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Sample records for bone rulers sterilized

  1. Radiation sterilized bone response to dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardas, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.mardas@skpp.edu.pl [Department of Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Szamarzewskiego 82/84, 60-569 Poznan (Poland); Kubisz, Leszek [Department of Biophysics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan (Poland); Biskupski, Piotr; Mielcarek, Slawomir [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Stelmach-Mardas, Marta [Department of Bromatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Marcelinska 420, 60-354 Poznan (Poland); Kaluska, Iwona [Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Allogeneic bone grafts are used on a large scale in surgeries. To avoid the risk of infectious diseases, allografts should be radiation-sterilized. So far, no international consensus has been achieved regarding the optimal radiation dose. Many authors suggest that bone sterilization deteriorates bone mechanical properties. However, no data on the influence of ionizing radiation on bone dynamic mechanical properties are available. Bovine femurs from 2-year old animal were machine cut and irradiated with the doses 10, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 50 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed at 1-10 Hz at the temperature range of 0-350 Degree-Sign C in 3-point bending configuration. No statistically significant differences in storage modulus were observed. However, there were significant decreased values of loss modulus between the samples irradiated with doses of 10 ({down_arrow}14.3%), 15, 45 and 50 kGy ({down_arrow}33.2%) and controls. It was stated that increased irradiation dose decreases the temperature where collagen denaturation process starts and increases the temperature where the collagen denaturation process finishes. It was shown that activation energy of denaturation process is significantly higher for the samples irradiated with the dose of 50 kGy (615 kJ/mol) in comparison with control samples and irradiation with other doses (100-135 kJ/mol). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the storage modulus and loss modulus of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the denaturation temperature of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the activation energy of denaturation process of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy.

  2. Quality assessment for processed and sterilized bone using Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takeaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Urabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Suto, Kaori; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate the potential for infection, many tissue banks routinely process and terminally sterilize allografts prior to transplantation. A number of techniques, including the use of scanning electron microscopy, bone graft models, and mechanical property tests, are used to evaluate the properties of allograft bone. However, as these methods are time consuming and often destroy the bone sample, the quality assessment of allograft bones are not routinely performed after processing and steril...

  3. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G;

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone...... without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake...

  4. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  5. Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  6. Sterilization of allograft bone: is 25 kGy the gold standard for gamma irradiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huynh; Morgan, David A F; Forwood, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    For several decades, a dose of 25 kGy of gamma irradiation has been recommended for terminal sterilization of medical products, including bone allografts. Practically, the application of a given gamma dose varies from tissue bank to tissue bank. While many banks use 25 kGy, some have adopted a higher dose, while some choose lower doses, and others do not use irradiation for terminal sterilization. A revolution in quality control in the tissue banking industry has occurred in line with development of quality assurance standards. These have resulted in significant reductions in the risk of contamination by microorganisms of final graft products. In light of these developments, there is sufficient rationale to re-establish a new standard dose, sufficient enough to sterilize allograft bone, while minimizing the adverse effects of gamma radiation on tissue properties. Using valid modifications, several authors have applied ISO standards to establish a radiation dose for bone allografts that is specific to systems employed in bone banking. These standards, and their verification, suggest that the actual dose could be significantly reduced from 25 kGy, while maintaining a valid sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10(-6). The current paper reviews the methods that have been used to develop radiation doses for terminal sterilization of medical products, and the current trend for selection of a specific dose for tissue banks. PMID:16821106

  7. The Influence of Peracetic Acid Sterilization on Tendon Bone Healing of Soft-Tissue Allografts in ACL Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Tassilo

    2010-01-01

    Allogenic tissue has become an important graft option for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Recent reports of disease transmission following ACL reconstruction with fresh-frozen non-sterilized allografts have highlighted the need for new sterilization techniques that do not impair the mechanical or biological properties as it was shown for most of the current sterilization techniques. Peracetic acid (PAA) has been successfully used to sterilize bone allografts without thes...

  8. Crystallization at the polymer/calcium-phosphate interface in a sterilized injectable bone substitute IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Weiss, P; Bourges, X; Amador del Valle, G; Daculsi, G

    2002-07-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are the main raw materials used to elaborate blocks or granules for bone substitutes. In this study, injectable bone substitutes (IBS) were developed for applications in orthopedic or dental surgery. Sterile, ready-to-use composite containing CaP granules (biphasic calcium phosphate, BCP) and polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC) was prepared. Steam sterilization produced new phenomena at the CaP/polymer interface, resulting in crystal growth. These phenomena may constitute a model for the biomineralization study. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the formed crystallites organize themselves into a three-dimensional structure. Currently, the mechanisms of crystal growth are unknown and have been observed with only one combination of polymer/BCP ceramics after steam sterilization. PMID:12059030

  9. Freeze-dried bone allografts sterilized with gamma radiation and the clinical use in harelip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Cruz A, L. C. [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, Toluca 50130, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez R, M. A., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro de Especialidades Odontologicas, Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon esquina Felipe Angeles s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Bone for transplant is part of the musculoskeletal tissue join with fascia lat, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Bone is formed by cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix formed mainly by collagen and hydroxyapatite, which gives strength and elasticity to the bone. The bone function in the body is to move, support, organs protection, production of blood cells and store minerals. The musculoskeletal tissue is processed in specialized tissue banks using gamma radiation of cobalt-60 for sterilization at 25 kGy doses at very low temperature or at room temperature, getting tissues with high quality for clinical applications in injured patients. The process of the bone for transplants varies depend on the size and the surgeon likes, nevertheless in general the large ones are preserved at low temperature (-80 C), meanwhile the short ones are freeze-dried preserved. The musculoskeletal diseases represent the most common physical incapacity, which affect million of people around the world. Due to the human body has 206 bones, during a bone injury each bone can be replaced or repaired with several devices, in general the surgeon goes to a specialized tissue banks, to get the bone, due to the high bone quantity on the body and the number of bone injuries and diseases, the bone is the most transplanted around the world only behind the blood. The bone can be processed in several sizes and shapes, one of these is bone powder from allograft, which is used over all for bone filling, this can be take advantage for cleft lip and palate defects, which is a birth defect, this can affect the way the child's face looks, it can also lead to problems with eating, talking and ear infections. The description of the bone powder process is presented and the clinical use of this powder in several pediatric patients for cleft lip and palate defects is described. (Author)

  10. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  11. Ruler Based Automatic C-Arm Image Stitching Without Overlapping Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Kojcev, Risto; Haschtmann, Daniel; Fekete, Tamas; Nolte, Lutz; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for stitching multiple fluoroscopic images taken by a C-arm instrument. We employ an X-ray radiolucent ruler with numbered graduations while acquiring the images, and the image stitching is based on detecting and matching ruler parts in the images to the corresponding parts of a virtual ruler. To achieve this goal, we first detect the regular spaced graduations on the ruler and the numbers. After graduation labeling, for each image, we have the location and the associated number for every graduation on the ruler. Then, we initialize the panoramic X-ray image with the virtual ruler, and we "paste" each image by aligning the detected ruler part on the original image, to the corresponding part of the virtual ruler on the panoramic image. Our method is based on ruler matching but without the requirement of matching similar feature points in pairwise images, and thus, we do not necessarily require overlap between the images. We tested our method on eight different datasets of X-ray images, including long bones and a complete spine. Qualitative and quantitative experiments show that our method achieves good results.

  12. A radiological evaluation of allografts (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and autografts in anterior cervical fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial roentgenograms of 40 patients who had 70 cervical intervertebral spaces grafted with ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and 28 patients who received 44 iliac crest auto grafts for anterior cervical spine fusion, were studied. The radiological evaluation was made on the basis of settlement of intervertebral spaces, fusion rate, delayed union, non-union, graft collapse and extrusion of the graft. Indigenous methodologies were designed for the assessment of settlement of grafted intervertebral spaces in percentage. Disc space settlement was more common in autografts (93% cases than in allografts (80% cases. The average percentage of settlement of intervertebral disc space (S% was 22 in autografts and 28 in allografts during the first four months. By the end of eight months, allograft disc spaces settle more. No significant difference was noted in fusion rate at the end of one year viz. allografts (90% cases and autografts (93% cases. Autograft and allograft (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone are equally useful in anterior cervical spine fusions.

  13. Vertebral plate regeneration induced by radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone sheets in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xin; SUN Shi-quan; YU Cong-nian; YANG Shu-hua; XU Wei-hua; LI Jin; YANG Cao; YE Zhe-wei; FU De-hao; LI Kun; LI Bao-xing

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects and mechanism of radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone sheets in inducing vertebral plate regeneration after laminectomy in sheep. Methods:Twelve adult male sheep (aged 1.5 years and weighing 27 kg on average ) provided by China Institute for Radiation Protection underwent L3-4 and L4-5 laminectomy.Then they were randomly divided into two groups:Group A (n =6) and Group B (n =6).The operated sites of L4-5 in Group A and L3-4 in Group B were covered by "H-shaped" freeze-drying and radiationsterilized allogeneic bone sheets ( the experimental segments),while the operated sites of L3-4 in Group A and L4-5 in Group B were uncovered as the self controls ( the control segments ). The regeneration process of the vertebral plate and the adhesion degree of the dura were observed at 4,8,12,16,20 and 24 weeks after operation.Xray and CT scan were performed in both segments of L3-4 and L4-5 at 4 and 24 weeks after operation. Results:In the experimental segments,the bone sheets were located in the anatomical site of vertebral plate,and no lumbar spinal stenosis or compression of the dura was observed.The bone sheets were absorbed gradually and fused well with the regenerated vertebral plate.While in the control segments,the regeneration of vertebral plate was not completed yet,the scar was inserted into the spinal canal,compressing the dura and the spinal cord,and the epidural area almost disappeared. Compared with the control segments, the dura adhesion degree in the experimental regenerated segments was much milder (P <0.01 ),the internal volume of the vertebral canal had no obvious change and the shape of the dura sack remained well without obvious compression. Conclusions:Freeze-drying and radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone sheets are ideal materials for extradural laminoplasty due to their good biocompatibility,biomechanical characteristics and osteogenic ability.They can effectively reduce formation of post-laminectomy scars

  14. Changes of porous poly( ɛ-caprolactone) bone grafts resulted from e-beam sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, L.; Filipczak, K.; Czvikovszky, T.; Czigány, T.; Borbás, L.

    2007-08-01

    The most important mechanical feature of poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) foams applied in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold, has been investigated as a function of irradiation dose. Radiation is proposed for the sterilization of the polymer before the implantation. Polycaprolactone scaffold foams were obtained by combination of compression molding and particulate leaching techniques. The porogen was changed in the range 74-96 w% and the irradiation dose was varied from 25 to 150 kGy. Our results show that yield strength is not a function of radiation dose, but is rather influenced by the porosity, while the critical strain is mainly dependent on the dose. All these together mean that the modulus of the elasticity of PCL foams is dependent on both the porosity and the dose.

  15. Active magnetoplasmonic ruler (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritskaya, Irina

    2016-04-01

    Plasmon rulers are an emerging concept in which the strong near-field coupling of plasmon nanoantenna elements is employed to obtain structural information at the nanoscale. Here, we combine nanoplasmonics and nanomagnetism to conceptualize a magnetoplasmonic dimer nanoantenna that would be able to report nanoscale distances while optimizing its own spatial orientation. The latter constitutes an active operation in which a dynamically optimized optical response per measured unit length allows for the measurement of small and large nanoscale distances with about 2 orders of magnitude higher precision than current state-of-the-art plasmon rulers. We further propose a concept to optically measure the nanoscale response to the controlled application of force with a magnetic field.

  16. Apparent fracture toughness of acrylic bone cement: effect of test specimen configuration and sterilization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G

    1999-01-01

    The plane strain fracture toughness of Palacos R bone cement was determined using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles and three different test specimen configurations: single edge notched three-point (SENB), rectangular compact tension (RCT), and chevron notched short rod (CNSR). Another aspect of the study was an investigation of the effect of three methods used to sterilize the powder constituents of the cement-none, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide--on the fracture toughness of the fully polymerized material. A detailed justification is provided for using LEFM. The fracture toughness results obtained using the CNSR specimens were, on average, 14 and 16% higher than those obtained using the SENB and RCT types, respectively. These differences are accounted for in terms of differences in four aspects of these specimen configuration (namely, residual stress effects, loading rate, material inhomogeneity, and the nature of the test). For a given specimen configuration, gamma irradiation produced a statistically significant decrease in fracture toughness which, it is suggested, is due to the concomitant depreciation in molecular weight. For a given cement type, there is no statistically significant difference in fracture toughness results obtained using SENB and RCT specimens. It is thus suggested that either of these configurations can be used to determine the fracture toughness of acrylic bone cement.

  17. The influence of sterilization processes on the micromechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK composites for bone implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, A; Raabe, D; Green, S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of sterilization on the structural integrity of the thermoplastic matrix composite polyetheretherketone (PEEK) reinforced with carbon fibers (CF) is investigated by nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests. The use of the material as a medical implant grade requires a detailed understanding of the micromechanical properties which primarily define its in vivo behavior. Sterilization is a mandatory process for such materials used in medical applications like bone implants. The steam and gamma radiation sterilization processes employed in this study are at sufficient levels to affect the micromechanical properties of some polymer materials, particularly in the interphase region between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing fibers. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are used in this work to reveal local gradients in the hardness and the elastic properties of the interphase regions. Both methods help to explore microscopic changes in the hardness, reduced stiffness and scratch resistance in the interphase region and in the bulk polymer matrix due to the different sterilization processes employed. The results reveal that neither steam nor gamma radiation sterilization entails significant changes of the reduced elastic modulus, hardness or coefficient of friction in the bulk polymer matrix. However, minor material changes of the PEEK matrix were observed in the interphase region. Of the two sterilization methods used, the steam treatment has a more significant influence on these small changes in this region and appears to increase slightly the thickness of the interphase zone.

  18. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation; Preparacion de hueso desproteinizado esterilizado con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  19. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur

    2016-06-01

    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  20. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur

    2016-06-01

    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  1. A scanning electron microscopic study of in vitro toxicity of ethylene-oxide-sterilized bone repair materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zislis, T; Martin, S A; Cerbas, E; Heath, J R; Mansfield, J L; Hollinger, J O

    1989-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) have been under investigation for use in the management of hard- and soft-tissue wounds. Current research has included the incorporation of osteo-inductive substances into a PLA-PGA copolymer alloplastic implant material for enhancement of the healing of osseous defects. Conventional methods of sterilization--such as dry heat, steam heat, or 60Co--tend either to destroy or attenuate osteo-inductive activity and alter polymer biodegradation. Ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilization is currently being tested as an alternate method. This study examined the relationship of EO-induced cytotoxicity to the length of time of polymer aeration following EO sterilization. Three groups of copolymer implant discs were studied: (1) 50:50 PLA-PGA copolymer, (2) PLA-PGA polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA), and (3) PLA-PGA with autolyzed, antigen-extracted (AA) bone particles. Polymer discs, as well as particulate HA and AA bone controls, were sterilized with EO for 12 hours. Following periods of two weeks, one week, one day, or no subsequent vacuum aeration, samples were placed into 24-well culture plates. A suspension of human fibroblasts was added to each well. Cell growth and attachment were permitted for 24 hours. Medium was then removed, and solutions for cell fixation, buffer washing, and dehydration were added to each well. SEM examination revealed changes in cell growth with increasing periods of aeration suggestive of increasing cell vitality. Cells growing on discs having no aeration were small, round, and lobulated, whereas those of seven to 14 days' aeration were more numerous, and flattened with many microvilli, pseudopodia, and dendritic processes, features consistent with normal cell morphology. These results suggest that EO-sterilized polymer implants should be aerated for least seven to 14 days prior to surgical use. PMID:2561372

  2. Taiji Ruler: Legacy of the Sleeping Immortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history, development, and principles of the two major Taiji Ruler lineages: one associated with the Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE imperial family, and the other lesser known, Daoist lineage, transmitted by Hu Yaozhen and his successors, including the well known Chen Style Taijiquan teacher, Feng Zhiqiang. The Taiji Ruler is a traditional system of health-enhancing qigong that is attributed to the Song Dynasty Daoist recluse Chen Xiyi and was first taught publicly in the 1950s. The exercises may be practiced while holding a foot-long wooden object, the Ruler, or with a variety of training devices, such as a wooden or stone ball. Mr. Cohen began studying Taji Ruler with various teachers more than 30 years ago, but also bases his research on works in Chinese and English. Both the teachers and literature agree that the ultimate goal of the Ruler is to blend with the original qi of the universe and, in the process, to achieve vitality and longevity.    

  3. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaolei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiaogang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under assumption of spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprising 118 galactic-scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Supernovae Ia served asstandard candles. Unlike in the most of previous statistica...

  4. Porous bone radio sterilized chips and their clinical application in vertebral arthrodesis; Chips de hueso esponjoso radioesterilizados y su aplicacion clinica en arthrodesis vertebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega E, J.; Zayas M, L. A. [Instituto de Salud del Estado de Mexico, Centro Medico Lic. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Av. Nicolas San Juan s/n, Ex-Hacienda La Magdalena, 50170 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (MX); Diaz M, I., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.mx [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, 50130 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    The diseases of the muscle-skeletal tissue are the main cause of physical disability which affects in the entire world to millions of people. The bone is part of the muscle-skeletal tissue and the spine is a group of bones that are located in the dorsal part of the human body. At present the spine lesions are varied as those that people suffer when they have automobile accidents of for fallen, mainly in the major adults, if the spine lesions are not treated appropriately they can have consequences to short or long term. A procedure that has been useful for the spine lesions is the vertebral arthrodesis. The tissue banks are places where is obtained bone of distinct origin for clinical use, the chips of porous bone are obtained in banks of specialized tissues which are sterilized with gamma radiation of cobalt-60, the use of this bone type has been demonstrated that these help in the recovery of patients that suffer spine fracture. In this work the process of procurement of human bone is presented, just as the process of its transformation in chips form and its sterilization method. At the end a case of a young patient is presented who suffers an automobile accident and was treated by the vertebral arthrodesis technique of spine, using chips of porous bone for his recovery. (Author)

  5. Surgery, sterilization and sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, V W

    1993-03-01

    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  6. Enumeration of Golomb Rulers and Acyclic Orientations of Mixed Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias; Pham, Tu

    2011-01-01

    A \\emph{Golomb ruler} is a sequence of distinct integers (the \\emph{markings} of the ruler) whose pairwise differences are distinct. Golomb rulers can be traced back to additive number theory in the 1930s and have attracted recent research activities on existence problems, such as the search for \\emph{optimal} Golomb rulers (those of minimal length given a fixed number of markings). Our goal is to enumerate Golomb rulers in a systematic way: we study [g_m(t) := # {\\x \\in \\Z^{m+1} : \\, 0 = x_0 < x_1 < ... < x_{m-1} < x_m = t, \\text{all} x_j - x_k \\text{distinct}},] the number of Golomb rulers with $m+1$ markings and length $t$. Our main result is that $g_m(t)$ is a quasipolynomial in $t$ which satisfies a combinatorial reciprocity theorem: $(-1)^{m-1} g_m(-t)$ equals the number of rulers $\\x$ of length $t$ with $m+1$ markings, each counted with its \\emph{Golomb multiplicity}, which measures how many combinatorially different Golomb rulers are in a small neighborhood of $\\x$. Our reciprocity theorem...

  7. Spacecraft sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  8. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolei; Zheng, Xiaogang; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under assumption of spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprising 118 galactic-scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Supernovae Ia served asstandard candles. Unlike in the most of previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted $\\gamma$ parameters are in agreement with each other irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that gal...

  9. Is the baryon acoustic oscillation peak a cosmological standard ruler?

    OpenAIRE

    Roukema, Boudewijn F; Buchert, Thomas; Fujii, Hirokazu; Ostrowski, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, the Universe is static in comoving coordinates; expansion occurs homogeneously and is represented by a global scale factor. The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak location is a statistical tracer that represents, in the standard model, a fixed comoving-length standard ruler. Recent gravitational collapse should modify the metric, rendering the effective scale factor, and thus the BAO standard ruler, spatially inhomogeneous. Using the Sloan Digital Sky S...

  10. Reversible Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  11. Sterile neutrinos?

    OpenAIRE

    Bilenky, S. M.; Giunti, C.

    1999-01-01

    The notion of sterile neutrinos is discussed. The schemes of mixing of four massive neutrinos, which imply the existence of sterile neutrinos, are briefly considered. Several model independent methods that allow to reveal possible transitions of solar neutrinos into sterile states are presented.

  12. The length of the low-redshift standard ruler

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the existence of standard rulers, standard candles and standard clocks, requiring only the cosmological principle, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and using state-of-the-art observations, we determine the length of the "low-redshift standard ruler". The data we use are a compilation of recent Baryon acoustic oscillation data (relying on the standard ruler), Type 1A supernov\\ae\\ (as standard candles), ages of early type galaxies (as standard clocks) and local determinations of the Hubble constant (as a local anchor of the cosmic distance scale). In a standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology the "low-redshift standard ruler" coincides with the sound horizon at radiation drag, which can also be determined --in a model dependent way-- from CMB observations. However, in general, the two quantities need not coincide. We obtain constraints on the length of the low-redshift standard ruler: $r^h_{\\rm s}=101.0 \\pm 2.3 h^{-1}$ Mpc, when using only Type 1A supernov\\ae\\ and Baryon acoustic oscillat...

  13. ZMW型环氧乙烷灭菌箱对异体骨材料灭菌效果的初步观察%Primary observation of the sterilizing effects of ZMW anprolene case on foreign bone materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建华; 史晨辉; 董卫; 黄新玲; 王永明; 董金波; 刘维刚

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: The foreign bone material of the same species was widely applied, while for the multiple manipulating processes, it got lots of chances to be infected, especially for the bone manufacturing, the pollution odds increased greatly, so the sterilizing process was most important. Objective: To observe the sterilizing effects of ZMW anprolene case on foreign bone materials to find a safe and economic disinfecting way. Unit:First attached hospital of the Shihezi medical university. Subject:The manipulating method of the foreign bone material of the same species: In clean environment., bone was got in 2 hours after death of the donor, soft tissue was removed and it was made to foreign bone material of 0.5 cm× 0.5 cm× 2 cm, it was washed with water and marinated till the water got clear, then washed with distilled water repeatedly, lipid was removed with 1:1 chloroform and methanol for 4 hours at room temperature, calcium was removed with 0.6 mol/L HCL for 4 hours at 4 ℃ , it was washed with distilled water till the pH was 6.5. The bone material after treating were divided into two groups, one was dried in common air dried to make wet one plantation material and the other one was dried in 37℃ roasting case to make dry bone plantation material. They were both put in double polyethylene bags and sealed with standard sealing machine, the weight was 5 g,

  14. The baryon acoustic oscillation peak: a flexible standard ruler

    CERN Document Server

    Roukema, Boudewijn F

    2016-01-01

    For about a decade, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak at about 105 Mpc/h has provided a standard ruler test of the LCDM cosmological model, a member of the Friedmann--Lemaitre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) family of cosmological models---according to which comoving space is rigid. However, general relativity does not require comoving space to be rigid. During the virialisation epoch, when the most massive structures form by gravitational collapse, it should be expected that comoving space evolves inhomogeneous curvature as structure grows. The BAO peak standard ruler should also follow this inhomogeneous evolution if the comoving rigidity assumption is false. This "standard" ruler has now been detected to be flexible, as expected under general relativity.

  15. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under the assumption of the spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprised of 118 galactic scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Type Ia supernovae served as standard candles. Unlike most previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters, we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted γ parameters are in agreement with each other, irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that galactic strong lensing systems may provide a complementary probe to test the properties of dark energy. The fits for cosmological model parameters which we obtained are in agreement with alternative studies performed by other researchers. Because standard rulers and standard candles have different parameter degeneracies, a combination of standard rulers and standard candles gives much more restrictive results for cosmological parameters. Finally, we attempted an analysis based on model selection using information theoretic criteria (AIC and BIC). Our results support the claim that the cosmological constant model is still best and there is no (at least statistical) reason to prefer any other more complex model.

  16. Sterilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  17. Influence of screw holes and gamma sterilization on properties of phosphate glass fiber-reinforced composite bone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Harper, Lee; Scotchford, Colin A; Scammell, Brigitte E; Rudd, Chris D

    2013-05-01

    Polymers prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) have found a multitude of uses as medical devices. For a material that degrades, the main advantage is that an implant would not necessitate a second surgical event for removal. In this study, fibers produced from a quaternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) in the system 50P2O5-40CaO-5Na2O-5Fe2O3 were used to reinforce PLA polymer. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of screw holes in a range of PBG-reinforced PLA composites with varying fiber layup and volume fraction. The flexural properties obtained showed that the strength and modulus values increased with increasing fiber volume fraction; from 96 MPa to 320 MPa for strength and between 4 GPa and 24 GPa for modulus. Furthermore, utilizing a larger number of thinner unidirectional (UD) fiber prepreg layers provided a significant increase in mechanical properties, which was attributed to enhanced wet out and thus better fiber dispersion during production. The effect of gamma sterilization via flexural tests showed no statistically significant difference between the sterilized and nonsterilized samples, with the exception of the modulus values for samples with screw holes. Degradation profiles revealed that samples with screw holes degraded faster than those without screw holes due to an increased surface area for the plates with screw holes in PBS up to 30 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed fiber pullout before and after degradation. Compared with various fiber impregnation samples, with 25% volume fraction, 8 thinner unidirectional prepreg stacked samples had the shortest fiber pull-out lengths in comparison to the other samples investigated. PMID:22207606

  18. Kerli ja Rulers of the Deep jahivad MTV auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    6. novembril toimuval MTV Euroopa muusikaauhindade galal pürgivad parima Balti artisti tiilile Kerli Kõiv ja duo Rulers of the Deep, leedust ansambel Happyendless ja laulja Jurga ning lätist ansambel Detlef Zoo (parima regionaalse artisti kategooria nominentide poolt saab hääletada kuni 2. oktoobrini veebilehel www.mtvema.com)

  19. Image-based Water Level Measurement Method under Stained Ruler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-do KIM; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the water level measuring method based on the image,while the ruler used to indicate the water level is stained.The contamination of the ruler weakens or eliminates many features which are required for the image processing.However,the feature of the color difference between the ruler and the water surface are firmer on the environmental change compare to the other features.As the color differences are embossed,only the region of the ruler is limited to eliminate the noise,and the average image is produced by using several continuous frames.A histogram is then produced based on the height axis of the produced intensity average image.Local peaks and local valleys are detected,and the section between the peak and valley which have the greatest change is looked for.The valley point at this very moment is used to detect the water level.The detected water level is then converted to the actual water level by using the mapping table.The proposed method is compared to the ultrasonic based method to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency on the various contaminated environments.

  20. Using Sloane Rulers for Optimal Recovery Schemes in Distributed Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delhi Babu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Clusters and distributed systems offer fault tolerance and high performance through load sharing, and are thus attractive in real-time applications. When all computers are up and running, we would like the load to be evenly distributed among the computers. When one or more computers fail, the load must be redistributed. The redistribution is determined by the recovery scheme. The recovery scheme should keep the load as evenly distributed as possible even when the most unfavorable combinations of computers break down, i.e., we want to optimize the worst-case behavior. In this paper we compare the worst-case behavior of schemes such as Modulo ruler, Golomb ruler, Greedy sequence and Log sequence with worst-case behavior of Sloane sequence. Finally we observe that Sloane scheme performs better than all the other schemes. Keywords: Fault tolerance; High performance computing; Cluster technique; Recovery schemes; Sloane sequence;

  1. Is the baryon acoustic oscillation peak a cosmological standard ruler?

    CERN Document Server

    Roukema, Boudewijn F; Fujii, Hirokazu; Ostrowski, Jan J

    2016-01-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, the Universe is static in comoving coordinates; expansion occurs homogeneously and is represented by a global scale factor. The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak location is a statistical tracer that represents, in the standard model, a fixed comoving-length standard ruler. Recent gravitational collapse should modify the metric, rendering the effective scale factor, and thus the BAO standard ruler, spatially inhomogeneous. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show to high significance (P < 0.001) that the spatial compression of the BAO peak location increases as the spatial paths' overlap with superclusters increases. Detailed observational and theoretical calibration of this BAO peak location environment dependence will be needed when interpreting the next decade's cosmological surveys.

  2. Sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  3. The baryon acoustic oscillation peak: a flexible standard ruler

    OpenAIRE

    Roukema, Boudewijn F

    2015-01-01

    For about a decade, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak at about 105 Mpc/h has provided a standard ruler test of the LCDM cosmological model, a member of the Friedmann--Lemaitre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) family of cosmological models---according to which comoving space is rigid. However, general relativity does not require comoving space to be rigid. During the virialisation epoch, when the most massive structures form by gravitational collapse, it should be expected that comoving spac...

  4. Nanoplasmonic molecular ruler for nuclease activity and DNAfootprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fanqing Frank; Liu, Gang L.; Yin, Yadong; Gerion, Daniele; Kunchakarra, Siri; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Jett, Stephen D.; Bear, David G.; Alivisatos, Paul; Lee, Luke P.

    2006-08-15

    We have constructed a nanoplasmonic molecular ruler, which can perform label-free and real-time monitoring of DNA length changes and perform DNA footprinting. The ruler was created by tethering double-stranded DNA to single Au nanoparticles. The scattering spectra of Au-DNA nanoconjugates showed red-shifted peak plasmon resonance wavelength dependent on DNA length, which can be measured with sub-nanometer axial resolution, averaging {approx}1.24 nm peak wavelength shift per DNA base pair. The spectra of individual Au-DNA nanoconjugates in the presence of nuclease showed a time-resolved dependence on the reaction dynamics, allowing quantitative, kinetic and real-time measurement of nuclease activity. The ruler was further developed into a new DNA footprinting platform. We showed the specific binding of a protein to DNA and the accurate mapping of its footprint. This work promises a very fast and convenient platform for mapping DNA-protein interactions, for nuclease activity monitoring, and for other DNA size-based methods.

  5. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J M

    1992-06-01

    After a brief history of sterilization, this article is devoted to hysteroscopic techniques and instrumentation, and a presentation of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: electrocoagulation techniques, hysteroscopic injection of chemicals, and hysteroscopically directed placement of intratubal mechanical devices (ceramic plugs, polyethylene plugs, preformed silicone plugs, nylon intratubal plugs, and formed-in-place silicone rubber plugs. Problems are identified that are common to all hysteroscopic sterilization techniques. There are also practical considerations which limit the development of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques, and these considerations are presented. Various means have been used historically to block the tubal ostia, including the insertion of nitric acid in 1984, but it was not until 1927 that the hysteroscope was used for sterilization. Hysteroscopy itself was discovered in 1869 for diagnosis of intrauterine diseases. Even with the hysteroscope and the 1934 procedure of using an electric current in the tubal ostia, hysteroscopic sterilization was little used. In 1973 a convention was convened to discuss the use of the procedure and the ramifications. Currently, the hysteroscope is a modified cytoscope with a 4 mm wide telescope with a fore-oblique lens, a 7 mm wide metallic sheath, a fiberoptic bundle for transmission of light, and additional instruments for intrauterine manipulation or surgical intervention. Under local anesthesia, sterilization is effected by 1) destruction of the interstitial portion of the oviduct by thermal energy, 2) injection techniques for the delivery of sclerosing substances or tissue adhesives, or 3) mechanical occlusive devices or plugs to block the oviduct. Recent uterine, cervical, or adnexal infections and pregnancy prevent the performance of sterilization, because infections are exacerbated by the procedure. Uterine perforation is a complication. Other complications involve allergic reactions to the

  6. Organic conductors as novel ``molecular rulers`` for advanced manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Future advanced manufacturing equipment used in high technology programs will require ultra-high precision and associated machining tool operations that require placement accuracy of {approximately} 1--100 nm (1 nm = 10 {angstrom}). There is consensus among engineers that this equipment will be based on STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) technology. All such STM-based ``drivers`` must contain a metrology system that requires absolute length standards referenced to atomic spacings for calibration. Properly designed organic conductor substrate crystals have the potential to be molecular rulers for STM-based advanced manufacturing equipment. The major challenges in future organic conductor research aimed at STM metrology application are listed.

  7. The Flagellum Attachment Zone: 'The Cellular Ruler' of Trypanosome Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunter, Jack D; Gull, Keith

    2016-04-01

    A defining feature of Trypanosoma brucei cell shape is the lateral attachment of the flagellum to the cell body, mediated by the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ). The FAZ is a complex cytoskeletal structure that connects the flagellum skeleton through two membranes to the cytoskeleton. The FAZ acts as a 'cellular ruler' of morphology by regulating cell length and organelle position and is therefore critical for both cell division and life cycle differentiations. Here we provide an overview of the advances in our understanding of the composition, assembly, and function of the FAZ. PMID:26776656

  8. Cosmological fast radio bursts as a cosmic ruler?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bei; Wang, Tao; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using cosmological fast radio bursts (FRBs) as a viable cosmic ruler. We find out that the contribution of the host galaxies to the detected dispersion measures may be ignorable for the FRBs not from galaxy centers or star forming regions. The inhomogeneity of the intergalactic medium (IGM), however, causes significant deviation of the dispersion measure from that predicted in the simplified homogeneous IGM model for individual event. Fortunately, with sufficient FRBs along different sightlines but within a very narrow redshift interval (e.g., $\\Delta z \\sim 0.05$), the mean from averaging observed dispersion measures does not suffer such a problem and hence may be used as a cosmic ruler. We show that in the optimistic case (e.g., tens FRBs in each $\\Delta z$ have been measured; the most distant FRBs were at redshift $\\geq 3$; the host galaxies and the FRB sources contribute little to the detected dispersion measures), FRBs could help constrain the equation of state of dark energ...

  9. Plasmon ruler with gold nanorod dimers: utilizing the second-order resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Anton T; Dubrovina, Natalia; Lupu, Anatole; Fedyanin, Andrey A

    2014-01-01

    The idea of utilizing the second-order plasmon resonance of the gold nanorod {\\pi}-dimers for plasmon rulers is introduced. We report on a qualitatively different dependence of the plasmon resonance shift on the interparticle distance for the first- and second-order longitudinal modes, extending the working range of plasmon rulers up to the distance values of 400 nm.

  10. Enhancing Academic Performance and Social and Emotional Competence with the RULER Feeling Words Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Reyes, Maria R.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of a 30-week, theoretically-based social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, The RULER Feeling Words Curriculum ("RULER"), on the academic performance and social and emotional competence of 5th and 6th grade students (N = 273) in fifteen classrooms in three schools.…

  11. Developing a nanoscale pressure sensor utilizing the Plasmon Ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Carroll, David

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for detecting pressure by utilizing the Plasmon Ruler; the effect by which the frequency of light scattered by a nanoparticle (NP) is red shifted when brought into close proximity with another NP. This distance dependent phenomenon is leveraged by a film/NP architecture, wherein silver NPs are suspended above a silver film by a polymer spacing layer. As the fluid pressure above the rigid substrate is increased, the polymer layer is compressed and the NP height is decreased, leading to a measurable redshift in the plasmon resonance frequency. Thus, by factoring in the strength of the polymer film's restoring force we can determine the pressure being applied. These devices were constructed onto fiber optic wires, which allow us to probe the device using the evanescent field from light inside the glass core. This naturally leads to in vivo medical applications, such as inter-compartment or inter-cranial pressure sensing via the inserted fiber optic probe.

  12. Study of the effects of gamma sterilization on a bio material potential bone substitute: the nacre of Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we studied the effects of gamma irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy on physico-chemical properties of the nacre of the pearl oyster P. radiata Tunisian coast. The aim of our work is, after sterilizing the shell to gamma radiation, the study of its crystal structure, behavior and thermodynamics of the qualitative and quantitative composition of organic and inorganic matrices and compare them with those of the non-irradiated pearl . In addition, there has been interest in developing the method of sterilization with gamma irradiation to 25 kGy of the nacre of the pearl oyster Pinctada radiata.

  13. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  14. Designing a multicolor long range nanoscopic ruler for the imaging of heterogeneous tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Viraka Nellore, Bhanu Priya; Pramanik, Avijit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Jones, Stacy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment and diagnosis. A multicolor optical ruler is essential to address the heterogeneous tumor cell complexity. Driven by this need, the current article reports the design of a multicolor long range nanoscopic ruler for screening tumor heterogeneity by accurately identifying epithelial cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) simultaneously. A nanoscopic surface energy transfer (NSET) ruler has been developed using blue fluorescence polymer dots (PDs) and red fluorescence gold cluster dots (GCDs) as multicolor fluorescence donor and plasmonic gold nanoparticle (GNP) acts as an excellent acceptor. Reported experimental results demonstrated that the multicolor nanoscopic ruler's working window is above 35 nm distances, which is more than three times farther than that of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) distance limit. Theoretical modeling using Förster dipole-dipole coupling and dipole to nanoparticle surface energy transfer have been used to discuss the possible mechanism for multicolor nanoscopic ruler's long-range capability. Using RNA aptamers that are specific for the target cancer cells, experimental data demonstrate that the nanoscopic ruler can be used for screening epithelial and CSCs simultaneously from a whole blood sample with a detection capability of 10 cells per mL. Experimental data show that the nanoscopic ruler can distinguish targeted cells from non-targeted cells.

  15. Designing a multicolor long range nanoscopic ruler for the imaging of heterogeneous tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Viraka Nellore, Bhanu Priya; Pramanik, Avijit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Jones, Stacy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2016-07-14

    Tumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment and diagnosis. A multicolor optical ruler is essential to address the heterogeneous tumor cell complexity. Driven by this need, the current article reports the design of a multicolor long range nanoscopic ruler for screening tumor heterogeneity by accurately identifying epithelial cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) simultaneously. A nanoscopic surface energy transfer (NSET) ruler has been developed using blue fluorescence polymer dots (PDs) and red fluorescence gold cluster dots (GCDs) as multicolor fluorescence donor and plasmonic gold nanoparticle (GNP) acts as an excellent acceptor. Reported experimental results demonstrated that the multicolor nanoscopic ruler's working window is above 35 nm distances, which is more than three times farther than that of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) distance limit. Theoretical modeling using Förster dipole-dipole coupling and dipole to nanoparticle surface energy transfer have been used to discuss the possible mechanism for multicolor nanoscopic ruler's long-range capability. Using RNA aptamers that are specific for the target cancer cells, experimental data demonstrate that the nanoscopic ruler can be used for screening epithelial and CSCs simultaneously from a whole blood sample with a detection capability of 10 cells per mL. Experimental data show that the nanoscopic ruler can distinguish targeted cells from non-targeted cells. PMID:27380815

  16. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  17. A practical approach for the validation of sterility, endotoxin and potency testing of bone marrow mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration in compliance with good manufacturing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Mauro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main scope of the EU and FDA regulations is to establish a classification criterion for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP. Regulations require that ATMPs must be prepared under good manufacturing practice (GMP. We have validated a commercial system for the determination of bacterial endotoxins in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.14, the sterility testing in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.1 and a potency assay in an ATMP constituted of mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration. Methods For the potency assay, cells were placed in the upper part of a modified Boyden chamber containing Endocult Basal Medium with supplements and transmigrated cells were scored. The invasion index was expressed as the ratio between the numbers of invading cells relative to cell migration through a control insert membrane. For endotoxins, we used a commercially available system based on the kinetic chromogenic LAL-test. Validation of sterility was performed by direct inoculation of TSB and FTM media with the cell product following Eu Ph 2.6.1 guideline. Results and discussion The calculated MVD and endotoxin limit were 780× and 39 EU/ml respectively. The 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions were selected for the validation. For sterility, all the FTM cultures were positive after 3 days. For TSB cultures, Mycetes and B. subtilis were positive after 5 and 3 days respectively. The detection limit was 1-10 colonies. A total of four invasion assay were performed: the calculated invasion index was 28.89 ± 16.82% (mean ± SD. Conclusion We have validated a strategy for endotoxin, sterility and potency testing in an ATMP used in cardiac regeneration. Unlike pharmaceutical products, many stem-cell-based products may originate in hospitals where personnel are unfamiliar with the applicable regulations. As new ATMPs are developed, the regulatory framework is likely to evolve. Meanwhile, existing regulations provide an appropriate structure for

  18. The Perils of Sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Guillermo A.

    1991-01-01

    The sterilization of capital inflows at the start of a price stabilization program may give rise to future pressures to discontinue the program as a result of the unduly high debt-service burden that the sterilization policy may generate.

  19. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  20. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  1. Resilience of Traditions in Contemporary Politics: A Historical Study of the Political Influence of Traditional Rulers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Amusa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining the nature of the continued relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian politics in spite of the negative impact of colonialism and Westernization on the institution. In pre-colonial period, traditional rulers occupied important positions of political authority in African kingdoms. They were held in high esteem and believed to be representatives of the gods on earth. Before the emergence of colonial rule in Nigeria, traditional rulers were the political and spiritual heads of the various kingdoms and states which now make up Nigeria. Impressed by the well organized system of traditional political institutions in some parts of Nigeria, the British colonial masters made use of traditional rulers in the colonial administrations particularly in the implementation of the Indirect Rule system. However, towards the last years of colonial rule, there was a shift from the traditional rulers to the educated elite who eventually succeeded in achieving political independence for the country. Since 1960, traditional rulers have been relegated to the background in the political scene in Nigeria and the Constitutions stipulate that they should be non-partisan and be politically neutral in the electoral processes. However, in spite of this, traditional rulers continue to play important role in the political and electoral processes in contemporary Nigeria. This study examines the factors and nature of the continued political influence and relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian political landscape.

  2. Enhancing Teacher Effectiveness in Spain: A Pilot Study of the Ruler Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ruth; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Brackett, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) program, The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning (RULER), on teacher self reports of engagement, teacher-student interactions, and burnout. Participants were 47 teachers from 19 public schools in Spain who either volunteered for training on RULER…

  3. Introduction to sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Volkas, R R

    2002-01-01

    Model-building issues raised by the prospect of light sterile neutrinos are discussed in a pedagogical way. I first review the na\\"{\\i}ve proposal that sterile neutrinos be identified with ``right handed neutrinos''. A critical discussion of the simple expedient of adding three gauge singlet fermions to the usual minimal standard model matter content is followed by an examination of right handed neutrinos in extended theories. I introduce the terminology of ``fully sterile'' and ``weakly sterile'' to classify varieties usually conflated under the sterile neutrino banner. After introducing the concepts of ``technical naturalness'' and plain ``naturalness'', the unbearable lightness of being a sterile neutrino is confronted. This problem is used to motivate mirror neutrinos, whose connection with pairwise maximal mixing is emphasised. Some brief remarks about phenomenology are made throughout. The impossibility of identifying the sole sterile neutrino of the currently favoured $2 + 2$ and $3 + 1$ phenomenologic...

  4. Kingdom, office and church: a story of A.A. van Ruler's Doctrine of Ecclestiastical Office with implications for the North American Ecumenical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The dissertation explores the doctrine of office within the theology of A.A. van Ruler. It argues that Van Ruler's theology of office provides a consistent Reformed setting for ecclesiastical office within the kingdom of God. In so doing, the dissertation explores Van Ruler's ecclesiology. It furt

  5. Measuring the Reliability of Sagittal Facial Anthropometric Measurements under Soft Tissue Displacement Using a Modified Ruler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the current use of radiography for quantifying sagittal skeletal measurements, it is an unsuitable way for screening or epidemiologic purposes. Although not fully approved, anthropometric measurements have been suggested as a substitute, and considering displacement of soft tissues, could possibly lead to more consistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of anthropometric anteroposterior facial measurements under soft tissue compression using a special ruler.Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were done with a specifically designed sliding ruler twice on 36 adult patients with a 14 day lag between two measurements. The ruler measured the distance between the external acoustic meatus and the nasion (Na, subnasal (Sn point and the soft tissue pogonion (Pog. The soft tissue was displaced during measurements only to the extent that the underlying hard tissue resistance was felt subjectively by each assessor. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated for both inter- and intra- rater measurements using SPSS software.Results: All measurements had inter- and intrarater agreements above 0.9, with only a few parameters having lower bound confidence intervals below 0.9, but more than 0.8.Conclusion: Sagittal facial anthropometric measurements under soft tissue displacement using the specific ruler are valid and reliable and could possibly aid orthodontists in chairside craniofacial assessments.

  6. "Rulers of Venice, 1349 to 1524". Alcune osservazioni sulla schedatura dei registri del Segretario alle Voci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mozzato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Illustrazione dei criteri di compilazione del data-base Rulers of Venice, progettato dallo storico americano Benjamin Kohl utilizzando l’archivio della magistratura della repubblica di Venezia denominata “Segretario alle voci”, ed esemplificazione del funzionamento di tale repertorio mediante alcuni case-studies.

  7. Improving the social and emotional climate of classrooms: a clustered randomized controlled trial testing the RULER Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Susan E; Brackett, Marc A; Reyes, Maria R; Elbertson, Nicole A; Salovey, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The RULER Approach ("RULER") is a setting-level, social and emotional learning program that is grounded in theory and evidence. RULER is designed to modify the quality of classroom social interactions so that the climate becomes more supportive, empowering, and engaging. This is accomplished by integrating skill-building lessons and tools so that teachers and students develop their emotional literacy. In a clustered randomized control trial, we tested the hypothesis that RULER improves the social and emotional climate of classrooms. Depending upon condition assignment, 62 schools either integrated RULER into fifth- and sixth-grade English language arts (ELA) classrooms or served as comparison schools, using their standard ELA curriculum only. Multi-level modeling analyses showed that compared to classrooms in comparison schools, classrooms in RULER schools were rated as having higher degrees of warmth and connectedness between teachers and students, more autonomy and leadership among students, and teachers who focused more on students' interests and motivations. These findings suggest that RULER enhances classrooms in ways that can promote positive youth development. PMID:23188089

  8. Modular ionizing sterilizer (MIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated

  9. The usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler for dental implant planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If damage to the neurovascular bundle of the mandibular canal during dental implant surgery of the mandible is to be prevented, accurate measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and the mandibular canal, as seen on panoramic radiographs, is important. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler with that of computed tomography for the measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and superior border of the mandibular canal and to evaluate the usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler. For control study, panoramic radiography of the dry mandible was undertaken using a lead ruler, and computed tomography was added. The distances between the alveolar crest and the superior border of the mandibular canal and between the alveolar crest and the lowest border of the body of the mandible were measured at the level of the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar. These measurements were compared with actual measurements of the dry mandible in the same areas. The cases of 87 patients (49 men, 38 women; age range, 20-84 (mean, 42) years) who had undergone panoramic radiography using a lead ruler were reviewed. They were categorized according to sex, the presence of teeth, and whether under or over 50 years of age. All measurements were compared and analyzed using the Student t-test. Measured values obtained from a panoramic radiograph using a lead ruler (magnification:100.32% ± 5.92) and from a computed tomograph (magnification:100.22 ± 5.55) deviated less from actual measurements on the dry mandible (p greater than 0.05). The distance from the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar was greater in male adults (19.62 mm ± 3.95) than in female (17.54 mm ± 4.04) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. In addition, the distance was greater in dentulous patients (18.81 mm ± 3.33) than in edentulous (16.23 mm ± 1.75) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. There was, however, no significant difference

  10. The usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler for dental implant planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Seong Geun; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyong Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    If damage to the neurovascular bundle of the mandibular canal during dental implant surgery of the mandible is to be prevented, accurate measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and the mandibular canal, as seen on panoramic radiographs, is important. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler with that of computed tomography for the measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and superior border of the mandibular canal and to evaluate the usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler. For control study, panoramic radiography of the dry mandible was undertaken using a lead ruler, and computed tomography was added. The distances between the alveolar crest and the superior border of the mandibular canal and between the alveolar crest and the lowest border of the body of the mandible were measured at the level of the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar. These measurements were compared with actual measurements of the dry mandible in the same areas. The cases of 87 patients (49 men, 38 women; age range, 20-84 (mean, 42) years) who had undergone panoramic radiography using a lead ruler were reviewed. They were categorized according to sex, the presence of teeth, and whether under or over 50 years of age. All measurements were compared and analyzed using the Student t-test. Measured values obtained from a panoramic radiograph using a lead ruler (magnification:100.32% {+-} 5.92) and from a computed tomograph (magnification:100.22 {+-} 5.55) deviated less from actual measurements on the dry mandible (p greater than 0.05). The distance from the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar was greater in male adults (19.62 mm {+-} 3.95) than in female (17.54 mm {+-} 4.04) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. In addition, the distance was greater in dentulous patients (18.81 mm {+-} 3.33) than in edentulous (16.23 mm {+-} 1.75) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. There was, however, no significant

  11. Cosmokinetics: A joint analysis of Standard Candles, Rulers and Cosmic Clocks

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the universe by using the kinematic approach. In this context, we parameterize the deceleration parameter, q(z), in a model independent way. Assuming three simple parameterizations we reconstruct q(z). We do the joint analysis with combination of latest cosmological data consisting of standard candles (Supernovae Union2 sample), standard ruler (CMB/BAO), cosmic clocks (age of passively evolving galaxies) and Hubble (H(z)) data. Our results support the acc...

  12. Sterile neutrinos at LBNE

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sensitivity of the Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment to the inclusion of two new sterile neutrino flavors with masses in the eV range. We implement a modified Casas-Ibarra parametrization which can accommodate medium scale mass eigenstates and introduces a new complex mixing angle. We explore the new mixing angle parameter space and demonstrate how LBNE can be used to either provide evidence for or rule out a particular model of sterile neutrinos. Certain three-flavor CP-violation scenarios cannot be distinguished from the sterile neutrinos. Constraints from the Daya Bay reactor experiment are used to help lift this degeneracy.

  13. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2016 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  14. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  15. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  16. Sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends greatly on the production of good quality sterile male insects that are released into target wild populations. Quality is assured through a system of bioassays of quality parameters that reflect the insect's ability to survive, interact with its environment, and locate, mate and fertilize females of the target population. The system was developed by compartmentalizing the essential survival and mating behaviours of the species involved, and then developing a series of tests to confirm that these behavioural traits are present in the mass-reared insects. The system also has a feedback loop to correct problems in the production portion of the system before they become evident. Nevertheless, regular implementation of field or field-cage tests under semi-natural conditions, where sterile males have to compete with wild males for wild females, is required to provide the ultimate assurance that the sterile insects have the ability to fulfil their mission after release. (author)

  17. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  18. Standard Rulers, Candles, and Clocks from the Low-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-01

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9 ±2.3 h-1 Mpc . The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3 ±2.1 h-1 Mpc ). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8 ±3.7 Mpc ), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9 ±1.9 h-1 Mpc ). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be Neff=3.53 ±0.32 , independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  19. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics. PMID:25541763

  20. Light sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  1. Sterility induction in tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 110C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse. (author)

  2. Radiation sterilization as compared with another methods of making sterile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation is devoted to sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics. Radiosterilization is compared with other methods. Advantages of fast electron- and gamma radiation sterilization are stressed

  3. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches. PMID:26382972

  4. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches.

  5. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  6. Sterilization of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Brint

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)

  7. Hierarchically Acting Sterile Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chian-Shu(Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan); Takahashi, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    We propose that a hierarchical spectrum of sterile neutrinos (eV, keV, $10^{13-15}$ GeV) is considered to as the explanations for MiniBooNE and LSND oscillation anomalies, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU) respectively. The scenario can also realize the smallness of active neutrino masses by seesaw mechanism.

  8. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  9. Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with beta-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments are discussed.

  10. Large-Scale Structure of the Universe as a Cosmic Standard Ruler

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We propose to use the large-scale structure of the universe as a cosmic standard ruler, based on the fact that the pattern of galaxy distribution should be maintained in the course of time on large scales. By examining the scale-dependence of the pattern in different redshift intervals it is possible to reconstruct the expansion history of the universe, and thus to measure the cosmological parameters governing the expansion of the universe. The features in the galaxy distribution that can be used as standard rulers include the topology of large-scale structure and the overall shapes of galaxy power spectrum and correlation function. The genus, being an intrinsic topology measure, is resistant against the non-linear gravitational evolution, galaxy biasing, and redshift-space distortion effects, and thus is ideal for quantifying the primordial topology of the large-scale structure. The expansion history of the universe can be constrained by comparing among the genus measured at different redshifts. In the case ...

  11. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heavens, Alan; Verde, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the existence of standard clocks, standard candles and standard rulers, we determine the length of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion history of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, in a relatively model-independent way. In this process we assume as little as possible, requiring only the cosmological principle, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of these standard objects; the rest is determined by the data. The data we use are a compilation of recent BAO data, Type \\OneA supernov\\ae\\ and ages of early-type galaxies. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a largely model-independent length of $101.9 \\pm 1.9 h^{-1}$ Mpc. We also find that the standard candle has a brightness consistent with determinations from supernov\\ae\\ alone, and that the inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided i...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  13. Naturally light sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, U

    1999-01-01

    A simple model to accomodate light sterile neutrinos naturally with large mixing with the usual neutrinos has been proposed. The standard model gauge group is extended to include an $SU(2)_S$ gauge symmetry. Heavy triplet higgs scalars give small masses to the left-handed neutrinos, while a heavy doublet higgs scalar give mixing with the sterile neutrinos of the same order of magnitude. The neutrino mass matrix thus obtained can explain the solar neutrino deficit, the atmospheric neutrino deficit, the LSND data and hot dark matter. Lepton number is violated here through decays of the heavy triplet higgs, which generates the lepton asymmetry of the universe, which in turn generates a baryon asymmetry of the universe.

  14. Popular Explanations of Physical Phenomena: Broken Ruler, Oxygen in the Air and Water Attracted by Electric Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Héctor G.

    2012-01-01

    The inquiry-based approach to learning has proven to be quite effective, since Socrates, but it is difficult to found good questions to induce reasoning. Many sources explain wrongly some experimental results, which can be used as discrepant events. Some use the breaking of a ruler with a newspaper to "show" that the atmospheric pressure…

  15. Trying on tRNA for Size: RNase P and the T-box Riboswitch as Molecular Rulers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Length determination is a fundamental problem in biology and chemistry. Numerous proteins measure distances on linear biopolymers to exert effects with remarkable spatial precision. Recently, ruler-like devices made of noncoding RNAs have been structurally and biochemically characterized. Two prominent examples are the RNase P ribozyme and the T-box riboswitch. Both act as molecular calipers. The two RNAs clamp onto the elbow of tRNA (or pre-tRNA and make distance measurements orthogonal to each other. Here, we compare and contrast the molecular ruler characteristics of these RNAs. RNase P appears pre-configured to measure a fixed distance on pre-tRNA to ensure the fidelity of its maturation. RNase P is a multiple-turnover ribozyme, and its rigid structure efficiently selects pre-tRNAs, cleaves, and releases them. In contrast, the T-box is flexible and segmented, an architecture that adapts to the intrinsically flexible tRNA. The tripartite T-box inspects the overall shape, anticodon sequence, and aminoacylation status of an incoming tRNA while it folds co-transcriptionally, leading to a singular, conditional genetic switching event. The elucidation of the structures and mechanisms of action of these two RNA molecular rulers may augur the discovery of new RNA measuring devices in noncoding and viral transcriptomes, and inform the design of artificial RNA rulers.

  16. Research on the Surname of Rulers of the State of Ju%莒国族姓考辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富祥

    2015-01-01

    古莒国的历史可以一直推溯到史前,因相传其族出于嬴姓的东夷少昊集团,故后世多称其国为嬴姓。古籍或又称其国为曹姓,实是以曹地为中心的一种地域性的划分,大抵相当于曹氏,不是莒国本来的姓号。史书又明确记载西周以来的莒国为己姓,此说应是有根据的,其根源即在莒国与纪国通婚,相因于古代从母姓之俗,用纪国本来的日名“己”表姓,故有己姓之称。所以,对于古莒国公族的姓这一问题,需要联系中国古代姓氏制度的演变来具体分析,不宜作简单的取舍。%The history of the State of Ju can be traced back to the pre -historical period of the ancient China .Since it is said that the clan of Ju is probably a branch of the Shaohao ethnic group or tribe , it is commonly believed that the rulers of Ju have the ancestral name of Ying .It is also recorded in some ancient books that the rulers of Ju may take the ancestral name of Cao , but this is actually a name geo-graphically derived from the place of Cao where some people of Ju inhabit .Hence, Cao can be seen as the clan name of the rulers of Ju , but not their ancestral name .Furthermore , there is a clear historical record that the rulers of Ju have taken the ancestral name of Ji since the Western Zhou .This seems to be reasonable because people of Ju are intermarried with those of the State of Ji , and according to the ancient tradition of taking the name of the mother , the rulers of Ju are very likely to have the ancestral name of Ji, which is the"day-name"(riming) of the rulers of Ji.Therefore, it is not proper to take a hasty po-sition on the problem of the ancestral name of the rulers of Ju , which shall require specific analysis on the basis of the evolution of the Chinese surname system .

  17. Fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by gold nanoparticles: a potential long range spectroscopic ruler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Anirban; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-09-10

    The dependence of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence emission on the proximity of 30 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied with controlled interparticle distances ranging from 15 to 70 nm. This was achieved by coassembling DNA-conjugated QDs and AuNPs in a 1:1 ratio at precise positions on a triangular-shaped DNA origami platform. A profound, long-range quenching of the photoluminescence intensity of the QDs was observed. A combination of static and time-resolved fluorescence measurements suggests that the quenching is due to an increase in the nonradiative decay rate of QD emission. Unlike FRET, the energy transfer is inversely proportional to the 2.7th power of the distance between nanoparticles with half quenching at ∼28 nm. This long-range quenching phenomena may be useful for developing extended spectroscopic rulers in the future. PMID:25084363

  18. Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili, E-mail: weili.zhang@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-10-28

    The collective coherent interactions in a meta-atom lattice are the key to myriad applications and functionalities offered by metasurfaces. We demonstrate a collective coherent response of the nearest neighbor coupled split-ring resonators whose resonance shift decays exponentially in the strong near-field coupled regime. This occurs due to the dominant magnetic coupling between the nearest neighbors which leads to the decay of the electromagnetic near fields. Based on the size scaling behavior of the different periodicity metasurfaces, we identified a collective coherent metasurface ruler equation. From the coherent behavior, we also show that the near-field coupling in a metasurface lattice exists even when the periodicity exceeds the resonator size. The identification of a universal coherence in metasurfaces and their scaling behavior would enable the design of novel metadevices whose spectral tuning response based on near-field effects could be calibrated across microwave, terahertz, infrared, and the optical parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  19. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  20. [Current legal problems of sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, A; Koch, H G

    1982-06-01

    Voluntary sterilization has not yet acquired comprehensive legal formulation. Thus there is a legal vacuum which physicians have attempted to fill by relying on their internal professional regulations. These provide for sterilization on an indication; however, an offense against this rule is not punishable in the courts. There is a prohibition, in particular, against so-called "courtesy sterilization," but this is of little significance today when so many social indications for sterilization can be found. But in general these professional regulations provide no useful assistance in deciding when a sterilization is permitted. In criminal law sterilization done by free will is not punishable nor is any indication required. The law deals in detail with the meaning and definition of the "free will" of the person being sterilized. This involves: capacity to have a free will, what to do about persons lacking that capacity (especially minors), and necessity to ensure that that woman understands all the consequences of sterilization. The civil courts have much more to do with sterilization than the criminal ones. One ground for suit is that the sterilization was "contrary to accepted morality," although the courts will generally hold that the woman herself cannot assert this claim. Another ground is lack of consent by the woman. Another ground is improper performance by the physician, i.e., malpractice. Thus the physician has to fear most the charges of no valid consent or malpractice. Questions of insurance law are also pertinent, since an insured person can be compensated for sterilization only if the procedure is legal.

  1. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  2. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  3. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  4. The Readiness Ruler as a measure of readiness to change poly-drug use in drug abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Readiness to change is a crucial issue in the treatment of substance use disorders. Experiences with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT has shown that continuous drug and alcohol use with all its consequences characterize most MMT programs. In a prospective study of drug abusers seeking opiate agonist maintenance treatment in the City of Copenhagen, subjects were administered the Addiction Severity Index, and the Readiness Ruler for each of 11 different licit and illicit drugs by research technicians. Data was collected upon admission to the program and at a 18 month follow-up. Subjects who indicated they wanted to quit or cut down upon admission, reported less drug use at 18 month follow-up, after controlling for severity of drug problems at intake. Subjects who expressed readiness to change their drug use upon admission decreased their drug use. It is concluded that the Readiness Ruler measures a construct related to actual readiness, supporting its use in the clinical context.

  5. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  6. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  7. Calibration of Silver Plasmon Rulers in the 1-25 nm Separation Range: Experimental Indications of Distinct Plasmon Coupling Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Linglu; Wang, Hongyun; Yan, Bo; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript pairs of flexibly linked silver nanoparticles, so called silver plasmon rulers, are synthesized using a rational DNA programmed self-assembly procedure. The plasmon resonance energy (Eres) versus distance relationship is calibrated for dimers comprising sphere-like silver nanoparticles with diameters of 41.0 ± 4.6 nm and surface-to-surface separations between 1-25 nm. Single dimer Rayleigh scattering spectra are correlated with structural information of the same dimers obta...

  8. Siim Nestor soovitab : Rulers of the Deep. Tartu Popi ja Roki Instituut. Väliskülalised / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Duo Rulers of the Deep heliplaadi "Next Evolution" esitlustest 28. apr. Ranna klubis Sillamäel, 29. apr. klubis Hollywood Tallinnas, 30. apr. Rakvere teatrikohvikus, 5. mail klubis Privé Tallinnas, 6. mail klubis Illusion Tartus. Ansambli Tartu Popi ja Roki Instituut esikalbumi "Madise margikogu" esitlusest 29. apr. Sõbra Majas Tartus. James Mowbray 28. apr. klubis Privé Tallinnas ja 29. apr. klubis Illusioon, Maga Mo peol "Bassikultuur" 28. apr. Von Krahlis Tallinnas

  9. Colorimetric monitoring of nanometer distance changes in DNA-templated plasmon rulers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermusiaux, Laurent; Bidault, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    The nanometer-scale sensitivity of plasmon coupling allows the translation of minute morphological changes in nanostructures into macroscopic optical signals. In particular, single nanostructure scattering spectroscopy provides a direct estimation of interparticle distances in gold nanoparticle (AuNP) dimers linked by a short DNA double-strand [M. P. Busson et al, Nano Lett. 11, 5060 (2011)]. We demonstrate here that this spectroscopic information can be inferred from simple widefield measurements on a calibrated color camera [L. Lermusiaux et al, ACS Nano 9, 978 (2015)]. This allows us to analyze the influence of electrostatic and steric interparticle interactions on the morphology of DNA-templated AuNP groupings. Furthermore, polarization-resolved measurements on a color CCD provide a parallel imaging of AuNP dimer orientations. We apply this spectroscopic characterization to identify dimers featuring two different conformations of the same DNA template. In practice, the biomolecular scaffold contains a hairpin-loop that opens after hybridization to a specific DNA sequence and increases the interparticle distance [L. Lermusiaux et al, ACS Nano 6, 10992 (2012)]. These results open exciting perspectives for the parallel sensing of single specific DNA strands using plasmon rulers. We discuss the limits of this approach in terms of the physicochemical stability and reactivity of these nanostructures and demonstrate the importance of engineering the AuNP surface chemistry, in particular using amphiphilic ligands [L. Lermusiaux and S. Bidault, Small (2015), in press].

  10. Dark energy constraints from joint analysis of standard rulers and standard candles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Biesiada; Beata Malec; Aleksandra Piórkowska

    2011-01-01

    We performed joint analysis of five cosmological models invoked to explain the accelerating expansion of the Universe.We used the data from strong gravitational lensing systems, locations of cosmic microwave background acoustic peaks and baryon acoustic oscillation data in combination with supernova Ia data (Union2 compilation).The observables we used came from both standard rulers and standard candles, so they had different parameter degeneracies and different restrictive powers in the parameter spaces of cosmological models.The best fits we obtained for the model parameters in joint analysis turned out to prefer cases effectively equivalent to the ACDM model.They were also in agreement with other combined studies performed by other authors on different sets of diagnostic probes.Information theoretic methods used to assess which model is most supported by the data lead to the conclusion that the concordance model ACDM is clearly preferred in joint analysis.The quintessence (both having constant or time varying equation of state) and Chaplygin gas get considerably less support from the data while the brane world (DGP) scenario is practically ruled out.

  11. Comparison of Standard Ruler and Standard Candle constraints on Dark Energy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lazkoz, R; Perivolaropoulos, L

    2007-01-01

    We compare the dark energy model constraints obtained by using recent standard ruler data (Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) at z=0.2 and z=0.35 and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) shift parameters R and l_a) with the corresponding constraints obtained by using recent Type Ia Supernovae (SnIa) standard candle data (ESSENCE+SNLS+HST from Davis et. al.). We find that, even though both classes of data are consistent with LCDM at the 2\\sigma level, there is a systematic difference between the two classes of data. In particular, we find that for practically all values of the parameters (\\Omega_0m,\\Omega_b) in the 2\\sigma range of the the 3-year WMAP data (WMAP3) best fit, LCDM is significantly more consistent with the SnIa data than with the CMB+BAO data. For example for (\\Omega_0m,\\Omega_b)=(0.24,0.042) corresponding to the best fit values of WMAP3, the dark energy equation of state parametrization w(z)=w_0 + w_1 (z/(1+z)) best fit is at a 0.5\\sigma distance from LCDM (w_0=-1,w_1=0) using the SnIa data and 1.7...

  12. Reproducibility of sterilized rubber impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Khalid M; Hassan, Ahmed M; Hodges, J S

    2004-01-01

    Impressions, dentures and other dental appliances may be contaminated with oral micro-flora or other organisms of varying pathogenicity from patient's saliva and blood. Several approaches have been tried to control the transmission of infectious organisms via dental impressions and because disinfection is less effective and has several drawbacks for impression characterization, several sterilization methods have been suggested. This study evaluated the reproducibility of rubber impressions after sterilization by different methods. Dimensional accuracy and wettability of two rubber impression materials (vinyl polysiloxane and polyether) were evaluated after sterilization by each of three well-known methods (immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde for 10 h, autoclaving and microwave radiation). Non-sterilized impressions served as control. The effect of the tray material on impression accuracy and the effect of topical surfactant on the wettability were also evaluated. One-way ANOVA with Dunnett's method was used for statistical analysis. All sterilizing methods reduced the reproducibility of rubber impressions, although not always significantly. Microwave sterilization had a small effect on both accuracy and wettability. The greater effects of the other methods could usually be overcome by using ceramic trays and by spraying impression surfaces with surfactant before pouring the gypsum mix. There was one exception: glutaraldehyde still degraded dimensional accuracy even with ceramic trays and surfactant. We conclude that a) sterilization of rubber impressions made on acrylic trays was usually associated with a degree of dimensional change; b) microwave energy seems to be a suitable technique for sterilizing rubber impressions; c) topical surfactant application helped restore wettability of sterilized impressions. PMID:15798825

  13. Radiation sterilization of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After years of neglect, the value of sterile non-viable (allograft) tissue grafts in transplant surgery is now being recognised. Sterilization using γ-radiation is now becoming the method of choice for a wide range of tissues in a spectrum of Human Tissues banks throughout the world. The radiation treatment can initiate physical and chemical damage in the tissues. Where necessary methods of protection have been developed. Examples are given of the successful utilization of radiation for tissue sterilization and use. (author)

  14. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  15. Development of sterilization and storage processes of Xeno-skins by gamma irradiation for the Industrialization as dressing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Hum; Sung, Nak Yun; Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Jeong Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Allografts have been increased in concerns as treatment methods to be use in replacement and reconstruction procedures of tissue. The major concern about tissue and bone transplantation is the risk of transferring bacteria, viruses from recipient to the donors, especially from different species. To avoid these risks, tissue and bone banks use many different sterilization methods such as a deep-frozenness, freeze-drying ethylene oxide-sterilization and gamma-irradiation. Among these methods, gamma-irradiation has been widely used to sterilize the tissue for allograft and xenograft safety. Gamma irradiation could be an effective method for sterilization of soft tissue for the development of xenografts. Also, this study suggests the potential of development as tissue graft with the improved mechanical property of the structural stability and protection of tissue materials by antioxidant on porcine skin irradiated for sterilization and storage process

  16. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 800C (bacon to 530C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-400C to -200C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  17. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  18. Phenomenology of the Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate several topics in neutrino physics, with an em- phasis on the phenomenology of the sterile neutrinos. We study the existence of a light sterile neutrino within the so called 3+1 scenario using the data of the medium baseline reactor experiments. We will also probe the parameters of the Large Extra Dimension model with the high energy atmospheric data of the IceCube experiment, and will find an equivalence between the Kaluza Klein modes and the sterile neutrinos. We will study the secret interaction of the ster- ile neutrinos which is proposed to solve the tension between cosmology and the sterile neutrino hypothesis. In addition to these, we will show that a minimal 2-Higgs-Doublet-Model extended with a U(1) or Z_2 symmetry cannot explain the smallness of the neutrino masses.

  19. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  20. Voluntary sterilization in North Tyneside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Smith, K

    1984-04-01

    Since 1975, sterilization operations, on both men and women have been performed with increasing frequency within the National Health Service in the North Tyneside Area in northeast England. A prospective study was undertaken to discover some of the reasons why healthy young men and women chose surgical sterilization rather than use the established reversible methods of family planning available to them. The study examined some of the characteristics of those requesting sterilization, attempted to understand why they did so at that particular time, and assessed the patient-perceived morbidity resulting from this elective procedure. The study population included all individuals referred for consultation following the patient's request for voluntary sterilization by vasectomy or occlusive tubal surgery, during the period of 1 year (August 1, 1980-July 31, 1981). Women sterilized in association with a pregnancy outcome were not included in the study. Data on pregnancies and sterilizations in North Tyneside demonstrate a rapid increase in requests for vasectomy after 1975. Patients requesting sterilization were admitted to the study during the initial out-patient appointment with their surgeon. Couples seeking sterilization show similar age range for men (mean 34.2) and women (33.1). The proportion of patients who were not married at the time of the operation is perhaps a reflection of doctors' increasing willingness to perform sterilizations on the unmarried, and of individuals to seek such surgery in a committed manner. The increasing tendency for requests to be received from people still in their early 20s is seen as a problem. Data indicates that married people who request the operation at an early age are also those who were married under age 21, started a family immediately and with a 25% divorce rate. At the other end of the age range, couples who ahve been sucessfully using oral contraceptives have become concerned about its safety, especially after age 35. Data

  1. Gamma sterilization of perfumed talcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formula of talcs powders manufactured in cosmetic industry often includes starch and therefore they cannot be sterilized by ordinary dry heat processes. Gamma ray are most convenient, but one might expect a resulting adulteration of perfume, if present in the item. Contrarely, it was found that no modification seemed to occur, in the scent of the sterilized product. Increase of stability, after long storage, was even observed

  2. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  3. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  4. Radiation sterilization of buckwheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For buckwheat noodle in which taste is important and its main material, buckwheat flour, the ordinary sterilization by heating or ozone cannot be applied. The number of the bacteria sticking to buckwheat flour is much more as compared with that of wheat flour, and is 105-107 per 1 g. The effective countermeasures are not yet found. Also noxious insects are apt to infect buckwheat flour. It has been known that radiation is effective for the sterilization of flavorings. In this study, the microorganism contamination of buckwheat flour and sterilization dose, the change of taste and properties after irradiation, and the capability of storage were examined, and the results are reported. The bacteria in buckwheat flour were mostly Erwinia which forms yellow colonies, and is plant-parasitic bacteria having sugar fermentation function, and also some Enterobacer, Klebsiella and Aspergillus were found. When gamma ray was irradiated on buckwheat flour, it was sterilized to less than 103 per 1 g bacteria at the dose of 5 kGy, and microorganisms were almost sterilized at 10 kGy. With the electron beam of 3 MeV, the effect of sterilization somewhat decreased. The noodle-making property of irradiated buckwheat flour, and the taste and storage capability of the noodle of irradiated flour were tested. (K.I.)

  5. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-10-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  6. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2016-01-01

    This work estimates the probability of $\\mu$ to $e$ neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5x5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4x4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  7. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  8. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  9. Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences Generation for Optical WDM Systems: A Novel Parallel Hybrid Multi-objective Bat Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shonak; Singh, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Neena

    2016-07-01

    In real-life, multi-objective engineering design problems are very tough and time consuming optimization problems due to their high degree of nonlinearities, complexities and inhomogeneity. Nature-inspired based multi-objective optimization algorithms are now becoming popular for solving multi-objective engineering design problems. This paper proposes original multi-objective Bat algorithm (MOBA) and its extended form, namely, novel parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm (PHMOBA) to generate shortest length Golomb ruler called optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences at a reasonable computation time. The OGRs found their application in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems as channel-allocation algorithm to reduce the four-wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk. The performances of both the proposed algorithms to generate OGRs as optical WDM channel-allocation is compared with other existing classical computing and nature-inspired algorithms, including extended quadratic congruence (EQC), search algorithm (SA), genetic algorithms (GAs), biogeography based optimization (BBO) and big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization algorithms. Simulations conclude that the proposed parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm works efficiently as compared to original multi-objective Bat algorithm and other existing algorithms to generate OGRs for optical WDM systems. The algorithm PHMOBA to generate OGRs, has higher convergence and success rate than original MOBA. The efficiency improvement of proposed PHMOBA to generate OGRs up to 20-marks, in terms of ruler length and total optical channel bandwidth (TBW) is 100 %, whereas for original MOBA is 85 %. Finally the implications for further research are also discussed.

  10. A cracked mirror? - forming the ideal ruler in Epirus and Nicaea in the first half of the 13th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the 13th century both Byzantine Empire and the image of its ideal ruler had to undergo a transformation. By applying mostly the narratological analysis to the parenetic texts written in the two successor states of the Empire, the paper sheds light on the dynamic ‘negotiations’ within the Roman elites of the place that the Emperor should have inside the symbolic order, and suggests a possible model of approach to other Byzantine texts and periods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177015

  11. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market

  12. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  13. Neutrinos in a Sterile Throat

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We consider field-theoretic models of a warped extra dimension with multiple throats, in which fermions that are singlets of the Standard Model gauge group propagate in a separate throat from the Standard Model fields, which we call the sterile throat. The singlets mix with Standard Model fields via interactions localized on the UV brane that connects the two throats. This leads to three, light, mostly-active, Majorana neutrinos via a higher-dimensional see-saw mechanism, together with Kaluza-Klein towers of mostly-sterile neutrinos, whose scale is set by the warp factor in the sterile throat and can be very low if the throat is deep. We suggest that a model of this kind may explain all the neutrino data, reconciling the LSND result with astrophysical constraints.

  14. Sterility of the uterine cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Birger R.; Kristiansen, Frank V.; Thorsen, Poul;

    1995-01-01

    In a prospective open study the sterility of the uterine cavity was evaluated in 99 women admitted for hysterectomy. The indications for hysterectomy were in most cases persistent irregular vaginal bleeding and fibromyomas of the uterus. Samples for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia...... trachomatis, yeasts and viruses were taken preoperatively from the apex of the vagina and cervical os. Immediately after hysterectomy the uterus was opened under sterile conditions and samples obtained from the isthmus and fundus of the uterine cavity for microbiological examination. Wet smears were taken...

  15. Förster resonance energy transfer and protein-induced fluorescence enhancement as synergetic multi-scale molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Evelyn; Lerner, Eitan; Husada, Florence; Roelfs, Martin; Chung, Sangyoon; Hohlbein, Johannes; Weiss, Shimon; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-09-01

    Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE). We show that donor brightness (via PIFE) and energy transfer efficiency (via FRET) can simultaneously report on e.g., the conformational state of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) following its interaction with unlabelled proteins (BamHI, EcoRV, and T7 DNA polymerase gp5/trx). The PIFE-FRET assay uses established labelling protocols and single molecule fluorescence detection schemes (alternating-laser excitation, ALEX). Besides quantitative studies of PIFE and FRET ruler characteristics, we outline possible applications of ALEX-based PIFE-FRET for single-molecule studies with diffusing and immobilized molecules. Finally, we study transcription initiation and scrunching of E. coli RNA-polymerase with PIFE-FRET and provide direct evidence for the physical presence and vicinity of the polymerase that causes structural changes and scrunching of the transcriptional DNA bubble.

  16. Förster resonance energy transfer and protein-induced fluorescence enhancement as synergetic multi-scale molecular rulers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Evelyn; Lerner, Eitan; Husada, Florence; Roelfs, Martin; Chung, SangYoon; Hohlbein, Johannes; Weiss, Shimon; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE). We show that donor brightness (via PIFE) and energy transfer efficiency (via FRET) can simultaneously report on e.g., the conformational state of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) following its interaction with unlabelled proteins (BamHI, EcoRV, and T7 DNA polymerase gp5/trx). The PIFE-FRET assay uses established labelling protocols and single molecule fluorescence detection schemes (alternating-laser excitation, ALEX). Besides quantitative studies of PIFE and FRET ruler characteristics, we outline possible applications of ALEX-based PIFE-FRET for single-molecule studies with diffusing and immobilized molecules. Finally, we study transcription initiation and scrunching of E. coli RNA-polymerase with PIFE-FRET and provide direct evidence for the physical presence and vicinity of the polymerase that causes structural changes and scrunching of the transcriptional DNA bubble. PMID:27641327

  17. Mao Zedong as the Last Confucian Ruler? The Moral-Didactic Aspect of “Confucian” Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the moral-didactic aspect of “Confucian” art, as seen primarily in the form of narrative illustration. In order to legitimize their authority, many rulers used visual media to promote or affirm Confucian social and political values, and thereby presented themselves as ideal Confucian rulers. The article analyses the use of narrative illustration by two exemplary historical figures – the first emperor of the Tang dynasty, Taizong (589–649 and the founder of the Southern Song dynasty, Gaozong (1107–1187 – in order to define the concept of the “Confucian ideal ruler”. Based on this concept, the article then analyses the pictorial propaganda of the great Chinese communist leader, Mao Zedong (1893–1976. Mao also used didactic illustrations, in the form of propaganda posters, to disseminate communist ideology. He implicitly followed the model of the “Confucian ruler”, even if the figure was couched in the symbols of a 20th-century ideology. The article concludes by arguing that Mao Zedong can thus be considered the last “Confucian ideal ruler”.

  18. Förster resonance energy transfer and protein-induced fluorescence enhancement as synergetic multi-scale molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Evelyn; Lerner, Eitan; Husada, Florence; Roelfs, Martin; Chung, SangYoon; Hohlbein, Johannes; Weiss, Shimon; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE). We show that donor brightness (via PIFE) and energy transfer efficiency (via FRET) can simultaneously report on e.g., the conformational state of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) following its interaction with unlabelled proteins (BamHI, EcoRV, and T7 DNA polymerase gp5/trx). The PIFE-FRET assay uses established labelling protocols and single molecule fluorescence detection schemes (alternating-laser excitation, ALEX). Besides quantitative studies of PIFE and FRET ruler characteristics, we outline possible applications of ALEX-based PIFE-FRET for single-molecule studies with diffusing and immobilized molecules. Finally, we study transcription initiation and scrunching of E. coli RNA-polymerase with PIFE-FRET and provide direct evidence for the physical presence and vicinity of the polymerase that causes structural changes and scrunching of the transcriptional DNA bubble. PMID:27641327

  19. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  20. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...

  1. Overview of the application of nanosecond electron beams for radiochemical sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems concerning the use of nanosecond electron beams for sterilization of hermetically packed objects, and powdered or granulated materials, are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of radiation sterilization are demonstrated. The results are of interest to researchers who study the mechanism by which nanosecond electron beams act on microorganisms. It is worth considering repetitively pulsed electron accelerators as highly promising systems for use in commercial sterilization applications. Technologies and setups for the radiochemical sterilization (RCS) of medical glassware for blood products, beer bottles, bone meal used in food industry, medical instruments (surgical needles, systems for human kidneys), and of the external packaging for some biological materials used in ophthalmology are discussed. Such applications have been developed based on the use of the URT-0.2 and URT-0.5 repetitively nanosecond-pulsed electron accelerators. The observed sterilization of areas shaded from line-of-site irradiation and of the bottoms of, for example, glassware cannot be attributed to radiation sterilization alone, since the glass thickness was much larger than the range of electrons. Therefore, it can be conjectured that the demonstrated sterilization effect is due both to the electron beam and to the ozone and chemical radicals produced by the beam. Thus, one may introduce the notion of RCS

  2. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  3. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  4. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  5. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.;

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  6. Autoinflammatory bone disorders with special focus on chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrich, Christian M.; Hofmann, Sigrun R.; Pablik, Jessica; Morbach, Henner; Girschick, Hermann J.

    2016-01-01

    Sterile bone inflammation is the hallmark of autoinflammatory bone disorders, including chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) with its most severe form chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). Autoinflammatory osteopathies are the result of a dysregulated innate immune system, resulting in immune cell infiltration of the bone and subsequent osteoclast differentiation and activation. Interestingly, autoinflammatory bone disorders are associated with inflammation of the skin and/or...

  7. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public...

  8. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionising photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the DES survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  9. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  10. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  11. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  12. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  13. The Interaction Effects of Program Training, Dosage, and Implementation Quality on Targeted Student Outcomes for The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Regina; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how training, dosage, and implementation quality of a social and emotional learning program, The RULER Approach, were related to students' social and emotional competencies. There were no main effects for any of the variables on student outcomes, but students had more positive outcomes when their teachers (a) attended more…

  14. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants - Highlights: • Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was gamma-irradiated for sterilization. • Irradiated DBM had higher alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production. • It was reasoned the more released bone morphogenetic proteins by irradiation. • This result supports the application of radiation sterilization for bone implants

  15. Development of a Triplet-Triplet Absorption Ruler: DNA- and Chromatin-Mediated Drug Molecule Release from a Nanosurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sudeshna Das; Sau, Abhishek; Kuznetsov, Denis V; Banerjee, Amrita; Bardhan, Munmun; Bhattacharya, Maireyee; Dasgupta, Dipak; Basu, Samita; Senapati, Dulal

    2016-07-14

    Triplet-triplet (T-T) absorption spectroscopy has been used successfully as a molecular ruler to understand the actual release process of sanguinarine as a drug molecule from a gold nanoparticle surface in the presence of cell components, that is, DNA and chromatin. The obtained results have been verified by fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and a plausible explanation has been put forward to describe the underestimation and overestimation of the percentage (%) of the release of drug molecules measured by fluorescence- and SERS-based techniques, respectively, over the highlighted T-T absorption spectroscopy. Because of the intrinsic nature of absorption, the reported T-T absorption spectroscopic assay overpowers fluorescence- and SERS-based assays, which are limited by the long-range interaction and nonlinear dependence of the concentration of analytes, respectively. PMID:27284775

  16. The Power of Rulers and Violent Resistance Against an Unlawful Rule in the Political Theory of William of Ockham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Miethke

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here is intended a short analysis of Ockham's political theory focussed on his use of some central concepts: "unlawful violence" (violentia, "lawful force" (potentia, and "lawful rule" (potestas. Ockham is devellopping these concepts within the framework of his general assumptions. Establishing rulers is a license given by god to men after the loss of paradise together with the license to sort out property (dominium in order to make possible preservation. This final aim is justification, standard and limit for rulership. Rulers ought to be measured by their subjects by this original intention. Therefore resistance against unlawful rule, even in violent terms, is not only possible, but is the obligation, if men want to live in a free constitutionEl articulo intenta realizar un breve analisis sobre la teoria política de Ockham, enfocado en algunos conceptos centrales de su obra: Violencia indebida (violentia, fuerza legítima (potentia y autoridad legal (potestas. Ockham desarrolla estos conceptos en un marco de sus creencias generales. El establecimiento de reglas es una licencia otorgada por Dios a los hombres después de la pérdida del paraíso en conjunto con la licencia de organizar la propiedad (dominium con el objetivo de hacer posible la preservación. El objetivo final es justificar, estandarizar y limitar el poder. Los gobernantes deben ser medidos por sus materias de acuerdo a esta intención original. De esta forma, la resistencia en contra de la violencia indebida, incluso por la vía violenta, no es solo posible, es también una obligación si el hombre quiere vivir en libertad

  17. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  18. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Widrow, L.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics

    1993-03-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed or sterile neutrinos. This model has been studied extensively in the context of the hot dark matter scenario. We reexamine this model and find that hot, warm, and cold dark matter are all possibilities. We focus on the case where sterile neutrinos are the dark matter. Since their only direct coupling is to left-handed or active neutrinos, the most efficient production mechanism is via neutrino oscillations. If the production rate is always less than the expansion rate, then these neutrinos will never be in thermal equilibrium. However, they may still play a significant role in the dynamics of the Universe and possibly provide the missing mass necessary for closure. We consider a single generation of neutrino fields ({nu}{sub L}, {nu}{sub R}) with a Dirac mass, {mu}, and a Majorana mass for the right-handed components only, M. For M {much_gt} {mu} we show that the number density of sterile neutrinos is proportional to {mu}{sup 2}/M so that the energy density today is independent of M. However M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe. In particular, M {approx_equal} 0.1--1.0 key leads to warm dark matter and a structure formation scenario that may have some advantages over both the standard hot and cold dark matter scenarios.

  19. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Sownak; Jun, Hou; Lacey, Cedric G; Lovell, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflecte...

  20. Sterilizing tissue-materials using pulsed power plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarkhan Tehrani, Ashkan; Davari, Pooya; Singh, Sanjleena; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the potential of pulsed power to sterilize hard and soft tissues and its impact on their physico-mechanical properties. It hypothesizes that pulsed plasma can sterilize both vascular and avascular tissues and the transitive layers in between without deleterious effects on their functional characteristics. Cartilage/bone laminate was chosen as a model to demonstrate the concept, treated at low temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in short durations and in buffered environment using a purposed-built pulsed power unit. Input voltage and time of exposure were assigned as controlling parameters in a full factorial design of experiment to determine physical and mechanical alteration pre- and post-treatment. The results demonstrated that, discharges of 11 kV sterilized samples in 45 s, reducing intrinsic elastic modules from 1.4 ± 0.9 to 0.9 ± 0.6 MPa. There was a decrease of 14.1 % in stiffness and 27.8 % in elastic-strain energy for the top quartile. Mechanical impairment was directly proportional to input voltage (P value connective tissues with varying level of loss in mechanical robustness which we argue to be acceptable in certain medical and tissue engineering application.

  1. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  2. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  3. Mechanism of Sterility and Breeding Strategies for Photoperiod/Thermo- Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; XIAO Ying-hui; LEI Dong-yang

    2010-01-01

    To understand the male sterility mechanism of photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile [P(T)GMS] lines in rice, the research progress on genetics of photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genic male sterility in rice was reviewed. A new idea was proposed to explain the sterility mechanism of P(T)GMS rice. The fertility transition from sterile to fertile is the result of cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes with photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genes, but not the so-called pgms gene in P(T)GMS rice. The minor-effect genes, which exhibit accumulative effect on sterility, are the important factors for the critical temperature of sterility transition. The more minor-effect genes the sterile line holds, the lower the critical temperature of sterility transition is. The critical temperature of sterility transition will be invariable if all the minor-effect genes are homozygous. The strategies for breeding P(T)GMS rice were also proposed. The selective indices of critical photoperiod and temperature for sterility transition should be set according to varietal type and ecological region. Imposing selection pressure is a key technology for breeding P(T)GMS rice with lower critical temperature for sterility, and improving the comprehensive performance of the whole traits and combining ability is vital for breeding P(T)GMS rice lines.

  4. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  5. Electron accelerators for radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiation processes using high power electron accelerators are attractive because the throughput rates are very high and the treatment costs per unit of product are often competitive with more conventional chemical processes. The utilization of energy in e-beam processing is more efficient than typical thermal processing. The use of volatiles or toxic chemicals can be avoided. Strict temperature or moisture controls may not be needed. Irradiated materials are usable immediately after processing. These capabilities are unique in that beneficial changes can be induced rapidly in solid materials and preformed products. In recent years, e-beam accelerators have emerged as the preferred alternative for industrial processing as they offer advantages over isotope radiation sources, such as (a) increased public acceptance since the storage, transport and disposal of radioactive material is not an issue; (b) the ability to hook up with the manufacturing process for in-line processing; (c) higher dose rates resulting in high throughputs. During the 1980s and 1990s, accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed, since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain low unit costs for the treatment. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, advances in e-beam technology produced new high energy, high power e-beam accelerators suitable for use in sterilization on an industrial scale. These newer designs achieved high levels of reliability and proved to be competitive with gamma sterilization by 60Co and fumigation with EtO. In parallel, technological advances towards 'miniaturization' of accelerators also made it possible to

  6. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  7. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  8. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  9. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D. PMID:2862643

  10. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.;

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile...

  11. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  12. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.;

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  13. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  14. Status of sterile neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwetz, Thomas

    2013-02-15

    There are several independent hints for neutrino oscillations with a mass-squared difference at the eV{sup 2} scale. If confirmed, this would imply the existence of sterile neutrinos. I discuss the present status of the hints for ν{sub e} disappearance from reactor experiments and Gallium source experiments, as well as from the LSND and MiniBooNE ν{sub μ}→ν{sub e} appearance searches. A consistent interpretation of the global data in terms of neutrino oscillations is challenged by the non-observation of a positive signal in ν{sub μ} disappearance experiments. There is a strong tension in the global data, irrespective of the number of eV-scale neutrino states.

  15. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  16. Iran eases limits on sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1991-03-01

    The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother. PMID:12343087

  17. Nonallograft osteoconductive bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    An estimated 500,000 to 600,000 bone grafting procedures are done annually in the United States. Approximately (1/2) of these surgeries involve spinal arthrodesis whereas 35% to 40% are used for general orthopaedic applications. Synthetic bone graft substitutes currently represent only 10% of the bone graft market, but their share is increasing as experience and confidence in their use are accrued. Despite 15 to 20 years of clinical experience with various synthetic substitutes, there have been few welldesigned, controlled clinical trials of these implants. Synthetic bone graft substitutes consist of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, or a combination of these minerals. Their fabrication technique, crystallinity, pore dimensions, mechanical properties, and resorption rate vary. All synthetic porous substitutes share numerous advantages over autografts and allografts including their unlimited supply, easy sterilization, and storage. However, the degree to which the substitute provides an osteoconductive structural framework or matrix for new bone ingrowth differs among implants. Disadvantages of ceramic implants include brittle handling properties, variable rates of resorption, poor performance in diaphyseal defects, and potentially adverse effects on normal bone remodeling. These inherent weaknesses have refocused their primary use to bone graft extenders and carriers for pharmaceuticals. The composition, histologic features, indications, and clinical experience of several of the synthetic bone graft substitutes approved for orthopaedic use in the United States are reviewed. PMID:11937865

  18. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  19. Insect control by using sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male technique used in insect control is presented as an alternative for chemical control of pest insect. Description and effects of sterile male technique on morphology and physiology of different classes of pest insects are given. Prerequisite conditions necessary to work out SMT are presented. As an example of the application of this technique: control of Ephestia Cartella is studied. Gamma radiation effects on deformation, sterilization and longevity of the male insect as well as fecondity and fertility with respects of gamma irradiation are presented. 11 refs. 3 tabs

  20. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodejohann, Werner, E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Zhang, He, E-mail: he.zhang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2014-10-07

    We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  1. [Cold sterilization of serums with peracetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:823257

  2. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Rodejohann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  3. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical-ophthalmic ointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ophthalmic suspension whose active compounds are antibiotic and corticosteroids, was submitted, in the final package, to radiation in a Cobalt-60 source and their stability to gamma radiation has been investigated. This procedure aims to substitute the conventional aseptic method of manufacturing and packaging for radiation sterilization. Microbiological studies have been carried out to determine the minimum absorbed dose achieving the required Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10-6. The microbiological and product stability data obtained till the present time, support the use of radiation sterilization. (author)

  4. Functional assay, expression of growth factors and proteins modulating bone-arrangement in human osteoblasts seeded on an anorganic bovine bone biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    O Trubiani; Fulle, S.; T Traini; M Paludi; La Rovere, R.; M Orciani; S. Caputi; Piattelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The basic aspects of bone tissue engineering include chemical composition and geometry of the scaffold design, because it is very important to improve not only cell attachment and growth but especially osteodifferentiation, bone tissue formation, and vascularization. Geistlich Bio-Oss® (GBO) is a xenograft consisting of deproteinized, sterilized bovine bone, chemically and physically identical to the mineral phase of human bone.In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour and the abili...

  5. Ethibond suture in uterus: an unusual cause for secondary sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra kumar Diwakar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure to conceive two years after the LSCS, the patient was being investigated. Hysteroscopy revealed the presence of Ethibond suture in the uterine cavity attached to the lower part of the previous LSCS scar. The presence of this foreign body was acting as an intra-uterine contraceptive device responsible for failure of contraception. The presence of foreign body in the uterus such as bone pieces left after previous abortion, presence of suture of cervical circlage etc. have been reported. But the presence of Ethibond suture in the uterine cavity resulting in secondary sterility is being reported for the first time. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 2050-2052

  6. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  7. Radiation sterilization of pancreatin preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Syojiro (Osaka Coll. of Pharmacy, Matsubara (Japan)); Sako, Michiyo; Kanbashi, Toshitaka; Jo, Hisanobu; Koide, Hiroaki

    1984-11-01

    The enzymatic activities (in detail, amylase-, lipase- and protease-activity) of ..gamma..-irradiated pancreatin powder preparation decrease to 50 - 95% at doses range of 50 kR - 8 MR. The dose-inactivation relation-ships vary depending on every different manufactory lot. In the case of higher moisture content preparation as irradiation sample, amylase activities are more stable, the other side, protease activities are less stable. On the variation of these activities by ..gamma..-irradiation, there are no difference between room temperature and lower temperature (-70/sup 0/C) as irradiation condition. The D/sub 10/ values of contained bacteria and fungus (contamination number: about 1 x 10/sup 3/ cells/g and 9 x 10/sup 2/ spores/g) of a pancreatin preparation are 74C/kg (280 kR) and 60 C/kg(230 kR). Then, these values are corresponded to 645 C/kg (2.5 MR) and 540 C/kg (2.1 MR) as perfect sterilization.

  8. A Sterile Neutrino at DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Berryman, Jeffrey M; Kelly, Kevin J; Kobach, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to probe the existence and effects of a fourth neutrino mass-eigenstate. We study the mixing of the fourth mass-eigenstate with the three active neutrinos of the Standard Model, including the effects of new sources of CP-invariance violation, for a wide range of new mass-squared differences, from lower than 10^-5 eV^2 to higher than 1 eV^2. DUNE is sensitive to previously unexplored regions of the mixing angle - mass-squared difference parameter space. If there is a fourth neutrino, in some regions of the parameter space, DUNE is able to measure the new oscillation parameters (some very precisely) and clearly identify two independent sources of CP-invariance violation. Finally, we use the hypothesis that there are four neutrino mass-eigenstates in order to ascertain how well DUNE can test the limits of the three-massive-neutrinos paradigm. In this way, we briefly explore whether light sterile neutrinos can serve as proxies for ot...

  9. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-04-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  10. Sterile Neutrinos in astrophysical and cosmological sauce

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, M

    2004-01-01

    The study of sterile neutrinos has recently acquired a different flavor: being now excluded as the dominant solution for the solar or atmospheric conversions, sterile neutrinos, still attractive for many other reasons, have thus become even more elusive. The present relevant questions are: which subdominant role can they have? Where (and how) can they show up? Cosmology and supernovae turn out to be powerful tools to address these issues. With the most general mixing scenarios in mind, I present the analysis of many possible effects on BBN, CMB, LSS, and in SN physics due to sterile neutrinos. I discuss the computational techniques, present the state-of-the-art bounds, identify the still allowed regions and study some of the most promising future probes. I show how the region of the LSND sterile neutrino is excluded by the constraints of standard cosmology.

  11. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Timmons, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  12. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  13. Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

    1964-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

  14. Radiation sterilization of medical devices; Radiacyjna sterylizacja sprzetu medycznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522....1085 Guaifenesin sterile powder. (a) Specifications. It is a sterile powder containing guaifenesin. (b... drug in sterile water for injection to make a solution containing 50 milligrams of guaifenesin...

  17. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  18. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  19. Genetic Studies on Wheat Genic Male Sterility and Inheritance Mode of Male Sterility in Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Advance in the genetic study on male sterility in plant was reviewed. A dominant gene Ms2(Ta1) for male sterility, which hasa recombination percentage of 31. 16 with the centromere , is located on the short arm of chromosome 4D in Taigu wheat. Dwarfing male sterile wheat is a dwarf marked male sterile material, carrying the gene Ms2 for male sterility and dominant dwarf gene Rht10. The two genes, Ms2 and Rht10, are closely linked with a crossing-over value as small as 0. 18. The linkage character of genes Ms2 and Rht10 was transferred to CS ph1b mutant and octoploid triticale. A female-male sterility controlled by a set of genes and a male sterility carrying double recessive genes were discovered in wheat. The hypothesis of the origin of the male sterile form for gene interaction was proposed. An inheritance mode of fertility in sib-mating progenies of reces sive genic male sterile material in plant was established.

  20. Sterile insect technique in codling moth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mature pupae or adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), to 30-40 krad of gamma radiation induces a high level of sterility in the male and complete sterility in the female without seriously affecting behaviour except for sperm competitiveness which is drastically reduced. Substerilizing doses (below about 25 krad) have very little adverse effect and induces higher level of sterility in the F1 male than in the irradiated male parent. The most satisfactory method of measuring the population density of native moths is by examining fruit for larval exit holes. Population increase per generation depends largely on evening temperatures during the moth's reproductive period. The codling moth is a sedentary species, and its distribution is very uneven in commercial orchards. Neglected host trees must be sprayed or destroyed to avoid reinfestation of sterile insect release orchards with immigrant moths. Laboratory-reared moths may be marked externally with fluorescent powders or internally with calco oil red without adverse effects. Mass rearing is still unreliable and expensive, and prolonged colonization affects the insects' behaviour. Successful codling moth suppression was achieved in North America and/or Europe by release of sterile males, sterile females or sterile mixed sexes; by substerile males; and by F1 male progeny (released as diapausing larvae) of substerile males X untreated females. Arthropod predators and parasites held aphids and spider mites at noninjurious levels in most insect release orchards, but leafrollers eventually built up to damaging numbers. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the codling moth is not feasible at this time because of high costs. (author)

  1. Delivery actuator for a transcervical sterilization device

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan, Muhammad; Coleman, J; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    The use of delivery systems in the human body for positioning and deploying implants, such as closure devices, dilation balloons, stents, coils and sterilization devices, are gaining more importance to preclude surgical incisions and general anesthesia. The majorities of the non-surgical medical devices are delivered in a low profile into human body form and subsequently require specialized operations for their deployment and release. An analogous procedure for permanent female sterilization...

  2. Advance in the research of sterilants against rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advances in the application of sterilizing techniques against pest rodents in China are introduced in the paper. The development of chemosterilants, improvements of botanic sterilants, production of new steroid hormone sterilants, introduction of immunosterility and excellent properties of the sterilants are outlined. The "Space Occupation Theory" of sterile techniques is advanced after practice. The botanic sterilants with gossypol and trichosanthin as its main agents were screened and successfully applied in the large area control in the northern forest area of China. The safety of sterilants to non-target animals such as rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys and chickens was summarized.

  3. Multiple gamma radiation sterilization of polyester fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P D; Sreenivasan, K; Jayabalan, M

    1988-07-01

    Gamma radiation with a dose of 2.5 Mrad has been found to be suitable to sterilize polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bulk materials intended for biomedical applications. The radiation stability of PET bulk materials and fibre may not however be taken as identical due to the changes in the polymer structure during the processing of bulk materials for fibre. The chemical changes occurring in PET fibres during single and multiple (prolonged) sterilization in air were investigated. It was found that single sterilization (2.5 Mrad) itself affected the PET yarn and fibre. This was exhibited by the increase of crystallinity from 30.5 to 37% in the case of yarn and from 40 to 44% in the case of fibre. The breaking load of the yarn also increased from 441 g to 451 g. These changes were attributed to the degradation of PET in the amorphous region and the recombination of degraded aliphatic segments. Sterilization at higher doses affected the crystalline region which decreased the crystallinity, breaking load and molecular weight. For samples irradiated at 2.5 Mrad, the breaking load increased, though the dispersity increased. This was attributed to cross-linking by recombination. The increase in crystallinity also enhanced the breaking load of the samples. Higher doses of sterilization led to drastic microstructural and macrostructural changes as seen from the molecular weight. It was inferred that the changes in crystallinity and microstructure that occurred during multiple sterilization might affect the biocompatibility of the material. PMID:2975186

  4. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  5. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  6. Comparison of standardized clinical evaluation of wounds using ruler length by width and Scout length by width measure and Scout perimeter trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemo, Diane; Spahn, James; Spahn, Thomas; Pinnamaneni, V Chowdry

    2015-03-01

    The study objective was to examine precision in wound measurement using a recently Food and Drug Administration-approved Scout (WoundVision, LLC, Indianapolis, Indiana) device to measure wound length (L) and width (W). Wound perimeter and a ruler measurement of L and W were also made. Images of 40 actual patient wounds were measured using the Scout device. All 3 techniques (length, width, perimeter) demonstrated acceptable within and between reader precision; however, the best precision was in wound perimeter measurement. PMID:25679463

  7. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  8. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  9. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products. (S.K.K.)

  10. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  11. Sterilization and disinfection: the prevailing indifference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals towards the process of sterilization and disinfection, and to check the adequacy of the reading material accessible to them. The study comprised of three components. In the first part, sections devoted to this subject in the popular books read by the students of operation theatre assistant course and students of diploma in general nursing were examined for adequacy and authenticity of information. In the second part, standard operating procedures were examined regarding sterilization of textile, rubber tubes of suction units and diathermy hand pieces of 20 operation theatres of three teaching hospital attached to undergraduate medical college of Punjab. In the third part of the study, working knowledge of 64 practicing operation theatre assistants and 57 practicing nurses was assessed through a questionnaire. It was found that popular books either did not contain the required information or the information provided was misleading or incorrect. Standard operating procedures for sterilization of selected items of all the operation theatres studied fell much below the standard of practice desired in the light of current knowledge and contemporary practices. Finally the working knowledge of the professionals studied was much below the bare minimum expected by the profession. There is a dire need for upgrading the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding sterilization, besides improving the operation theatres sterilization procedures. (author)

  12. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Fernández Martínez, Enrique; Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga; Lattanzi, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter RCMB and the sound horizon rs from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin2θ lesssim 0.026 (ms/eV)-2.

  13. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  14. Radio sterilized human ligaments and their clinical application;Ligamentos humanos radioesterilizados y su aplicacion clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Hernandez R, G., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, 50130 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The ligaments are human tissues that are used in the transplantation area. A ligament is an anatomical structure in band form, composed by resistant fibers that connect the tissues that unite the bones with the articulations. In an articulation, the ligaments allow and facilitate the movement inside the natural anatomical directions, while it restricts those movements that are anatomically abnormal, impeding lesions that could arise of this type of movements. The kneecap ligament is a very important tissue in the knee mobility and of walking in the human beings. This ligament can injure it because of automobile accidents, for sport lesions or illnesses, and in many cases the only form of recovering the knee movement is carried out a transplant with the purpose of replacing the damage ligament by allo gen kneecap ligament processed in specialized Tissue Banks where the tissue is sterilized with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co at very low temperatures, obtaining high quality ligaments for clinical application in injured patients. The kneecap ligaments are processed in the Tissue Banks with a segment of kneecap bone, a segment of tibial bone, the contained ligament between both bones and in some cases a fraction of the quadriceps tendon. In this work is given a description of the selection method of the tissue that includes the donor's serologic control, the kneecap ligament processing in the Radio Sterilized Tissues Bank, its sterilization with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co, also it is indicated like the clinical application of the allo gen ligament was realized in a hasty patient and whose previous crossed ligament was injured. Finally the results are presented from the tissue obtaining until the clinical application of it is, and in this case is observed a favorable initial evolution of the transplantation patient. (Author)

  15. Transient Two-Phase Flow in Slide-Gate Nozzle and Mold of Continuous Steel Slab Casting with and without Double-Ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Mook; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-10-01

    Transient mold flow could produce undesirable surface instabilities and slag entrainments, leading to the formation of defects during continuous slab casting of steel. In this work, two Large Eddy Simulations coupled with Discrete Phase Model are run, with and without MagnetoHydroDynamic model, to gain new insights into the surface variations of molten steel-argon gas flow with anisotropic turbulence in the slide-gate nozzle and the mold, with and without double-ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking (EMBr). The model calculations are validated with plant measurements, and applied to investigate the flow variations related to the slide gate on nozzle swirl, jet wobbling, and surface flow variations by quantifying the variations of velocity, horizontal angle, and vertical angle of the transient flow. Transient flow in the slide-gate nozzle bottom is almost always swirling, alternating chaotically between clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation. The clockwise swirl, caused by stronger flow down the same side of the nozzle as the open area near the Outside Radius side of the slide-gate middle plate, produces faster jet flow and higher velocity flow across the top surface of the mold. Counter-clockwise swirl produces slower jet and surface flow, but with more variations. The double-ruler EMBr decreases the asymmetry and duration of velocity variations during nozzle swirl flipping, resulting in less flow variations in the jet and across the surface in the mold.

  16. Transient Two-Phase Flow in Slide-Gate Nozzle and Mold of Continuous Steel Slab Casting with and without Double-Ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Mook; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    Transient mold flow could produce undesirable surface instabilities and slag entrainments, leading to the formation of defects during continuous slab casting of steel. In this work, two Large Eddy Simulations coupled with Discrete Phase Model are run, with and without MagnetoHydroDynamic model, to gain new insights into the surface variations of molten steel-argon gas flow with anisotropic turbulence in the slide-gate nozzle and the mold, with and without double-ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking (EMBr). The model calculations are validated with plant measurements, and applied to investigate the flow variations related to the slide gate on nozzle swirl, jet wobbling, and surface flow variations by quantifying the variations of velocity, horizontal angle, and vertical angle of the transient flow. Transient flow in the slide-gate nozzle bottom is almost always swirling, alternating chaotically between clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation. The clockwise swirl, caused by stronger flow down the same side of the nozzle as the open area near the Outside Radius side of the slide-gate middle plate, produces faster jet flow and higher velocity flow across the top surface of the mold. Counter-clockwise swirl produces slower jet and surface flow, but with more variations. The double-ruler EMBr decreases the asymmetry and duration of velocity variations during nozzle swirl flipping, resulting in less flow variations in the jet and across the surface in the mold.

  17. Methods for intraoperative, sterile pose-setting of patient-specific microstereotactic frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Benjamin; Müller, Samuel; Kundrat, Dennis; Ortmaier, Tobias; Kahrs, Lüder A.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes new methods for a microstereotactic frame based on bone cement fixation. Microstereotactic frames are under investigation for minimal invasive temporal bone surgery, e.g. cochlear implantation, or for deep brain stimulation, where products are already on the market. The correct pose of the microstereotactic frame is either adjusted outside or inside the operating room and the frame is used for e.g. drill or electrode guidance. We present a patientspecific, disposable frame that allows intraoperative, sterile pose-setting. Key idea of our approach is bone cement between two plates that cures while the plates are positioned with a mechatronics system in the desired pose. This paper includes new designs of microstereotactic frames, a system for alignment and first measurements to analyze accuracy and applicable load.

  18. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  19. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Aaron C; Hernandez, Pilar; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Mena, Olga

    2014-01-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to overclosure, seen as a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter $R_{CMB}$ and the sound horizon $r_s$ from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the ...

  20. Sterile Neutrinos: An Introduction to Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, J M

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written as one chapter in a collection of essays on neutrino physics for beginning graduate students. The text presents important experimental methods and issues for those interested in searches for sterile neutrinos. Other essays in the collection, written by other authors, will cover introduction to neutrinos in the Standard Model, a description of the theory, and discussion of details of detectors, thus these aspects are not covered here. However, beyond these points, this represents a self-contained tutorial on experimental studies of sterile neutrino oscillations, covering such issues as signals vs. limits, designing experiments, and performing and interpreting global fits to the oscillation data.

  1. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  2. Nursing concerns and hospital product sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, R.B. Jr.; Anderson, N.A.

    Nurses and other health care professionals must be aware of the rationale and methodology for in-hospital health care product standardization, including consideration of the hospital standardization committee composition, pilot-study prerequisites, and general evaluation criteria. They must be familiar with the techniques of product sterilization, their effectiveness, and the materials required to maintain sterile product shelf-life until a product is used. Hospital standardization committees can assist in the product-use decisionmaking process. Product evaluation criteria should include considerations pertaining to cost, quality, service, and comparison to similar products.

  3. [Sterilization and disinfection in clinical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, I; Haydar, B

    1989-11-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the spread of hepatitis b and aids viruses and the high risk of contamination of these viruses during the dental operations has made orthodontists more aware of the necessity of sterilization and disinfection. This article discusses the methods of sterilization and disinfection. Avoidance of corrosion of instruments and the use of a ultrasonic cleaner to avoid contamination has been explained. In the conclusion the measures that the orthodontist has to take in order to protect himself is discussed.

  4. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  5. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  6. Tissue banking and clinical research on radiation and ethylene oxide sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research works carried out in Rangoon, Burma under the Agency supported project RC4420/RB have dealt with an elucidation of the radiation interaction(s) with the species of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, collagens, connective tissues present in the cleaned and freeze-dried non-viable tissue grafts. Radiation as a cool process furthermore effectively helps to destroy the microbial bioburden as the undesirable contaminants which may associate the tissue grafts. Radiation also concomitantly helps to suppress the tissue-specific immunogenicity. All these attributes of radiation induced effects have proved successful towards the development of a sterilization process. A series of non-viable tissue grafts, such as bone, nerve, fascia, dura, cartilage, chorion-amnion (as dressings in burn wounds) and tympanic membrane have been successfully attempted in Burma and many more possibilities seem to still remain unexplored. Radiation sterilization modality has proved as a blessing for the promotion of clinical surgical applications of tissue allografts in the corrective/reconstructive surgery on the disability cases due to diseases which accompany tissue losses. The investigator in Burma has reported on the case histories where freeze dried radiation sterilized tissue allografts have been successfully used in the osteogenic inductions (bone grafts); midear tympanoplasty; partial recovery of nerve sensation throught nerve allografts; rapid healing of high degree burn wounds through the use of amnion dressings. Besides, there have been a widespread surgical use of radiation sterilized dura and fascia as allografts. A national tissue banking facility has been established in Burma surrounding the processing and clinical utilization of tissue allografts which has involved over ten hospital centres throughout the country. Radiation induced effects on the biomolecules of clinical significance in the tissue grafts have been researched to help gain insight into a better

  7. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  8. [Anesthesia for laparoscopy in sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrath, B; Borgwardt, D; Langanke, D; Alexander, H; Baier, D; Haake, K W

    1990-01-01

    During 5 years 382 laparoscopies were carried through in female patients with sterility in different kinds of anaesthesia (Intubation anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, and i.v. anaesthesia). We found the most advantageous results in the cases of i.v. anaesthesia with Ketamin and Diazepam.

  9. Root Cause Analysis, Part 2: STERILE COMPOUNDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro, Joe; Jackson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    When an adverse event or near miss occurs in a pharmacy, eliminating the root cause to prevent recurrence is critically important. Addressing the root cause of the problem reduces the recurrence of putting patients and the pharmacy at risk. This article proposes a method for performing Root Cause Analysis applicable to sterile compounding. PMID:27323421

  10. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  12. Sterilization: A Conference and a Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Brint

    1978-01-01

    This article continues a series on Native American sterilization, based on a conference of the National Council of Churches' Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization (IFCO). Also included are an article and a report by the American Civil Liberties Union. (Author/RTS)

  13. Detecting sterile neutrinos with KATRIN like experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen

    2011-01-01

    A sterile neutrino with mass in the eV range, mixing with bar nue, is allowed and possibly even preferred by cosmology and oscillation experiments. If such eV-mass neutrinos exist they provide a much better target for direct detection in beta decay experiments than the active neutrinos which...

  14. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  15. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  16. Dose mapping for documentation of radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards EN 552 and ISO 11137 require that dose mapping in real or simulated product be carried in connection with the process qualification. This paper reviews the recommendations given in the standards and discusses the difficulties and limitations of practical dose...

  17. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  18. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.12 Sterility. Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and... section.) (e) Culture medium—(1) Formulae. (i) The formula for Fluid Thioglycollate Medium is as...

  19. Whey powder sterilization by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whey powder was sterilized by gamma waves application. As a source of irridiation isotope 60Co was used in Institute of Nuclear sciences Boris Kidrich, Vincha-Belgrade (Yugoslavia). The applied doses were: a, b, c, d, and e Kgy. The dose d was radappertization. After whey powder irradiation no adverse changes of organoleptic properties were noticed

  20. Particulate contamination of sterile syringes and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A

    1982-08-01

    Commercially available sterile needles and syringes have been examined for particulate contamination using the Hiac light blockage technique. The number of particles delivered was small compared with the total number permitted for large volume parenterals. Where syringes are used in particle counting techniques, the contribution of particles should be taken into account. PMID:6126558

  1. Cornering (3+1) sterile neutrino schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Maltoni, M; Valle, José W F

    2001-01-01

    Using the most recent atmospheric neutrino data, as well as short-baseline and tritium $\\beta$-decay data we show that (3+1) sterile neutrino schemes are severely disfavored, in contrast to the theoretically favored (2+2) schemes.

  2. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide.

  3. Stage-structured models for interacting wild and sterile mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the sterile insect technique,in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population,is an effective weapon to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on the disease transmissions,we formulate stage-structured discrete-time mathematical models,based on difference equations,for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes. We incorporate different strategies for releasing ster...

  4. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages

    OpenAIRE

    Maïga, H.; Damiens, D.; Niang, A.; Sawadogo, SP; Fatherhaman, O.; Lees, RS; Roux, O.; Dabiré, RK; Ouédraogo, GA; Tripet, F; Diabaté, A.; Gilles, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Methods: Sterile and untreated males ...

  5. Trends in sterilization and disinfection procedures in orthodontic offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R G

    1990-10-01

    The present survey is a repetition of a 1987 survey examining the sterilization/disinfection procedures of Georgia's orthodontists. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in orthodontic sterilization/disinfection procedures. Orthodontists in Georgia have dramatically changed their sterilization and disinfection procedures. The major changes represented are greater use of protective barrier wear by doctor and staff members; increased heat sterilization methods for instruments, pliers, and handpieces; and increased disinfection of alginate impressions.

  6. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide. PMID:7594394

  7. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  9. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for...

  10. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  11. Monitoring of steam sterilization processes in the dental office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C.M. van Doornmalen; A.G.M. Rietmeijer; A.J. Feilzer; K. Kopinga

    2013-01-01

    In dental offices steam sterilization is used to prevent infection of staff and patient. The necessity of sterilization is obvious. To ensure effective sterilization processes each load has to be monitored. Based on literature and standards a state of the art concept of every load monitoring is desc

  12. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform...

  13. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  14. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441.255 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  16. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  17. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yezdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged, molar bands and mouth mirrors used in the patient′s mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups - Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate and set B (0.025% betadine and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse. The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37°C for 24 h. For sterility control, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518 was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculated with the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min.

  18. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  19. Stage-structured models for interacting wild and sterile mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the sterile insect technique,in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population,is an effective weapon to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on the disease transmissions,we formulate stage-structured discrete-time mathematical models,based on difference equations,for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes. We incorporate different strategies for releasing sterile mosquitoes,investigate the model dynamics,and compare the impact of the different release strategies.Numerical examples are also provided to demonstrate dynamical features of the models.

  20. Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models. PMID:25377433

  1. Male sterility in cotton and possibilities for its utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilova, Ana; Rusev, Vladimir; Spasova, Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Five male sterile lines were crossed to G.hirsutum male parents under the nature field conditions to produce hybrid plants. At the flowering time in different days and hours observations were made on pollen sterility. The trials were carried in 2005 and 2006 Results obtained showed that the available sterile lines were not completely sterile, there was no pollen in the early hours (from 9a.m to 2p.m) or in case of presence it was highly sterile. The absence of pollen in the early hours if day...

  2. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  3. Sterile subperiosteal fluid collections accompanying orbital wall infarction in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Shah, Ankoor S

    2014-10-01

    Infarction of the orbital wall is an uncommon manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD) that may mimic an infectious process. We report a patient with two separate orbital infarctions with different presenting symptoms involving different bones. Radiologic-guided sampling of a periosteal fluid collection in the first episode showed likely sterile inflammatory exudates. This case highlights the range of findings in orbital wall infarction in SCD as well as helpful clinical and imaging entities that may differentiate infarction from infection, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate management.

  4. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  5. Sterile neutrino dark matter and core-collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, Grant J; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the impact of sterile neutrino dark matter on core-collapse supernova explosions. We have included oscillations between electron neutrinos or mixed $\\mu,\\tau$ neutrinos and right-handed sterile neutrinos into a supernova model. We have chosen sterile neutrino masses and mixing angles that are consistent with sterile neutrino dark matter candidates as indicated by recent x-ray flux measurements. Using these simulations, we have explored the impact of sterile neutrinos on the core bounce and shock reheating. We find that, for ranges of sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle consistent with most dark matter constraints, the shock energy can be significantly enhanced and even a model that does not explode can be made to explode. In addition, we have found that the presence of a sterile neutrino may lead to detectable changes in the observed neutrino luminosities.

  6. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  7. Transgenic arthropods and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique can benefit from transgenesis in three ways by creating; (1) genetically marked strains, (2) genetic sexing strains and (3) strains that induce molecular sterility in the field. Experience with the development of genetic sexing strains based on indicates that caution is required during the experimental evaluation of any potential transgenic strain. Two major scientific concerns involve the overall fitness of transgenic strains and their stability over time. The latter being very important especially when the extremely large numbers of insects that are mass reared is taken into account. Currently transformation events are random and it will probably be necessary to select suitable strains from many that are induced. The success of transformation itself in many insect species will enable many new strategies to be developed and tested. (author)

  8. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  9. Longevity Problem of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2013-01-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter of mass O(1-10)keV decays into an active neutrino and an X-ray photon, and the non-observation of the corresponding X-ray line requires the sterile neutrino to be more long-lived than estimated based on the seesaw formula: the longevity problem. We show that, if one or more of the B-L Higgs fields are charged under a flavor symmetry, the split mass spectrum for the right-handed neutrinos is realized, and most importantly, the longevity problem can be solved naturally. We provide several examples which solve the longevity problem and predict the X-ray flux just below the current bound.

  10. Radio-sterilization of diagnostic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic device is introduced that enables the semiquantitative determination of germs in liquids or suspensions, and supplies satisfactory hygienic information for use in food hygiene and other related areas. The equipment offers a standard method and medium for tests. The condition of the large-scale industrial production of the device is gamma irradiation for ensuring the necessary sterility. A dose of 1 Mrad gave a safe result. (author)

  11. Sterilized food for hospitals and military purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the state-of-the-art on food irradiation performed at adequate doses for completing sterilization of food products. It deals with applications on some ingredients to be used by food industries or ready-to-use foods, mostly stable without refrigeration, for immune-depressed patients. High dose irradiated foods can be used also for military purposes and as stocks for civil defense. (author)

  12. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  13. From pollen actin to crop male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Actin plays an important role in the life activity of animal and plant cells. Pollen cells have plenty of actin whose structure and characteristics are very similar to the animal actin. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of plant actin gene are very similar to those of the animal gene. The content of pollen actin from male sterile plants is much more lower than that from its maintainer plants. The expression of actin gene is organ-specific during the plant development. The expression quantity of actin gene in pollen is much more higher than those from root, stem and leaf. The expression plasmid of the anti-sense actin gene was constructed, transferred to the protoplasts of wheat and tomato to inhibit the expression of actin gene in pollen and thus the male sterile plants of wheat and tomato were obtained. The actin in pollens from the transgenic plants was reduced significantly, whereas the pistil was not affected. This study might pave a new way to breeding male sterile lines for the application of hybrid vigor of wheat and tomato.

  14. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 7 on beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems

  15. Sterilization Methods, Validation of Sterilization Process and Sterility Testing for Medical Devices%医疗器械灭菌方法、灭菌工艺验证及无菌检查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲; 徐玉茵; 高勇; 周静; 张娟丽

    2011-01-01

    文章阐述了湿热灭菌、干热灭菌、环氧乙烷灭菌、辐射灭菌、低温等离子体灭菌等5种医疗器械灭菌方法,并介绍了灭菌工艺验证和无菌检查方面的内容.%This paper describes five sterilization methods for medical devices, such as moist heat sterilization, dry heat sterilization, EO sterilization, radiation sterilization, low-temperature plasmas sterilization etc. The method of validation of sterilization process and sterility testing are introduced.

  16. Gamma Radiation for Sterilizing the Carcasses of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on sterilization by means of gamma rays of the carcasses of animals experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been carried out. In the first part the author studied the presence and survival of FMDV in the carcasses and in the organs of infected slaughtered animals. The results obtained are sufficient to underline the problem of the sterilization of carcasses of animals infected by FMDV. The experiments on the inactivation of the FMDV by gamma irradiation in vitro showed the same radiation sensitivity of the three types, O, A and C, of FMDV inaqueous solutions and showed that the fraction of surviving virus is an exponential function of the gamma-ray dose. The results obtained confirm the remarkable resistance of viruses to the effect of radiation. As far as the dry virus is concerned special tests indicated the necessity of greater doses for inactivating the same virus in the dry as opposed to the liquid state. In the third part the author studied the possibility of utilizing gamma rays for the sterilization of carcasses of infected (or suspected of being infected) FMDV animals using some tissues of infected animals (pigs) (blood, bone marrow, vertebrae, lymph nodes). The results obtained show that the inactivation of FMDV types O, A and C in the carcasses of infected animals can be made by treatment with gamma rays. (author)

  17. Sterilization, toxicity, biocompatibility and clinical applications of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, K A; Niederauer, G G; Agrawal, C M

    1996-01-01

    This is a review of salient studies of sterilization, toxicity, biocompatibility, clinical applications and current work in the field of orthopaedics, using implants made of polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA) and their copolymers. The intrinsic nature of these biomaterials renders them suitable for applications where temporally slow releases of bioactive agents in situ may be required. They are also desirable as fixation devices of bone, because they can virtually eliminate osteopenia associated with stress shielding or additional surgery. The majority of currently available sterilization techniques are not suitable for these thermoplastic materials and it may be desirable to develop new sterilization standards, which can account for the special character of PLA-PGA materials. Biocompatibility and toxicity studies suggest that, overall, PLA-PGA biomaterials may be suitable for orthopaedic applications, although certain problems, especially pertaining to reduction in cell proliferation, have been reported. Clinical applications are also promising, albeit not without problems usually associated with transient tissue inflammation. The future of these materials appears bright, especially in soft tissues. They may be used to address the exceedingly complex problem of osteochondral repair, but also as a means to enhance fixation and repair processes in tendons and ligaments. PMID:8624401

  18. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  19. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  20. Chemosterilants in Entomology and the Sterile-Male Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemosterilants have been often referred to as agents producing dominant lethal mutations in the germ cells of treated organisms. Recent studies of the mode of action of various chemosterilants in insects indicate that there are many other pathways by which chemical compounds can induce sterility in insects. Although the genetic mechanism still appears to be the most plausible explanation of the mode of action of many chemosterilants in male insects, other alternatives must be considered for explaining the chemical sterilization of female insects. The elucidation of the biochemical processes leading to sterility is important not only because chemical mutagenesis was first discovered in an insect (Drosophila melanogaster); chemicals offer a flexible, and sometimes the only available, method of inducing sterility in economically important insects which can be utilized in the sterile-male technique of insect control. As distinct from radiation, chemosterilants can be utilized for sterilization of the naturally occurring pest populations. In sterile- insect release programmes, chemosterilants become of importance whenever secondary radiation effects interfere with longevity and sexual competitiveness of radiation-sterilized insects. The understanding of the mechanism and mode of action of chemosterilants will aid in the search for new types of effective compounds and in designing new materials specific to insects or even to individual insect species. The sterility principle in pest control has thus far been successfully applied only to insects, but vertebrate pests will certainly be considered in the future. Chemosterilants may be the most effective tool for sterilization of vertebrate organisms. (author)

  1. Induced mutant for male-sterility of lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lentil has very small flowers which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety LL-78 were irradiated with gamma rays 5 to 20 krad. In M2 some male-sterile plants were observed. Male-sterile plants could easily be identified at the start of maturity. They remain green and continue flowering when other plants mature. Due to natural outcrossing a few seeds formed on these male-sterile plants. These were grown in M2 for progeny testing. Some M3 lines were having both normal seed set and male-sterile plants in the ratio of 3 normal : 1 male-sterile, whereas in other lines all the plants were male-sterile. The former are assumed to be genic male-sterile and the latter cytoplasmic male-sterile. When the putative cytoplasmic male-sterile plants were selfed, there was no seed setting. Cytoplasmic male-sterility has not yet been reported in lentil. its use could make cross-breeding easier. (author)

  2. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

    2012-02-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  3. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  4. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    Full Text Available The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1 up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2 down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3 down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  7. Sterilization among currently married men in the United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forste, R; Tanfer, K; Tedrow, L

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 1991 National Survey of Men indicate that about 12% of married men aged 20-39 have had a vasectomy and about 13% are married to a woman who is sterilized. Multivariate analyses indicate that the likelihood of sterilization rises with husband's age, wife's age, duration of marriage and number of children. Black couples are significantly less likely than white couples to rely on sterilization, and interracial couples are less likely than same-race couples to be sterilized. The likelihood of reliance on vasectomy rather than tubal ligation also rises with husband's age, while black men are significantly less likely than white men to elect male over female sterilization. Use of male sterilization is strongly associated with having had a recent contraceptive failure while using a male method.

  8. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  9. Cytological causes of blond psyllium for male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish G. Vala, Fougat. R.S. ,Roshni.S. and Vinay Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytological male sterility is a useful trait in plant breeding, especially in medicinal plants such as Cassia angustifolia, Commiphorawightii, Asparagus racemosus .Abnormalities appeared to be the cause of male sterility in plants, we carried out this research in anattempt to make clear the characteristics and inheritance of this male sterility. In Plantago ovata germplasm cytoplasmicabnormality was found to be the cause of abnormality. cytomixis varied from 2% to 48 % in plants. Maximum numbers of PMCscarrying B-chromosomes were recorded in male sterile plants of line JI-214(62%. No B-chromosomes were observed in fertile,sterile and partial male sterile line of JI-107 and maximum abnormal chromosomal segregation was recorded in JI-206. Thesecytological abnormality parameters can be used for hetrosis breeding and hybrid seed production to improve quality of psyllium.

  10. Male sterility in plants. Induction, isolation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both induced and spontaneously arising male sterility mutants exist in a number of important plant species. These mutants are somewhat unique in that they effect procedures for breeding improved varieties. They allow for the possibility of easily obtaining large numbers of hybrids, population breeding systems and the production of hybrid varieties. These mutants are normally classified as cytoplasmic mutants or chromosomal mutants, the latter also being referred to as nuclear or genic mutants. Specific examples of these types of sterility are examined in relation to the breeding system of the species and their potential use for varietal development. Male sterility in diploid and polyploid species is compared, with reference to gene duplication in polyploids. The mechanism of male sterility is examined in the various species at the anatomical and biochemical levels. Methods of isolating male sterility mutants are compared and a specific example is outlined for hexaploid wheat. Future use of male sterility mutants for improving varieties of various crops is examined. (author)

  11. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  12. [Sterilization with ozone in health care: an integrative literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cristina Silva; Torres, Lilian Machado; Azevedo, Marcela Padilha Facetto; de Camargo, Tamara Carolina; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this integrative literature review was to find evidence to support using ozone as a sterilizing agent for health products. The search was performed on the following bases: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, COMPENDEX, INSPEC and ENGINEERING RESEARCH DATABASE; using ozone and sterilization as descriptors. Five articles were found between 1990 and 2008, which tested ozone as a sterilizer. All studies used the same type of investigation (experimental laboratory study) and achieved sterilization with ozone, but with different scopes and products, besides using different methodological procedures. Considering the ever-growing technology for new products, with the vast range of forms and materials, the findings point at ozone sterilization as a promising method, but still in an initial phase of investigation. Further experimental studies are needed to provide broader evidence regarding the possibilities and limitations of ozone sterilization.

  13. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  14. Advances in application and research of sterile insect irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect irradiation techniques have developed rapidly and achieved many results in the world in recent years. In practice, it has become one of the important measures to area-wide integrated pest management.Here the sterile insect irradiation techniques were reviewed, including their strategy, mechanism and quality control. How to break through the constraints in the practical application of the sterile insects was also discussed in this paper

  15. Image Sterilization to Prevent LSB-based Steganographic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Goutam; Mukherjee, Imon

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is a very popular word used in biomedical testing (like removal of all microorganisms on surface of an article or in fluid using appropriate chemical products). Motivated by this biological analogy, we, for the first time, introduce the concept of sterilization of an image, i.e., removing any steganographic information embedded in the image. Experimental results show that our technique succeeded in sterilizing around 76% to 91% of stego pixels in an image on average, where data ...

  16. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; LI, SHAOQING

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  17. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  18. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. It was observed that the contact lens solutions available ir, the domestic market were not upto the mark Suggestions for improvement have also been made.

  19. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  20. Research on the ruler tool based on Android platform%基于Android平台的尺子工具的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静波

    2015-01-01

    The Android system reason to very rapid trend of intrusion and possession of the smart phone market,the key lies in the open source system has great advantages.From the Android system appeared up to now,a variety of complex medical,entertainment,transportation and food fields Android figure,it is estimated that in the near future,Android may appear in life in every corner of the. With the popularity of Android smartphones,resulting in no matter in which post personnel,smart phones always does not leave a hand.A lot of work on the personnel are in need of some simple tools at work, such as a ruler,protractor.Paper mainly from two aspects elaborated based on the Android platform ruler measurement principle and other functional principle,especially to realize different schemes according to the different users of their own.%Android系统之所以能以非常迅猛的趋势入侵并占有智能手机市场,关键在于该系统具有开源的巨大优势。从Android系统出现到现在,医疗、娱乐、交通、饮食等各种复杂的领域都有Android的身影,估计在不久的将来,Android可能会出现在生活中的各个角落。伴随着Android智能手机的普及,导致了无论处于哪个岗位上的人员,智能手机都始终不离手。许多工作岗位上的人员在工作的时候都需要一些简单的工具,比如说尺子、量角器等。论文主要从两个方面阐述了实现基于Android平台的尺子的测量原理以及其他功能的原理,特别是根据用户不同的自身情况来实现不同的方案。

  1. Dark Matter Relic Abundance and Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yi-Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass $\\lesssim 100 \\text{ GeV}$ in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such case, if the Yukawa coupling between Higgs and sterile neutrino $y_N$ is small, this process gives rise to a larger $\\Omega_{\\text{DM}} h^2$ so we need a larger coupling between dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  2. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F2. Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  3. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  4. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  5. Recent developments in the radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.; Wills, Pamela A.

    Recent developments appear to have contributed to the increased interest in sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma irradiation. The choice of a sterilizing radiation dose is no longer fixed at 25 kGray (2.5 Mrad) but rather based on the initial microbial load (bioburden) coupled with the desired sterility assurance level. Our own efforts have focused on the irradiation of beta lactam antibiotics powders, most of which are radiation stable at commonly employed sterilization doses. In parallel, efforts have been directed at minimising radiolysis in aqueous solutions by the choice of appropriate irradiation conditions. A brief review of the literature on the irradiation of pharmaceuticals is given.

  6. Continuous grain rotator designed for soft-electron sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous grain rotator which was equipped with a vibrating tray at a variable slope was developed for sterilization of dry food ingredients. The doses necessary for soft-electron (low-energy electron) sterilization of rice, buckwheat, wheat, tea leaf and black pepper with this continuous rotator were much lower than those with a batch-type grain rotator and at almost the same level as the doses for gamma-ray sterilization. The results suggest that the continuous grain rotator enables efficient soft-electron sterilization

  7. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  8. Evaluating structural and microstructural changes of PDMS –SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials after sterilization by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lancastre, Joana [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Vaz Fernandes, M. Helena [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A.; Ferreira, Luís [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M., E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    PDMS–SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials obtained by sol–gel process have been extensively studied over the past years due to its promising biomedical applications namely as bone substitutes, catheters, and drug delivery devices. Regardless of the intended biomedical application, all these materials should go through a sterilization process before interfacing with a living structure. However, it is unclear whether they undergo structural and microstructural changes when subjected to sterilization by gamma irradiation. This paper addresses this issue by showing that a sol–gel processed biomaterial based on the PDMS–CaO–SiO{sub 2} hybrid system suffers only small structural changes when submitted to a radiation dose of 25 kGy, the dose usually recommended to achieve a Sterility Assurance Level of 10{sup −6} when the natural contamination level and microorganism types cannot be calculated. The characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si–{"1H} CP-MAS, thermal analysis (DTG), and SEM. - Highlights: • Hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2} materials were subjected to sterilization by γ-irradiation. • Materials suffer only small structural changes when irradiated. • Characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si-{"1H} CP-MAS, DTG and SEM.

  9. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  10. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  11. A sterile neutrino search at NEOS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y J; Kim, J Y; Han, B Y; Jang, C H; Jeon, E J; Joo, K K; Kim, H J; Kim, H S; Kim, Y D; Lee, Jaison; Lee, J Y; Lee, M H; Oh, Y M; Park, H K; Park, H S; Park, K S; Seo, K M; Siyeon, Kim; Sun, G M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment to search for light sterile neutrinos was performed at a reactor with a thermal power of 2.8 GW located at the Hanbit nuclear power complex. The search was done with a detector consisting of a ton of Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in a tendon gallery approximately 24 m from the reactor core. The measured antineutrino event rate is 1965 per day with a signal to background ratio of about 23. The shape of the antineutrino energy spectrum obtained from eight-month data-taking period is compared with a hypothesis of oscillations due to active-sterile antineutrino mixing. It is found to be consistent with no oscillation. An excess around 5 MeV prompt energy range is observed as seen in existing longer baseline experiments. Most of the allowed parameter space of $\\Delta m^{2}_{41}\\leq 4$ eV$^{2}$ range for a previously reported reactor antineutrino anomaly, is excluded with a confidence level higher than 95%.

  12. Sterile neutrinos and IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the framework for oscillations of the three neutrino flavors in the Standard Model has been convincingly established, indications persist that it may be incomplete. Challenges are coming from the LSND and MiniBooNe short-baseline experiments, from the neutrino sources used in the Gallex and Sage solar neutrino experiments and, more recently, from an a-posteriori analysis of reactor neutrino experiments. One way to accommodate the reported anomalies, if real, is to introduce one or more sterile neutrinos in the mass range δm2 ∼ 1eV2. TeV atmospheric neutrinos propagating through the Earth undergo resonant oscillations in the presence of sterile neutrinos; a clear signature in a neutrino telescope like IceCube is the the change in shape of the zenith-energy distribution of the atmospheric neutrinos. IceCube detects more than 100,000 atmospheric neutrinos per year. Statistics do not limit such a measurement, but the uncertainties in modeling the expectations of the conventional 3-flavor scenario, including the systematics of the detector, do. We review the status and future perspectives of understanding the zenith and energy response of IceCube in the TeV energy range.

  13. Muslim Women in Past and Present Governmental Leadership: Case of Rulers of the Sultanate of Aceh and the Fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Syamtasiyah Ahyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Muslim woman is a woman who believes in Islam.  In its historical path, Indonesia has been led by Muslim women along with the development of Islam in the Archipelago in the 17th century. A case example among others is the Sultanate of Aceh during the colonial period. During the independence period, Indonesia was also led by a Muslim woman as the fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia around the early 21st century. In these case examples of Muslim women as rulers, they received criticism during their reigns from men who viewed the matter from the perspective of Islam. This made an impact on the ongoing governance and the people.  The article discusses how Muslim women leaders faced these criticisms from men who viewed the matter from the point of view of Islam and how it affected their governmental administration. Therefore, the article is expected to be able to reconstruct how Muslim women leaders face criticism from men who viewed the matter from the perspective of Islam. Research in this paper is conducted through historical method actions, preceded by source collection, selection and interpretation along with the reconstruction of the intended events, which is referred to as historiography. The study is also based on local sources, documents, and writings of related critics on the issue.

  14. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  15. The political-economic education of the rulers in the discourses to the king Philip III by Pedro de Valencia (1555-1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Luis PARADINAS FUENTES

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Present-day economical crisis resembles partly that one suffered in Spain at the beginning of the 17th century. In those days, the Spanish Crown, which like all modern States had needed to carry out new functions such as deciding the ell into a deep economic crisis. Many treatises and discourses, several of them addressed to the king Philip III were written to change the economic policy of the State, which was considered responsible for the evils affecting Spain. Some of these texts have been studied by the historians of economics, but not by the historians of education, however they can be, in our opinion, included in that literary genre whose objective was the education of the princes. In this work we will analyse the writings dedicated to that king by the Spanish humanist Pedro de Valencia with the aim of educating the rulers of the Monarchy so that they could acquire the necessary intellectual and moral virtues to accomplish their duties. There are in his texts many teachings that are still valid nowadays.

  16. Inheritance of the Male Sterility in a New Photo/Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line B06S of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hao-hua; HUANG Wen-xin; PENG Xiao-song; ZHU Chang-lan; LIU Yi-bai

    2004-01-01

    The major male sterile genes in a new photo/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) line B06S of rice were analyzed by the manipulation of mixture distribution theory. The results indicated that a pair of major male sterile nuclear genes with large effects were responsible for controlling the male sterility of B06S.

  17. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  18. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen; Tamborra, Irene; Tram, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of the sterile neutrino at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario...

  19. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  20. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  1. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F)...

  2. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  3. Physical measurements for quality control in industrial radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation has brought about a growing industry for the sterilization of disposable surgical equipment, medical supplies, and containers for biological specimens. For many products, irradiation has become an alternative to autoclaving or gas treatment by ethylene oxide. Over fifteen years of experience with industrial sterilization by cobalt-60 gamma radiation have shown that radiation methods provide a clear advantage over gas sterilization, in that sterilization can be performed on non-permeable sealed packages. Moreover, regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S.A., are reappraising the requirements for sterility assurance. For products released to the public, consideration is now being given to the use of physical dosimetry, i.e., the measurement of radiation dose by physical methods. This is based on a knowledge of the microbial burden of the product before sterilization and on the probability of killing microorganisms by a given radiation dose. Because physical dosimetry is easier to control and less complicated than biological tests, it may be considered in the future the basis for quality assurance of the sterilized product. Some of the problems associated with standardized measurement techniques in radiation sterilization include the choice of dosimetry and its calibration, as well as methods and procedures used to minimize errors due to variations in radiation flux density, source geometry with respect to the product, and environmental factors. (author)

  4. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vul...... abiotic source must also be present perhaps abiotic mineralization of labile BC components....

  5. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  6. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  7. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  8. Review of neutrino oscillations with sterile and active neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-08-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  9. Review of Neutrino Oscillations With Sterile and Active Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2016-01-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  10. Sterilization dose auditing for various types of medical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Zbigniew; Kaluska, Iwona E-mail: kaluska@orange.ichtj.waw.pl

    2002-03-01

    Different types of products require a different methodology of processing. The homogenous materials with well-known bioburden do not cause much problems nowadays and radiation processing and the sterilization dose can be easily audited. In this technical note the difficulties associated with the validation of radiation sterilization of tissue allografts have been mentioned.

  11. Alternative methods of terminal sterilization for biologically active macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, A

    2001-11-01

    The traditional perception within the pharmaceutical industry of the manufacture of injectable drug products is that active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are peptides, proteins or biopolymers, such as poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) and poly(DL-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA), cannot be terminally sterilized. This perception exists largely because terminal sterilization is assumed by many to be only carried out by steam sterilization in a standard autoclave. Thus, it is understood that these API candidates must be manufactured by aseptic techniques. With the current technological advances in the area of protein and peptide sterilization, which has largely come from the food industry and has in recent years been developed for pharmaceutical use, techniques have been developed for the terminal sterilization of thermally sensitive APIs and biopolymers. In this review, the focus will be on the four major types of sterilization that are presented in the literature: (i) gamma-irradiation; (ii) e-Beam; (iii) natural light; and (iv) microwave. Each of these sterilization techniques present advantages and disadvantages for use in large-scale terminal sterilization of bioactive macromolecules. PMID:11899616

  12. Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to $\\sim$ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet $S$ are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, $ m_{\

  13. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  14. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  15. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, C.E.

    1991-03-20

    This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  16. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  17. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  18. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  19. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  20. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  1. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  2. New sterilization techniques accent ease, speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    New techniques are being developed for permanent male and female sterilization. The new methods are cheaper, easier to use, and effective. Vassoclude, a device under development by the Population Council, is used in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. A pin hole created by the Vassoclude opens the way to apply a staple-like mechanism to place clips on the vas deferens. The method requires less manual dexterity than other tools, and there is no puncture hole. A new female method uses quinacrine hydrochloride pellets, which are inserted into the uterus with an IUD inserter. Permanent scarring of the fallopian tubes prevents pregnancy. The method is cheap, safe, and easy to use. The disadvantage is that multiple visits are required before the fallopian tubes are blocked. About 500,000 women currently use quinacrine worldwide. There have been few clinical trials. Most of the women live in Vietnam and Pakistan. Toxicological tests conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization have shown the product not to be safe. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception reports that there are 140 million couples relying on female sterilization worldwide, while only 42 million men undergo vasectomies. In the US, reports are that 23% of American couples rely on tubal ligations, compared to 13% relying on vasectomy. 500,000 men underwent vasectomies in the US in 1991. Neither quinacrine nor the Vassoclude was available in the US in 1993. There is little interest in producing and marketing vasectomy tools, and studies continue to examine vasectomy's side effects or links with cancer, which discourages the choice of vasectomy as a contraceptive method.

  3. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  4. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  5. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  6. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  7. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  8. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  9. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C.-P.; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-05-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile neutrino can give rise to its conversion to an active neutrino through radiative decay or nonstandard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic x-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with low-threshold low-background germanium detectors, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from astrophysical observations.

  10. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Willems

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  11. Retrospective Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Quinacrine Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菊红; 陆卫群; 丁婉华; 朱红; 童建孙

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization.Methods A total of 572 cases of quinacrine sterilization preformed during the 4 years from 1993to 1997in Jiangsu and Guizhou Provinces were employed in this study. The efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization in those case were studied and evaluated, with 588 cases of surgical sterilization performed at the same time being the control group.Results Both groups were with identical demographic and gynecological characteristics. The result of multiple decrement life table analysis showed the 12th gross cumulative failure rates for quinacrine sterilization was 3. 13% and serious side effects occurred in only 2 cases accounting for O. 35%. One was ectopic pregnancy (20 months after treatment). The other was due to anaphylaxis in 10 minutes after the second insertion). No difference in the liver and nephic functions was detected and no suspected cancer cells or cancer cells were found in the two groups. 99. 6% of the 572 women interviewed accepted the quinacrine sterilization.Conclusions Quinacrine sterilization method is with high acceptability but comparatively low effectiveness. It has been proved to be a safe method of contraception in short-term. However, the safety of long-term still needs further study.

  12. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Sterilization Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the sterilization policy in China. First, several indices are used to measure the status of China’s markets and to determine effectiveness and sustainability of the sterilization policy and the possible impacts it may have induced. Second, within a microeconomic framework, we incorporate the housing price variable into the target loss function of the monetary authority to explore its financial capabilities and evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of China’s sterilization policy. The empirical results show that Chinese monetary authorities sterilize almost all of the effects of international capital inflows and increase foreign exchange reserves on the monetary base. That is, increased capital mobility does not sabotage the independence of the Chinese monetary policy. Nevertheless, analyses of the sustainability of sterilization policy indicate that the sustainability of the monetary sterilization policy has been seriously challenged since March 2008, which suggests that Chinese monetary authority has endured tremendous pressure for unsustainable sterilization.

  13. A research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. The output value of radiation sterilization industry reached 0.1% of the GDP in some advanced countries (America and Japan...), under this standard, its output value in Sichuan province would be RMB1.2 hundred million, but now our capacity and scale of this industry is less than RMB40million.Research shows: there are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the 'bottleneck' restrictions of capacity and Inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity for radiation sterilization, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  14. Influence of various sterilization procedures on TiO2 nanotubes used for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Mukta; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Mazare, Anca; Flašker, Ajda; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolíček, Petr; Resnik, Matic; Schmuki, Patrik; Mozetič, Miran; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is the final surface treatment procedure of all implantable devices and is one of the key factors which have to be considered before implementation. Since different sterilization procedures for all implantable devices influence mechanical properties as well as biological response, the influence of different sterilization techniques on titanium nanotubes was studied. Commonly used sterilization techniques such as autoclaving, ultra-violet light sterilization, hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization as well as the not so frequently used gaseous oxygen plasma sterilization were used. Three different nanotube diameters; 15 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm were employed to study the effects of various sterilization techniques. It was observed that autoclave sterilization resulted in destruction of nanotubular features on all three studied nanotube diameters, while UV-light and both kinds of plasma sterilization did not cause any significant morphological changes on the surfaces. Differences between the sterilization techniques employed influenced cytocompatibility, especially in the case of nanotubes with 100 nm diameter.

  15. Human Fallopian Tube Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhance Bone Regeneration in a Xenotransplanted Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Bueno, Daniela F; Almada, Bruno V. P.; Caetano, Heloisa; Czeresnia, Carlos E.; Perin, Paulo M.; Halpern, Silvio; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila P.; Nisenbaum, Marcelo G.; Martins, Marília T.; Passos-Bueno, Maria R.; Zatz, Mayana

    2011-01-01

    We have recently reported that human fallopian tubes, which are discarded during surgical procedures of women submitted to sterilization or hysterectomies, are a rich source of human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells (htMSCs). It has been previously shown that human mesenchymal stromal cells may be useful in enhancing the speed of bone regeneration. This prompted us to investigate whether htMSCs might be useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases, since they presen...

  16. Psychological Impact of Bone Marrow Transplantation: Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

    1990-01-01

    Despite advances in bone marrow transplant technology, major psychological stresses remain. Donor selection has become psychologically more complex with the option of seeking an unrelated donor. Family dislocation continues to be necessary for many families despite the proliferation of transplant centers. The range of choices between treatment options, level of room sterility, and the like can leave families open to guilt about their choices. Unpredictability of the transplant course, difficu...

  17. Nutritional therapy during bone marrow transplantation. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Normén, Lena; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Ekman, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a treatment which often results in nutritional complications. Common conditions affecting dietary intake are mucosal membrane injuries, nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Dietary advice is therefore a necessary part of treatment. The diet situation is complicated by the abscence of international dietary guidelines for BMT. The dietary approach varies between hospitals. Most commonly patients receive sterile, low-microbial, modified or normal diet. In Sweden al...

  18. Image Sterilization to Prevent LSB-based Steganographic Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Goutam

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is a very popular word used in biomedical testing (like removal of all microorganisms on surface of an article or in fluid using appropriate chemical products). Motivated by this biological analogy, we, for the first time, introduce the concept of sterilization of an image, i.e., removing any steganographic information embedded in the image. Experimental results show that our technique succeeded in sterilizing around 76% to 91% of stego pixels in an image on average, where data is embedded using LSB-based steganography.

  19. Deviations in Tribimaximal Mixing From Sterile Neutrino Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, S; Gautam, Radha Raman

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero $U_{e3}$ element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and atmospheric mixing $\\theta_{23}$ different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.

  20. Low reheating temperature and the visible sterile neutrino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2004-08-20

    We present here a scenario, based on a low reheating temperature T(R)inflation, in which the coupling of sterile neutrinos to active neutrinos can be as large as experimental bounds permit (thus making this neutrino "visible" in future experiments). In previous models this coupling was forced to be very small to prevent a cosmological overabundance of sterile neutrinos. Here the abundance depends on how low the reheating temperature is. For example, the sterile neutrino required by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector result may not have any cosmological problem within our scenario.

  1. Properties of resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter subhaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Bozek, Brandon; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resona...

  2. [Serum sterilization in the cold with peracetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:987107

  3. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  4. Pseudoscalar - sterile neutrino interactions: reconciling the cosmos with neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Giunti, Carlo; Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus; Laveder, Marco; Tram, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Short BaseLine (SBL) neutrino oscillation anomalies hint at the presence of a sterile neutrino with a mass of around 1 eV. However, such a neutrino is incompatible with cosmological data, in particular observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. However, this conclusion can change by invoking new physics. One possibility is to introduce a secret interaction in the sterile neutrino sector mediated by a light pseudoscalar. In this pseudoscalar model, CMB data prefer a sterile neutrino mass that is fully compatible with the mass ranges suggested by SBL anomalies. In addition, this model predicts a value of the Hubble parameter which is completely consistent with local measurements.

  5. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation; Esterilizacion de tejidos biologicos con radiacion ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Martinez P, M.E.; Luna Z, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  6. Biodegradable implantable fluconazole delivery rods designed for the treatment of fungal osteomyelitis: influence of gamma sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, I; Martín, A Y; Evora, C; Sánchez, E

    2006-06-01

    Fluconazole poly(D,L-lactic) acid (PLA) and poly(L-lactic) acid (L-PLA) implantable delivery rods were studied, in vitro and in vivo, as an alternative treatment of fungal osteomyelitis. Implantable rods loaded with 5% fluconazole (FLU) were prepared by the injection-molding method and sterilized by gamma-irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy. Loading efficiency, physical chemistry (high performance liquid chromatography, X-ray diffraction, gel permeation chromatography), and in vitro and in vivo release assays were performed to evaluate the novel delivery systems and the sterilization effect on implant characteristics. In spite of polymer degradation after gamma-irradiation, the loading efficiency, chemical stability, and crystallographic structure of FLU were not affected. In vivo studies were carried out in femoral bone marrow of rabbits. Approximately 85 and 80% of the total dose were released within 12 and 4 weeks from PLA and L-PLA rods, respectively. This showed a faster release rate of FLU in vivo than in vitro, showing almost zero-order kinetics from PLA rods. PMID:16514603

  7. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia F Oliva

    Full Text Available Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs.

  8. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  9. Upgrading sterilization in the orthodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, J F

    1986-04-01

    In today's orthodontic practice, disease control must undergo major reevaluation and restructuring. The knowledge of the natural history and treatment of many highly transmissible diseases to which orthodontic personnel are at high risk is changing rapidly. Among these diseases are acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus, and the herpesvirus complex (currently five types). If barrier techniques are not in place, it is possible to cross-infect orthodontic personnel and patients alike. Clinical orthodontics, with its higher volume of patients (on a daily basis) than other dental practices, requires a custom-made sterilization schema tailored to each office. Proper organization of instruments to permit orderly processing, storing, and use is even more important than before. Turnaround time of processing instruments, corrosion control, and minimizing of dulling of cutting edges are critical. Treatment of surfaces and chair/unit facilities with improved disinfection techniques is a necessity. Protection of hands and eyes by appropriate means is discussed with practical guidelines for the use of gloves by chairside personnel. Many fomites (inanimate disease transmitters) lurk in the orthodontic office and must be eliminated. Finally, the most important ingredient to any change--the orthodontic office staff--must be enlightened, trained, and supervised by the orthodontist to effectively and efficiently switch from the old to the new.

  10. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  11. Compulsory Sterilization: The Change in India's Population Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulhati, Kaval

    1977-01-01

    Reviews India's previous stand regarding family planning which favored the notion that economic development would provide the incentive for fertility control. Recent recommendations, however, include raising minimum marriage age for girls and increasing incentives for acceptance of sterilization. (CS)

  12. Light sterile neutrino in the minimal extended seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the recent observations on sterile neutrinos, we present a minimal extension of the canonical type-I seesaw by adding one extra singlet fermion. After the decoupling of right-handed neutrinos, an eV-scale mass eigenstate is obtained without the need of artificially inserting tiny mass scales or Yukawa couplings for sterile neutrinos. In particular, the active-sterile mixing is predicted to be of the order of 0.1. Moreover, we show a concrete flavor A4 model, in which the required structures of the minimal extended seesaw are realized. We also comment on the feasibility of accommodating a keV sterile neutrino as an attractive candidate for warm dark matter.

  13. Isolation of Endophytic Streptomyces Strains from Surface-Sterilized Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, P.; Saracchi, M.; Quaroni, S.; Petrolini, B.; Borgonovi, G. E.; Merli, S.

    1992-01-01

    When the roots of 28 plant species were surface sterilized and incubated on agar medium, endophytic actinomycetes in the root cortex were observed by direct microscopic observation and pure culture techniques.

  14. Impact of sterile neutrinos in lepton flavour violating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Romeri, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    We discuss charged lepton flavour violating processes occurring in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions. We firstly investigate the possibility of their indirect detection at a future high-luminosity Z-factory (such as FCC-ee). Rare decays such as Z → l 1 ± l 2 ± can indeed be complementary to low-energy (high-intensity) observables of lepton flavour violation. We further consider a sterile neutrino-induced charged lepton flavour violating process occurring in the presence of muonic atoms: their (Coulomb enhanced) decay into a pair of electrons μ¯e¯ → e¯e¯. Our study reveals that, depending on their mass range and on the active-sterile mixing angles, sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the above mentioned observables, some of them even lying within present and future sensitivity of dedicated cLFV experiments and of FCC-ee.

  15. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the sterilization of microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of reactive oxygen species on living cells, including various microbes, is discussed. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores reveals that an argoneoxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby indicating that oxygen radic...

  16. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, Mioara [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IRASM Radiation Processing Centre (Romania)]. E-mail: m_alexandru@irasm.ro; Ene, Mihaela [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IRASM Radiation Processing Centre (Romania)

    2007-08-15

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  17. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  18. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...

  19. Self-shielding Electron Beam Installation for Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linac; Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has developed a self-shielding electron beam installationfor sterilization as handling letters with anthrax germ or spores which has the least volume and the least

  20. [Packaging in the process of radiation sterilization. II. Physicochemical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, W; Burczak, K; Czerniawski, E

    1986-01-01

    The penetrability of the ionizing radiation through the matter makes possible the sterilization of the medical devices in the packed form by radiation method. The effect of the radiation should not bring any destructive changes in the material used for the package. In this paper have been discussed the results of the investigations of the one--and multilayer packaging materials from the point of view their utility for the radiation sterilization purposes. The changes of the useful parameters of the investigated materials have been determined in the dependence on the absorbed dose immediately after irradiation and the period of the durable keeping after the sterilization. The results of the mechanical investigations in the correlation to the results of the microbiological effects of the sterilized materials enabled to draw practical conclusions concerned the usability of the particular packages. PMID:3797357

  1. Tips for maintaining sterilization in your orthodontic work station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Panchali; Jyothikiran, H

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization and disinfection have been a matter of concern amongst dental health care workers since long. Delicate materials, electrical parts, orthodontic pliers, orthodontic wire cutters, are to be treated according to the manufacturer's instructions to safe guard the life of the instrument as well as to claim warranty for any damage incurred. Sterilization procedures used in Orthodontics should be simple but effective and of relatively short duration so that there is a readily available supply of sterile instruments and materials. The procedure should not cause any appreciable damage to dental instruments and other materials. An attempt has been made through this article, to provide information concerning methods and means of disinfection and sterilization of orthodontic clinics, instruments, materials and also waste disposal which can be adopted in private clinics as well as in hospital set ups.

  2. Light sterile neutrinos from a late phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Light sterile neutrinos represent a well-motivated extension of the 3-neutrino paradigm. However, the impressive agreement between standard cosmology and data casts doubts on their existence. Here we present a class of scenarios that robustly avoids this tension. In these models the sterile neutrinos are light, chiral states of a new sector interacting with the Standard Model via the right-handed neutrino portal and, crucially, active-sterile neutrino oscillations require a phase transition in the hidden sector. We explore the hidden-couplings/critical-temperature plane and identify regions where several sterile neutrinos can be accommodated. A late phase transition is usually preferred and may also ward off a potential threat posed by the formation of topologically stable defects.

  3. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  4. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  5. Light sterile neutrinos and pseudoscalar interactions in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gariazzo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The Short BaseLine (SBL) neutrino oscillations anomalies hint at the presence of a sterile neutrino with a mass of around 1 eV. However, such neutrino is highly incompatible with the cosmological data, in particular from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), if no new physics is assumed. An interesting possibility for reconciling the 1 eV sterile neutrino presence in cosmology is related to the existence of a new pseudoscalar interaction. If the sterile neutrinos experience such a pseudoscalar interaction, the cosmological analyses of the full CMB data prefer a sterile neutrino mass that is fully compatible with the SBL determinations. The additional interaction allows to obtain also an improved compatibility of the cosmological predictions with the local measurements of the Hubble parameter.

  6. Effects of active-sterile neutrino mixing during primordial nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Saez, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we discuss the effects of the inclusion of sterile-active neutrino oscillations during the production of primordial light-nuclei. We assume that the sterile neutrino mass-eigenstate might oscillate with the two lightest active neutrino mass- eigenstates, with mixing angles ${\\phi}_1$ and ${\\phi}_2$. We also allow a constant renormalization (represented by a parameter (${\\zeta}$)) of the sterile neutrino occupation factor. Taking ${\\zeta}$ and the mixing angles as free parameters, we have computed distribution functions of active and sterile neutrinos and primordial abundances. Using observable data we set constrains in the free parameters of the model. It is found that the data on primordial abundances are consistent with small mixing angles and with a value of ${\\zeta}$ smaller than 0.65 at 3${\\sigma}$ level.

  7. Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernova simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, MacKenzie L; Mathews, Grant; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that an interesting oscillation in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

  8. Bounds on sterile neutrino mixing for cosmologically interesting mass range

    CERN Document Server

    Nunokawa, H; Rossi, A; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    This talk summarizes our recent work which studied the impact of resonant neutrino) conversions on supernova physics, under the assumption that the mass of the sterile state is in the few eV -cosmologically significant range.

  9. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. FFP is available in expenditures for the sterilization of an individual only...

  10. The Microwave Sterilizer Design and Study to the Solidified Media of the Edible Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Geng Yuefeng; Ge Xinfeng; Zhao Daxu

    2013-01-01

    The microwave sterilization equipment is designed according to the microwave sterilization craft of solid culture medium in fungus growth. The designed microwave sterilization facility contains microwave power generator, microwave sterilizer, control system, transmission system and so on. From the setting-to-work test, the design was success.

  11. The Optimal Release of Sterile Males in Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    With an application of the sterile insect technique, it is our goal to know the optimal rate of production of sterile males in order to control an insect pest invasion and protect crops. Starting with a fundametal relationship between costs of production and feeding rates, we construct an objective functional. We then use the relationships between the dierent stages of female reproduction to build the state equations. Once, we have dened the optimal control problem, we use the simulated annea...

  12. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology. PMID:24484130

  13. Search for Sterile Neutrinos at Long and Short Baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino physics is currently suffering from lack of knowledge from at least four major ingredients. One of them is the presence or not of new sterile neutrino states at the mass scale of around 1 eV. Settling this point should be the highest priority for the neutrino community. We will discuss the state-of-the art of experimental searches for sterile neutrinos with accelerators, both at long and short baselines.

  14. Bioluminescence for USP sterility testing of pharmaceutical suspension products.

    OpenAIRE

    Bussey, D M; K. Tsuji

    1986-01-01

    Bioluminescence measurement significantly improved the accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and reliability of the current visual endpoint determination for the USP sterility test and eliminated the day 7 transfer/dilution step required for testing suspension products. Thirteen strains of bacteria and fungi (representing potential contaminants in sterile products), three pharmaceutical suspension products, and four media were used in the experiment. No interference from suspension products was e...

  15. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  16. Pharmaceutical aerosols. Study of their gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical aerosols was studied. The following topics were investigated: radiosterilization of nitrogen protoxide used as a propellant; radiosterilization of packaging materials (aluminium containers, plastics valves); radio-sterilization of excipients and active ingredients. Most of the investigated materials proved to be stable to irradiation (2,5 Mrads) from pharmacopoeial aspect. Stability tests of the preparations packaged showed no change in the parameters investigated

  17. A dominant gene for male sterility in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Shu

    Full Text Available A natural male sterile mutant of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Sh-B was found during field survey in 2002. Our objective was to analyze its genetic mechanism for producing F1 hybrid seeds and to develop a molecular marker linked to male sterile gene for selection of a hybrid parent line. The segregation ratios of male sterile plants to fertile plants in the progenies of both testcross and backcross were 1:1 in continuous experiments conducted in 2006-2009. The male sterile Sh-B was heterozygous (Msms. The male sterile plants could capture most pollen (2 granule/cm(2·24 h with row ratio (female:male 2:1 within 45-cm distance and harvest the largest amount of 6495 g hybrid seeds per hectare. We also developed DNA markers linked to the male sterile gene in a segregating population using bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP techniques. The segregating population was subjected to BSA-AFLP with 128 primer combinations. One out of fourteen AFLP markers (E11/M4208 was identified as tightly linked to the dominant male sterile gene with a recombination frequency of 6.85% and at a distance of 6.89 cM. This marker could be converted to PCR-based assay for large-scale selection of fertile plants in MAS (marker-assisted selection at the seedling stage. Blastn analysis indicated that the male sterile gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1-5, and was more likely to encode S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, in which DNA methylation regulated the development of plant gametogenesis.

  18. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  19. Overview on different sterilization techniques for baby food

    OpenAIRE

    SÀrkkÀ-Tirkkonen, Marjo; VÀisÀnen, Hanna-Maija; Beck, Alex; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Seidel, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    The nutritional quality of the product as well as other quality attributes like microbiological and sensory quality are essential factors in baby food industry, and therefore different alternative sterilizing methods for conventional heating processes are of great interest in this food sector. This report gives an overview on different sterilization techniques for baby food. The report is a part of the work done in work package 3 ”QACCP Analysis Processing: Quality – driven distribution ...

  20. Historical Events of “Making Peace with Rulers of Minority Nationalities in the Border Areas Through Marriage” in the Western Regions by the Hun%匈奴西域“和亲”史事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子今

    2012-01-01

    Before the political and cultural influence of the Han dynasty entered the western regions,the Hun once exercised control over"Loulan,Wusun,Hujie and other twenty-six countries".After the Han culture extended to the western regions,the Hun force still tried repeatedly and persistently to gain control of the western regions by diplomatic and military means."Making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"is one of the diplomatic means used by the Hun for the control of the countries in the western regions.The Hun once tried the strategy of"making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"in terms of the several countries in the western regions.For the strategy of"making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"used by the Han dynasty,the Hun tried desperately to destroy its implementation.%在汉王朝政治文化影响进入西域之前,匈奴曾经施行对"楼兰、乌孙、呼揭及其旁二十六国"的控制。汉文化扩张至西域后,匈奴势力依然反复对这一地区进行军事外交的顽强争夺。"和亲",是匈奴控制西域国家的外交方式之一。匈奴在施用军事高压的同时,也曾经对西域数国推行"和亲"策略。对于汉王朝与西域国家的"和亲",匈奴亦竭力予以破坏。

  1. Genetic diagnosis of cytoplasmic male sterile cybrid plants of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, H; Nakamura, A; Sawada, R; Oka, M; Fujimura, T

    1995-06-01

    Twelve Japanese rice cultivars were converted to CMS by asymmetric protoplast fusion with MTC-5A, the cytoplasm of which was derived from an indica rice, Chinsurah Boro II. With the exception of the cybrids that had a nucleus from Hoshiyutaka, most of these cybrid plants were sterile. The unique sequence downstream from the mitochondrial atp6 of MTC-5A was specifically amplified in the sterile cybrid plants by PCR. All progenies of the cybrid plants carrying this unique sequence were sterile. On the other hand, in some of the sterile cybrid plants in which the unique sequence was not amplified by PCR, fertility was recovered in their progenies. Somaclonal mutation may have caused sterility in these cybrids. Only the cybrid plants that had the unique sequence detected by PCR were CMS. Thus, the CMS plants can be selected rapidly and easily by PCR, at an early stage of plant regeneration. Soon after transplanting the regenerated plants to a green house, fertile cybrids and sterile cybrids produced by somaclonal mutation can be removed. These findings also show that the unique region downstream from atp6 is tightly linked with the CMS phenotype. PMID:24173048

  2. Gamma radiations an effective way of monoclonal antibodies sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization for radiations of pharmaceutical products is an effective, sure and reliable procedure; that it have been proving technically and grateful for different pharmacopoeia. The Monoclonal Antibodies (Acm) produced in the Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM) are products parenteral for the one which results indispensable that they complete the requirements of established sterility. The radio sterilization result the method more recommend for the sterilization of the Acm deep drying, due to the contained first floor of humidity remnant that minimizes the formation of sub-product that they affect their properties. With the objective of proposing a good dose of irradiation for the sterilization, we were carried out a study of the radius sensibility so much of the product like of the polluting of greater frequency of isolation of the clean area of the CIM. The characterization of the radius sensibility of the different micro- organisms was determined by D10 characteristic of each isolated strains. From the developed studies the Gram-positive rods endospore-forming were the most resistant strains at the deep drying, the radiations and they were of the greater frequency of apparition in the carried out isolations. We could conclude that utilizing a dose of 10 kGy it is possible to eliminate of the pollution more radio resistant, assuring the sterility required in the product, and without inducing effects under desire radiolytic in the same

  3. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-01-01

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.).

  4. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  5. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  6. Implications of Higgs Sterility for the Higgs and Stop Sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun; Li, Jinmin; Li, Tianjun

    2013-01-01

    The LHC data implies that the newly discovered Higgs boson h may be sterile (highly SM-like). In supersymmetric SMs (SSMs), Higgs couplings are often modified by Higgs mixing and stop loop corrections, so we study the Higgs sterility in the Higgs and stop sectors in two SSMs: (I) The Minimal SSM (MSSM). In the nearly decoupling region, the doublet-doublet mixing effect can only enhance C_{hb\\bar b} by 2m_Z^2/M_A^2. Sterility places M_A\\gtrsim 900 GeV. But it hardly constrains the stop sector due to the heaviness of Higgs boson mass m_h; (II) The next to MSSM(NMSSM). In the presence of doublet-singlet mixing, the mixing structure is complicated. We find a simple approximation to understand Higgs sterility and its implications, says the amount of pushing-up m_h\\lesssim 5 GeV while the pulling-down scenario is favored. Stops can be light here, so Higgs sterility significantly constrains them directly and indirectly except for blind spots. We also study the LHC features of the whole stop sector facing a sterile H...

  7. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...

  8. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  9. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  10. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C -P; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-01-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile-to-active neutrino conversion gives rise to not only radiative decay of a sterile neutrino, but also its non-standard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic X-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with germanium detectors that have fine energy resolution in keV and sub-keV regimes, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from ast...

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  12. Feudal villains or just rulers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller-Hann, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    on the ground. Versions of local histories are communicated both in censored publications and in informally transmitted oral narratives, which are not independent realms but in constant dialogue with each other. Produced at the interface of the oral and the written, these representations are laden...... with contradictions and ambiguities, portraying the Muslim dynasty sometimes as feudal exploiters, at other times as models of good governance. It will be shown how historical knowledge is produced at the junctures of the oral and the written, and of official and unofficial discourses....

  13. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  14. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  15. Multiple matings among glossina and the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that multiple matings are a common phenomenon among glossina turns the sterile male technique into a competition not between adult insects but between two types of sperm, and the proportion of females inseminated with the one or the other is given by the binomial (p+q)sup(n), where p is the percentage of normal males, q the percentage of sterile males and n the average number of matings per female. However, multiple matings cannot damage the effectiveness of the technique unless two conditions are present either separately or simultaneously: precocious death of the spermatozoa and reduced inseminating potential among the sterile males. Study of the factors which can alter the inseminating potential is thus important for those who wish to use the sterile male technique. These factors are of three kinds: factors connected with quality, with quantity and with availability. The first are associated with the nature and intensity of the alterations brought about in the spermatozoa by the sterilizing agent, the second with possible variations in the amount of sperm reaching the spermotheca, the third with the behaviour of the sterile males in the nature - that is, the question whether sterilization has a favourable or unfavourable influence on their chances of mating with wild females. The author describes his observations of the quantity of sperm produced by Glossina morsitans submorsitans males from the colony reared at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medicine in Lisbon, compares them with the observations of other authors and discusses their practical significance. Specific research is suggested. Advantages from assessing the behaviour of colonies not by female productivity but by male inseminating potential, and appropriate laboratory techniques

  16. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii.

  17. Culture of osteoblasts on bio-derived bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu; YANG Zhi-ming; GE Bao-feng; LIU Xue-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bio-derived bones, as substitutes of autogenous bone grafts and demineralized cadaver bones, on the attachment, spreading and proliferation of isolated osteoblasts. Methods: Osteoblasts were isolated from the calvaria of a fetal rabbit through sequential collagenase digestion. In the attachment study, the osteoblasts labeled with 3H-leucine were incubated with the bio-derived bone materials in sterile microcentrifugale tubes for 15, 90 and 180 minutes, and 24 hours, respectively. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. In the proliferation study, the osteoblasts were cultured with the bio-derived bone materials for 24 hours and 3H-thymidine was added during the last 2 hours of the incubation. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. Osteoblasts were seeded on the bone graft materials for 60 or 120 minutes, 24 or 48 hours, and 3 or 7 days, then the co-culture was processed for scanning electron microscopy to observe the interaction of osteoblasts and the bio-derived bone materials. Results: Osteoblasts attached to the bio-derived bone materials in a time-dependent manner. There were significantly (P<0.05) more attached cells after 180 minutes than after 15 and 90 minutes of incubations (P<0.05). Osteoblasts were proliferated in a large amount on the surface and in the materials. Osteoblasts seeded onto 100 mg bio-derived bones resulted in significantly (P<0.05) more measurable proliferation than those seeded onto 10 mg bones. Osteoblasts appeared round as they attached to the materials, then flattened and spread over with time passing. Conclusions: Bio-derived bones can provide a good environment for the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  18. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  19. Amendment to the Weld Reinforcement Measurement of AW Pipe with General Welding Measurement Ruler%通用焊接检验尺测量埋弧焊管焊缝余高的修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓锋; 李为卫; 徐婷

    2009-01-01

    The precise measurement and control of the weld reinforcement of SAW pipe is an important part to guaranty the welding quality.When longitudinal weld reinforcement is measured by 40-type welding measurement ruler,there will be a measurement deviation because of the measuring tool and the behavior of operation,which affects the quality evaluation of the product.This article analyzed the generating cause of measurement deviation adopting 40-type welding measurement ruler to measure longitudinal weld reinforcement,put forward detailed and feasible method for amendment.%焊缝余高的精确测量和控制是埋弧焊管焊接质量的重要保证.采用40型通用焊接检验尺测量钢管纵向焊缝余高时,由于测量工具和操作等方面的原因,会产生一定的测量偏差,影响产品质量评价.分析了采用40型通用焊接检验尺测量钢管纵向焊缝余高时产生测量偏差的原因,并提出了具体、可行的修正方法.

  20. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - discharge; ...

  1. Sterilization. Low-income women have special counseling needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    An increasing percentage of low income women are using sterilization as a method of contraception. 26% of low income women in 1982 used sterilization; 37% used it in 1988. This group of women has less access to services and information than women in other income brackets, who use sterilization less. A 16 page booklet, which is based on a study, conducted from 1985-1989 at three hospital clinics, of 1800 low income women, has been prepared by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) for use by counselors. According to Joseph Feldman of Planned Parenthood of Central and Northern Arizona (PPCNA), low motivation to postpone pregnancy (due to concentration on the roles of wife and mother) and a sense of powerlessness over their lives are problems among poor women. Libby Antarsh of AVSC states the booklet has been designed to give women all the information necessary for an informed decision. Susan Philliber of the State University of New York at New Paltz, one of the investigators in the study, says the booklet removes one of the barriers to sterilization by alleviating the fears of physicians concerned about litigation. Barriers faced by low income women in undergoing sterilization, as revealed by the study, include 1) inadequate health care services and overburdened clinic staff; 2) less access to information about contraception, and less knowledge about using the health care system; and 3) little economic or psychological support for these, often, single parents. Culture effects support for the women and their ability to use the information provided. The number of women who actually follow through on being sterilized is double among those with the approval of their male partners. Counselors should include partners and discuss the influences of others who are pressuring the woman (friends, family, physicians). The woman should separate her feelings, but be aware of the consequences of the disapproval of others. Accurate information concerning

  2. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  3. Cutting effectiveness of diamond instruments subjected to cyclic sterilization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureckis, K M; Burgess, J O; Schwartz, R S

    1991-12-01

    The effect of repeated sterilization on the cutting effectiveness of one brand of rotary dental diamond cutting instruments was measured. Four groups of five diamond burs were sterilized by four methods: (1) sterilization with a chemical agent (Sporicidin); (2) steam under pressure (autoclave); (3) dry heat (Dri-Clave); or (4) chemical vapor (Chemiclave). Each group of diamond instruments made a timed cut in a ceramic block. This cut and all subsequent cuts were measured and were used to determine a baseline cutting effectiveness. Each group of diamond burs was then ultrasonically cleaned, sterilized, and another cut was made. At the end of 10 cycles there was no difference in cutting efficiency of the dental diamond instruments. However, there are differences in the cutting efficiency of individual diamond instruments. The SEM evaluation made prior to cutting and at the end of the 10 cycles of sterilization demonstrated that diamond wear was similar in all groups and that little diamond particle loss occurred in any group. PMID:1666657

  4. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm432 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  5. Measuring growth index in a Universe with sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing-Fei; Li, Yun-He [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2014-12-12

    Consistency tests for the general relativity (GR) can be performed by constraining the growth index γ using the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD) in conjunction with other observations. In previous studies, deviations from the GR expected value of γ≈0.55 at the 2–3σ level were found. In this work, we reconsider the measurement of γ in a Universe with sterile neutrinos. We constrain the sterile neutrino cosmological model using the RSD measurements combined with the cosmic microwave background data (Planck temperature data plus WMAP 9-yr polarization data), the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich cluster counts data, and the galaxy shear data. We obtain the constraint result of the growth index, γ=0.584{sub −0.048}{sup +0.047}, well consistent with the GR expected value (the consistency is at the 0.6σ level). For the parameters of sterile neutrino, we obtain N{sub eff}=3.62{sub −0.42}{sup +0.26} and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff}=0.48{sub −0.14}{sup +0.11} eV. We also consider the BICEP2 data and perform an analysis on the model with tensor modes. Similar fit results are obtained, showing that once light sterile neutrino is considered in the Universe, GR will become well consistent with the current observations.

  6. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Junting [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm412 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  7. Radiation sterilization and effective utilization of sewer sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and disposal of the sludge that is generated in sewage treatment plants in large quantity have become a social problem. At present it is disposed mostly by landfill or reclamation. The research and development of the effective utilization of sewer sludge as fertilizer after sterilizing it by radiation have been carried out since relatively long ago. In this report, the technology of the sterilization and effective utilization of sludge by using radiation is introduced, centering around the research carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The general treatment process for sewage in Japan is explained. Sewer sludge is a useful resource, but when it is used for farmland as fertilizer, the problems are the possibility of the contamination with high concentration heavy metals, the possibility of the contamination by pathogenic bacteria and parasites and the bad smell of sludge. The radiation sterilization of sewer sludge, the electron sterilization of sewer sludge, the basic test and the pilot plant test on making compost, the effect of applying electron beam-sterilized sludge compost, and the economical efficiency of this process are reported. Accompanying recent environment pollution, small amount of harmful substances have become to be mixed in sludge, and it becomes the obstacle to the effective use of sludge. (K.I.)

  8. Genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvez A. Sofi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait that suppresses pollen production due to the interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In maize three types of CMS systems, namely CMS-T, CMS-S and CMS-C, have been documented and are differentiated by the reaction to restorers, mitochondrial DNA restriction digest patterns, and complements of low molecular weight plasmids. CMS-T is restored fully by Rf-1 and Rf-2, CMS-S by Rf-3, and CMS-C by Rf-4. All restorer genes except Rf-2 restore fertility by affecting the transcript profile of CMS-associated locus. The sterility is caused by the disorganization of the tapetum and surrounding cell layers as a result of the expression of pollen specific genes. Even though such phenotypes are associated with gene dysfunction in mitochondria, the chloroplasts have emerged as ideal organs for engineering male sterility in crop plants. A number of systems such as barnase-barstar have been standardized in Brassica. Recently, polyhydroxy butyrate was identified as a potential candidate gene for engineering male sterility. Moreover, a broad group of proteins called PPR (pentatricopeptide repeat proteins has also shown to hold great promise for engineering male sterility in crop plants as most of the restorers belong to this category. In maize one such protein, CRP-1, has been identified

  9. Research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. There are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the restrictions of capacity and inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  10. Fracture of Polymer-Coated Nitinol During Gamma Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Dennis W.

    2012-12-01

    After gamma sterilization of a packaged medical device, fractures were discovered in the superelastic nitinol wire used as part of the assembly. The nitinol wire was encased in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) shrink tube. The only fractures occurred where the encased wire was held under strain during gamma sterilization. A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of nitinol to this type of failure. The variables studied included wire diameter, wire surface finish, wire oxide layer, quantity of wires encased, type of tubing, and strain level during gamma sterilization. The greatest susceptibility to fracture occurred to single wire samples with a light oxide layer held under high strain in FEP shrink tube. Gamma sterilization experiments were conducted to isolate and confirm this failure mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fractured samples. Chemical analysis was performed in an attempt to detect trace elements to determine the root cause of the failures. Stress corrosion cracking caused by the liberation of fluorine due to the degradation of the polymer during gamma sterilization is suspected.

  11. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubour, Jean; Jenson, Katherine; Richter, Hannah; Yarbrough, Josiah; Oden, Z Maria; Schuler, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

  12. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed. PMID:27515140

  13. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action.

  14. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  15. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products. PMID:26041224

  16. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  17. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC's Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as $10^{-11}$.

  18. Sterile Neutrino portal to Dark Matter II: Exact Dark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, Miguel; Sanz, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a dark sector composed of a scalar and a fermion, both singlets under the SM gauge group but charged under a dark sector symmetry group. Sterile neutrinos, which are singlets under both groups, mediate the interactions between the dark sector and the SM particles, and generate masses for the active neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. We explore the parameter space region where the observed Dark Matter relic abundance is determined by the annihilation into sterile neutrinos, both for fermion and scalar Dark Matter particles. The scalar Dark Matter case provides an interesting alternative to the usual Higgs portal scenario. We also study the constraints from direct Dark Matter searches and the prospects for indirect detection via sterile neutrino decays to leptons, which may be able to rule out Dark Matter masses below and around 100 GeV.

  19. A study on radiation sterilization of SPF animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPF animal feed could be infected with various microorganisms in the crushing or granulating process. Fumigation with chemicals is generally employed for sterilization of feeds, but owing to low permeability of the chemicals, this sterilization method is not very good, and there may be residual chemicals in the feed. Research results of sterilization by radiation show that irradiation by 60Co gamma rays will reduce infections for SPF animals. 8 kGy can kill microorganisms in the feed with satisfactory efficiency. After the irradiation treatment with different doses, the changes of nutrient components in the feeds, such as crude fats, coarse fibres, calcium, phosphorus, salts and amino acids, were not found to change in our tests. (author)

  20. Axion-Assisted Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  1. Performance of annular flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T.; Yoneya, M.; Ohashi, H. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted on the UV-inactivation characteristics of Bacillus subtilis spores in an annular-flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp located at the center of the inner tube. Experimental results for sterilizer performance in laminar spore-suspension flow were well simulated dynamically and statically by theoretical considerations which incorporated multi-targets with single-hit model for the UV-inactivation kinetic and the diffuse light model for the angle characteristic of lamp, along with due attention to the parabolic velocity distribution and the negligible diffusion of spores. Scale on the outside wall of the inner tube was checked by the use of a cylindrical chemical actinometer. Calculated examples elucidate the reason why careful inspection is needed of UV-inactivation kinetics, angle characteristics of lamp, and fluid mixing to evaluate performance of actual flow UV sterilizers at high extent of inactivation up to the order of 99.999%.

  2. Population suppression and sterility rates induced by variable sex ratio, sterile insect releases of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile insect releases of a pupal color-based genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were made during the summer and fall of 1991 in coffee plantations in Kauai, HI. Four treatments compared with respect to trap recapture and sterility rates induced in native populations were: (1) genetic sexing strain (≍99% males = males only), (2) genetic sexing strain (males and females), (3) genetic sexing strain (high % ♀ ♀), and (4) standard strain (males and females). Each week either 2 liters (≍120,000) of irradiated pupae for the bisexual populations or 1 liter of irradiated pupae for the unisexual populations were dye-marked and ground released in buckets. Adult flies emerged and dispersed throughout individual (≍1 ha) coffee fields. Flies were trapped weekly in standard dry traps or in liquid protein traps. Coffee berry samples were collected weekly to determine egg sterility rates, and females trapped in liquid protein were dissected for presence of sperm and sperm type. A new technique was developed to type sperm as either sterile (irradiated) or wild in mated females. An estimate of sterile fly competitiveness based on relative degrees of egg hatch suppression indicated an overall three- to five-fold increase in competitiveness of the males-only strain compared with the standard bisexual strain. Significantly, however, this difference even widened to a qualitative degree by the end of the test

  3. Absorption capacity and toxicity of paper points after sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Marubayashi Hidalgo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the sterilization process on paper cones as regards their absorption capacity, and consequently, root canal drying, in addition to the possible release of any antimicrobial or cytotoxic product. Methods: The cones used were of three of the brands found on the Brazilian market Dentsply (Dentsply Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Petrópolis, Brazil, Endopoints (Endopoints Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Paraíba do Sul, Brazil and Tanari (Tanari Industrial Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil. To evaluate the absorption capacity, the cones were submitted to four sterilization cycles, and the modified Holland technique was performed. The antimicrobial/cytotoxic capacity was verified by means of depositing the sterilized cones in Petri dishes containing Miller-Hinton Agar and Blood Agar, seeded with S.aureus and E. coli. Results: The Dentsply (Dentsply Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Petrópolis, Brazil and Tanari (Tanari Industrial Ltda., São Paulo, Brazilcones presented greater absorption after the first sterilization cycle, followed by a drop in the second and third cycles, and a new increase in the fourth cycle. For the Endopoints (Endopoints Indústria e Comércio Ltda., Paraíba do Sul, Brazil cones, the values were inverted, with a small drop in absorption after the first cycle, increase in the second and third cycles, and a new drop in the fourth cycle. None of the cones presented antimicrobial activity after the sterilization process. Conclusion: The sterilization process by damp heat does not alter the properties of absorption and there is no release of by-products from the tested paper cones.

  4. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  5. Economical aspects of radiation sterilization with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization has been introduced in Poland in the early seventies. Since then continuous progress is observed in quantity of sterilized products. The commercial irradiation facility was built in 1993 to fulfill growing demands for radiation service. The real costs of running this plant were shown. The share of the cost of investment and the cost of maintenance and spare parts in accelerator exploitation, as well as the cost of one hour accelerator exploitation against time of one year accelerator exploitation were taken into account

  6. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  7. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frias, Jose E [Instituto de BioquImica Vegetal y FotosIntesis (IBVF-CSIC). Centro de Investigaciones CientIficas Isla de la Cartuja. Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: jhueso@icmse.csic.es

    2008-05-07

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma mixtures. The NO{sup *} species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O{sup *} and Ar{sup *} species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO{sup *} species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  8. Male sterile line in Rice Xu 29A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The line is an early Indica rice line of WA type and with early maturity. It is bred by CHHRRC and was released by HCVRC in January, 2000.Its maintaining line is bred with the backcrossing Progeny of V20A×the F3 of (Digu B×Jin 23B).The line is characterizied by its short growth duration,about two days earlier than Jin 23 A, Stable sterility which is proved by its sterile plant rate to 100%,aborted pollen rate to 99.99% and selfed seeds to zero under the tests by pollen microscopic inspection and bagged for selfing for multiple generations.

  9. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  10. Self-sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A body encountering the atmosphere of an outer planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  11. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. PMID:21315994

  12. [Medico-legal risks of human voluntary sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quinquis, P; Chevrant-Breton, O

    1986-01-01

    There has been no legislation in France explicitly authorizing voluntary sterilization, so that a practitioner carrying out a voluntary surgical sterilization runs a theoretical risk of lawsuit. Concern about the legal status of voluntary sterilization stems from 2 articles in the French penal code, article 16 which forbids the crime of castration, defined as the intentional complete and definitive amputation or removal of an organ necessary for procreation; and article 309 which forbids voluntary assault and battery resulting in death or inability to work for 8 days, or a lesser incapacity if the violence was premeditated. Vasectomy and tubal ligation differ from castration in that they do not involve removal or mutilation of the genital organs. Article 309 has been applied to a sterilization case only once. The criminal chamber of the Court of Cassation, France's highest appeals court, ruled in 1937 that the consent of the victim had no effect on penal responsibility, since individuals have no right to violate on their own persons the rules of public order by undergoing corporal injuries unjustified by medical need. There has been no penal judgment since 1937 in a voluntary sterilization case. In a 1983 judgment, the Court of Cassation upheld the responsibility of a surgeon for not informing a 28-year-old mother of 5 of the possibility of failure of the sterilization operation he performed on her. The patient found herself pregnant once again less than 1 month after the operation. Had she been informed of the possibility of pregnancy, she might have taken further precautions to avoid it. The court established a causal link between the problems created by the pregnancy and the fault of the physician in not providing adequate information. The court's decision was of interest because it included tubal ligation among surgical interventions condoned by the common law of medical responsibility, thereby implying acceptance of voluntary sterilization. The plaintiff

  13. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hansen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements. (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects...... of the old standards that have caused problems, when they were used in practice, are addressed in the revision. Input from users of the standards is necessary in order that the standards be developed as useful tools in the documentation of radiation sterilization. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights...

  14. Processing of gamma irradiated bone allografts for treatment of injuries in a nuclear scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone allografts fill an important void in the surgical practice of orthopaedic surgery, and their use to replace and reconstruct musculoskeletal structures following injury or disease has gained increasing acceptance by orthopaedic surgeons. Serious mechanical injuries in a nuclear scenario involving compression, displacement and missile hit will lead to high incidence of various kinds of bone fractures, spinal injuries and joint injuries apart from lethality, lung damage and eardrum rupture. Bone allografts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Autologous bone grafts, though ideal, have the drawback of secondary surgery for autograft retrieval, complications of infection and donor site morbidity. Bone allografts eliminate additional incision necessary for acquiring an autograft and consequently reduce operating time, blood loss as well as hospital and medical costs. However, disease transmission and bacterial infection in bone allograft transplantation is of significant concern. Sterilization by gamma irradiation is a definitive method for eliminating microorganisms and can prevent life-threatening allograft associated infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of bioburden assessment, radiation sterilization and clinical evaluation of bone allografts processed from femoral heads obtained from living donors. Femoral heads were obtained during surgery at Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, SN Medical College, Jodhpur and processed as freeze-dried bone allografts. Bioburden of bone allografts was found to be in the range of 2.26 to 3.59 log CFU/g. Verification dose for different batches of processing was 7.24±1.27 kGy. Radiological data of processed gamma irradiated bone grafts used in clinical cases of trauma surgery was recorded and has shown successful graft incorporation in allogenic recipients. (author)

  15. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  16. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  17. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  18. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  19. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  20. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  1. Laparoscopic Filshie clip sterilization and selective use of the methylene blue dye test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh; Yoong, Wai

    2004-01-01

    In laparoscopic Filshie clip sterilization, difficulties may arise in identifying the length of the fallopian tube, with the possibility of failure of sterilization. This article describes a novel intraoperative method of demonstrating adequate tubal closure. PMID:15481482

  2. Sterilization as last resort in women with intellectual disabilities: protection or disservice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insogna, Iris; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of the eugenics movement in the United States, including the involuntary sterilization of those deemed unfit to reproduce, has created a profound backlash against sterilization among certain populations. Particularly in treating women with intellectual disabilities, the field of obstetrics and gynecology has widely adopted an antisterilization stance. When treating women with intellectual disabilities, sterilization is generally considered a last resort. This essay revisits the issue of sterilization in women with intellectual disabilities, asking whether the field's stance of sterilization as a last resort is best viewed as a protection of this vulnerable population or one that actually does significant harm. We use a hypothetical but realistic patient case to examine the potential risks and benefits of sterilization. After reviewing the arguments against sterilization as a first-line treatment, we defend the controversial position that, in some cases, sterilization should be presented as an equally legitimate choice to reversible contraceptives. PMID:25447957

  3. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  4. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  5. 消毒供应中心常用低温灭菌技术%Common Hypothermia Sterilization Techniques in Central Sterile Supply Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓滨; 徐习

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the application status of hypothermia sterilization technique in central sterile supply department. A comparison was made among the three sterile techniques: ethylene oxide sterile technique, hydrogen peroxide hypothermia plasma sterile technique, and hypothermia steam formaldehyde sterile technique. The paper analyzed the sterilization principle, sterilization time, temperature, humidity control, sterilization effect, influential factors, and pros and cons of the three common hypothermia sterilization techniques.%本文分析了当前消毒供应中心常用低温灭菌技术的应用现状,对比了环氧乙烷低温灭菌技术、过氧化氢低温等离子灭菌技术、低温蒸汽甲醛灭菌技术3种低温灭菌技术的灭菌原理、时间、温度、湿度控制、灭菌效果、影响因素以及优点与局限性。

  6. Sterilization plants equipped with the isotopic gamma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation describes different isotopic gamma radiation sources applicable for sterilization of food and medical materials. Certain gamma pallet irradiators, mini gamma irradiators and different scale gamma tote irradiators are presented. It is concluded, that about two hundreds plants with gamma radiation sources operates in different countries. However, industrially developed countries must construct much more plants than operates now

  7. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions — lasting friendship with cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiaoyong [International Center for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34014 (Italy); Dasgupta, Basudeb [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Kopp, Joachim [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudingerweg 7, Mainz, 55128 (Germany)

    2015-10-06

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≃1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A{sup ′}. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A{sup ′}-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such “secret” interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space — one at very small A{sup ′} coupling, one at relatively large A{sup ′} coupling — where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A{sup ′} coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A{sup ′} boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  8. Checking T and CPT violation with sterile neutrino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Yogita; Diwakar, Sujata; Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, R. B.

    2016-08-01

    Post LSND results, sterile neutrinos have drawn attention and motivated the high energy physics, astronomy and cosmology to probe physics beyond the standard model considering minimal 3 + 1 (3 active and 1 sterile) to 3 + N neutrino schemes. The analytical equations for neutrino conversion probabilities are developed in this work for 3 + 1 neutrino scheme. Here, we have tried to explore the possible signals of T and CPT violations with four flavor neutrino scheme at neutrino factory. Values of sterile parameters considered in this analysis are taken from two different types of neutrino experiments viz. long baseline experiments and reactor+atmospheric experiments. In this work golden and discovery channels are selected for the investigation of T violation. While observing T violation we stipulate that neutrino factory working at 50 GeV energy has the potential to observe the signatures of T violation through discovery channel if sterile parameter values are equal to that taken from reactor+atmospheric experiments. The ability of neutrino factory for constraining CPT violation is enhanced with increase in energy for normal neutrino mass hierarchy (NH). Neutrino factory with the exposure time of 500 kt-yr will be able to capture CPT violation with δc31 ≥ 3.6 ×10-23 GeV at 3σ level for NH and for IH with δc31 ≥ 4 ×10-23 GeV at 3σ level.

  9. Quinacrine pellet nonsurgical female sterilization in Wonosobo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhadi, A; Soejoenoes, A

    1997-05-01

    A female sterilization regimen involving transcervical insertion of pellets containing 252 mg of quinacrine and 55.5 mg of ibuprofen in the proliferative phase of 2 consecutive menstrual cycles was found to be safe, acceptable, and effective. Subjects included 200 healthy volunteers (mean age, 33.2 years) who presented to a family planning clinic in Central Java Province, Indonesia, seeking sterilization. The insertion procedure (Kimia Farma) is similar to that for the Copper-T IUD. Only 3 women declined the second insertion. One month after insertion, side effects included lower abdominal pain (58.0%), fever (13.5%), and leukorrhea; however, these rates decreased to 0.5%, 2.0%, and 2.0%, respectively, 1 year after the second insertion and to 0.5%, 0.0%, and 1.6%, respectively, after 2 years. During the 2-year study period, 4 women became pregnant 4, 5, 14, and 18 months after the second insertion. The cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.0% 0-12 months after insertion and 2.0% in the second year. One of these women selected pregnancy termination; no malformations were noted in the 3 infants delivered. Quinacrine sterilization has the potential to meet the unmet need for female sterilization in developing countries without access to trained personnel and sophisticated surgical equipment.

  10. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...

  11. Evaluation of 10-year Microsurgical Tubal Reversal after Tubal Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 法韫玉; 罗冬英

    1996-01-01

    One thousand and twenty-nine women with microsurgical tubal reversal after tubal sterilization were followed up. The rate of intrauterine pregnancy was found to be 93. 29%. The rate of intrauterine pregnancy was the highest (73. 28 % ) in the first year after tubal reversal. In the firs tyear, the chance of pregnancy in the first 6 months was higher (54.81%) than that (40. 86%) in the second 6 months (P <0. 01), and the chance in the first 3 months was higher (37.41%) than that (27. 80%) in the second3 months (P<0. 01). The rates of ectopic pregnancy after tubal reversal in various stages were not significantly different (P >0. 05). The rate of intrauterine pregnancy was not related with the period from sterilization to tubal reversal. Early postoperative hydropertubation can only decrease the rate of intrauterine pregnancy. The rate of intrauterine pregnancy of the tubal reversal after Uchida’s method and clips tubal sterilization was higher than that after Pomeroy’s tubal ligation. The reanastomosis of isthmus and isthmus resulted in the highest rate of intrauterine pregnancy, so we think that Uchida’s or clips tubal sterilization in the isthmus of the tubal are ideal and reversible techniques at present.

  12. Is the observability of sterile neutrino masses consistent with $\

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlich, R

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that a 1980 proposal to search for heavy sterile neutrinos by observing the energy of the associated lepton in weak decays rests on an questionable assumption, and that the possibility of such a detection might be inconsistent with the observability of neutrino oscillations.

  13. Searches for Sterile Neutrinos with the IceCube Detector

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole has measured the atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum as a function of zenith angle and energy in the approximate 320 GeV to 20 TeV range, to search for the oscillation signatures of light sterile neutrinos. No evidence for anomalous $\

  14. 21 CFR 522.1890 - Sterile prednisone suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile prednisone suspension. 522.1890 Section 522.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... nephritis, or Cushings's disease. With infections, use appropriate antibacterial therapy with and for...

  15. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  16. Measuring growth index in a Universe with sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistency tests for the general relativity (GR can be performed by constraining the growth index γ using the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD in conjunction with other observations. In previous studies, deviations from the GR expected value of γ≈0.55 at the 2–3σ level were found. In this work, we reconsider the measurement of γ in a Universe with sterile neutrinos. We constrain the sterile neutrino cosmological model using the RSD measurements combined with the cosmic microwave background data (Planck temperature data plus WMAP 9-yr polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich cluster counts data, and the galaxy shear data. We obtain the constraint result of the growth index, γ=0.584−0.048+0.047, well consistent with the GR expected value (the consistency is at the 0.6σ level. For the parameters of sterile neutrino, we obtain Neff=3.62−0.42+0.26 and mν,sterileeff=0.48−0.14+0.11 eV. We also consider the BICEP2 data and perform an analysis on the model with tensor modes. Similar fit results are obtained, showing that once light sterile neutrino is considered in the Universe, GR will become well consistent with the current observations.

  17. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer... and other dental instruments by the application of dry heat. The heat is supplied through glass beads... application (PMA) or notice of completion of product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or...

  18. Astrophysical constraints on resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Resonantly produced sterile neutrinos are considered an attractive dark matter (DM) candidate only requiring a minimal, well motivated extension to the standard model of particle physics. With a particle mass restricted to the keV range, sterile neutrinos are furthermore a prime candidate for warm DM, characterised by suppressed matter perturbations at the smallest observable scales. In this paper we take a critical look at the validity of the resonant scenario in the context of constraints from structure formation. We compare predicted and observed number of Milky-Way satellites and we introduce a new method to generalise existing Lyman-$\\alpha$ limits based on thermal relic warm DM to the case of resonant sterile neutrino DM. The tightest limits come from the Lyman-$\\alpha$ analysis, excluding the entire parameter space (at 2-$\\sigma$ confidence level) still allowed by X-ray observations. Constraints from Milky-Way satellite counts are less stringent, leaving room for resonant sterile neutrino DM most notab...

  19. Astrophysical constraints on resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Aurel

    2016-04-01

    Resonantly produced sterile neutrinos are considered an attractive dark matter (DM) candidate only requiring a minimal, well motivated extension to the standard model of particle physics. With a particle mass restricted to the keV range, sterile neutrinos are furthermore a prime candidate for warm DM, characterised by suppressed matter perturbations at the smallest observable scales. In this paper we take a critical look at the validity of the resonant scenario in the context of constraints from structure formation. We compare predicted and observed number of Milky-Way satellites and we introduce a new method to generalise existing Lyman-α limits based on thermal relic warm DM to the case of resonant sterile neutrino DM . The tightest limits come from the Lyman-α analysis, excluding the entire parameter space (at 2-σ confidence level) still allowed by X-ray observations. Constraints from Milky-Way satellite counts are less stringent, leaving room for resonant sterile neutrino DM most notably around the suggested line signal at 7.1 keV.

  20. Search for heavy sterile neutrinos with SHiP

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    Invited contribution to the White Paper on keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter as proceedings of the v-Dark 2015 international workshop which was held at the Institute for Advanced Study of the Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany, 7 - 9 December 2015. White Paper will be submitted to JCAP.

  1. Structure of Self-shielding Electron Beam Installation for Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to prevent terrorist using letters with anthrax germ or spores to postal route and disturbsociety, and defend the people’s life-safety China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has developed aself-shielding electron beam installation for sterilization (SEBIS).

  2. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  3. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Ryder, Oliver A

    2013-01-01

    Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF) domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  4. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Steiner

    Full Text Available Prdm9 (Meisetz is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Pachytene Spermatocytes of Sterile Hybrid Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Yueshuai; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Weidong; Song, Gendi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Hefeng; Guo, Xuejiang; Sun, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Incompatibilities in interspecific hybrids, such as reduced hybrid fertility and lethality, are common features resulting from reproductive isolation that lead to speciation. Subspecies crosses of house mice produce offspring in which one sex is infertile or absent, yet the molecular mechanisms of hybrid sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in pachytene spermatocytes of sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male). We report the high-confidence identification of 4005 proteins in the pachytene spermatocytes of fertile F1 males (PWK/Ph male × C57BL/6J female) and sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male), of which 215 were upregulated and 381 were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteome led to the identification of 43 and 59 proteins known to be essential for male meiosis and spermatogenesis in mice, respectively. Characterization of the proteome of pachytene spermatocytes associated with hybrid male sterility provides an inventory of proteins that is useful for understanding meiosis and the mechanisms of hybrid male infertility.

  6. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  7. Properties of Resonantly Produced Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter Subhalos

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Abazajian, Kevork N; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly-adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism. Using accurate matter power spectra, we run cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo and explore the abundance of massive subhalos, their radial distributions, and their internal structure. We also simulate the halo with thermal 2.0 keV warm dark matter for comparison and discuss quantitative differences. We find that the resonantly produced sterile neutrino model for the 3.55 keV line provides a good description of structures in the Local Group, including the number of satellite...

  8. The use of sterilized mosquito nets for hernioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C G; Rosenberg, J

    2012-01-01

    Hernia repair is among the most frequent surgeries performed. Surgeons prefer the tension-free mesh repair, but in large parts of the world, commercial meshes are unavailable or unaffordable. Consequently, surgeons have been experimenting with insertion of inexpensive non-commercial meshes, the m......, the most common being a non-impregnated, sterilized mosquito net....

  9. Properties of resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter subhaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Bozek, Brandon; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-03-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism. Using accurate matter power spectra, we run cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo and explore the abundance of massive subhaloes, their radial distributions, and their internal structure. We also simulate the halo with thermal 2.0 keV warm dark matter for comparison and discuss quantitative differences. We find that the resonantly produced sterile neutrino model for the 3.55 keV line provides a good description of structures in the Local Group, including the number of satellite dwarf galaxies and their radial distribution, and largely mitigates the too-big-to-fail problem. Future searches for satellite galaxies by deep surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, will be a strong direct test of warm dark matter scenarios.

  10. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. PMID:26006188

  11. Radiation sterilization of plasticized PVC and some pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of medical products/containers fabricated from plastics, and pharmaceuticals are being sterilized by gamma radiation at ISOMED, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The chromatographic behaviour and UV absorption spectra of aquo/organic extracts from PVC based transfusion assemblies after radiation treatment and the effect of irradiation on urea, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ophthalmic ointment bases are discussed. (auth.)

  12. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions—lasting friendship with cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Sterile neutrinos with mass simeq 1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A'. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A'-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such ``secret'' interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space—one at very small A' coupling, one at relatively large A' coupling—where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A' coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A' boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation.

  14. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  15. Development and Validation of Sterility Systems for Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Steve; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Caiping (Cathleen)

    2007-03-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate sterility systems in poplar with the ultimate goal of fulfilling the basic requirements for commercial use. For this, sterility must be complete and stable over multiple growing seasons, cause no detrimental effects on vegetative growth, and successful transformation events must be identifiable via molecular tests when trees are still juvenile. Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving and demonstrating complete sterility in trees, our approach was to study alternate sterility systems in Arabidopsis and/or early-flowering tree systems. The public benefit from this work is the capacity for containment of genes or exotic forms of trees so they can be of benefit for industry for production of wood, energy, and renewable products, while having minimal impact on wild populations of trees. We tested three methods for engineering sterility: dominant negative mutant (DNM) proteins, floral tissue ablation, and RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress the expression of several floral regulatory genes. The ultimate goal of this work was to produce a number of transgenic poplars that could be outplanted to enable future assessments of the effectiveness of these transgenic sterility methods. Our attempts to produce ablation constructs that did not interfere with tree health were partially successful. Using the poplar LEAFY gene promoter and the barnase/barstar system, we were able to regenerate plants that grew well in the greenhouse, but they showed poor health in the field. Four of seven DNM genes tested were considered promising enough, based on results in Arabidopsis, to produce transgenic poplars. Single, double, and triple RNAi genes were produced and transformed into poplar. Over all, we produced 1,964 PCR-confirmed transgenic events with 19 different kinds of sterility genes and several kinds of control genes. We propagated 5,640, 6,820, and 7,055 trees for each of three test poplar genotypes, and field

  16. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria moquito Anopheles arabiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Helinski, M.E.H.; Parker, A.G.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods - Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22-26 hrs of age), and adults

  17. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT STEAM-STERILIZATION PROGRAMS ON MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(L-LACTIDE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEMA, FR; BOS, RRM; BOERING, G; VANASTEN, JAAM; NIJENHUIS, AJ; PENNINGS, AJ

    1991-01-01

    As-polymerized poly(L-lactide) test rods were sterilized by seven different specially designed computer-operated autoclaving programs. As a control, common hospital sterilization was performed. In all cases, the molecular weight decreased after sterilization. A short time high-temperature sterilizat

  18. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  19. Induced Sterility as a Factor in the Competition between Barley Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, Jens

    1968-01-01

    In a mixture of two spring barley varieties, ‘Tystofte Prentice’ and ‘Svaløf Freja’, a sterility interaction was found. The percentage of sterile flowers in ‘Freja’ showed an approximately six-fold increase over that in pure stand, whereas in ‘T. Prentice’ the percentage of sterile flowers showed...

  20. 42 CFR 50.203 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual... HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.203 Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or...