Armin; Dreesman, Johannes; Mertens, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres. PMID:27376309

  2. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Martina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n = 43 had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1 months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n = 43 had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2 months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and pain (Verbal Rating Scale were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4% and PTSD (23.3% were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted.

  3. High Prevalence of Infectious Diseases and Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Asylum Seekers Admitted to Hospital; No Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae until September 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, Sofanne J.; Lokate, Mariette; Cornish, Darren; Kloeze, Eveline; Ott, Alewijn; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Hest, Rob; Akkerman, Onno W.; Lange, de Wiel C.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bathoorn, Erik; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current refugee crisis emphasizes the need for information on infectious diseases and resistant microorganisms in asylum seekers with possible consequences for public health and infection control. Methods We collected data from asylum seekers admitted to our university hospital or w

  4. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  5. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  6. Moving images: psychoanalytically informed visual methods in documenting the lives of women migrants and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaken, Janice K; O'Neill, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    While feminist arts-based projects have gained legitimacy, theory guiding the use of visual images in field research has lagged. Drawing on psychoanalytic-feminist theory and participatory action research methods, the article presents a study carried out with women refugee and asylum seekers that focuses on their experiences in seeking a place of safety in the United Kingdom. The aim was to produce through photography and videography a collective account of asylum as a daily process. In discussing the study, the authors provide a psychoanalytic framework for working through ethical, political, and methodological dilemmas in the use of visual imagery in feminist research.

  7. Collective decision making with a mix of majority and minority seekers

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of a population making a binary decision based on information spreading within the population, which is fully connected or covering a square grid. We assume that a fraction of the population wants to make the choice of the majority, while the rest want to make the minority choice. This resembles opinion spreading with "contrarian" agents, but has the game theoretic aspect that agents try to optimize their own situation in ways that are incompatible with the common good. When this fraction is less than 1/2, the population can efficiently self-organize to a state where agents get what they want -- the majority (i.e. the majority seekers) have one opinion, the minority seekers have the other. If the fraction is larger than 1/2, there is a frustration in the population that dramatically changes the dynamics. In this region, the population converges, through some distinct phases, to a state of approximately equal-sized opinions. Just over the threshold the state of the population is furthest from ...

  8. Collective decision making with a mix of majority and minority seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We study a model of a population making a binary decision based on information spreading within the population, which is fully connected or covering a square grid. We assume that a fraction of the population wants to make the choice of the minority, whereas the rest want to make the majority choice. This resembles opinion spreading with "contrarian" agents but has the game theoretic aspect that agents try to optimize their own situation in ways that are incompatible with the common good. When this fraction is less than 1/2, the population can efficiently self-organize to a state where agents get what they want—the majority (i.e., the majority seekers) have one opinion, the minority seekers have the other. If the fraction is larger than 1/2, there is a frustration in the population that dramatically changes the dynamics. In this region, the population converges, through some distinct phases, to a state of approximately equal-sized opinions. Just over the threshold the state of the population is furthest from the collectively optimal solution.

  9. Efficiency improvement and torque ripple minimization of Switched Reluctance Motor using FEM and Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper proposes a new method to optimize a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM). • A combination of SOA and GA with Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is employed to solve the SRM design optimization. • The results show that optimized SRM obtains higher average torque and higher efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, performance optimization of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) was determined using Seeker Optimization Algorithm (SOA). The most efficient aim of the algorithm was found for maximum torque value at a minimum mass of the entire construction, following changing the geometric parameters. The optimization process was carried out using a combination of Seeker Optimization Algorithm and Finite Element Method (FEM). Fitness value was calculated by FEM analysis using COMSOL3.4, and the SOA was realized by MATLAB. The proposed method has been applied for a case study and it has been also compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results show that the optimized motor using SOA had higher torque value and efficiency with lower mass and torque ripple, exhibiting the validity of this methodology for SRM design

  10. IMPACT OF E-RECRUITMENT AND JOB-SEEKERS PERCEPTION ON INTENTION TO PURSUE THE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed R. KHAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study highlighted the significance of e-recruitment in the firms. In current epoch technology integrated the information in a sophisticated manner and has influenced on every setting of daily affaires. Hence job seekers are also get benefited with the internet era and start searching the jobs on internet. This study examined the relationship between the recruitment sources, job seekers’ perception and intention to pursue the job. Data was collected from 257 respondents and analysed in relation with the research objectives. The findings of the study showed that internet is the most preferred source to search the job among other recruitment sources. Furthermore, it is also suggested that the effectiveness of e-recruitment depends upon the placement of advertisement and salary is the most influential motivator to find interest in the job applied. Lastly, statistics of the study found that the recruitment sources and applicant’s perceptions of job significantly influence the intention to pursue the position applied by the job seeker.

  11. Gender and offender status predicting treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Stenmark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current knowledge is limited regarding patient characteristics related to treatment outcome of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers. Objective: Gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression were investigated for possible effects on the treatment outcome. Method: Patient characteristics were explored in 54 refugees and asylum seekers who had completed a treatment program for PTSD. Non-responders (10, those who had the same or higher levels of symptom severity after treatment, were compared with responders, those who had lower symptom severity after treatment (44. Symptom severity was measured by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The non-responders and responders constituted the dichotomous, dependent variable. The independent variables were gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression. T-tests and Exact Unconditional Homogeneity/Independence Tests for 2X2 Tables were used to study the relationship to treatment outcome. Results: Being male and reporting to have been a violent offender were significantly more frequent characteristics among the non-responders compared to the responders. The levels of pretreatment anger, depression and torture status did not affect the treatment outcome. Conclusions: The study adds support to findings that females benefit more from treatment of PTSD than males and that violent offenders are difficult to treat within the standard treatment programs.

  12. Optical system design of a new type infrared dual-band seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongli, Ma; Liu, Wenzhe; Wang, Wensheng

    2010-08-01

    Based on the appearance of infrared dual-band device and the technical parameters of infrared seeker, a new-type Cassegrain optical system is designed. The main advantages of the system are large field-of-view, infrared dual-band common path and compact structure. In the Cassegrain optical system, the working wavelengths are 3.7μm~4.8μm and 8μm~12μm, the field-of-view 4° and the aperture 240mm. The paraboloidal primary mirror and hyperboloidal secondary mirror are all replaced by spherical surfaces. So the problems of high machining accuracy and alignment become much easier. In order to balance the aberrations, two compensating lenses are used in the system. The amounts of compensating lenses are much less than other optical systems. So the new optical system becomes much more economy, light and compact. The total length of system is 170mm. The ratio of total length to focal length is 0.62. So it can meet the operating requirement of seeker in limited space. Moreover, the system has a good performance of athermalization between negative 40°c and positive 50°c. The design results of the system show that the MTF value of each field is greater than 0.7 when the cut-off frequency is 11 lp / mm. Wavefront aberration is less than 0.038λ.

  13. Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-12-15

    The impact of industrialised host nations' deterrent immigration policies on the mental health of forced migrants has not been well characterised. The present study investigated the impact of Australia's refugee determination process (RDP) on psychiatric morbidity in community-based asylum-seekers (AS) and refugees. Psychiatric morbidity was predicted to be greater in AS than refugees, and to persist or increase as a function of time in the RDP. The effect on mental health of demographic and socio-political factors such as health cover and work rights were also investigated. Psychiatric morbidity was measured prospectively on five mental health indices at baseline (T1, n=131) and an average of 15.7 months later (T2, n=56). Psychiatric morbidity in AS significantly decreased between time points such that it was no longer greater than that of refugees at T2. Caseness of PTSD and demoralisation reduced in AS who gained protection; however, those who maintained asylum-seeker status at T2 also had a significant reduction in PTS and depression symptom severity. Reduced PTS and demoralisation symptoms were associated with securing work rights and health cover. Living in the community with work rights and access to health cover significantly improves psychiatric symptoms in forced migrants irrespective of their protection status. PMID:26518226

  14. A User Programmable Electro-optic Device for Testing Laser Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul Maini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-guided munitions are weapons of great importance in the present day warfare scenario because of their precision and efficacy. Both weapon specific and generic test systems are commercially available to perform functionality checks on laser guided munitions. None of the designs reported in literature addresses the issues of universality of test systems and their ability to evaluate the device-under-test in actual battlefield scenario. This paper presents the design of an electro-optic device that offers significant improvement over the features of both commercial test systems as well as the designs reported in recent literature. The proposed design enables generation of user programmable laser signatures in terms of pulse repetition frequency (PRF code, PRF code resolution and laser power density that allows testing in dynamic conditions not possible with the test systems in the state-of-the-art. The concept is hardware implemented and used to evaluate performance of a typical laser seeker. The seeker is tested for PRF code compatibility, immunity to false PRF codes, sensitivity, field-of-view and performance in dynamic conditions. The test results are also presented.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.4857

  15. Research for the jamming mechanism of high-frequency laser to the laser seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingyuan; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Yunping; Feng, Shuang; Zhao, Changming

    2013-08-01

    High-frequency laser will be able to enter the enemy laser signal processing systems without encoded identification and a copy. That makes it one of the research directions of new interference sources. In order to study the interference mechanism of high-frequency laser to laser guided weapons. According to the principle of high-frequency laser interference, a series of related theoretical models such as a semi-active laser seeker coded identification model, a time door model, multi-signal processing model and a interference signal modulation processing model are established. Then seeker interfere with effective 3σ criterion is proposed. Based on this, the study of the effect of multi-source interference and signal characteristics of the effect of high repetition frequency laser interference are key research. According to the simulation system testing, the results show that the multi-source interference and interference signal frequency modulation can effectively enhance the interference effect. While the interference effect of the interference signal amplitude modulation is not obvious. The research results will provide the evaluation of high-frequency laser interference effect and provide theoretical references for high-frequency laser interference system application.

  16. Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK: The Challenges of Accessing Education and Employment. NIACE Briefing Sheet 91

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This briefing paper endeavours to highlight the challenges facing refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom in accessing education, training and employment. It does not claim to cover all the issues but is intended as a starting point for providers of adult learning and/or advice. It initially sets out the facts about definitions and…

  17. The association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Lurie, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Past research has documented the role acculturation plays in the process of adjustment to new cultures among migrants. Yet little attention has been paid thus far to the role of acculturation in the context of forced migration. In this study we examined the association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among a convenience sample of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers (n = 118) who accessed health services at the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Participants completed measures on sociodemographic information as well as detention history, mental health symptoms, exposure to traumatic events, and acculturation pattern, in their native language upon accessing services. Consistent with our predictions, findings showed that acculturation predicted depressive symptoms among asylum seekers beyond the effect of history of detention and reports of experiences of traumatic events. Assimilated compared with integrated asylum seekers reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings draw attention to the paradox of assimilation, and the mental health risks it poses among those wishing to integrate into the new culture at the expanse of their original culture. Asylum seekers may be particularly vulnerable to the risks of assimilation in the restrictive policies that characterize many industrial countries in recent years. PMID:25090150

  18. Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A. M.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Storm, Huub; Bijleveld, Charles M. A.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2007-01-01

    Low dietary intake and limited sun exposure during Dutch winters, in particular when combined with highly pigmented skin, could compromise the vitamin D status of asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. We determined the vitamin D status of children living in The Netherlands, but originating fr

  19. Objections to asylum seeker centers: Individual and contextual determinants of resistance to small and large centers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, numerous asylum seeker centres (ASCs) have been founded in the Netherlands, often preceded and followed by neighbourhood unrest. In this contribution we show to what extent people object to the foundation of ASCs of different sizes. We set out to answer the question of which

  20. Objections to Asylum Seeker Centres : Individual and Contextual Determinants of Resistance to Small and Large Centres in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Marcel; Coenders, Marcel; Scheepers, Peer

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, numerous asylum seeker centres (ASCs) have been founded in the Netherlands, often preceded and followed by neighbourhood unrest. In this contribution we show to what extent people object to the foundation of ASCs of different sizes. We set out to answer the question of which

  1. Monitoring for Equality? Asylum Seekers and Refugees' Retention and Achievement in English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the integration of refugees has grown with the increase in numbers of asylum seekers dispersed across the UK. The ability to communicate effectively in English is seen as the key priority in facilitating integration, while a lack of English language is seen as one of the major barriers to refugee employment. Some 267 million British…

  2. The Principle of Non-Discrimination : An Empty Promise for the Preventive Health Care of Asylum Seekers and Undocumented Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The principle of non-discrimination in Article 2 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) holds that its rights are equally applicable to ‘everyone’. Nevertheless, evidence from the national context suggests that access to health care for asylum seekers and undo

  3. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  4. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  5. Diversity cues on recruitment websites: investigating the effects on job seekers' information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Bernerth, Jeremy B; Becton, J Bret

    2012-01-01

    Although job seekers' motivation to process the information encountered during recruitment partially influences recruitment success, little is known about what motivates more thorough information processing. To address this issue, we integrated recruitment and social information processing theories to examine the possibility that diversity cues on recruitment websites influence website viewers' processing of presented information. Utilizing a controlled experiment and a hypothetical organization, Study 1 revealed that both Blacks and Whites spent more time viewing recruitment websites and better recalled website information when the sites included racial diversity cues. These relationships were stronger for Blacks, and organizational attractiveness perceptions mediated these effects for Blacks but not for Whites. Study 2 found similar relationships for Black and White participants viewing real organizational recruitment websites after taking into account perceived organizational attributes and website design effects. Implications of these findings for recruiting organizations are discussed.

  6. Image restoration in multisensor missile seeker environments for design of intelligent integrated processing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshan, Malur K.; Pang, Ho-Yuen; Amphay, Sengvieng A.; Sundstrom, Bryce M.

    1997-10-01

    Two major factors that could limit successful implementations of image restoration and superresolution algorithms in missile seeker applications are, (i) lack of accurate knowledge of sensor point spread function (PSF) parameters, and (ii) noise-induced artifacts in the restoration process. The robustness properties of a recently developed blind iterative Maximum Likelihood (ML) restoration algorithm to inaccuracies in sensor PSF are established in this paper. Two modifications to this algorithm that successfully equip it to suppress artifacts resulting from the presence of high frequency noise components are outlined. Performance evaluation studies with 1D and 2D signals are included to demonstrate that these algorithms have superresolution capabilities while possessing also attractive robustness and artifact suppression properties. The algorithms developed here hence contribute to efficient designs of intelligent integrated processing architectures for smart weapon applications.

  7. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy.

  8. Unaccompanied & Denied: Regional Legal Framework for Unaccompanied Minors Asylum Seekers (UMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaida Nordin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers are vulnerable and thus, provided special international law protections. However, in reality, they are being mistreated as illegal immigrants and on thereceiving end of ethnic violence, discrimination, restrictions in enjoyment of their rights duly recognised by international human rights law. This article identifies legislative, policy and supportmechanisms which encompass the minimum UMAS guardianship standards at international law and which are evidence-based from best practice models for the provision of guardians for UMASinternationally. It presents situation of UMAS in relation to human rights violations with emphasis on the legal framework and practices in Australia and five ASEAN State Members. This article also highlights the various stands taken by various countries providing better legal framework and practices regarding the terms for protection and enforcement of human rights for UMAS. Finally, this article provides recommendations for Australia and ASEAN Member States to adopt in order to realise the international human rights of UMAS with respect to guardianship.

  9. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy. PMID:24199520

  10. Diversity cues on recruitment websites: investigating the effects on job seekers' information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Bernerth, Jeremy B; Becton, J Bret

    2012-01-01

    Although job seekers' motivation to process the information encountered during recruitment partially influences recruitment success, little is known about what motivates more thorough information processing. To address this issue, we integrated recruitment and social information processing theories to examine the possibility that diversity cues on recruitment websites influence website viewers' processing of presented information. Utilizing a controlled experiment and a hypothetical organization, Study 1 revealed that both Blacks and Whites spent more time viewing recruitment websites and better recalled website information when the sites included racial diversity cues. These relationships were stronger for Blacks, and organizational attractiveness perceptions mediated these effects for Blacks but not for Whites. Study 2 found similar relationships for Black and White participants viewing real organizational recruitment websites after taking into account perceived organizational attributes and website design effects. Implications of these findings for recruiting organizations are discussed. PMID:22004220

  11. Performance evaluation of imaging seeker tracking algorithm based on multi-features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujue; Yan, Jinglong

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents a new efficient method for performance evaluation of imaging seeker tracking algorithm. The method utilizes multi features which associate with tracking point of each video frame, gets local score(LS) for every feature, and achieves global score(GS) for given tracking algorithm according to the combined strategy. The method can be divided into three steps. In a first step, it extracts evaluation feature from neighbor zone of each tracking point. The feature may include tracking error, shape of target, area of target, tracking path, and so on. Then, as to each feature, a local score can be got rely on the number of target which tracked successfully. It uses similarity measurement and experiential threshold between neighbor zone of tracking point and target template to define tracking successful or not. Of course, the number should be 0 or 1 for single target tracking. Finally, it assigns weight for each feature according to the validity grade for the performance. The weights multiply by local scores and normalized between 0 and 1, this gets global score of certain tracking algorithm. By compare the global score of each tracking algorithm as to certain type of scene, it can evaluate the performance of tracking algorithm quantificational. The proposed method nearly covers all tracking error factors which can be introduced into the process of target tracking, so the evaluation result has a higher reliability. Experimental results, obtained with flying video of infrared imaging seeker, and also included several target tracking algorithms, illustrate the performance of target tracking, demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  12. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Katrin; Rosner, Rita; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Asylum interviews within the asylum procedure are associated with psychological stress for traumatized asylum seekers. This study investigates the impact of asylum interviews on the mental health in a sample of 40 traumatized asylum seekers. The comparison group consisted of refugees (N=10) that had not been invited to an asylum interview. Additionally, the moderating effects of trial-related variables such as perceived justice of the trial, stress of giving testimony, and stress of waiting for the asylum interview were examined. Method Participants were assessed on average 10 days before (t1) and 16 days after (t2) the asylum interview. Chi-square tests for dichotomous and categorical variables were used to compare the descriptive statistics of the two groups. To investigate symptom changes from t1 to t2, paired t-tests were calculated. The magnitude of effects was measured by Cohen's effect size d within groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for demographic and trial variables predicting posttraumatic intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Results Data showed a significant increase in posttraumatic intrusions and a significant decrease in posttraumatic avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms from t1 to t2. No significant symptom changes in the posttraumatic stress disorder subscales were found in the comparison group. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed perceived justice of the interview to predict the increase of intrusions and the number of experienced traumata and testimony stress to predict posttraumatic avoidance. Conclusions The present findings underline the stressful impact of asylum interviews on traumatized refugees. They indicate that the asylum interview might decrease posttraumatic avoidance and trigger posttraumatic intrusions, thus highlight the importance of ensuring that the already vulnerable group of traumatized refugees needs to be treated with empathy during their asylum interview. PMID:26333540

  13. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum interviews within the asylum procedure are associated with psychological stress for traumatized asylum seekers. This study investigates the impact of asylum interviews on the mental health in a sample of 40 traumatized asylum seekers. The comparison group consisted of refugees (N=10 that had not been invited to an asylum interview. Additionally, the moderating effects of trial-related variables such as perceived justice of the trial, stress of giving testimony, and stress of waiting for the asylum interview were examined. Method: Participants were assessed on average 10 days before (t1 and 16 days after (t2 the asylum interview. Chi-square tests for dichotomous and categorical variables were used to compare the descriptive statistics of the two groups. To investigate symptom changes from t1 to t2, paired t-tests were calculated. The magnitude of effects was measured by Cohen's effect size d within groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for demographic and trial variables predicting posttraumatic intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Results: Data showed a significant increase in posttraumatic intrusions and a significant decrease in posttraumatic avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms from t1 to t2. No significant symptom changes in the posttraumatic stress disorder subscales were found in the comparison group. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed perceived justice of the interview to predict the increase of intrusions and the number of experienced traumata and testimony stress to predict posttraumatic avoidance. Conclusions: The present findings underline the stressful impact of asylum interviews on traumatized refugees. They indicate that the asylum interview might decrease posttraumatic avoidance and trigger posttraumatic intrusions, thus highlight the importance of ensuring that the already vulnerable group of traumatized refugees needs to be treated with empathy during their asylum

  14. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  15. Protecting and assisting refugees and asylum-seekers in Malaysia : the role of the UNHCR, informal mechanisms, and the 'Humanitarian exception'

    OpenAIRE

    Lego, Jera Beah H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper problematizes Malaysia's apparently contradictory policies – harsh immigration rules applied to refugees and asylum seekers on the one hand, and the continued presence and functioning of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) on the other hand. It asks how it has been possible to protect and assist refugees and asylum seekers in light of such policies and how such protection and assistance is implemented, justified, and maintained. Giorgio Agamben's concept of th...

  16. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosinkie Phillip I

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients' relatives or friends. However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. Methods Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. Results There was a 70% (n = 56/80 response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77% said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. Conclusion The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English.

  17. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacFarlane, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients\\' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. METHODS: Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. RESULTS: There was a 70% (n = 56\\/80) response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77%) said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. CONCLUSION: The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners\\' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English.

  18. Profile of abortion seekers and decision makers of post abortion contraceptive acceptability in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yadav

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: All MTP seekers should be provided information and counseling for post abortal contraceptive use and enable these women and their spouse to make an informed and voluntary choice and thus avoid the need of a repeat abortion. Contraceptive services should also include emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy due to unprotected sex. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3491-3495

  19. Factors associated with latent tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Switzerland: a cross-sectional study in Vaud County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarivalasis Apostolos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in asylum seekers (AS may prevent future cases of tuberculosis. As the screening with Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA is costly, the objective of this study was to assess which factors were associated with LTBI and to define a score allowing the selection of AS with the highest risk of LTBI. Methods In across-sectional study, AS seekers recently arrived in Vaud County, after screening for tuberculosis at the border were offered screening for LTBI with T-SPOT.TB and questionnaire on potentially risk factors. The factors associated with LTBI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression. Results Among 393 adult AS, 98 (24.93% had a positive IGRA response, five of them with active tuberculosis previously undetected. Six factors associated with LTBI were identified in multivariate analysis: origin, travel conditions, marital status, cough, age and prior TB exposure. Their combination leads to a robust LTBI predictive score. Conclusions The prevalence of LTBI and active tuberculosis in AS is high. A predictive score integrating six factors could identify the asylum seekers with the highest risk for LTBI.

  20. Methodology developed for the simultaneous measurement of bone formation and bone resorption in rats based on the pharmacokinetics of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Maela; Brance, Maria Lorena; Fina, Brenda Lorena; Brun, Lucas Ricardo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for the simultaneous estimation of bone formation (BF) and resorption (BR) in rats using fluoride as a nonradioactive bone-seeker ion. The pharmacokinetics of flouride have been extensively studied in rats; its constants have all been characterized. This knowledge was the cornerstone for the underlying mathematical model that we used to measure bone fluoride uptake and elimination rate after a dose of fluoride. Bone resorption and formation were estimated by bone fluoride uptake and elimination rate, respectively. ROC analysis showed that sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve were not different from deoxypiridinoline and bone alkaline phosphatase, well-known bone markers. Sprague-Dawley rats with modified bone remodelling (ovariectomy, hyper, and hypocalcic diet, antiresorptive treatment) were used to validate the values obtained with this methodology. The results of BF and BR obtained with this technique were as expected for each biological model. Although the method should be performed under general anesthesia, it has several advantages: simultaneous measurement of BR and BF, low cost, and the use of compounds with no expiration date.

  1. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Willness, Chelsea R; Heller, Kristin W

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the "perceived value fit" and "expected employee treatment" mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the "anticipated pride" mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less attracted

  2. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.; Willness, Chelsea R.; Heller, Kristin W.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the “perceived value fit” and “expected employee treatment” mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the “anticipated pride” mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less

  3. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Willness, Chelsea R; Heller, Kristin W

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the "perceived value fit" and "expected employee treatment" mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the "anticipated pride" mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less attracted

  4. I had some problems back home with a big group of people and it was not safe for me there anymore so I had to run away : How LGBT asylum seekers move

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increased number of the amount of asylum-seekers that have migrated to Sweden lately, the topic has received increased attention. This has contributed to housing shortage and policy reforms for new migrants to arise in order to ensure that everybody gets housing. Asylum seekers often experience more difficult patterns to housing, and for LGBT asylum seekers especially since they are such a marginalised group in our society already. Housing is an important part in the initial settle...

  5. An Efficient ΣΔ-STAP Detector for Radar Seeker using RPCA Post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive detection of moving targets in sea clutter environment is considered as one of the crucial tasks for radar seekers. Due to the severe spreading of the sea clutter spectrum, the ability of space-time adaptive processing with sum and difference beams (ΣΔ-STAP algorithms to suppress the sea clutter is very limited. This paper, investigated the low-rank property of the range-Doppler data matrix according to the eigenvalue distribution from the eigen spectrum, and proposed an efficient ΣΔ-STAP detector based on the robust principle component analysis (RPCA algorithm to detect moving targets, which meets the low-rank matrix recovery conditions. The proposed algorithm first adopts ΣΔ-STAP algorithm to preprocess the sea clutter, then separates the sparse matrix of target component from the range-Doppler data matrix through the RPCA algorithm, and finally, effectively detects moving targets in the range-Doppler plane. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm in the low signal-to-noise ratio scenarios.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4, July 2014, pp. 344-349, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.4862

  6. ANALYSIS OF PULSE OPTICAL TARGET SEEKER STATIC CHARACTERISTICS AT TARGET AIRCRAFTS EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Trifonov,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with operating principles of optical pulse target seekers based on quadrant photodiode when targets are located in short-range field region. Method. Target image shape and light intensity distribution can affect static characteristics and cause appearance of image energy maximums when targets are located in short-range field region. Physical modeling of static characteristics plotting process was carried out. The main idea of the proposed method lies in counting sums of image pixels intensities in every virtual area of the sensor while virtual frame of the whole photodetector is moving over the target image. Main Results. Most probable target illumination directions were analyzed. Critical distances when the first extra image energy maximum appears were calculated for every target illumination directions. Time of missile uncontrollable flight at a near miss distance was also estimated. Practical Relevance. Research results point out that using of control loop proper logic is required to provide reliable target shot down for active and semi-active laser homing systems. Also disabling of such systems should be carried out when targets are located in short-range field region.

  7. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS. PMID:25929013

  8. The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedal, Brit; Idsoe, Thormod

    2015-04-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about psychosocial resources that may sustain post-resettlement psychological adjustment among unaccompanied minor asylum-seekers. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of social support from family abroad and friends on acculturation, discrimination, and mental health among these vulnerable children and youth. Questionnaire data were collected from a population-based multi-ethnic sample involving 895 unaccompanied minors resettled in municipalities in all regions of the country. They met in groups in their local communities. The informants were on average 18.6 years, and had an average length of stay in Norway of 3.5 years. The findings showed that the participants suffered from high levels of ongoing war related intrusive symptoms and depression. Still, at the same time they engaged in adaptation processes that are normative to youth with immigrant backgrounds, in terms of constructing supportive networks and developing culture competence. In accordance with the main effect hypothesis, social support had direct effects on depression and indirect effects by increasing culture competence that may aid the young refugees in dealing with discrimination. However, there were no effects of social support on symptoms of PTSD. The findings give direction to areas of interventions, beyond dealing with the sequel of the traumas the unaccompanied minors have been exposed to, not only for clinicians, but also social workers and school personnel. PMID:25614276

  9. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221

  10. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives.

  11. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Software-only IR image generation and reticle simulation for the HWIL testing of a single detector frequency modulated reticle seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Jan Peet; le Roux, Francois P. J.; du Plooy, Matthys J. U.; Theron, Hendrik J.; Annamalai, Leeandran

    2004-08-01

    Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) testing of seeker systems usually requires a 5-axis flight motion simulator (FMS) coupled to expensive hardware for infrared (IR) scene generation and projection. Similar tests can be conducted by using a 3-axis flight motion simulator, bypassing the seeker optics and injecting a synthetically calculated detector signal directly into the seeker. The constantly increasing speed and memory bandwidth of high-end personal computers make them attractive software rendering platforms. A software OpenGL pipeline provides flexibility in terms of access to the rendered output, colour channel dynamic range and lighting equations. This paper describes how a system was constructed using personal computer hardware to perform closed tracking loop HWIL testing of a single detector frequency modulated reticle seeker. The main parts of the system that are described include: * The software-only implementation of OpenGL used to render the IR image with floating point accuracy directly to system memory. * The software used to inject the detector signal and extract the seeker look position. * The architecture used to control the flight motion simulator.

  13. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Measles, Rubella and Varicella among Asylum Seekers Arriving in Lower Saxony, Germany, November 2014–October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla E. Toikkanen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres.

  14. Illuminating the signals job seekers receive from an employer’s community involvement and environmental sustainability practices: Insights into why most job seekers are attracted, others are indifferent, and a few are repelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer’s CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer’s CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108 reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer’s webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer’s community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the ‘perceived value fit’ and ‘expected employee treatment’ mechanisms, and provided some but relatively limited support for the ‘anticipated pride’ mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers’ attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer’s positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees. Results also showed

  15. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  16. IR window design for hypersonic missile seekers: thermal shock and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingst, Uwe; Koerber, Stefan

    2001-10-01

    Infra-red (IR) seekers on missiles at high Mach-numbers in the lower tier air defence often suffer from degradation in performance due to aerothermodynamic effects. The kind and rate of degradation depends on the geometric design (shape) and location of the IR-window. Optimal design may reduce those effects but still misses to totally withstand the imposed thermal stresses (thermal shock). Proper thermal protection systems and/or window cooling systems will be needed. The first part of this paper deals particularly with passive IR- window design features to reduce the thermal stresses. A series of wind-tunnel testings focused on the thermal shock behavior of different IR-window shapes under critical flight conditions. The variation of typical design parameters demonstrates the available features to reduce thermal shock by passive ways. The second part presents active thermal stress reduction devices, e.g. an active cooling system. Among others the most efficient reduction of thermal heating is based on three components: A partial coverage of the IR-dome to protect most parts against heating effects, a rotating system bearing the IR-dome and a liquid spray-cooling system in the gap between the cover and the IR-dome. The hemispherical or pyramidal dome can be located either midways in the missile nose section or sideways on the structure. The liquid spray cooling system combines both, a heat exchange by fluid evaporation and a heat transfer by fluid and gas cross flow (convection), causing a low fluid consumption. Such a cooling system along with their driving parameters and the resulting analytical performance will be presented.

  17. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-...

  18. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2014-01-01

    questionnaire about exposure to torture and trauma. Ten months later, 17 participants were accessible for re-assessment, based on the same instruments as above. The participants took part in the usual activities in a centre during the time between baseline and follow-up. Results: At entrance, the asylum seekers...... impairment that increased during time spent in a centre, and that the increase may be associated with exposure to number of applied torture methods. Contribution to practice/evidence base of occupational therapy: The knowledge contributes to the planning and execution of preventive and rehabilitation...

  19. Consideration to radome technology for IR seeker%红外导引头整流罩技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋; 陈亦庆; 高志峰; 翟学锋

    2009-01-01

    The radome is one of the key components of infrared seekers. Especially for the missiles flighting in high speed, a lot of thermal stress is generated into the radome by rapid thermal shock, and the mechanical stress induced by the pneumatic pressure. In order to solve the problem of high-speed infrared seeker radome, material selection and radome design techniques are introduced. The factors which should be considered when the radome material is selected are analyzed according to the environmental requirements of high-speed infrared imaging seekers. It is found, by comparing the performance of the material parameters, that the spinel is the ideal radome material because of its good mechanical property, optical performance and easy preparation. The spinel was successfully applied for the high-speed IR seeker radome. A solution to reduce the aerodynamic heating effect of the radome by diamond film coating, signal processing and conformal design is proposed according to the analytical results of aerodynamic heating. The design principle and fabrication technology of conformal radome are introduced.%从材料选择和整流罩设计两方面,介绍了如何解决高速红外导引头整流罩问题.针对高速红外成像导引头使用环境的要求,分析了整流罩材料选择应考虑的因素.通过比较材料的透过率、硬度、抗弯强度和热膨胀等性能参数,得出尖晶石是较理想的高速导弹整流罩材料,其机械性能和光学性能良好,易于制备,并已取得成功应用;红外玻璃特别适合大尺寸和复杂形状制备.为了减小整流罩气动加热效应,分析了解决气动加热问题的途径,提出可通过镀金刚石膜、信号处理、共形设计等技术来减小影响,并简要介绍共形整流罩设计原理和制造.

  20. Turning Asylum Seekers into ‘Dangerous Criminals’: Experiences of the Criminal Justice System of those Seeking Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Monish Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Since the events of 9/11 in the US in 2001 and, four years later, the 7/7 London bombings in the UK, warnings of terrorist attacks are high on the public agenda in many western countries. Politicians and tabloid press in the UK have continued to make direct and indirect connections between asylum seekers, terrorism and crime. This has increasingly resulted in harsh policy responses to restrict the movement of ‘third-world’ nationals, criminalisation of immigration and asylum policy, and makin...

  1. [Medical care for asylum seekers and refugees at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf--A case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Peter; Schmedt auf der Günne, Nina; Addo, Marylyn; Lohse, Ansgar; Schmiedel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    As the number of refugees rises, medical care for refugees, asylum seekers and people with unclear residence status becomes a priority task for our health system. While access to health care is restricted for these groups of people in many German states, Hamburg provides unrestricted access to healthcare for refugees by handing out health insurance cards on arrival. Daily practice shows, however, that adequate medical care is still not always easy to achieve. In this case series we demonstrate that barriers to health care still exist on many levels. We discuss these barriers and further propose strategies to improve and to secure access to adequate health care.

  2. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  3. El GreenSeeker TM y el diagnóstico del estado de salud de los cultivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es proveer los conocimientos básicos y los principios técnicos necesarios para el uso correcto del GreenSeeker' en aplicaciones agrícolas como la fertilización nitrogenada, la dosifi cación del riego, el mapeo de los campos agrícolas y la agricultura de precisión. Se describe el instrumento y las bases físicas y fi siológicas que respaldan su uso en la agricultura, además de las propiedades radiativas de las superfi cies vegetales, y la refl exión de la luz en cultivos sanos y vigorosos comparados con plantas estresadas. Se discuten las posibles aplicaciones del GreenSeeker en el diagnóstico y la corrección de diversos tipos de estrés y otros "desórdenes" experimentados por los cultivos en el campo, en tiempo real, y acorde con la heterogeneidad espacial siempre presente de los agroecosistemas tropicales. Se incluyen las limitaciones de la tecnología disponible actualmente y las perspectivas para su uso en otros cultivos tropicales, además del arroz y el maíz.

  4. Turning Asylum Seekers into ‘Dangerous Criminals’: Experiences of the Criminal Justice System of those Seeking Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish Bhatia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the events of 9/11 in the US in 2001 and, four years later, the 7/7 London bombings in the UK, warnings of terrorist attacks are high on the public agenda in many western countries. Politicians and tabloid press in the UK have continued to make direct and indirect connections between asylum seekers, terrorism and crime. This has increasingly resulted in harsh policy responses to restrict the movement of ‘third-world’ nationals, criminalisation of immigration and asylum policy, and making the violation of immigration laws punishable through criminal courts. This paper largely highlights the narratives of five asylum seekers who committed ‘crime’ by breaching immigration laws and were consequently treated as ‘dangerous criminals’ by the state authorities. More importantly it shows how these individuals experienced this treatment. The aim of this paper is to give voice to the victims of state abuse, claim space for victim agency, gather victim testimonies, challenge official explanations and in the process confront criminal and racist state practices.

  5. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf J. Kleber

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead to unmanageable distress or may be ineffective. While cognitive-behavioural interventions have been found to be effective with traumatised refugees, no studies concerning the efficacy of EMDR with this population have been conducted as yet.In preparation for a randomised trial comparing EMDR and stabilisation with traumatised refugees, a pilot study with 20 participants was conducted. The objective was to examine feasibility of participation in a randomised trial for this complex population and to examine acceptability and preliminary efficacy of EMDR.Participants were randomly allocated to 11 sessions of either EMDR or stabilisation. Symptoms of PTSD (SCID-I, HTQ, depression and anxiety (HSCL-25, and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF were assessed at pre- and post-treatment and 3-month follow-up.Participation of traumatised refugees in the study was found feasible, although issues associated with complex traumatisation led to a high pre-treatment attrition and challenges in assessments. Acceptability of EMDR was found equal to that of stabilisation with a high drop-out for both conditions. No participants dropped out of the EMDR condition because of unmanageable distress. While improvement for EMDR participants was small, EMDR was found to be no less efficacious than stabilisation. Different symptom courses between the two conditions, with EMDR showing some improvement and stabilisation showing some deterioration between pre-treatment and post-treatment, justify the conduct

  6. A mixed-method study of expert psychological evidence submitted for a cohort of asylum seekers undergoing refugee status determination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kuowei; Frommer, Naomi; Hunter, Jill; Silove, Derrick; Pearson, Linda; San Roque, Mehera; Redman, Ronnit; Bryant, Richard A; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Steel, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    The levels of exposure to conflict-related trauma and the high rates of mental health impairment amongst asylum seekers pose specific challenges for refugee decision makers who lack mental health training. We examined the use of psychological evidence amongst asylum decision makers in New South Wales, Australia, drawing on the archives of a representative cohort of 52 asylum seekers. A mixed-method approach was used to examine key mental health issues presented in psychological reports accompanying each asylum application, including key documents submitted for consideration of asylum at the primary and review levels. The findings indicated that the majority of decision makers at both levels did not refer to psychological evidence in their decision records. Those who did, particularly in the context of negative decisions, challenged the expert findings and rejected the value of such evidence. Asylum seekers exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance, as well as memory impairment, experienced a lower acceptance rate than those who did not across the primary and review levels. The findings raise concern that trauma-affected asylum seekers may be consistently disadvantaged in the refugee decision-making process and underscore the need to improve the understanding and use of mental health evidence in the refugee decision-making setting. The study findings have been used to develop a set of guidelines to assist refugee decision makers, mental health professionals and legal advisers in improving the quality and use of psychological evidence within the refugee decision-making context.

  7. A mixed-method study of expert psychological evidence submitted for a cohort of asylum seekers undergoing refugee status determination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kuowei; Frommer, Naomi; Hunter, Jill; Silove, Derrick; Pearson, Linda; San Roque, Mehera; Redman, Ronnit; Bryant, Richard A; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Steel, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    The levels of exposure to conflict-related trauma and the high rates of mental health impairment amongst asylum seekers pose specific challenges for refugee decision makers who lack mental health training. We examined the use of psychological evidence amongst asylum decision makers in New South Wales, Australia, drawing on the archives of a representative cohort of 52 asylum seekers. A mixed-method approach was used to examine key mental health issues presented in psychological reports accompanying each asylum application, including key documents submitted for consideration of asylum at the primary and review levels. The findings indicated that the majority of decision makers at both levels did not refer to psychological evidence in their decision records. Those who did, particularly in the context of negative decisions, challenged the expert findings and rejected the value of such evidence. Asylum seekers exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance, as well as memory impairment, experienced a lower acceptance rate than those who did not across the primary and review levels. The findings raise concern that trauma-affected asylum seekers may be consistently disadvantaged in the refugee decision-making process and underscore the need to improve the understanding and use of mental health evidence in the refugee decision-making setting. The study findings have been used to develop a set of guidelines to assist refugee decision makers, mental health professionals and legal advisers in improving the quality and use of psychological evidence within the refugee decision-making context. PMID:24331888

  8. Medical care of asylum seekers: a descriptive study of the appropriateness of nurse practitioners' care compared to traditional physician-based care in a gatekeeping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pécoud Alain

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical care for asylum seekers is a complex and critical issue worldwide. It is influenced by social, political, and economic pressures, as well as premigration conditions, the process of migration, and postmigration conditions in the host country. Increasing needs and healthcare costs have led public health authorities to put nurse practitioners in charge of the management of a gatekeeping system for asylum seekers. The quality of this system has never been evaluated. We assessed the competencies of nurses and physicians in identifying the medical needs of asylum seekers and providing them with appropriate treatment that reflects good clinical practice. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the appropriateness of care provided to asylum seekers by trained nurse practitioners in nursing healthcare centers and by physicians in private practices, an academic medical outpatient clinic, and the emergency unit of the university hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland. From 1687 asylum seeking patients who had consulted each setting between June and December 2003, 450 were randomly selected to participate. A panel of experts reviewed their medical records and assessed the appropriateness of medical care received according to three parameters: 1 use of appropriate procedures to identify medical needs (medical history, clinical examination, complementary investigations, and referral, 2 provision of access to treatment meeting medical needs, and 3 absence of unnecessary medical procedures. Results In the nurse practitioner group, the procedures used to identify medical needs were less often appropriate (79% of reports vs. 92.4% of reports; p Conclusion Although the nursing gatekeeping system provides appropriate treatment to asylum seekers, it might be improved with further training in recording medical history and performing targeted clinical examination.

  9. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  10. The Association Between Postnatal Depression, Acculturation and Mother-Infant Bond Among Eritrean Asylum Seekers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Lurie, Ido

    2016-10-01

    We examined the association between postnatal depression (PND), acculturation and mother-infant bond among 38 Eritrean asylum seekers in Israel, who were within 6 months of delivery. Participants completed a survey in their native language. A high rate of women (81.6 %) met the clinical threshold for PND on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Higher severity of PND (partial r = -.64, p < .001), higher identification with Israeli culture (partial r = -.45, p = .02), and lower quality of romantic relationship were associated with impaired mother-infant bond (partial r = .58, p = .002). Findings highlight the need to establish services to screen and treat PND among this vulnerable population in the receiving countries. PMID:26864379

  11. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess change in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to changes in ADL...... participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased......-ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum centre at the follow-up and 17 of them...

  12. Social Support from Sponsorships as a Moderator of Acculturative Stress: Predictors of Effects on Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Walter; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert; Maier, Marco J

    2012-01-01

    N = 63 refugees and asylum seekers, 27 women and 36 men with a mean age of 33.08 years (SD = 10.3) from Chechnya and Afghanistan were granted sponsorships for six months and were randomized to an intervention and a waiting-list control group. Only participants with a history of traumatization benefited from the intervention. For the traumatized sub-sample, sponsorships led to a significant and stable decrease in anxiety, depression, and psychological problems as compared to the control group, with effect sizes comparable to those of psychotherapy. The effects being rather palliative than instrumental, however, sponsorships did not instigate improvements in acculturation, societal contact, or coping capability. Women benefited more from the intervention than men, and Afghans more than Chechen.

  13. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  14. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  15. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  16. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  17. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexu...

  18. AntEpiSeeker: detecting epistatic interactions for case-control studies using a two-stage ant colony optimization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xinyu; Wang Yupeng; Robbins Kelly; Rekaya Romdhane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epistatic interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now believed to affect individual susceptibility to common diseases. The detection of such interactions, however, is a challenging task in large scale association studies. Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have been shown to be useful in detecting epistatic interactions. Findings AntEpiSeeker, a new two-stage ant colony optimization algorithm, has been developed for detecting epistasis in ...

  19. Paraprofessional counselling within asylum seekers' groups in the Netherlands: transferring an approach for a non-western context to a European setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Barbara; Jordans, Mark J D; de Jong, Joop T V M; Kamperman, Astrid M

    2008-03-01

    This article presents the application of a psychosocial care approach, which has been developed for and in a non-western context, within an asylum seekers' setting in the Netherlands. The project aimed to increase access to basic psychosocial care to a target population that experiences difficulties in entering mental healthcare services, by a group of trained peer asylum seekers and refugees. The development of an informal paraprofessional support system makes better use of existing resources, provides secondary benefits for the participants and helps to overcome the treatment gap between perceived needs and the formal mental healthcare system. The article describes the key components of such an approach, the Dutch context, the project implementation and finishes with a discussion on outcomes, strengths and weaknesses, risks and recommendations. In summary, we found this community approach to be applicable and relevant within an asylum seekers' centre, as it incorporates an additional easy-access level of psychosocial care and social agency, which seemed to empower participants and help prevent psychosocial problems from becoming more severe. PMID:18344254

  20. EMC Design of Shipboard IR/RF Missile Seeker%舰载导弹红外射频导引头电磁兼容设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚勤; 李伟忠; 吴宇

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design of shipboard tactical missile seeker, such as selecting active device, printed circuit board, grounding, shielding, filtering and suppressing transient was studied by using the stratification and integration method in this paper. The EMC of conduction and radiation in each layer was analyzed. The design stratagy and electronic design and simulation results of the shell of some seeker were given out. The research was useful to improve the whole EMC design of the seeker.%采用分层与综合设计法对舰载战术导弹导引头的有源器件选型,印制板、接地、屏蔽、滤波和瞬态骚扰抑制等电磁兼容(EMC)设计进行了研究。分析了各层次传导和辐射的电磁兼容性,给出了设计策略及某导引头壳体电子设计与仿真结果。研究对改善整个导引头的电磁兼容性设计有一定的参考价值。

  1. High Prevalence of Infectious Diseases and Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Asylum Seekers Admitted to Hospital; No Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae until September 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofanne J Ravensbergen

    Full Text Available The current refugee crisis emphasizes the need for information on infectious diseases and resistant microorganisms in asylum seekers with possible consequences for public health and infection control.We collected data from asylum seekers admitted to our university hospital or who presented at the Emergency Department (n = 273. We collected general and demographic characteristics including country of origin, the reason of presentation, and the screening results of multi-drug resistant organisms.67% of the patients were male with a median age of the study group of 24 years (IQR 15-33; 48% of the patients had an infectious disease-predominantly malaria with P. vivax or tuberculosis. Patients also reported with diseases which are less common-e.g. leishmaniasis, or even conditions rarely diagnosed in Europe-e.g. louse borne relapsing fever. A carriage rate of 31% for multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRO was observed, with ESBL-expressing E.coli (n = 20 being the most common MDRO. No carriage of Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae was found.The current refugee crisis in Europe challenges hospitals to quickly identify and respond to communicable diseases and the carriage of MDRO. A rapid response is necessary to optimize the treatment of infectious diseases amongst asylum seekers to maximize infection control.

  2. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  3. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  4. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  5. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  6. A group-based approach to stabilisation and symptom management in a phased treatment model for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. A. Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees may present with significant and complex mental health problems as a result of prolonged, extreme, and multiple traumatic events. This is further complicated by ongoing complex social circumstances. Concepts: In our work at the Traumatic Stress Clinic (TSC, the understanding afforded by the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD together with the related notion of a phased treatment model, provides a useful framework for organising our work with this population. Clinical Applications: An explication of complex PTSD as it applies to our client group is presented, followed by a description of our phased treatment model and an outline of the core principles, which guide our clinical approach. Our symptom management and stabilisation groups have been developed and refined over time and draw on techniques from a variety of cognitive behavioural therapies. These are described in some detail with illustrative clinical case vignettes. Conclusion: This paper concludes with some reflections on the challenges inherent to working with this complex client group.

  7. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  8. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  9. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  10. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  11. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  12. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Willems

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  13. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Áreas com diferentes potenciais de rendimento dentro de uma lavoura necessitam ser manejadas separadamente, para fins de aplicação da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. O equipamento baseado em sensoriamento remoto terrestre (GreenSeeker é um dos instrumentos utilizados para separar diferentes zonas de manejo. Para fazer isso, o sensor permite a definição de classes para estimar o potencial produtivo de forma ágil, precisa e em tempo real. Com o instrumento, foi desenvolvido um modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada, correlacionando o Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI com a biomassa seca acumulada na parte aérea, por ocasião da emissão da sexta folha do colmo principal. A base do modelo foi a formação de classes de potencial produtivo correspondentes a zonas específicas de manejo da lavoura. Essas classes não necessitam ser específicas para diferentes cultivares e/ou espécies, visto que não se detectaram diferenças que justificassem a formação de grupos para elas. As superfícies de fundo (resíduos de restevas de soja e milho tiveram efeitos significativos nas leituras do sensor. O modelo continua válido mesmo se as leituras de NDVI forem feitas antes ou após o período recomendado para tal, podendo ser ajustado com sub ou superestimação. As análises de variabilidade espacial, futuramente, podem avaliar se, as zonas de potencial produtivo estimadas pelas classes de NDVI propostas pelo modelo, correspondem à flutuação espacial da biomassa, doses de N aplicadas e rendimento de grãos.Areas with different yield potential within a field need to be managed separately as for nitrogen application in small grain cereals. Terrestrial remote sensing-based equipment such as the GreenSeeker sensor is one of the tools available to handle different management zones. To do this, the sensor allows the definition of classes to estimate yield potential. A model which correlated the

  14. When the foundations of life have been upset... An integrated clinical and experimental study with refugees an asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiltz, Lony

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim Recent research results in clinical psychology, health psychology and neurobiology underline the relationship between dissociative states, complex posttraumatic syndromes and borderline functioning [11]. Our study is meant to investigate the traumatic hypothesis of borderline functioning and to develop appropriate psychotherapeutic measures based on artistic mediations.Material and Methods.To estimate the effect of traumatic events, from the beginning of life up to recent stressors, linked to natural catastrophes, war, political persecution and migration, we undertook an integrated clinical and experimental study with a sample of 73 refugees and asylum seekers. In a second stage, those who suffered from PTSD or complex post-traumatic states were offered to attend arts psychotherapeutic sessions.To investigate the personality functioning at the structural level, we used a mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology, combining a semi-structured biographical interview, a projective test, i.e. the Sentences Completion Test, for which we developed a new manner of interpretation, and psychometric scales, i.e. the HADS and the Index of Wellbeing . Furthermore, we analysed the artistic production (pictures, stories written under musical induction with the help of rating scales constructed in the phenomenological and structural tradition.Results. With the help of non parametric multidimensional statistics, we extracted two profiles of personality functioning, linked either to repeated breaks, negligence and maltreatment from the beginningof life, or either to a recent external catastrophe, interrupting a continuous life course. Through the evaluation of the arts therapeutic sessions, we could note the first signs of resumption of the blocked process of subjectivation.Discussion.The results of the study support the traumatogenic hypothesis of borderline functioning, as well as current clinical considerations concerning the defensive role of

  15. Research on developing trends of radar seeker antenna%雷达导引头天线技术发展趋势探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙阳; 翟龙军

    2011-01-01

    The developing trends of radar seeker antenna are discussed in this paper. Based on the performance requirements of antenna for radar seeker, the history of reflect surface antenna is presented and its shortcomings are stressed. The new emerging antenna technology, including waveguide slot array antenna, active array antenna and common array antenna, is discussed. Applications of these new antenna and developing trends are presented. Non-linear active antenna array technology will greatly promote the emergence of the seeker phased array antenna technology.%基于现代雷达技术的发展和应用,详细分析了雷达导引头天线技术的发展趋势。由于雷达导引头对天线性能的特殊需求,在回顾反射面天线技术的发展过程的基础上,着重探讨了阵列天线技术,包括波导裂缝阵天线技术、有源相控阵天线技术以及共型天线阵技术在雷达导引头中的应用,从而对其发展趋势进行了探讨和分析。非线性有源天线阵技术的出现将会极大地推动导引头相控阵天线技术的发展。

  16. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...

  17. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  18. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  19. Fleeing the Drug War Next Door: Drug-related Violence as a Basis for Refugee Protection for Mexican Asylum-Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Buchanan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The death toll in Mexico due to drug-related violence has continued to rise since President Felipe Calderón initiated the Mexican Government's crackdown on drug trafficking organizations in 2006. Pervasive corruption among state and local government officials and alleged human rights violations by the Mexican military have added to the gravity of the endemic drug-related violence in Mexico. In response to the continuous violence in Mexico perpetrated by drug trafficking organiza- tions, a substantial number of Mexican citizens have fled to the United States seeking asylum. Due to the strict requirements for refugee status under international law and asylum protection under U.S. law, individuals seeking protection based on drug-related violence face several legal obstacles. This Article addresses the extent to which drug-related violence may con- stitute a basis for refugee status protection under international refugee law and U.S. asylum law. It seeks to provide insight into the potential viability of claims for refugee status brought by Mexican asylum-seekers fleeing drug-related violence. This Article concludes with a discussion on complementary protection under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment for Mexican asylum-seekers.

  20. Fleeing the Drug War Next Door: Drug-related Violence as a Basis for Refugee Protection for Mexican Asylum-Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Buchanan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The death toll in Mexico due to drug-related violence has continued to rise since President Felipe Calderón initiated the Mexican Government's crackdown on drug trafficking organizations in 2006. Pervasive corruption among state and local government officials and alleged human rights violations by the Mexican military have added to the gravity of the endemic drug-related violence in Mexico. In response to the continuous violence in Mexico perpetrated by drug trafficking organiza- tions, a substantial number of Mexican citizens have fled to the United States seeking asylum. Due to the strict requirements for refugee status under international law and asylum protection under U.S. law, individuals seeking protection based on drug-related violence face several legal obstacles. This Article addresses the extent to which drug-related violence may con- stitute a basis for refugee status protection under international refugee law and U.S. asylum law. It seeks to provide insight into the potential viability of claims for refugee status brought by Mexican asylum-seekers fleeing drug-related violence. This Article concludes with a discussion on complementary protection under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment for Mexican asylum-seekers.  

  1. Effectiveness of Hope Therapy on Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Preventing of Relapse in Cure-Seeker Women with Dependency to Narcotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram S Raesian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition selected by available sampling and assigned to two experimental (n=10 and witness (n=10 groups randomly. Experimental group was trained for 8 sessions under training of hope therapy and witness group was not under any training. The experimental peple were evaluated by Snyder Hope scale and Beck depression questionnaire and morphine test before beginning of therapy. After it and after the completition of the two months follow-up period. For analyzing of data chi square test, Z test, and ANCOVA were applied. Results: The results showed that hope therapy education could create considerable reduction in degree of depression symptoms of women suffering from addiction. In addition, results of chi square test indicated significant difference between the number of relapsed women in experimental and witness groups. Conclusion: in general, results of this survey show that hope therapy education is effective in reduction of degree of depression symptoms and prediction of relapse in cure-seeker women suffering from addiction.

  2. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  3. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - discharge; ...

  4. 'They first killed his heart (then) he took his own life'. Part 1: a review of the context and literature on mental health issues for refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    This is the first in a two-part series of papers examining mental health issues for refugees and asylum seekers. Beginning with the suicide of an asylum seeker in Scotland, the paper emphasizes mental health issues for adult and child asylum seekers, stress and memory, suicide, self-harm, risk and protective factors, compulsory health treatments and the prevention of mental illness. It sets the scene for the second paper by drawing implications for nursing practice in the community. Although most literature on refugee and asylum seeker mental health exists outside of nursing scholarship, a majority of the issues reviewed in this paper are mutual challenges for all in the health and helping professions. Nurses interested in refugee and migration issues face two intertwined challenges: that of how to assist migrants with their diverse mental health needs and how, at the same time, to contribute to a society that can promote mental health for all by taking on both the difficulties and opportunities posed by cultural diversity.

  5. If You Want to Go Fast Go Alone, If You Want to Go Far Go Together: On Context-Sensitive Group Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Refugees Traumatized by War and Terror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drozdek, B.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a model for understanding psychological consequences of exposure to war, torture and political violence in asylum seekers and refugees. This contextual, developmental, and culture-sensitive model is based on theoretical and empirical findings and implies framing and interpreting

  6. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  7. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  8. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  9. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  10. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  11. 摆式陀螺寻北仪的大偏北角运动特性分析%The Motion Characteristics in Large Azimuth of the Pendulous Gyroscope North-seeker Analyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振业; 郭晓松; 周召发; 薛海建

    2013-01-01

    利用欧拉法建立了摆式陀螺寻北仪的运动方程,并根据摆式陀螺寻北仪的结构特点对运动方程进行部分线性化处理,得到了反映摆式陀螺寻北仪在大偏北角情况下不规则进动规律的二阶非线性微分方程组;根据李雅普诺夫稳定性理论对微分方程进行了定性分析,找出了摆式陀螺寻北仪在大偏北角运动时的平衡位置,分析结果表明,真北方向是摆式陀螺寻北仪唯一稳定的平衡位置.%The motion equation of the pendulous gyroscope north-seeker is set up based on the Euler method, and which is partially linearized according with the structure characteristics of the pendulous gyroscope north-seeker, and then the nonlinear differential equations of order 2 to reflect the anomaly precession of the pendulous gyroscope north-seeker in large azimuth is found. The above differential equations are qualitatively analyzed based on the Lyapunove stability theory, and the stability position of the pendulous gyroscope north-seeker in large azimuth is found. The analyzing result shows that the real north is the only stability position of the pendulous gyroscope north-seeker.

  12. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  13. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL...... participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased......-ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum center at the follow-up and 17 of them...

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and HIV in Overseas Job Seekers of Bangladesh with the Possible Routes of Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobayer, M; Chowdhury, S S; Shamsuzzaman, S M; Islam, M S

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis and AIDS are major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B, C virus and HIV infection among Bangladeshi overseas job seekers. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from February 2013 to August 2013. A total of 2254 adult (18-45 years) male job seekers to Malaysia attending for health check up were enrolled. HBsAg, Anti-HCV, Anti-HIV were detected from venous blood by ELISA method using commercial kits. From the positive people, further history and information were collected by predesigned questionnaire. Prevalence of HBV was 2.35%, HCV was 0.13% and none was found positive for HIV. Prevalence of hepatitis was higher in the age group of 21-30 year and infection was more prevalent in married group. No significant relationship was found between hepatitis infection and religion, localities, profession. Only a few cases had history of possible major known route of transmission of virus. But most of them had history of taking injection or sharing blades in barber shop and history of circumcision. About 96% population had no history of hepatitis B vaccination. None was co-infected with HBV and HCV. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in adult population appears to be on decline and hepatitis C and HIV infection is still low in Bangladesh. In majority of the positive person, routes of transmission of viruses were not well established. PMID:27612902

  16. 激光半主动制导导引头光学系统的设计%Laser semi-active seeking guided seeker optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡博; 常伟军; 孙婷; 何玉兰

    2012-01-01

    According to principles of quadrant detector, light spots of laser semi-active seeking guided seeker optical systems should be formed on the target surface of quadrant detector uniformly. This paper firstly analyzed the aberration characteristics of these optical systems and presented a method for correcting the aberrations, then designed an optical system by CODE V, evaluated the spots quality of the optical system qualitatively by the footprint and the encircled energy. 1×106 rays were traced by LightTools to obtain the distribute of the rays on the quadrant detector for various fields of view. The target angle-output response curve which could evaluate the performance of light spots precisely was plotted by Matlab. The article provides reference for the optical system design of laser semi-active seeking guided seeker.%根据四象限探测器的工作原理,激光半主动导引头光学系统所成光斑需均匀分布在探测器靶面上.首先分析此类光学系统像差特点,提出像差的设计方案,然后通过使用CODE V设计一套光学系统,利用痕迹图、包围能量等定性评价系统光斑质量.在不同视场时,通过LightTools光机分析软件追迹1×106根光线,得到探测器靶面的光线分布,利用Matlab处理数据并绘制角度-输出响应曲线,利用该曲线可精确评价探测器靶面的光斑性能.

  17. Non-clinicians’ judgments about asylum seekers’ mental health: how do legal representatives of asylum seekers decide when to request medico-legal reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wilson-Shaw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Procedures for determining refugee status across Europe are being speeded up, despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties among asylum seekers. An assurance given is that ‘‘vulnerable applicants’’ will be identified and excluded from accelerated procedures. Although experts have recommended assessments to be undertaken by experienced clinicians, this is unlikely to happen for political and financial reasons. Understanding how non-clinically qualified personnel perform assessments of mental health issues is timely and crucial. Misrecognition of refugees due to the inappropriate use of accelerated procedures involves the risk of returning the very people who have the right to protection from further persecution. Objective : To examine the decision making of immigration lawyers, who are an example of a group of nonclinicians who decide when and whether to refer asylum-seekers for psychiatric assessment. Method : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 legal representatives working with people seeking refugee or human rights protection in the United Kingdom. The resultant material was analysed using Framework Analysis. Results : Themes clustered around the legal case, the client, the representative and the systems, all with sub-themes. A mapping exercise integrated these themes to show how representatives brought together questions of (1 evidential reasons for a report, influenced by their legal, psychological and case law knowledge, and (2 perceived evidence of mental distress, influenced by professional and personal experiences and expectations. Conclusions : The legal representatives interviewed were well-informed and trained in psychological issues as well as clearly dedicated to their clients. This helped them to attempt quasi-diagnoses of common mental health problems. They nonetheless demonstrated stereotypical understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and other possible diagnoses and the

  18. The Impact of Direct Provision Accommodation for Asylum Seekers on Organisation and Delivery of Local Primary Care and Social Care Services: A Case Study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pieper, Hans-Olaf

    2011-05-15

    Abstract Background Many western countries have policies of dispersal and direct provision accommodation (state-funded accommodation in an institutional centre) for asylum seekers. Most research focuses on its effect on the asylum seeking population. Little is known about the impact of direct provision accommodation on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services in the community. The aim of this research is to explore this issue. Methods In 2005 a direct provision accommodation centre was opened in a rural area in Ireland. A retrospective qualitative case study was designed comprising in-depth interviews with 37 relevant stakeholders. Thematic analysis following the principles of framework analysis was applied. Results There was lack of advance notification to primary care and social care professionals and the community about the new accommodation centre. This caused anxiety and stress among relevant stakeholders. There was insufficient time to plan and prepare appropriate primary care and social care for the residents, causing a significant strain on service delivery. There was lack of clarity about how primary care and social care needs of the incoming residents were to be addressed. Interdisciplinary support systems developed informally between healthcare professionals. This ensured that residents of the accommodation centre were appropriately cared for. Conclusions Direct provision accommodation impacts on the organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services. There needs to be sufficient advance notification and inter-agency, inter-professional dialogue to manage this. Primary care and social care professionals working with asylum seekers should have access to training to enhance their skills for working in cross-cultural consultations.

  19. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  20. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  1. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  2. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  3. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  4. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  5. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  6. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  7. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  8. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  9. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  10. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  11. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  12. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  13. Analysis of imaging features and tracking performance of seeker after decoys jamming%诱饵弹作用后导引头成像特征建模及跟踪性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冰涛; 王晓蕊; 王小兵; 袁宏学; 杨红坚

    2015-01-01

    基于红外成像导引头信号传递和转换机理,分析了影响导引头输出图像特征的主要因素,并在此基础上分析了红外诱饵弹作用导引头成像特征的机理;借助端到端成像建模思想,综合考虑诱饵弹对目标表面辐射特性及导引头增益特性的影响,建立了诱饵弹作用后导引头成像特征量化模型;以理论模型为基础,借助计算机三维场景仿真技术,实现了诱饵弹作用后导引头成像及跟踪特性实时仿真,并基于仿真结果分析了不同发射方向诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响。结果表明:诱饵弹发射方向不同,诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响程度不同;当诱饵弹相对目标运动方向的发射角为75º~95º、190º~215º和250º~280º时,诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响程度最大;当诱饵弹相对目标运动方向的发射角为10º~40º、150º~170º和315º~325º时,诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响程度最小。%The main factors that affect the imaging characteristic of infrared imaging seeker and the jamming principle of infrared decoys on the imaging characteristic of infrared imaging seeker were analyzed based on signal transfer and conversion mechanism of infrared imaging seeker. Then, with the end-to-end imaging modeling ideas, and considering the impact of infrared decoys on the radiative properties of target surface and the auto gain characteristics of infrared imaging seeker, the imaging characteristics quantitative model of infrared imaging seeker was established. Furthermore, on the basis of theoretical analysis mentioned above, the real-time simulation of the output images and tracking features of infrared imaging seeker after infrared decoys jamming was carried out by computer 3D scene simulation technology, and the tracking performance of the infrared imaging seeker was studied based on the simulation results. The results show that the jamming effect of

  14. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  15. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  16. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  17. Research on Drive and Control Circuits of Target Seeker Rotor%位标器转子驱动与控制电路研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娟; 蔡萍

    2009-01-01

    位标器转子驱动与控制电路要求能快速启动转子和在扰动情况下保持转速稳定.从分析位标器转子-线圈模型出发,提出一种位标器转子的启动及速度控制方法.采用变结构控制方法实现转子快速启动和稳速控制;利用线圈组件自身敏感转子速度和位置,通过F/V转换和乘法器以自驱动方式实现转子的变压变频控制;并设置了相位校正环节.使用Matlab/Simulink进行建模与分析,并通过实验对分析结论进行了验证.结果表明,系统稳定性良好,抗干扰能力强,转子从启动到稳速的时间为3~4 s,稳速精度达0.5%.%A good drive and control circuit of target seeker rotor should be able to start the rotor quickly and keep the rotor speed stable.The model of a target seeker rotor-coil is established,a drive and speed-control method for the rotor is presented.A variable control structure is adopted to realize the fast starting and speed stabilization control.By way of F/V conversion and anplitude modulation,the Variable Voltage and Variable Frequency (VVVF) control is simply achieved by using feedback signals of the rotor's speed and position which are detected by the coil-structure itself.An error compensation unit is also designed to reduce the system error.Matlab/Simulink is applied for system modeling and analysis,and the conclusions are proved by experiment results.The system has a good performance in stability and anti-disturbance.Its starting-time from the initial to steady state is about 3 to 4 seconds and the stability of the speed at 100 r/s is better than 0.5%.

  18. PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES OF GERIATRIC HEALTH CARE SEEKERS TO THE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN THE RURAL AND URBAN SECTORS OF TRIPURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : The aged patients seem to be confronted with barriers when using health services. Yet, care providers are often oblivious to these barriers, although they may share to some extent the burden of responsibility for them. OBJECTIVES: To study the perceptions and attitudes of geriatric health care seekers towards the health care system. To assess the potential barriers that may restrict the geriatric people from using health services. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 participants’ ≥65 years who were attending health institutions in both rural and urban setting using pre-tested, semi- structured interview schedule. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Epi-info version 6.0 software. RESULT: Positive impact was found on regard to the family doctor, essential works being carried out, knowledge about the institute (P=0.000, 0.014, 0.001 respectively. Exercise played significant role among the males and females (P=0.017. Literacy had some positive impact on health status (P=0.025, essential works being carried out for themselves (P=0.033 and helpful attitude of family members (P=0.019. CONCLUSION: The significance were being observed in regards to the personal and family level both of which could be related to ignorance towards the health care for themselves or for a geriatric member of any given ignorant family in both urban and rural setting

  19. Arranging and negotiating the use of informal interpreters in general practice consultations: experiences of refugees and asylum seekers in the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; Dzebisova, Zhanna; Karapish, Dmitri; Kovacevic, Bosiljka; Ogbebor, Florence; Okonkwo, Ekaterina

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the work involved for service users in arranging and negotiating the use of informal interpreters from their social networks for general practice consultations. The data are drawn from a participatory learning and action research study, carried out in the west of Ireland. Qualitative data were gathered using a peer researcher model from a 'hard to reach' community of Serbo-Croat and Russian refugees and asylum seekers (n=26). The findings elucidate that there is a tension for service users between the experienced benefits of having a trusted friend/family member present to act as their interpreter and the burden of work and responsibility to manage the language barrier. Participants emphasize that, for them, the use of informal interpreters can be inadequate and problematic and can leave them worried, frustrated and with experiences of error and misdiagnosis. Overall, they state a clear preference for the use of professional, trained interpreters in general practice consultations which is currently unavailable to them in routine Irish general practice consultations.

  20. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  1. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  2. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  3. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  4. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  5. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  6. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  7. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  8. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  9. Estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull: contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurement of activity in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the initiation of NaI(Tl), spectrometric methods for detecting photon-emitting radionuclides in man, it became evident that the high background rates in the low energy regions precluded in vivo measurement of many bone-seeking nuclides. To meet these needs a dual crystal, low energy sensitive NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detector system was developed. To date this system, in combination with more routine bioassays, remains the optimum methodology for the determination of internal exposure to low energy, photon-emitting radionuclides. Since most occupational exposures occur by inhalation, internal deposits must be quantitated with these detectors placed over the lung area. Since many of the alpha-emitting nuclides are bone-seekers, the contribution of material which has been transported from the lung and deposited in the skeleton must be accounted for

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  11. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  13. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  14. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  15. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  16. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  17. Osteotransductive bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  18. Design of seeker auto gain control system based on multi-source information%导引头多源信息AGC系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚亮; 肖吉阳; 范红旗; 卢再奇

    2012-01-01

    针对雷达导引头AGC控制处理中传统低通滤波法在输入信号饱和时无法正常工作以及不能直接反映信号幅度的缺陷,通过分析信号幅度与饱和度及功率检波的相互关系,分别提出了基于饱和度的幅度估计方法和平方和功率检波的幅度估计方法,利用这两种方法的特点结合弹载处理机应用,设计了导引头多源信息自动增益控制算法,并给出了实现流程.利用Matlab仿真引入算例,证明其具有响应时间短、控制精度高、系统性能稳定的特点.%Traditional low pass filtering method (LPF) cannot work properly when the input signal is saturated and cannot reflect signal's amplitude directly in radar seeker digital auto gain Control (DAGC). And thus this paper presents an estimation method based on the magnitude of the saturation and sum of squares power detector by analyzing the relationship between signal amplitude, saturation and power detector. AGC algorithm is given by using the characteristics of these two methods with the combination of the application of missile-borne processor, and the implementation process is presented. The Matlab simulation results show that the AGC algorithm has the characteristics of short responsing time, high control accuracy and stable system performance.

  19. 激光武器对红外导引头的软破坏研究%Soft Damage to IR Seeker by Laser Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延武; 魏书田

    2011-01-01

    针对舰载激光武器破坏反舰导弹的问题,研究了激光对红外制导反舰导弹导引头的软破坏.以激光辐照红外探测器为例,建立了舰载激光武器对红外制导反舰导弹探测器的破坏模型,计算了1.06 μm激光海上大气传输的大气透过率,进行了0.632μm激光辐照CCD成像系统的实验,估算了对远距离红外制导反舰导弹探测器实现有效破坏所需发射的激光能量,得出了一些有价值的数据和结论.%Aiming at shipbome laser weapon damage to antiship missile, laser soft damage to IR seeker is researched. First, 1. 06 μm laser irradiating infrared detector is taken for example to build a model for shipbome laser weapon damage to IR guidance antiship missile detector. The atmospheric transmittance of 1. 06 μm laser atmospheric on the sea is calculated. The experiment on 0. 632 μm laser disturbing CCD imaging system is accomplished. The necessary laser energy effectively damaging the IR guidance antiship missile detector is calculated and some valuable data and conclusions are attained.

  20. Application of fault tree analysis to seeker fault diagnosis%故障树分析法在某型号导引头故障诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹明; 刘亚斌

    2016-01-01

    In order to do a fast and accurate positioning in the process of seeker troubleshooting, the article designs a solution which is based on fault tree analysis. The test first builds a fault tree model of the seeker, extracts the minimal cut sets by qual-itative and quantitative analysis and computes the priority and reliability of minimum cut sets. The diagnostic flow is created according to the order of importance of minimum cut sets in which the users can be guided to find the fault part. The diagnostic flow improves the efficiency of diagnosis and can be used in the seeker diagnosis of the transmitter.%基于实现对某型号导引头故障的快速诊断、准确定位的目的,研究了一种基于故障树分析法的解决方案。通过对导引头建立故障树模型,进行定性、定量分析,提取故障树最小割集,计算最小割集重要度和可靠度。按照最小割集重要度大的部件优先检测的顺序生成诊断流程,提示操作人员按照流程进行诊断并找出故障源。该诊断流程提高了诊断效率,可以用于导引头的快速诊断。

  1. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  2. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  3. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  5. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  8. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  9. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  10. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  11. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  12. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography a...

  13. Fracture Nasal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and u...

  14. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  15. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  16. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  17. Research on Information Fusion Technology for Active-Passive Radar Composite Seeker%主被动雷达复合导引头信息融合技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤晓伟

    2014-01-01

    In the present work , an information fusion algorithm based on sequential extended Kalman filtering ( SEKF) for the active-passive radar composite seeker is proposed.First, the angle error is achieved from the active-passive radar composite seeker , and then an optimization strategy is used to weight the matched angle errors , which can be used to estimate the dynamic information of the targets.The experiments show that the steady-state error of state estimation based on active-passive radar information fusion is smaller than that relies on active radar measure -ment only.Meanwhile , the former filter has a faster convergence.%针对主被动雷达复合导引头,研究了基于序贯扩展Kalman滤波的信息融合算法。利用主被动雷达复合导引头对目标角误差进行观测,将匹配后的测量角度进行最优加权,进而以角度信息作为量测,估计目标的运动信息。通过试验验证,基于主被动雷达信息融合状态估计比仅依赖主动雷达观测量的状态估计稳态误差小,且滤波器收敛速度更快。

  18. Effect of Restricting Access to Health Care on Health Expenditures among Asylum-Seekers and Refugees: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Germany, 1994-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Bozorgmehr

    Full Text Available Access to health care for asylum-seekers and refugees (AS&R in Germany is initially restricted before regular access is granted, allegedly leading to delayed care and increasing costs of care. We analyse the effects of (a restricted access; and (b two major policy reforms (1997, 2007 on incident health expenditures for AS&R in 1994-2013.We used annual, nation-wide, aggregate data of the German Federal Statistics Office (1994-2013 to compare incident health expenditures among AS&R with restricted access (exposed to AS&R with regular access (unexposed. We calculated incidence rate differences (∆IRt and rate ratios (IRRt, as well as attributable fractions among the exposed (AFe and the total population (AFp. The effects of between-group differences in need, and of policy reforms, on differences in per capita expenditures were assessed in (segmented linear regression models. The exposed and unexposed groups comprised 4.16 and 1.53 million person-years. Per capita expenditures (1994-2013 were higher in the group with restricted access in absolute (∆IRt = 375.80 Euros [375.77; 375.89] and relative terms (IRR = 1.39. The AFe was 28.07% and the AFp 22.21%. Between-group differences in mean age and in the type of accommodation were the main independent predictors of between-group expenditure differences. Need variables explained 50-75% of the variation in between-group differences over time. The 1997 policy reform significantly increased ∆IRt adjusted for secular trends and between-group differences in age (by 600.0 Euros [212.6; 986.2] and sex (by 867.0 Euros [390.9; 1342.5]. The 2007 policy reform had no such effect.The cost of excluding AS&R from health care appears ultimately higher than granting regular access to care. Excess expenditures attributable to the restriction were substantial and could not be completely explained by differences in need. An evidence-informed discourse on access to health care for AS&R in Germany is needed; it

  19. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  20. Line-of-sight angular rate decoupling and estimation of strapdown optical seeker%捷联式光学导引头视线角速率解耦与估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷婷; 储海荣; 贾宏光; 张跃; 李岩

    2014-01-01

    为准确估计捷联导引头视线角速率,建立了全捷联导引头数学模型,根据弹目运动相对关系进行视线角速率解耦与估计算法研究。首先,建立了全捷联导引头数学模型,并利用Taylor级数对其进行线性化;接着,根据弹目运动几何学与坐标系相对关系推导视线角速率解耦算法;然后,针对捷联导引头无法直接测量体视线角速率的问题,提出微分+稳态Kalman滤波方法估计体视线角速率;最后,建立视线角速率解耦与估计算法验证系统并进行仿真实验,结果表明:解耦算法绝对误差小于5×10-5 rad/s,相对误差小于0.3%,验证了解耦算法的正确性;在包含导引头数学模型的条件下,采用角频率为19.2 rad/s的稳态Kalman滤波器,视线角速率估计误差小于4×10-3 rad/s,较直接微分方法的估计误差提高近一个量级。视线角速率解耦与估计算法同时能满足制导系统对精度与动态性能的要求。%In order to accurately estimate the line-of-sight (LOS) angular rate of the strapdown seeker, strapdown seeker mathematical model was established, decoupling and estimation algorithm of LOS angular rate was based on the movement of the missile and target relative relationship. Firstly, a mathematical model of the strapdown seeker was established, and the Taylor series was used for its linearization. Secondly, according to the movement of the missile and target geometry and coordinate system relative relationship, the LOS angular rate decoupling algorithm was derived. Strapdown seeker can not directly measure the body line-of-sight (BLOS) angular rate, differential coefficient+steady-state Kalman filter was proposed to estimate the BLOS angular rate. Finally, LOS angular rate decoupling and estimation algorithm verification system was established and simulation experiment was carried out. The results showed that, the absolute error of decoupling algorithm was less

  1. Periostin action in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Periostin is a highly conserved matricellular protein that shares close homology with the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin 1. Periostin is expressed in a broad range of tissues including the skeleton, where it serves both as a structural molecule of the bone matrix and a signaling molecule through integrin receptors and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways whereby it stimulates osteoblast functions and bone formation. The development of periostin null mice has allowed to elucidate the crucial role of periostin on dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as on the skeletal response to mechanical loading and parathyroid hormone. The use of circulating periostin as a potential clinical biomarker has been explored in different non skeletal conditions. These include cancers and more specifically in the metastasis process, respiratory diseases such as asthma, kidney failure, renal injury and cardiac infarction. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels have been shown to predict the risk of fracture-more specifically non-vertebral- independently of bone mineral density. Because of its preferential localization in cortical bone and periosteal tissue, it can be speculated that serum periostin may be a marker of cortical bone metabolism, although additional studies are clearly needed. PMID:26721738

  2. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  3. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  4. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  6. Bone printing: new frontiers in the treatment of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arealis, Georgios; Nikolaou, Vasileios S

    2015-12-01

    Bone defects can be congenital or acquired resulting from trauma, infection, neoplasm and failed arthroplasty. The osseous reconstruction of these defects is challenging. Unfortunately, none of the current techniques for the repair of bone defects has proven to be fully satisfactory. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is the field of regenerative medicine (RM) that focuses on alternative treatment options for bone defects that will ideally address all the issues of the traditional techniques in treating large bone defects. However, current techniques of BTE is laborious and have their own shortcomings. More recently, 2D and 3D bone printing has been introduced to overcome most of the limitations of bone grafts and BTE. So far, results are extremely promising, setting new frontiers in the management of bone defects.

  7. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  8. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  9. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  10. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and ultrasound in their diagnosis and their management.

  11. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  12. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  13. Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161575.html Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health Study finds heavy users ... 19, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana may be bad to the bone, a new ...

  14. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  16. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  18. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  19. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Donate Now Select Page Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Late Effects of Treatment > Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Limb salvage is a surgical procedure that replaces ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin Denosumab Doxorubicin Hydrochloride ...

  2. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  3. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J; Partridge, Nicola C

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  4. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  5. Strapdown stabilization for imaging seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Russell T.

    1993-06-01

    A feasibility study of strapdown stabilization for high-resolution imaging systems was performed for the missile body motion inputs. A tactical high-resolution platform system was used to develop a linear state space model and a detailed nonlinear planar simulation. The latter took into account gimbal inertia, inertial sensors, position sensors, friction, mechanical alignment, compliances, and control loop compensation. Platform stabilization performance was predicted by analyzing a low-cost inertial quartz rate sensor and a higher-cost higher performance fiber optic gyro.

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  7. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  8. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeyere, A.; Somer, F. de; Perdieus, D.; Lemmens, L.; Schillebeeckx, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden (Belgium); Hauwe, L. van den [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)

    2000-02-01

    The CT and MRI findings in a case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone are reported. Although chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, only 10 % of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. The hyoid bone is a rare site of involvement with only seven cases reported previously. (orig.)

  9. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-12-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with /sup 99m/TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout.

  10. Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9μm. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

  11. Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone

    OpenAIRE

    Roato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recen...

  12. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think that this is something that only older people need to worry about. BUT—you can take action right now to help make sure that as you get older your bones are as healthy as they can be. Eating a balanced diet ...

  13. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  14. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  15. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of the concept of life…

  16. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  17. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  18. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern for patients with MBD is the general loss in quality of life. How much of an effect MBD has on ... to be most effective in maintaining quality of life. A technetium bone scan ... blood count, because loss of red blood cells (anemia) is a frequent ...

  19. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  20. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz True or false: Prunes contain ... health. True False View Answers Loading ... Sponsored by: Food and Your Bones – Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  1. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  2. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  3. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  4. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  5. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  6. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  7. Function of osteocytes in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarden, E M; Burger, E H; Nijweide, P J

    1994-07-01

    Although the structural design of cellular bone (i.e., bone containing osteocytes that are regularly spaced throughout the bone matrix) dates back to the first occurrence of bone as a tissue in evolution, and although osteocytes represent the most abundant cell type of bone, we know as yet little about the role of the osteocyte in bone metabolism. Osteocytes descend from osteoblasts. They are formed by the incorporation of osteoblasts into the bone matrix. Osteocytes remain in contact with each other and with cells on the bone surface via gap junction-coupled cell processes passing through the matrix via small channels, the canaliculi, that connect the cell body-containing lacunae with each other and with the outside world. During differentiation from osteoblasts to mature osteocyte the cells lose a large part of their cell organelles. Their cell processes are packed with microfilaments. In this review we discuss the various theories on osteocyte function that have taken in consideration these special features of osteocytes. These are 1) osteocytes are actively involved in bone turnover; 2) the osteocyte network is through its large cell-matrix contact surface involved in ion exchange; and 3) osteocytes are the mechanosensory cells of bone and play a pivotal role in functional adaptation of bone. In our opinion, especially the last theory offers an exciting concept for which some biomechanical, biochemical, and cell biological evidence is already available and which fully warrants further investigations.

  8. Influence of bone environment on ceramic osteointegration in spinal fusion: comparison of bone-poor and bone-rich sites

    OpenAIRE

    Delécrin, Joël; Deschamps, Cédric; Romih, Mostafa; Heymann, Dominique; Passuti, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative experimental data showed differences in bone quality and ceramic incorporation between bone-rich and bone-poor implantation sites. Bone in-growth was significantly lower for ceramic implanted at a lumbar intertransverse than a laminar site. Bone-marrow enrichment of the lumbar intertransverse site (regarded as bone-poor) greatly facilitated ceramic osteointegration. The vertebral interbody site, despite theoretical richness in osteogenic precursor cells, might be bone-poor at the...

  9. 镁合金在空空导弹导引头上应用可行性研究%Possibility Research of Applying Magnesium Alloy on Air-to-air Missile Seeker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹甲人; 姚达斌

    2014-01-01

    Studied the choosing, machining, surface treatment and salt mist test of magnesium alloy applied on air-to-air missile seeker. First, chose the MB15 which is most widely used and suit for seeker’s structure as the replacement of aluminium alloy, and chose the standing part which has thin wall and high precision characteristic to manufacture. After surface treatment about the test part, validated the surface treatment’s anti-corrosion capability thought assembly and salt mist test. Finally it was suggested that the reasonable advice about the use of magnesium alloy on air-to-air missile seeker.%对空空导弹导引头上镁合金材料的选用、加工、表面处理、结构装配、盐雾试验等方面进行了研究。首先在目前应用较为广泛的镁合金材料牌号中选取了适合导引头结构应用的MB15来代替目前应用的铝合金材料,并选取导引头中具有代表性的薄壁、高精度试验件进行了加工试制;其次对试制试验件选取不同的表面处理方法进行表面处理,通过装配、盐雾试验来验证其表面处理的防腐蚀能力;最后给出了在空空导弹导引头上应用镁合金的合理建议。

  10. 激光导引头四象限探测器偏差信号特性研究%Study on error signal of quadrant detectors in laser seekers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巍巍; 黄振宇; 张文攀; 殷瑞光; 刘艳芳

    2014-01-01

    In order to study effect of error signal of a quadrant detector on detection positioning accuracy of a laser seeker, based on the detection and position principles of a quadrant detector , the influence of size of light spot , width of division line and intensity of background light on error signal was studied by means of computer simulation .The results show that bigger size of the light spot will decrease the sensitivity of a quadrant detector and extend the dynamic range . Narrower width of division line is optimal under the condition of good crosstalk performance .The background light will decrease the performance of detector .The study is helpful to improve the detection positioning accuracy of quadrant detectors in laser seekers .%为了分析四象限探测器偏差信号对激光导引头探测定位精度的影响,在激光导引头四象限探测器探测定位原理的基础上,采用计算机建模仿真的方法,研究了入射光斑大小、分划线宽度和背景光强度对四象限探测器偏差信号的影响。结果表明,入射光斑变大,四象限探测器的灵敏度会变低,动态跟踪范围变大;分划线宽度在探测器串扰允许的范围内越窄越好;背景光降低了四象限探测器的灵敏度。该研究结果有助于提高激光导引头四象限探测器探测定位精度。

  11. The design of a single-pole magnetic encoder used in the frame platform of the seeker%位标器框架平台用单磁极磁电编码器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝双晖; 赵亚南; 郝明晖

    2012-01-01

    Angle position sensor is an important component in control close loop.The limitations of resolver and optical encoder restrict their uses in the fields of spaceflight and war indnstry.For making up the blemishes of the traditional angle position sensors, magnetic encoder is selected as the angle feedback component for the seeker's frame platfornuCalibration and look-up table subdivision arithmetic is used to design a single-pole magnetic encoder.And temperature offset correction arithmetic is designed to extend the application temperature range.According to the requirement calibration system and detection system are developed-Validated by the experiments for this magnetic encoder,it satisfies the demand of the seeker.%角位移传感器对于伺服控制闭环是一个重要的反馈元件,在军工和航天领域,旋转变压器和光电编码器本身的缺陷限制了其应用.为了弥补传统角位移传感器的不足,选择磁电编码器作为位标器框架平台的角位置反馈器件.依据校准查表信号细分算法研制出了一种单磁极磁电编码器,并设计了温漂补偿算法,以扩大工作温度适用范围,并为之设计制作了配套使用的校准和检测系统.经过实验验证,所研制的磁电编码器满足了位标器的应用要求.

  12. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  13. Temporal Bone Localized Chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Hasan; Acioğlu, Engin; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Yiğit, Özgür; Bozkurt, Erol Rüştü; Karagöz, Yeşim

    2015-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a highly destructive tumor originating from immature cartilage cells. Although chondroblastoma is defined as a benign tumor, it may exhibit malign tumor behaviors such as invasion or metastasis on neighboring structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) image is a solid mass lesion, which included heterogeneous hypointense in T2A and heterogeneous minimal hyperintense in T1A with destructive expansile characteristics and millimetric calcifications. Temporal bone chondroblastomas may complicate the diagnosis because of their different histologic characteristics. Microscopically, chondroblastic cell nests and calcification of locally "chicken wire" type around the cells are observed. These tumors secrete s-100 and vimentin and are used for differential diagnosis. In this study, a temporal bone localized chondroblastoma case is presented. PMID:26517458

  14. Temporal Bone Localized Chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Hasan; Acioğlu, Engin; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Yiğit, Özgür; Bozkurt, Erol Rüştü; Karagöz, Yeşim

    2015-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a highly destructive tumor originating from immature cartilage cells. Although chondroblastoma is defined as a benign tumor, it may exhibit malign tumor behaviors such as invasion or metastasis on neighboring structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) image is a solid mass lesion, which included heterogeneous hypointense in T2A and heterogeneous minimal hyperintense in T1A with destructive expansile characteristics and millimetric calcifications. Temporal bone chondroblastomas may complicate the diagnosis because of their different histologic characteristics. Microscopically, chondroblastic cell nests and calcification of locally "chicken wire" type around the cells are observed. These tumors secrete s-100 and vimentin and are used for differential diagnosis. In this study, a temporal bone localized chondroblastoma case is presented.

  15. [Fractures of carpal bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lögters, T; Windolf, J

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the carpal bones are uncommon. On standard radiographs fractures are often not recognized and a computed tomography (CT) scan is the diagnostic method of choice. The aim of treatment is to restore pain-free and full functioning of the hand. A distinction is made between stable and unstable carpal fractures. Stable non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively. Unstable and displaced fractures have an increased risk of arthritis and non-union and should be stabilized by screws or k‑wires. If treated adequately, fractures of the carpal bones have a good prognosis. Unstable and dislocated fractures have an increased risk for non-union. The subsequent development of carpal collapse with arthrosis is a severe consequence of non-union, which has a heterogeneous prognosis.

  16. Dynamic scintigraphy of bone and bone marrow in multiple myeloma patients with bone-marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether dynamic registration at bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy produces additional information compared to subsequent static registrations of bone-marrow transplants in multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 8 dynamic bone and 6 dynamic bone-marrow scintigraphies were performed in 10 patients. The dynamic scintigraphies were compared with conventional radiography, MR images, and static scintigraphies of bone and bone marrow. Results: No additional information was revealed by the dynamic registration method; on the contrary, 4 of the 8 known lesions were not discerned at dynamic registration. An incidental observation was that the time-activity curves of both radiopharmaceuticals had a specific pattern. (orig.)

  17. Shang Oracle Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankenier, David W.

    Astronomical observations first appear in China's archaeological record on turtle plastrons and ox scapulae from the reigns of the last few kings of the Shang Dynasty (1250-1046 BCE). A variety of meteorological and astronomical phenomena were divined about and recorded by scribes in formulaic language that is recognizably archaic Chinese. The oracle bone inscriptions record sacrifices to celestial bodies and the proper ritual response to anomalous phenomena like eclipses.

  18. [Primary liposarcoma of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatić, V; Cerović, S; Skaro-Milić, A; Jovanović, Z

    2001-01-01

    A case of 75-year-old man with extremely rare primary liposarcoma of the bone was presented. Stains for lipid, Sudan III, Sudan IV, and Oil Red "O", demonstrated the presence of intracellular lipid in the lipoblasts. Similarly, the S-100 immunoreactivity and electron microscopic findings of tumor cells confirmed the diagnosis of liposarcoma. Histochemical stains for PAS, Alcian-blue, mucikarmin, Toluidin-blue and Coloidal Iron were negative. PMID:11419292

  19. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Cameron R. M.; Goriainov, Vitali; Gibbs, David; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul S; Richard O. C. Oreffo

    2015-01-01

    Medical advances have led to a welcome increase in life expectancy. However, accompanying longevity introduces new challenges: increases in age-related diseases and associated reductions in quality of life. The loss of skeletal tissue that can accompany trauma, injury, disease or advancing years can result in significant morbidity and significant socio-economic cost and emphasise the need for new, more reliable skeletal regeneration strategies. To address the unmet need for bone augmentation,...

  20. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  1. Battling Brittle Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The accuDEXA(R) Bone Mineral Density Assessment System, manufactured by Schick Technologies, Inc., utilizes "camera on a chip" sensor technology invented and developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Schick's accuDEXA system offers several advantages over traditional osteoporosis tests, which assess bone density loss in the hip and spine, and require specialized personnel to conduct. With accuDEXA, physicians can test the entire body's bone density at a peripheral site, such as the finger, without applying gels or having patients remove garments. Results are achieved in 30 seconds and printed out in less than a minute, compared to the estimated exam time of 15 minutes for hip and spine density analyses. Schick has also applied the CMOS APS technology to a new software product that performs dental radiography using up to 90 percent less radiation exposure than conventional X-rays. Called Computed Dental Radiography(R), the new digital imaging product utilizes an electronic sensor in place of X-ray film to generate sharp and clear images that appear on a computer screen within 3 seconds, and can be enlarged and enhanced to identify problems.

  2. Virtual temporal bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ming-guo; ZHANG Shao-xiang; LIU Zheng-jin; TAN Li-wen; WANG Yu-su; DENG Jun-hui; TANG Ze-sheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To provide the virtual model of the temporal bone for improving 3-dimension (3D) visualization of the inner ear. Methods: Plastination technique was used to make equidistant serial thin sections 1.0 mm in thickness. On SGI workstation, a Contours+Marching Cubes algorithm was selected to reconstruct the temporal bone and intratemporal structures in 3D, then to view the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures which imitate the scenes observed by the traditional endoscopy. Results: The virtual model of the temporal bone was successfully constructed, with all reconstructed structures being represented individually or jointly and being rotated continuously in any plane. Virtual endoscopy improved 3D visualization of the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures. Conclusion: The reconstructed model can be used for the medical students to rehearse or review the surgeries on this part and for the surgeons to develop a new approach for operation. Virtual otoscopy stands as a promising new visualization technique for elucidating the structure and relation of the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures.

  3. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  4. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam M Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search. All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

  5. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Gessmann; Manfred Köller; Holger Godry; Thomas Armin Schildhauer; Dominik Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect ...

  6. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  7. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  8. Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Suresh C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are utilized on the basis of the radionuclide?s particulate emissions (primarily low to intermediate beta emission. The requirements therefore are different from those of bone imaging agents that consist mainly of short-lived single photon emitters. Lately, the therapeutic bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have attained increasing importance due to their potential role in alleviating pain from osseous metastases in cancer patients, for the treatment of joint pain resulting from inflamed synovium (radiosynoviorthesis, or radiosynovectomy, or from various other forms of arthritic disease. There is, however, a paucity of published data on the bio-pharmacokinetics of these agents when used following intravenous administration for bone pain palliation. This paper will briefly review and summarize the presently available chemical and biopharmacokinetic information on the various clinically approved as well as experimental bone-localizing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, and make projections on their clinical application for the treatment of primary/metastatic cancer in bone.

  9. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with nanocr......The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  10. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M;

    2014-01-01

    cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...... in the metastatic processes required for cancer dissemination, and there are emerging data showing that, at least in some clinical situations, the use of bone-targeted treatments can reduce metastasis to bone and has potential impact on patient survival.......There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...

  11. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  12. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (...

  13. Issues in modern bone histomorphometry☆

    OpenAIRE

    Recker, R R; Kimmel, D. B.; Dempster, D.; Weinstein, R S; Wronski, T.J.; Burr, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on proceedings of a bone histomorphometry session conducted at the Fortieth International IBMS Sun Valley Skeletal Tissue Biology Workshop held on August 1, 2010. The session was prompted by recent technical problems encountered in conducting histomorphometry on bone biopsies from humans and animals treated with anti-remodeling agents such as bisphosphonates and RANKL antibodies. These agents reduce remodeling substantially, and thus cause problems in calculating bone remo...

  14. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or s...... or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine....

  15. Bone and cancer: the osteoncology

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Toni; Mercatali, Laura; Amadori, Dino

    2013-01-01

    In recent years clinicians have witnessed a radical change in the relationship between bone and cancer, with in particular an increase in bone metastases incidence due to an improvement of patients survival. Bone metastases are responsible for the high morbidity in cancer patients with a strong clinical impact. For all these reasons, efforts have been directed to this important field with the foundation of the osteoncology, a new scientific and clinical branch involved in the management of pa...

  16. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importa...

  17. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  18. Dissociation of bone formation markers in bone metastasis of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, M; Maeda, H.; Yoshimura, K; Yamauchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Ogata, E

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the meaning and clinical value of bone formation markers in bone metastasis from prostate cancer, we investigated the bone formation markers carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BA1-p) and osteocalcin, so-called bone gla protein (BGP) in 43 prostate cancer patients with and 46 patients without overt bone metastasis. Patients with bone metastasis were evaluated repeatedly by bone scan at intervals of 3-6 months. The expression...

  19. Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia, wormian bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, J M; Hall, C M; García-Miñaur, S; Delgado, A

    1998-05-18

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CMDD), wormian bone type. Component manifestations include a large head with prominent forehead, skull changes showing multiple wormian bones, wide long tubular bones without the usual metaphyseal flare, wide and short tubular bones without the normal diaphyseal constriction, and wide ribs and clavicles. In addition to these findings, the propositus, his brother, his father, and a paternal aunt all have parietal protuberances, which seem not related to CMDD. Parental consanguineity supports the autosomal recessive transmission of the condition. PMID:9605592

  20. The Dragon Bone Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Finding of a dinosaur fossil skeleton sparks excitement among paleontologists and locals in a poor Henan village Avillager’s accidental discovery four years ago has made known to the world a rich mine of dinosaur fossils in Ruyang County,central China’s Henan Province.At the same time,the fate of the small village has been changed. Li Chui,a farmer in Shaping Village, thought he had found bones of a"dragon"when he dug up stones for his new house on an April morning in 2005.

  1. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  3. The Construct and Measurement of Employer Brand : Evidence from Chinese New Generation Job Seekers%中国背景下雇主品牌的结构和测量——基于新生代求职者的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱飞; 王震

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current quantitative and qualitative shortages on talents, the attractiveness of organiza- tions has become increasingly important. Especially in the knowledge economy era, the competition for the talent is a critical challenge for Chinese organizations. Since the new generation (i. e. , 80s' and 90s' generations) has be- come the main part in the labor force market, competition on new generation job seekers becomes more intense. Employer brand, as a tool of attracting and retaining the talent, has been an important topic in organization and management research. Employer brand is defined as individual's perceptions of what is distinctive, central, and enduring about the organization as a place to work. Despite a large number of studies, there was still no agree- ment on its construct and the underlying measurement. Prior research addressing the construct issue had two main limitations. First, according to product/service brand construct, they took for granted that employer brand should be divided into functional and symbolic factors, paying no attention to the long-term dependency nature of employee in employment relations. Second, most studies did not consider the influence of social contexts on employer brand construct. Although some Chinese researchers have questioned the generalizability of Western model in China, there was little effort addressing this issue in a particular culture and population context. To address these issues, this study, by using Chinese new generation job seekers as research sample, investigated the construct of employer brand and developed a measurement scale to assess the construct. Study 1 was a qualitative study. Using 4 focus groups (29 job seekers) interviews and categorization analysis, the study revealed that employer brand was a five-dimensional concept which included compensation and benefits, value recognition, opportunity for development, work-life effectiveness and company label. Drawing on the finding, study 2

  4. Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...

  5. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  6. Molecular mechanism of bone formation and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Bone formation and regeneration are mediated by the coordinate action of various factors. Among these, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) play crucial roles in bone formation.

  7. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources Screening Tests and Immunizations Guidelines for ... calcium. Physical Activity. Girls and boys and young adults who exercise regularly generally achieve greater peak bone ...

  8. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available in: ... been one or more osteoporotic fractures. Low Bone Mass Versus Osteoporosis The information provided by a BMD ...

  9. Porous hydroxyapatite for artificial bone applications

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sopyan et al

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used clinically for many years. It has good biocompatibility in bone contact as its chemical composition is similar to that of bone material. Porous HA ceramics have found enormous use in biomedical applications including bone tissue regeneration, cell proliferation, and drug delivery. In bone tissue engineering it has been applied as filling material for bone defects and augmentation, artificial bone graft material, and prosthesis revision surgery. Its high surfa...

  10. ICTP in Bone Metastases of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Franjević, Ana; Pavićević, Radomir; Bubanović, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases often appear in advanced stages of lung cancer. They are the result of modulation of bone metabolism by tumor cells that migrated into bone microenvironment and degraded bone organic matrix. Measurement of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in the serum of subjects with lung cancer with and without bone metastases and healthy population is the way to explore bone resorption. In 343 subjects included in this research ICTP level was significantly higher...

  11. Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbaecher, Katherine N.; Guise, Theresa A.; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-01-01

    When cancer metastasizes to bone, considerable pain and deregulated bone remodelling occurs, greatly diminishing the possibility of cure. Metastasizing tumour cells mobilize and sculpt the bone microenvironment to enhance tumour growth and to promote bone invasion. Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components of bone to favour tumour expansion and...

  12. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  13. Complications of occipital bone pneumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Mary; Biggs, Michael; Fagan, Paul; Forer, Martin; Davis, Martin; Roche, Jim

    2004-06-01

    Four cases of occipital bone pneumatization and subsequent complications are described, which include a pathological fracture of C1 and the occipital bone, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumatocele formation. Reviews of the published literature and possible aetiological factors have been discussed. PMID:15230770

  14. Fusion of the ear bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by: Birth (congenital) defect Infection Injury Symptoms Fusion of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving and vibrating in reaction to sound waves. Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References Torres AI, ...

  15. Nonallograft osteoconductive bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    An estimated 500,000 to 600,000 bone grafting procedures are done annually in the United States. Approximately (1/2) of these surgeries involve spinal arthrodesis whereas 35% to 40% are used for general orthopaedic applications. Synthetic bone graft substitutes currently represent only 10% of the bone graft market, but their share is increasing as experience and confidence in their use are accrued. Despite 15 to 20 years of clinical experience with various synthetic substitutes, there have been few welldesigned, controlled clinical trials of these implants. Synthetic bone graft substitutes consist of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, or a combination of these minerals. Their fabrication technique, crystallinity, pore dimensions, mechanical properties, and resorption rate vary. All synthetic porous substitutes share numerous advantages over autografts and allografts including their unlimited supply, easy sterilization, and storage. However, the degree to which the substitute provides an osteoconductive structural framework or matrix for new bone ingrowth differs among implants. Disadvantages of ceramic implants include brittle handling properties, variable rates of resorption, poor performance in diaphyseal defects, and potentially adverse effects on normal bone remodeling. These inherent weaknesses have refocused their primary use to bone graft extenders and carriers for pharmaceuticals. The composition, histologic features, indications, and clinical experience of several of the synthetic bone graft substitutes approved for orthopaedic use in the United States are reviewed. PMID:11937865

  16. Unusual sutural bones at pterion

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; KV S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of Wormian (sutural) bones in the skull is well known. We found three unusual Wormian bones at the right pterion in an adult Indian skull. The variation noted was unilateral. This type of variation has not been reported yet.

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can ... suspected spine injury or other complicated injuries, 3-D reconstructed CT ...

  18. Bone Grafting the Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... systemic disease such as diabetes, or has poor oral hygiene, the risk that the graft may fail increases even more. Once the bone graft has been placed, there are three options that ... replacement (dental bridge); or 3) dental metallic bone implants. The ...

  19. Unusual sutural bones at pterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Wormian (sutural bones in the skull is well known. We found three unusual Wormian bones at the right pterion in an adult Indian skull. The variation noted was unilateral. This type of variation has not been reported yet.

  20. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  1. Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia • In addition to a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, your doctor may recommend taking calcium ... What can be done to treat low bone mass? Following all of the above prevention measures is ...

  2. Ivory Osteoma Of Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Meher

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are slow growing bony tumors common in fronto-ethmoid regions and rare in temporal bone. These are usually asymptomatic and require treatment mainly for cosmetic reasons. We describe a case of temporal bone osteoma in a female.

  3. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  4. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  5. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  6. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesion in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose 99mTc-MDP bone scan showed cold defects, 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy clearly delineated the areas of tumor-cell invasion. In all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but abnormalities were not recognized on bone-marrow scintigram in all of their lesions. In conclusion, the combination technique of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy was a useful method in evaluating bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  7. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular, and the way they can alter the composition. As bone is a heterogeneous tissue, its composition must be discussed in terms of the chemical makeup, properties of its chemical constituents and their distributions in the ever-changing bone matrix. Emphasis, in this review, is placed on changes in composition as a function of age and various diseases of bone, particularly osteoporosis. It is suggested that while some of the antiosteoporotic drugs can and do modify composition, their positive effects on bone strength may be balanced by negative ones. PMID:24501681

  8. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  9. A Calculation Method of Burst Height of Ballistic Missile Based on Radar Seeker%一种基于雷达导引头的弹道导弹爆高解算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗贵; 王继平; 林红斌; 解静

    2014-01-01

    目前弹道导弹主要通过无线电引信测高来进行战斗部爆高控制,但弹头的再入环境对无线电引信测高装置的要求非常高,且引信存在着易被干扰的问题。为此,该文针对采用雷达景象匹配末制导的弹道导弹,提出一种基于雷达导引头的弹道导弹爆高控制方法,通过雷达导引头测高数据与惯性导航数据的融合处理,实时计算弹头飞行高程,来实现爆高控制,既保证了精度,又增强了抗干扰能力。仿真算例证明了该方法的有效性和爆高解算精度。%At present the height of the warhead of ballistic missile is measured by the radio fuze for the burst height control of the warhead, but the reentry environment of the warhead has very high requirement for the measure set of the radio fuze, and there exists the issue of the radio fuze to be jammed. In the paper, for the ballistic missile adopting the radar scene matching terminal guidance, a calculation method of burst height of ballistic missile based on radar seeker is put forward, by fusing the height measure data of the scene matching radar seeker and the inertial navigation data, the height of the warhead is calculated in real time to realize the burst height control, which ensures the precision and improves anti-jamming capability. The validity of the method and the calculation precision of the burst height are proved by simulation and calculation.

  10. Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Danczak, Robert; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which 'cursorial specialization' affects locomotor anatomy independently of broader allometric and phylogenetic trends that might obscure such a relationship. We collected linear morphometrics and μCT data on 737 limb bones covering three lagomorph species that differ in degree of cursoriality: pikas (Ochotona princeps, non-cursorial), jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, highly cursorial), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani, level of cursoriality intermediate between pikas and jackrabbits). We evaluated two hypotheses: cursoriality should be associated with (i) lower limb joint mechanical advantage (i.e. high 'displacement advantage', permitting more cursorial species to cycle their limbs more quickly) and (ii) longer, more gracile limb bones, particularly at the distal segments (as a means of decreasing rotational inertia). As predicted, highly cursorial jackrabbits are typically marked by the lowest mechanical advantage and the longest distal segments, non-cursorial pikas display the highest mechanical advantage and the shortest distal segments, and rabbits generally display intermediate values for these variables. Variation in long bone robusticity followed a proximodistal gradient. Whereas proximal limb bone robusticity declined with cursoriality, distal limb bone robusticity generally remained constant across the three species. The association between long, structurally gracile limb bones and decreased maximal bending strength suggests that the more cursorial lagomorphs compromise proximal limb bone integrity to improve locomotor economy. In contrast, the integrity of distal limb bones is maintained with increasing

  11. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  12. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can res...

  13. Use of Spongious Bone Chips and Fascia Temporalis in Alveolar Bone Defects

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZ, Hakan H.; AKAL, Ümit K.; CAMBAZOĞLU, Mine; KİŞNİŞCİ, Reha Ş.

    2004-01-01

    Graft materials are used for inducement of regeneration in bone defects. Organic and synthetic bone graft materials facilitate remodelation or healing of the bone and induce new bone formation in the area of bone resorption caused by pathological, traumatic, and physiological reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spongious allogenic bone graft and fascia temporalis membranous collagen tissue on the healing of bone defects clinically and radiologically. The study was c...

  14. PENGGUNAAN BONE GRAFT PADA PERAWATAN KERUSAKAN TULANG PERIODONTAL (Used Bone Graft for Periodontal Defect Treatment)

    OpenAIRE

    Elly Munadziroh; Mohamad Rubianto; Asti Meizarini

    2015-01-01

    Generally the signs and symptoms of advances periodontal disease are periodontal pockets formation to alveolar bone defect. Bone defect treated with placement a preparation material to promote new bone formation. Tissue transplantation were developed, to recontsruct bone defect with the placement of bone graft material. This paper will discuss the used of demineralied freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and anorganic bone mineral combined with synthetic 15 amino acid sequence within type I co...

  15. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. PMID:26051481

  16. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas of physiological need. The mechanism by which cells are precisely targeted to areas requiring repair is both clinically relevant and poorly understood. The osteocyte has been assumed to play a role in sensing damage and signaling for its removal, due largely to its abundance throughout the mineralized bone matrix. However, until recently there has been little evidence that osteocyte function is modified in the vicinity of the microdamage. Here I outline the possibility that the targeted removal of bone containing microcracks might involve signals derived from the apoptotic death of the osteocyte. I shall discuss data that support or refute this view and will consider the possible molecular mechanisms by which controlled cell death might contribute to the signals for repair in the light of work involving cells in bone and other tissue systems.

  17. Plutonium microdistribution in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and location of plutonium in bone from three humans injected during the mid-1940's has been studied by autoradiography and alpha particle spectrometry. Concentrations are similar on endosteal surfaces, Haversian canal surfaces and periosteal surfaces of long bone midshafts 17 months after injection. Endosteal surface concentrations are higher in the axial skeleton than in the appendicular skeleton 15 and 17 months post injection. For dosimetric purposes, volume deposits may be considered to be infinitely thick whereas surface deposits may be considered to have zero thickness. Secondary surface deposits are dosimetrically important, even when the plutonium is almost completely deposited in bone volume

  18. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  19. CT assisted biomimetic artificial bone des

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.

  20. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and resorpti

  1. Factors affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Chiara; Vulcano, Ettore; Canton, Gianluca; Marano, Marco; Murena, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common cause of bone fragility, especially in post-menopausal women. Bone strength may be compromised by several other medical conditions and medications, which must be ruled out in the clinical management of patients affected by fragility fractures. Indeed, 20-30% of women and up to 50% of men affected by bone fragility are diagnosed with other conditions affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis. These conditions include disorders of bone homeostasis, impaired bone remodeling, collagen disorders, and medications qualitatively and quantitatively affecting bone strength. Proper diagnosis allows correct treatment to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures. PMID:24046057

  2. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... implanted, the Baha device will allow sound to travel through bone and restore close-to-normal hearing ... through the abutment so the sound can then travel through the head to the functional cochlea, or ...

  3. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and out. It's important that we don't heat the bone up too much. And you can ... way give her -- help her get over the challenges that single-sided deafness presents. But important to ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... a comment, please complete the following form: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Images × Image Gallery ...

  7. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for periodontitis and tooth loss. Role of the Dentist and Dental X Rays Research supported by the ... normal bone density. Because many people see their dentist more regularly than their doctor, dentists are in ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, ...

  9. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ...

  12. Bone growth in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research performed in several laboratories has shown that artificially induced currents affect bone growth. Studies of various current characteristics produced by implanted electrodes indicate that continuous dc, interrupted dc, and asymmetric ac all increase osteogenesis at the cathode. Stimulation from an externally applied balanced ac field was reported to reduce bone loss from disuse. The purpose of the study being reported here was to examine the influence of a uniform ac electric field on the normal skeletal growth pattern of rats. Juvenile rats received whole body exposure to uniform, vertical 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 30 days. There were no marked alterations in the general growth pattern of the exposed animals compared to controls maintained under similar conditions. Bone growth rate, measured by tetracycline labeling, morphology of lumbar vertebrae and tibias and cortical bone area and marrow space area of tibias were not disturbed by exposure to the electric fields. (author)

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  14. Healthy Bones at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include walking and running, as well as team sports like soccer and basketball. AAOS does not endorse ... to cause hormonal changes that stop menstrual periods (amenorrhea). This loss of estrogen can cause bone loss ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  18. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as the bone conduction thresholds, which is the test of the sensory ability of the inner ear, ... and also responses to pure tones, which would test their hearing throughout the hearing range from low, ...

  19. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  20. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  1. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  2. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  3. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1900?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective: This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy...

  4. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the ...

  5. Mechanisms of cancer metastasis to the bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Juan YIN; Claire B. POLLOCK; Kathleen KELLY

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most common human cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer, metastasize with avidity to bone. What is the basis for their preferential growth within the bone microenvironment? Bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and cells that make up bone result in a selective advantage for tumor growth and can lead to bone destruction or new bone matrix deposition. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular components and mechanisms that are responsible for those interactions.

  6. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, Rogério; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  7. Cellular Mechanisms of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Oranger; Claudia Carbone; Maddalena Izzo; Maria Grano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulates and proliferates in the bone marrow. MM patients often develop bone disease that results in severe bone pain, osteolytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. These skeletal complications have not only a negative impact on quality of life but also a possible effect in overall survival. MM osteolytic bone lesions arise from the altered bone remodeling due to both increased osteoclast activation and d...

  8. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, R. P.; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  9. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James

    2010-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We ...

  10. [Palliative surgery for bone metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetiker, R F; Meier, G; Hefti, F; Bereiter, H

    2001-12-01

    Advances in the treatment of patients who have bone metastases are an issue of high importance to the orthopaedic surgeon. Early diagnosis requires knowledge of the pathogenesis of bone metastases. A primary route of metastatic cells is via Batson's vertebral vein plexus. An understanding of the pathophysiology enables the surgeon to plan effective treatment. As many patients continue to survive for prolonged periods following the detection of bone metastases, it is important to plan treatment that relieves pain and is functional. In long bones non-operative treatment with radiotherapy, patient education to avoid excessive torsional loads and systemic chemotherapy or hormonal therapy as well as diphosphonates are utilized for small lesions with less than 25 percent of the cortical diameter. The indications for surgical treatment include lesions with elevated fracture risk according to Mirels score. Special emphasis is led on the surgical treatment of spinal metastasis. Early and effective treatment improves the remaining quality of life in patients with metastatic bone disease. However a firm knowledge of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology helps the clinician in making an early diagnosis. Nevertheless the orthopaedic surgeon must recognize the need to approach management of these patients from a multidisciplinary perspective in cooperation with the oncologist, radiotherapist, rehabilitation medicine specialist, radiologist, and pathologist. The cooperation among all members of the team will assure the best possible care for the patient who has metastatic bone disease. PMID:11797537

  11. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  12. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  13. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  14. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  15. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells combined with Allograft Cancellous Bone in Treatment of Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thua Trung Hau; Duc Phu Bui; Nguyen Duy Thang; Pham Dang Nhat; Le Quy Bao; Nguyen Phan Huy; Tran Ngoc Vu; Le Phuoc Quang; Boeckx willy Denis; Mey Albert De

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cancellous bone graft is currently used as a gold standard method for treatment of bone nonunion. However, there is a limit to the amount of autologous cancellous bone that can be harvested and the donor site morbidity presents a major disadvantage to autologous bone grafting. Embedding viable cells within biological scaffolds appears to be extremely promising. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of autologous bone marrow stem cells combined with a cancellous bone a...

  16. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Colnot, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  17. Therapeutic inhibition of cathepsin K—reducing bone resorption while maintaining bone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Le T.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of high bone remodeling with an imbalance of bone resorption over bone formation, resulting in decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. From the emerging understandings of the molecular and cellular regulators of bone remodeling, potential new targets for therapeutic intervention for this disease have been identified. Cathepsin K (CatK), a cysteine protease produced by osteoclasts, is the primary enzyme mediating the degradation of ...

  18. Biomimetically Enhanced Demineralized Bone Matrix for Bone Regenerative Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Demineralized bone matrix (DBM is one of the most widely used bone graft materials in dentistry. However, the ability of DBM to reliably and predictably induce bone regeneration has always been a cause for concern. The quality of DBM varies greatly depending on several donor dependent factors and also manufacturing techniques. In order to standardize the quality and to enable reliable and predictable bone regeneration, we have generated a biomimetically-enhanced version of DBM (BE-DBM using clinical grade commercial DBM as a control. We have generated the BE-DBM by incorporating a cell-derived pro-osteogenic extracellular matrix (ECM within clinical grade DBM. In the present study, we have characterized the BE-DBM and evaluated its ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of human marrow derived stromal cells (HMSCs with respect to clinical grade commercial DBM. Our results indicate that the BE-DBM contains significantly more pro-osteogenic factors than DBM and enhances HMSC differentiation and mineralized matrix formation in vitro and in vivo. Based on our results, we envision that the BE-DBM has the potential to replace DBM as the bone graft material of choice.

  19. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Köller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  20. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  1. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  2. Fracture of phalanx from simple bone cyst: A rare bone lesion in the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Inozu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solitary bone cysts, also known as unicameral bone cysts or simple bone cysts, are benign tumors of the bone full of liquid. While typically seen on proximal humerus and femur bones, they are rarely seen on other bones. Simple bone cysts, diagnosed with X-ray. incidentally or for other reasons, are usually asymptomatic. In this case, a 25-year-old male patient with pathologic fracture of the proximal phalanx from an undiagnosed simple bone cyst was reported and referred to the authors' clinic to be treated with curettage. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 100-103

  3. PENGGUNAAN BONE GRAFT PADA PERAWATAN KERUSAKAN TULANG PERIODONTAL (Used Bone Graft for Periodontal Defect Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Munadziroh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally the signs and symptoms of advances periodontal disease are periodontal pockets formation to alveolar bone defect. Bone defect treated with placement a preparation material to promote new bone formation. Tissue transplantation were developed, to recontsruct bone defect with the placement of bone graft material. This paper will discuss the used of demineralied freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA and anorganic bone mineral combined with synthetic 15 amino acid sequence within type I collagen (PepGen P-15 the potential healing of bone defect to enhance the optimum treatment of periodontal disease.

  4. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  5. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However,...

  6. Biomechanical researches on tissue engineering bone constructed by deproteinated bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Yue-kui; TIAN Xiao-bin; LI Qi-hong; LI Bo; PENG Zhi; ZHAO Wei-feng; WANG Yuan-zheng; YANG Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study biomechanical changes of newly formed bones 24 weeks after repairing large defects of long bones of goats using heterogeneous deproteinated bone(DPB)prepared by modified methods as an engineering scaffold.Methods:According to a fully randomized design,18 goats were evenly divided into three groups:normal bone control group(Group A),autologous bone group(Group B)and experimental group(Group C).Each goat in Groups B and C were subjected to the periosteum and bone defect at middle-lower part of the fight tibia(20% of the whole tibia in length),followed by autologous bone or DPB plus autologous MSCs + rhBMP2 implantation,respectively and semiring slot fixation;while goats in Group A did not perform osteotomy.At 24 weeks after surgery,biomechanical tests were carried out on the tibias.Results:At 24 weeks after surgery,the results of anticompression test on tibias in three groups were recorded by a functional recorder presented as linear pressure-deformation curve.The shapes of the curves and their change tendency were similar among three groups.The ultimate pressure values were 10.74 Mpa±1.23 Mpa,10.11 Mpa±1.35 Mpa and 10.22 Mpa±1.32 Mpa and fracture compression rates were 26.82%±0.87%,27.17%±0.75% and 28.22%±1.12% in Groups A,B and C,respectively.Comparisons of anti-compression ultimate pressures and fracture compression rates among three groups demonstrated no significant difference(P_(AB)=0.415,P_(BC)=0.494).Three-point antibend test on tibias was recorded as load-deformation curves,and the shapes of the curves and their change tendency were similar among three groups.The ultimate pressure values of the anti-bend test were 481.52 N±12.45 N,478.34 N±14.68 N and 475.62 N±13.41 N and the fracture bend rates were 2.62 mm±0.12 mm,2.61 mm±0.15 mm and 2.81 mm±0.13 mm in Groups A,B and C,respectively.There was no significant difference between groups(P_(AB)=0.7,P_(BC)=0.448).The ultirates were 29.51°±1.64°,28.88°±1.46° and 28.81°±1.33

  7. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenbauer Bianka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM. Methods and results From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10 or DBM-augmentation (n = 10. At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014. Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group and 41.2 months (DBM-group. All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20% whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146. No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20% (p = 0.146. Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326. However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031. Conclusion With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160

  8. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99mTc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  9. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  10. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass. PMID:12699292

  11. Adaptation of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    never been proven. Recent studies showing reduced chemical and mechanical properties of subchondral bone in various stages of the disease have invigorated interest in the role of subchondral bone in the development and progression of the disease. The current study showed that the concept of bone...... adaptation might explain subchondral stiffening, a process where subchondral bone becomes typically sclerotic in osteoarthritis. In addition, we report reduced mechanical matrix tissue properties as well as an increase in denatured collagen content. In conclusion, although osteoarthritic bone tissue contains...... increased denatured collagen and has reduced matrix mechanical properties, the widely accepted concept of subchondral stiffening is compatible with the process of normal bone adaptation. Udgivelsesdato: 2004...

  12. Androgen and bone mass in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnnieW.C.Kung

    2003-01-01

    Androgens have multiple actions on the skeleton throughout life. Androgens promote skeletal growth and accumulation of minerals during puberty and adolescence and stimulate osteoblast but suppress osteoclast function,activity and lifespan through complex mechanisms. Also androgens increase periosteal bone apposition, resulting in larger bone size and thicker cortical bone in men. There is convincing evidence to show that aromatization to estrogens was an important pathway for mediating the action of testosterone on bone physiology. Estrogen is probably the dominant sex steroid regulating bone resorption in men, but both testosterone and estrogen are important in maintaining bone formation. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 148-154)

  13. [Bone and Men's Health. Bone selective androgen receptor modulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki

    2010-02-01

    Androgen, one of the sex steroid hormones shows various biological activities on the corresponding various tissues. Many efforts to produce novel drug materials maintaining a desired biological activity with an adequate tissue selectivity, which is so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) , are being performed. As one of such efforts, studies on SARMs against bone tissues which possess a significant potential to stimulate a bone formation with reducing undesirable androgenic virilizing activities are in progress all over the world. This review focuses on the research and development activities of such SARMs and discuses their usefulness for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  14. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  15. Avoidance Eclipse Using Alterable PRF Method Designing for HPRF Radar Seeker%高重频雷达导引头变 PRF 抗遮挡方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华兵; 李文龙; 杨士义

    2015-01-01

    We proposed an avoidance eclipse method using alterable PRF for HPRF radar seeker to solve the problem that the ambiguous range information cannot be used directly to avoid eclipse. Firstly,the PRFs in limited range were analyzed and a couple of PRFs could avoid eclipse were selected. Secondly, two switch methods were designed according to whether the air-borne could provide precise initial distance or not. Lastly,the selected couple of PRFs were used to work based on the two switch methods. The result shows that the proposed method has a good avoidance eclipse performance.%针对高重频 PD 雷达测距模糊,不能直接利用距离信息抗距离遮挡的问题,提出了一种高重频雷达导引头变PRF 抗遮挡方法;对限定频率范围内的 PRF 进行分析,根据优选策略确定一组具备抗遮挡能力的 PRF,针对载机能否提供较精确的初始装订距离,分别设计不同的 PRF 切换方式,由导引头软件控制优选 PRF 组按照不同的方式切换工作,完成抗遮挡任务;仿真试验结果表明:提出的方法具有较好的抗遮挡性能。

  16. Light Axis Stabilization of Semi-Strapdown Infrared Imaging Seeker%红外成像半捷联导引头光轴稳定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程冬; 栗金平; 陈韵; 严宪军; 任文真

    2012-01-01

    红外成像半捷联导引头去掉了稳定平台上的速率陀螺,满足了减小体积和降低成本的要求,但失去了直接测量平台惯性角速度的能力;为实现半捷联平台稳定,文章采用了角速度补偿法,使用惯导测量的弹体角速度与框架角速度合成得到光轴的惯性视线角速度,为减小伺服系统中非线性因素和模型不确定性带来的干扰影响,文章采用自抗扰控制技术设计了稳定回路的控制器;最后在设定的仿真条件下进行仿真,半捷联导引头稳定回路的隔离度始终小于4%,证明文章提出的光轴稳定方法可以较好地隔离弹体的姿态扰动.%The gyroscope wasn't used on the stability platform of infrared imaging seeker for reducing the bulk and the cost, but the platform inertial rate couldn't be measured. The way of angular velocity compensation that the platform inertial rate was composed by the body rate and the frame rate was used for keeping the platform steady. The controller was designed with the technology of auto disturbance rejection for reducing the influence of the disturbance. Finally, the excellent performance to eliminate the disturbance of the way was showed through the simulation, and the isolation degree is less than 4 percent all the time.

  17. Fibrillin microfibrils in bone physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Silvia; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The severe skeletal abnormalities associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) underscore the notion that fibrillin assemblies (microfibrils and elastic fibers) play a critical role in bone formation and function in spite of representing a low abundance component of skeletal matrices. Studies of MFS and CCA mice have correlated the skeletal phenotypes of these mutant animals with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms that reflect the contextual contribution of fibrillin-1 and -2 scaffolds to TGFβ and BMP signaling during bone patterning, growth and metabolism. Illustrative examples include the unique role of fibrillin-2 in regulating BMP-dependent limb patterning and the distinct impact of the two fibrillin proteins on the commitment and differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, these findings have important implication for our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive age- and injury-related processes of bone degeneration. PMID:26408953

  18. Integrins mediating bone signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chuanglong; WANG Yuanliang; YANG Lihua; ZHANG Jun

    2004-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesions play critical roles in diverse cell functions. Integrins offers a platform on which mechanical stimuli, cytoskeletal organization, biochemical signals can concentrate. Mechanical stimuli transmitted by integrins influence the cytoskeleton, in turn, the cytoskeleton influences cell adhesion via integrins, then cell adhesion results in a series of signal transduction cascades. In skeleton, integrins also have a key role for bone resoption by osteoclasts and reformation by osteoblasts. In present review, the proteins involved in integrin signal transduction and integrin signal transduction pathways were discussed, mainly on the basic mechanisms of integrin signaling and the roles of integrins in bone signal transduction, which may give insight into new therapeutic agents to all kinds of skeletal diseases and new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Malignant Hemangioendothelioma of Occipital Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Agrawal; Arvind Bhake; Pankaj Banode; Brij Raj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of bone,and rarely these lesions can present as unique and extremely aggressive tumor.We report a case of highly aggressive epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and discuss the imaging findings.CT brain plain study revealed a poorly-defined,mixed density expansile and lytic lesion involving the occipital bone with extension to the left side with poorly defined trabecula formation.There was significant but irregular enhancement after intravenous administration of contrast material and also marked bone destruction.Microscopic examination of the fine needle aspiration cytology showed a tumor composed of vascular channels lined by plump endothelial cells,which had enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei.In view of the extensive infiltration the patient was submitted for the radiotherapy.

  20. Eosinophilic granuloma of temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease which can affect the temporal bone. Also known as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, the lesion is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells. Although initially silent, the disease may erode the mastoid cortex, destroy the tegmen, and extend into the cranial vault, as well as erode the semicircular canals or cochlea. These lesions almost always become infected and can be confused with chronic otomastoiditis. Equally important, temporal bone involvement may represent only one manifestation of a multifocal disease. This report describes a case of 40-year-old male with eosinophilic granuloma involving the right temporal bone extending into midbrain region causing focal compression and displacement of part of the temporal lobe.

  1. Fibrillin microfibrils in bone physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Silvia; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The severe skeletal abnormalities associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) underscore the notion that fibrillin assemblies (microfibrils and elastic fibers) play a critical role in bone formation and function in spite of representing a low abundance component of skeletal matrices. Studies of MFS and CCA mice have correlated the skeletal phenotypes of these mutant animals with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms that reflect the contextual contribution of fibrillin-1 and -2 scaffolds to TGFβ and BMP signaling during bone patterning, growth and metabolism. Illustrative examples include the unique role of fibrillin-2 in regulating BMP-dependent limb patterning and the distinct impact of the two fibrillin proteins on the commitment and differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, these findings have important implication for our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive age- and injury-related processes of bone degeneration.

  2. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.)

  3. The response of bone to unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During spaceflight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1-g environment, and some redistribution of bone from the lower extremities to the head appears to take place. Although changes in calcitropic hormones have been demonstrated during skeletal unloading (PTH and 1,25(OH)2D decrease), it remains unclear whether such changes account for or are in response to the changes in bone formation and resorption. Bed rest studies with human volunteers and hindlimb elevation studies with rats have provided useful data to help explain the changes in bone formation during spaceflight. These models of skeletal unloading reproduce a number of the conditions associated with microgravity, and the findings from such studies confirm many of the observations made during spaceflight. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. Such investigations couple biophysics to biochemistry to cell and molecular biology. Although studies with cell cultures have revealed biochemical responses to mechanical loads comparable to that seen in intact bone, it seems likely that matrix-cell interactions underlie much of the mechanocoupling. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH, and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs, and TGF-beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to mechanical load with increased bone formation are further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, with

  4. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

  5. 利用导引头控制无人飞行器模拟导弹制导过程的试验研究∗%The Method for Simulating Missile Guidance Process with the Unmanned Aircraft Piloted by a Homing Seeker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卫; 孙奕帆; 危艳玲

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore a simple and convenient method for simulating missile guidance to meet the need in electronic warfare test, a method for simulating missile guidance process with the unmanned aircraft piloted by a homing seeker is put forward and validated by flight test with an unmanned airship loaded with a TV seeker. Based on the segmented PID controller of the longitudinal control channel of the airship flight control system and the guidance command creator specially designed for the test, an airship is piloted by the target information produced by a TV seeker loaded on the airship towards the target according to two guidance laws respectively. The test results show that the airship realizes guidance flight successfully according to the preset guidance laws.%为了探索一种简便经济的导弹制导模拟方法以满足电子对抗试验需要,提出了一种利用导引头控制无人飞行器以模拟导弹制导过程的方法,利用电视导引头搭载无人飞艇进行了飞行试验验证。基于飞艇飞控系统纵向控制通道的分段式PID控制器以及特别设计的制导指令生成模块,利用电视导引头测量的目标信息,分别按照两种导弹导引律控制和引导飞艇向目标飞行。对试验结果的定量分析表明,飞艇按照预设导引律成功实现了制导飞行。

  6. Genetic control of bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Eveline; Fijalkowski, Igor; Hendrickx, Gretl; Van Hul, Wim

    2016-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a quantitative traits used as a surrogate phenotype for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, a common metabolic disorder characterized by increased fracture risk as a result of a decreased bone mass and deterioration of the microarchitecture of the bone. Normal variation in BMD is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. According to heritability studies, 50-85% of the variance in BMD is controlled by genetic factors which are mostly polygenic. In contrast to the complex etiology of osteoporosis, there are disorders with deviating BMD values caused by one mutation with a large impact. These mutations can result in monogenic bone disorders with either an extreme high (sclerosteosis, Van Buchem disease, osteopetrosis, high bone mass phenotype) or low BMD (osteogenesis imperfecta, juvenile osteoporosis, primary osteoporosis). Identification of the disease causing genes, increased the knowledge on the regulation of BMD and highlighted important signaling pathways and novel therapeutic targets such as sclerostin, RANKL and cathepsin K. Genetic variation in genes involved in these pathways are often also involved in the regulation of normal variation in BMD and osteoporosis susceptibility. In the last decades, identification of genetic factors regulating BMD has proven to be a challenge. Several approaches have been tested such as linkage studies and candidate and genome wide association studies. Although, throughout the years, technological developments made it possible to study increasing numbers of genetic variants in populations with increasing sample sizes at the same time, only a small fraction of the genetic impact can yet be explained. In order to elucidate the missing heritability, the focus shifted to studying the role of rare variants, copy number variations and epigenetic influences. This review summarizes the genetic cause of different monogenic bone disorders with deviating BMD and the knowledge on genetic factors

  7. Demineralized Bone Matrix Injection in Consolidation Phase Enhances Bone Regeneration in Distraction Osteogenesis via Endochondral Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Won Joon; Cho, Tae-Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a promising tool for bone and tissue regeneration. However, prolonged healing time remains a major problem. Various materials including cells, cytokines, and growth factors have been used in an attempt to enhance bone formation. We examined the effect of percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) during the consolidation phase on bone regeneration after distraction. Methods The immature rabbit tibial DO model (20 mm length-gain) was u...

  8. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchin; Adeeb, Samer; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone microarchitectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA) can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of Micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived grayscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two- and three-dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX) rats (n = 10/group). A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA, because Micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three-dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation, and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading. PMID:26042089

  9. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  10. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A;

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  11. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  12. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  13. [Bone-based anchorage failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mer, Grégoria; Brezulier, Damien; Sorel, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to list the circumstances likely to give rise to failure of orthodontic temporary bone-supported anchorage and, hence, to attempt to define criteria for correct miniscrew usage. Our study was based on a review of the literature and analyses of clinical cases. Our findings show that, with a sound knowledge of the indications for screw selection and positioning and of the insertion protocols combined with a clear understanding of orthodontic mechanics, bone-based anchorage can henceforth provide orthodontists with an essential tool to enable formerly unachievable dental movements and to stabilize unwanted movements, thus making treatment both more reliable and more effective. PMID:27083224

  14. Time Simulation of Bone Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The structural adaptation of a three-dimensional finite element model ofthe proximal femur is considered. Presuming the bone possesses the optimalstructure under the given loads, the bone material distribution is foundby minimizing the strain energy averaged over ten load cases with avolume...... constraint. Theoptimized design is used as a start-configuration for the remodelingsimulation.The parameter characterizing the equilibrium level where no remodeling occurs is estimated from the optimization parameters.The loads vary in magnitude, location and direction simulating timedependent loading. The...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device...: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Bone Cement.”...

  16. Bone Marrow Transplants: "Another Possibility at Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants “Another Possibility at Life” Past Issues / Summer ... year, and, for 16,000 of them, a bone marrow transplant is the best treatment option, notes Susan ...

  17. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports show patient survival and transplant data of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in the transplant ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific ...

  18. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  19. Bone Density Testing (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Bone density testing (Beyond the Basics) Author Michael Kleerekoper, MD ... last updated: Sep 22, 2015. WHAT DOES BONE DENSITY TESTING DO AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? — People ...

  20. Cancer of the Bone and Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Bone and Joint Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Bone and Joint Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  1. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  2. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects. PMID:27649725

  3. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of Sphenoid Bone and Clivus Misdiagnosed as Chordoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Cesur; Asik, Murat; Yanik, Inanc; Ozkanli, Seyma; Tutar, Onur; Hasiloglu, Zehra Isik

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign and rapidly expanding bone destructive lesions of any bone. They are commonly localized in the metaphysis of long bones, whereas skull base ABCs are rare. We report a case of a 21-year-old man who had been misdiagnosed as chordoma and undergone surgery. However, histopathological examination revealed it to be an ABC. PMID:26605267

  4. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  5. Unexplained Bone Pain Is an Independent Risk Factor for Bone Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Mørch, Carsten D; Barsi, Tamás;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between bone pain and bone metastases in newly diagnosed prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study of bone scintigraphy enrolled 567 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. The presence of all-cause bone pain, known b...

  6. Bone Appetit: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Building and Maintaining Strong Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is a living, dynamic, metabolically active tissue. It under goes a process of constant renewal throughout life, through a process called bone turnover in which cells called osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, and cells called osteoblasts make new bone to replace it. A healthy, balanced di...

  7. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  8. Printing bone : the application of 3D fiber deposition for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Bone chips are used by orthopaedic surgeons for treating spinal trauma and to augment large bone defects. A potential alternative to autologous bone is regeneration of bone tissue in the lab by developing hybrid implants consisting of osteogenic (stem) cells seeded on supportive matrices. Applicatio

  9. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld;

    2008-01-01

    , in face of normal or even increased bone formation. This suggests that osteoclasts, not their resorptive activity, are important for sustaining bone formation. To investigate whether osteoclasts mediate control of bone formation by production of bone anabolic signals, we collected conditioned media (CM...

  10. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  11. Wnt and Wnt inhibitors in bone metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Christopher L. Hall; Zhang, Jian; Evan T. Keller

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a clinically devastating development of progressive cancers including prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Bone metastases are typically painful, lead to adverse skeletal-related events, such as fracture, and are highly resistant to therapy. A major contribution to the ability of cancers to successfully establish bone metastases is their ability to exploit mechanisms of normal bone remodeling. Wnts are a large family of morphogenic proteins that are cr...

  12. Mechanical Signaling for Bone Modeling and Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Robling, Alexander G.; Turner, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Proper development of the skeleton in utero and during growth requires mechanical stimulation. Loading results in adaptive changes in bone that strengthen bone structure. Bone’s adaptive response is regulated by the ability of resident bone cells to perceive and translate mechanical energy into a cascade of structural and biochemical changes within the cells — a process known as mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction pathways are among the most anabolic in bone, and consequently, there is g...

  13. Inter-species variation in bone mineral

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a complex heterogeneous composite material with organic and inorganic components. The inorganic component; bone mineral, is a poorly crystalline, non-stoichiometric form of calcium hydroxylapatite. A model for the general structure and composition of bone mineral has been established within the literature. However, the nature and extent of variation in bone mineral composition and structure has, to date, been poorly understood. This situation also applies to the general response of bo...

  14. Engineers Create Bone that Blends into Tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Engineers at Georgia Tech have used skin cells to create artificial bones that mimic the ability of natural bone to blend into other tissues such as tendons or ligaments. The artificial bones display a gradual change from bone to softer tissue rather than the sudden shift of previously developed artificial tissue, providing better integration with the body and allowing them to handle weight more successfully.

  15. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with 45Ca and [3H]proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more 45Ca and [3H]proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading

  16. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  17. Stem cell-based bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Yurong; Xu, Ren-He; Hurley, Marja M.

    2012-01-01

    To accelerate bone repair, one strategy is to deliver the cells that make bone. The current review focuses on stem cell-based bone repair. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can self-renew unlimitedly and differentiate into the bone forming cells – osteoblasts. Scientists have been actively investigating culture conditions to stably and efficiently induce differentiation of these stem cells into osteoblasts. However, ESCs have the issues of ethnics, immune ...

  18. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dyke, J. P.; Aaron, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability wi...

  19. Effects of proteasome inhibitors on bone cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terpos, Evangelos; Christoulas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of cancer, occurring in up to 70% of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer, while bone disease is also the characteristic clinical feature of multiple myeloma. Skeletal-related events can be devastating, with major effect on the quality of life and survival. Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of therapeutic management of bone disease of solid tumors and myeloma, and denosumab has recently been approved for patients with bone metastases. Both...

  20. Circadian Gene Networks In Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that vitamin D played a significant role in bone regeneration, facilitating the establishment of implant osseointegration. A whole genome microarray study further suggested that the vitamin D axis might involve circadian rhythm gene expression in the bone peripheral tissue.OBJECTIVES: To identify key gene networks involved with vitamin D receptor in the bone regeneration process and to explore any correlation with circadian rhythm gene expression in bone...

  1. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan;

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  2. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina;

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channel activity is essential for osteoclast function. Consequently, inhibition of the osteoclastic chloride channel should prevent bone resorption. Accordingly, we tested a chloride channel inhibitor on bone turnover and found that it inhibits bone resorption without affecting bone form...

  3. Imatimid-induced bone marrow necrosis detected on MRI examination and mimicking bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Pechoux, C. le; Cioffi, A.; Domont, J.; Cesne, A. le [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2007-09-15

    Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In contrast to liver and/or abdominal involvement, bone metastases are an uncommon event in GIST. We report here two patients with metastatic GIST who developed pelvic bone marrow focal lesions visible on MRI examinations, while Imatinib dramatically improved other tumor sites. A biopsy in one patient diagnosed bone marrow necrosis. The other patient had a favorable follow-up over several years, without bone metastases. Focal bone marrow abnormalities, detected on MRI examinations and mimicking bone metastases in patients who were otherwise responding, should be considered as probable bone marrow necrosis. (orig.)

  4. The influence of bone surface availability in bone remodelling - A mathematical model including coupled geometrical and biomechanical regulations of bone cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pivonka, Peter; Buenzli, Pascal R.; Scheiner, Stefan; Hellmich, Christian; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a biomaterial undergoing continuous renewal. The renewal process is known as bone remodelling and is operated by bone-resorbing cells (osteoclasts) and bone-forming cells (osteoblasts). Both biochemical and biomechanical regulatory mechanisms have been identified in the interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Here we focus on an additional and poorly understood potential regulatory mechanism of bone cells, that involves the morphology of the microstructure of bone. Bone cells...

  5. Low bone turnover phenotype in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Petersen, Janne; Ravn, Kirstine;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at risk of having low bone mass and low-energy fractures.Methods:We characterised bone metabolism by both bone formation and resorption markers in blood in a RTT population of 61 girls and women and 122 well-matched healthy controls. Levels of N-te...

  6. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, H.T.; Ru, J.A. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed c

  7. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. PMID:27297498

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy in biomedical science: bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsjäger, Sonja; Zoehrer, R.; Roschger, P.; Fratzl, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Mendelsohn, R.; Paschalis, E. P.

    2009-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIR) and Raman Microspectroscopy are powerful tools for characterizing the distribution of different chemical moieties in heterogeneous materials. FTIR and Raman measurements have been adapted to assess the maturity of the mineral and the quality of the organic component (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) of the mineralized tissue in bone. Unique to the FTIRI analysis is the capability to provide the spatial distribution of two of the major collagen cross-links (pyridinoline, and dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine) and through the study of normal and diseased bone, relate them to bone strength. These FTIR parameters have been validated based on analysis of model compounds. It is widely accepted that bone strength is determined by bone mass and bone quality. The latter is a multifactorial term encompassing the material and structural properties of bone, and one important aspect of the bone material properties is the organic matrix. The bone material properties can be defined by parameters of mineral and collagen, as determined by FTIR and Raman analysis. Considerably less attention has been directed at collagen, although there are several publications in the literature reporting altered collagen properties associated with fragile bone, in both animals and humans. Since bone is a heterogeneous tissue due to the remodeling process, microscopic areas may be carefully selected based on quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging or histological staining, thus ensuring comparison of areas with similar metabolic activity and mineral content. In conclusion, FTIRI and Raman vibrational spectroscopy are proving to be powerful tools in bone-related medical research.

  9. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  10. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  11. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth.

  12. Prefabricated flaps for bone reconstructive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tissue engineering of bone could help minimise donor site defects of conventional bone flaps like the fibula, iliac crest, radius and scapula. First a review is given on the literature of donor site morbidity of these flaps. Then the use of MRI is investigated for longitudinal study of ectopic bone

  13. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  14. Identifying A Molecular Phenotype for Bone Marrow Stromal Cells With In Vivo Bone Forming Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kenneth H; Frederiksen, Casper M; Burns, Jorge S;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The ability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts is being exploited in cell-based therapy for repair of bone defects. However, the phenotype of ex vivo cultured BMSCs predicting their bone forming capacity is not known. Thus, we employed DNA microarrays...... comparing two human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) populations: one is capable of in vivo heterotopic bone formation (hBMSC-TERT(+Bone)) and the other is not (hBMSC-TERT(-Bone)). Compared to hBMSC-TERT(-Bone), the hBMSC-TERT(+Bone) cells had an increased over-representation of extracellular matrix genes...... (17% versus 5%) and a larger percentage of genes with predicted SP3 transcription factor binding sites in their promoter region (21% versus 8%). On the other hand, hBMSC-TERT(-Bone) cells expressed a larger number of immune-response related genes (26% versus 8%). In order to test for the predictive...

  15. Development of combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites for advanced cancers. The skeletal-related events caused by bone metastases could have a significant influence on patient's clinical outcome and quality of life. Currently, bone scintigraphy is the first choice for detecting bone metastases. Although the sensitivity is high, the specificity of bone scintigraphy is still very low. It has been reported that by combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers, the specificity can be significantly increased. Meantime, the sensitivity and accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone metastases can be improved. We reviewed the literatures in the recent years to evaluate the potential value of combination with bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnoses of bone metastases. (authors)

  16. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  17. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  19. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... implanted, the Baha device will allow sound to travel through bone and restore close-to-normal hearing for the patient. During the webcast you may email questions to the surgeon by clicking the MDirectAccess button at any time. This program represents Hartford Hospital's ongoing efforts to ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...