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Sample records for bone rulers sterilized

  1. Radiation sterilized bone response to dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardas, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.mardas@skpp.edu.pl [Department of Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Szamarzewskiego 82/84, 60-569 Poznan (Poland); Kubisz, Leszek [Department of Biophysics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan (Poland); Biskupski, Piotr; Mielcarek, Slawomir [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Stelmach-Mardas, Marta [Department of Bromatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Marcelinska 420, 60-354 Poznan (Poland); Kaluska, Iwona [Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Allogeneic bone grafts are used on a large scale in surgeries. To avoid the risk of infectious diseases, allografts should be radiation-sterilized. So far, no international consensus has been achieved regarding the optimal radiation dose. Many authors suggest that bone sterilization deteriorates bone mechanical properties. However, no data on the influence of ionizing radiation on bone dynamic mechanical properties are available. Bovine femurs from 2-year old animal were machine cut and irradiated with the doses 10, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 50 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed at 1-10 Hz at the temperature range of 0-350 Degree-Sign C in 3-point bending configuration. No statistically significant differences in storage modulus were observed. However, there were significant decreased values of loss modulus between the samples irradiated with doses of 10 ({down_arrow}14.3%), 15, 45 and 50 kGy ({down_arrow}33.2%) and controls. It was stated that increased irradiation dose decreases the temperature where collagen denaturation process starts and increases the temperature where the collagen denaturation process finishes. It was shown that activation energy of denaturation process is significantly higher for the samples irradiated with the dose of 50 kGy (615 kJ/mol) in comparison with control samples and irradiation with other doses (100-135 kJ/mol). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the storage modulus and loss modulus of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the denaturation temperature of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the activation energy of denaturation process of samples irradiated with doses of 10-50 kGy.

  2. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G;

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone impl...

  3. The legitimacy of alien rulers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Christine; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit; Irwin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In the modern world, alien rulers are generally perceived to lack legitimacy. Political legitimacy is important because it is thought to be the principal alternative to coercive institutions. Little empirical evidence supports these claims, however. We devise a laboratory experiment that isolates...... alienness from other ruler characteristics. The experiment tests whether alien rulers have less legitimacy than native rulers, and whether the ability to punish compensates for this disadvantage. Using American and Israeli college student samples, we find that alien rulers receive less compliance than...... native rulers, and that the ability to punish does not allow alien rulers to “catch-up” with native rulers....

  4. Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Herbert B

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is used by more people than any other method of contraception. All techniques of tubal sterilization in widespread use in the United States have low risks of surgical complications. Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of pregnancy varies by age and method of occlusion. Pregnancies can occur many years after the procedure, and when they do, the risk of ectopic gestation is high. There is now strong evidence against the existence of a post-tubal ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities. Although women who have undergone tubal sterilization are more likely than other women to undergo hysterectomy subsequently, there is no known biologic basis for this relationship. Although sterilization is intended to be permanent, expressions of regret and requests for reversal are not uncommon and are much more likely to occur among women sterilized at young ages. Tubal sterilization has little or no effect on sexual function for most women. Vasectomy is less likely than tubal sterilization to result in serious complications. Minor complications, however, are not uncommon. Vasectomy does not increase the risk of heart disease, and available evidence argues against an increase in the risk of prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or overall mortality. Whether a postvasectomy pain syndrome exists remains controversial. Although the long-term effectiveness of vasectomy is less well-studied than that for tubal sterilization, it seems likely to be at least as effective. Intrauterine devices and progestin implants are long-acting, highly effective alternatives to sterilization.

  5. Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  6. Freeze-dried bone allografts sterilized with gamma radiation and the clinical use in harelip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Cruz A, L. C. [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, Toluca 50130, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez R, M. A., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro de Especialidades Odontologicas, Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon esquina Felipe Angeles s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Bone for transplant is part of the musculoskeletal tissue join with fascia lat, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Bone is formed by cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix formed mainly by collagen and hydroxyapatite, which gives strength and elasticity to the bone. The bone function in the body is to move, support, organs protection, production of blood cells and store minerals. The musculoskeletal tissue is processed in specialized tissue banks using gamma radiation of cobalt-60 for sterilization at 25 kGy doses at very low temperature or at room temperature, getting tissues with high quality for clinical applications in injured patients. The process of the bone for transplants varies depend on the size and the surgeon likes, nevertheless in general the large ones are preserved at low temperature (-80 C), meanwhile the short ones are freeze-dried preserved. The musculoskeletal diseases represent the most common physical incapacity, which affect million of people around the world. Due to the human body has 206 bones, during a bone injury each bone can be replaced or repaired with several devices, in general the surgeon goes to a specialized tissue banks, to get the bone, due to the high bone quantity on the body and the number of bone injuries and diseases, the bone is the most transplanted around the world only behind the blood. The bone can be processed in several sizes and shapes, one of these is bone powder from allograft, which is used over all for bone filling, this can be take advantage for cleft lip and palate defects, which is a birth defect, this can affect the way the child's face looks, it can also lead to problems with eating, talking and ear infections. The description of the bone powder process is presented and the clinical use of this powder in several pediatric patients for cleft lip and palate defects is described. (Author)

  7. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  8. Ruler Based Automatic C-Arm Image Stitching Without Overlapping Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Kojcev, Risto; Haschtmann, Daniel; Fekete, Tamas; Nolte, Lutz; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for stitching multiple fluoroscopic images taken by a C-arm instrument. We employ an X-ray radiolucent ruler with numbered graduations while acquiring the images, and the image stitching is based on detecting and matching ruler parts in the images to the corresponding parts of a virtual ruler. To achieve this goal, we first detect the regular spaced graduations on the ruler and the numbers. After graduation labeling, for each image, we have the location and the associated number for every graduation on the ruler. Then, we initialize the panoramic X-ray image with the virtual ruler, and we "paste" each image by aligning the detected ruler part on the original image, to the corresponding part of the virtual ruler on the panoramic image. Our method is based on ruler matching but without the requirement of matching similar feature points in pairwise images, and thus, we do not necessarily require overlap between the images. We tested our method on eight different datasets of X-ray images, including long bones and a complete spine. Qualitative and quantitative experiments show that our method achieves good results.

  9. A radiological evaluation of allografts (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and autografts in anterior cervical fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial roentgenograms of 40 patients who had 70 cervical intervertebral spaces grafted with ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and 28 patients who received 44 iliac crest auto grafts for anterior cervical spine fusion, were studied. The radiological evaluation was made on the basis of settlement of intervertebral spaces, fusion rate, delayed union, non-union, graft collapse and extrusion of the graft. Indigenous methodologies were designed for the assessment of settlement of grafted intervertebral spaces in percentage. Disc space settlement was more common in autografts (93% cases than in allografts (80% cases. The average percentage of settlement of intervertebral disc space (S% was 22 in autografts and 28 in allografts during the first four months. By the end of eight months, allograft disc spaces settle more. No significant difference was noted in fusion rate at the end of one year viz. allografts (90% cases and autografts (93% cases. Autograft and allograft (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone are equally useful in anterior cervical spine fusions.

  10. Active magnetoplasmonic ruler (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritskaya, Irina

    2016-04-01

    Plasmon rulers are an emerging concept in which the strong near-field coupling of plasmon nanoantenna elements is employed to obtain structural information at the nanoscale. Here, we combine nanoplasmonics and nanomagnetism to conceptualize a magnetoplasmonic dimer nanoantenna that would be able to report nanoscale distances while optimizing its own spatial orientation. The latter constitutes an active operation in which a dynamically optimized optical response per measured unit length allows for the measurement of small and large nanoscale distances with about 2 orders of magnitude higher precision than current state-of-the-art plasmon rulers. We further propose a concept to optically measure the nanoscale response to the controlled application of force with a magnetic field.

  11. Vertebral plate regeneration induced by radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone sheets in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xin; SUN Shi-quan; YU Cong-nian; YANG Shu-hua; XU Wei-hua; LI Jin; YANG Cao; YE Zhe-wei; FU De-hao; LI Kun; LI Bao-xing

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects and mechanism of radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone sheets in inducing vertebral plate regeneration after laminectomy in sheep. Methods:Twelve adult male sheep (aged 1.5 years and weighing 27 kg on average ) provided by China Institute for Radiation Protection underwent L3-4 and L4-5 laminectomy.Then they were randomly divided into two groups:Group A (n =6) and Group B (n =6).The operated sites of L4-5 in Group A and L3-4 in Group B were covered by "H-shaped" freeze-drying and radiationsterilized allogeneic bone sheets ( the experimental segments),while the operated sites of L3-4 in Group A and L4-5 in Group B were uncovered as the self controls ( the control segments ). The regeneration process of the vertebral plate and the adhesion degree of the dura were observed at 4,8,12,16,20 and 24 weeks after operation.Xray and CT scan were performed in both segments of L3-4 and L4-5 at 4 and 24 weeks after operation. Results:In the experimental segments,the bone sheets were located in the anatomical site of vertebral plate,and no lumbar spinal stenosis or compression of the dura was observed.The bone sheets were absorbed gradually and fused well with the regenerated vertebral plate.While in the control segments,the regeneration of vertebral plate was not completed yet,the scar was inserted into the spinal canal,compressing the dura and the spinal cord,and the epidural area almost disappeared. Compared with the control segments, the dura adhesion degree in the experimental regenerated segments was much milder (P <0.01 ),the internal volume of the vertebral canal had no obvious change and the shape of the dura sack remained well without obvious compression. Conclusions:Freeze-drying and radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone sheets are ideal materials for extradural laminoplasty due to their good biocompatibility,biomechanical characteristics and osteogenic ability.They can effectively reduce formation of post-laminectomy scars

  12. Bone cell expression on titanium surfaces is altered by sterilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M; Keller, J C; Solursh, M

    1994-05-01

    Phenotypic responses of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells (RCOB) were evaluated on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) surfaces when cultured at high density (5100 cells/mm2). These surfaces were prepared to three different clinically relevant surface preparations (1-micron, 600-grit, and 50-microns-grit sand-blast), followed by sterilization with either ultraviolet light, ethylene oxide, argon plasma-cleaning, or routine clinical autoclaving. Osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, but not collagen expression, were significantly affected by surface roughness when these surfaces were altered by argon plasma-cleaning. In general, plasma-cleaned cpTi surfaces demonstrated an inverse relationship between surface roughness and phenotypic markers for a bone-like response. On a per-cell basis, levels of the bone-specific protein, osteocalcin, and the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase were highest on the smooth 1-micron polished surface and lowest on the roughest surfaces for the plasma-cleaned cpTi. Detectable bone cell expression can be altered by clinically relevant surfaces prepared by standard dental implant preparation techniques.

  13. Apparent fracture toughness of acrylic bone cement: effect of test specimen configuration and sterilization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G

    1999-01-01

    The plane strain fracture toughness of Palacos R bone cement was determined using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles and three different test specimen configurations: single edge notched three-point (SENB), rectangular compact tension (RCT), and chevron notched short rod (CNSR). Another aspect of the study was an investigation of the effect of three methods used to sterilize the powder constituents of the cement-none, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide--on the fracture toughness of the fully polymerized material. A detailed justification is provided for using LEFM. The fracture toughness results obtained using the CNSR specimens were, on average, 14 and 16% higher than those obtained using the SENB and RCT types, respectively. These differences are accounted for in terms of differences in four aspects of these specimen configuration (namely, residual stress effects, loading rate, material inhomogeneity, and the nature of the test). For a given specimen configuration, gamma irradiation produced a statistically significant decrease in fracture toughness which, it is suggested, is due to the concomitant depreciation in molecular weight. For a given cement type, there is no statistically significant difference in fracture toughness results obtained using SENB and RCT specimens. It is thus suggested that either of these configurations can be used to determine the fracture toughness of acrylic bone cement.

  14. The influence of sterilization processes on the micromechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK composites for bone implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, A; Raabe, D; Green, S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of sterilization on the structural integrity of the thermoplastic matrix composite polyetheretherketone (PEEK) reinforced with carbon fibers (CF) is investigated by nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests. The use of the material as a medical implant grade requires a detailed understanding of the micromechanical properties which primarily define its in vivo behavior. Sterilization is a mandatory process for such materials used in medical applications like bone implants. The steam and gamma radiation sterilization processes employed in this study are at sufficient levels to affect the micromechanical properties of some polymer materials, particularly in the interphase region between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing fibers. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are used in this work to reveal local gradients in the hardness and the elastic properties of the interphase regions. Both methods help to explore microscopic changes in the hardness, reduced stiffness and scratch resistance in the interphase region and in the bulk polymer matrix due to the different sterilization processes employed. The results reveal that neither steam nor gamma radiation sterilization entails significant changes of the reduced elastic modulus, hardness or coefficient of friction in the bulk polymer matrix. However, minor material changes of the PEEK matrix were observed in the interphase region. Of the two sterilization methods used, the steam treatment has a more significant influence on these small changes in this region and appears to increase slightly the thickness of the interphase zone.

  15. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation; Preparacion de hueso desproteinizado esterilizado con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  16. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur

    2016-06-01

    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  17. Taiji Ruler: Legacy of the Sleeping Immortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history, development, and principles of the two major Taiji Ruler lineages: one associated with the Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE imperial family, and the other lesser known, Daoist lineage, transmitted by Hu Yaozhen and his successors, including the well known Chen Style Taijiquan teacher, Feng Zhiqiang. The Taiji Ruler is a traditional system of health-enhancing qigong that is attributed to the Song Dynasty Daoist recluse Chen Xiyi and was first taught publicly in the 1950s. The exercises may be practiced while holding a foot-long wooden object, the Ruler, or with a variety of training devices, such as a wooden or stone ball. Mr. Cohen began studying Taji Ruler with various teachers more than 30 years ago, but also bases his research on works in Chinese and English. Both the teachers and literature agree that the ultimate goal of the Ruler is to blend with the original qi of the universe and, in the process, to achieve vitality and longevity.    

  18. BLIND SERBIAN RULERS AND FAMOUS PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available History and medicine were an integral part of life-being of blind serbian acters. One of the main actors was half-blind serbian ruler, Stefan of Decani and whose name was associated with first ophthalmologic hospital and precursor of the eye`s injuries care. After, national reputation as Stefan Blind Righteous, ruler of the Serbian despot between 1458. and 1459. (member of Brankovic`s dinasty, and he was blinded by eye injuries burns. The famous national was also Filip Visnjic, as blind minstrel and authentic creator of serbian folk traditions, with sequels as a child, by bilateral infective panuveitis.

  19. Learning to Measure Length: The Problem with the School Ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ever wondered why children have difficulty using a ruler? In this article Michael Drake investigates some of the difficulties students encounter and provides some ideas for teaching about and learning to use rulers.

  20. Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Agarwal, Siddharth Raj; Buckley, Robert M; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Corvalan, Carlos F; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Finkelstein, Ruth; Friel, Sharon; Harpham, Trudy; Hossain, Maharufa; de Faria Leao, Beatriz; Mboup, Gora; Montgomery, Mark R; Netherland, Julie C; Ompad, Danielle C; Prasad, Amit; Quinn, Andrew T; Rothman, Alexander; Satterthwaite, David E; Stansfield, Sally; Watson, Vanessa J

    2011-10-01

    For 18 months in 2009-2010, the Rockefeller Foundation provided support to establish the Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER). Composed of leading experts in population health measurement from a variety of disciplines, sectors, and continents, RULER met for the purpose of reviewing existing methods of measurement for urban health in the context of recent reports from UN agencies on health inequities in urban settings. The audience for this report was identified as international, national, and local governing bodies; civil society; and donor agencies. The goal of the report was to identify gaps in measurement that must be filled in order to assess and evaluate population health in urban settings, especially in informal settlements (or slums) in low- and middle-income countries. Care must be taken to integrate recommendations with existing platforms (e.g., Health Metrics Network, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) that could incorporate, mature, and sustain efforts to address these gaps and promote effective data for healthy urban management. RULER noted that these existing platforms focus primarily on health outcomes and systems, mainly at the national level. Although substantial reviews of health outcomes and health service measures had been conducted elsewhere, such reviews covered these in an aggregate and perhaps misleading way. For example, some spatial aspects of health inequities, such as those pointed to in the 2008 report from the WHO's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, received limited attention. If RULER were to focus on health inequities in the urban environment, access to disaggregated data was a priority. RULER observed that some urban health metrics were already available, if not always appreciated and utilized in ongoing efforts (e.g., census data with granular data on households, water, and sanitation but with little attention paid to the spatial dimensions of these data). Other less obvious elements

  1. Surgery, sterilization and sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, V W

    1993-03-01

    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  2. The length of the low-redshift standard ruler

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the existence of standard rulers, standard candles and standard clocks, requiring only the cosmological principle, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and using state-of-the-art observations, we determine the length of the "low-redshift standard ruler". The data we use are a compilation of recent Baryon acoustic oscillation data (relying on the standard ruler), Type 1A supernov\\ae\\ (as standard candles), ages of early type galaxies (as standard clocks) and local determinations of the Hubble constant (as a local anchor of the cosmic distance scale). In a standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology the "low-redshift standard ruler" coincides with the sound horizon at radiation drag, which can also be determined --in a model dependent way-- from CMB observations. However, in general, the two quantities need not coincide. We obtain constraints on the length of the low-redshift standard ruler: $r^h_{\\rm s}=101.0 \\pm 2.3 h^{-1}$ Mpc, when using only Type 1A supernov\\ae\\ and Baryon acoustic oscillat...

  3. The baryon acoustic oscillation peak: a flexible standard ruler

    CERN Document Server

    Roukema, Boudewijn F

    2016-01-01

    For about a decade, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak at about 105 Mpc/h has provided a standard ruler test of the LCDM cosmological model, a member of the Friedmann--Lemaitre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) family of cosmological models---according to which comoving space is rigid. However, general relativity does not require comoving space to be rigid. During the virialisation epoch, when the most massive structures form by gravitational collapse, it should be expected that comoving space evolves inhomogeneous curvature as structure grows. The BAO peak standard ruler should also follow this inhomogeneous evolution if the comoving rigidity assumption is false. This "standard" ruler has now been detected to be flexible, as expected under general relativity.

  4. The length of the low-redshift standard ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Licia; Bernal, José Luis; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Assuming the existence of standard rulers, standard candles and standard clocks, requiring only the cosmological principle, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and using state-of-the-art observations, we determine the length of the "low-redshift standard ruler". The data we use are a compilation of recent baryon acoustic oscillation data (relying on the standard ruler), Type 1A supernovæ (as standard candles), ages of early type galaxies (as standard clocks) and local determinations of the Hubble constant (as a local anchor of the cosmic distance scale). In a standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology the "low-redshift standard ruler" coincides with the sound horizon at radiation drag, which can also be determined -in a model dependent way- from cosmic microwave background observations. However, in general, the two quantities need not coincide. We obtain constraints on the length of the low-redshift standard ruler: r{^h}_s = 101.0 {±} 2.3 h^{-1} Mpc, when using only Type 1A supernovæ and Baryon acoustic oscillations, and rs = 150.0 ± 4.7 Mpc when using clocks to set the Hubble normalisation, while rs = 141.0 ± 5.5 Mpc when using the local Hubble constant determination (using both yields rs = 143.9 ± 3.1 Mpc). The low-redshift determination of the standard ruler has an error which is competitive with the model-dependent determination from cosmic microwave background measurements made with the Planck satellite, which assumes it is the sound horizon at the end of baryon drag.

  5. ZMW型环氧乙烷灭菌箱对异体骨材料灭菌效果的初步观察%Primary observation of the sterilizing effects of ZMW anprolene case on foreign bone materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建华; 史晨辉; 董卫; 黄新玲; 王永明; 董金波; 刘维刚

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: The foreign bone material of the same species was widely applied, while for the multiple manipulating processes, it got lots of chances to be infected, especially for the bone manufacturing, the pollution odds increased greatly, so the sterilizing process was most important. Objective: To observe the sterilizing effects of ZMW anprolene case on foreign bone materials to find a safe and economic disinfecting way. Unit:First attached hospital of the Shihezi medical university. Subject:The manipulating method of the foreign bone material of the same species: In clean environment., bone was got in 2 hours after death of the donor, soft tissue was removed and it was made to foreign bone material of 0.5 cm× 0.5 cm× 2 cm, it was washed with water and marinated till the water got clear, then washed with distilled water repeatedly, lipid was removed with 1:1 chloroform and methanol for 4 hours at room temperature, calcium was removed with 0.6 mol/L HCL for 4 hours at 4 ℃ , it was washed with distilled water till the pH was 6.5. The bone material after treating were divided into two groups, one was dried in common air dried to make wet one plantation material and the other one was dried in 37℃ roasting case to make dry bone plantation material. They were both put in double polyethylene bags and sealed with standard sealing machine, the weight was 5 g,

  6. Image-based Water Level Measurement Method under Stained Ruler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-do KIM; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the water level measuring method based on the image,while the ruler used to indicate the water level is stained.The contamination of the ruler weakens or eliminates many features which are required for the image processing.However,the feature of the color difference between the ruler and the water surface are firmer on the environmental change compare to the other features.As the color differences are embossed,only the region of the ruler is limited to eliminate the noise,and the average image is produced by using several continuous frames.A histogram is then produced based on the height axis of the produced intensity average image.Local peaks and local valleys are detected,and the section between the peak and valley which have the greatest change is looked for.The valley point at this very moment is used to detect the water level.The detected water level is then converted to the actual water level by using the mapping table.The proposed method is compared to the ultrasonic based method to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency on the various contaminated environments.

  7. Kerli ja Rulers of the Deep jahivad MTV auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    6. novembril toimuval MTV Euroopa muusikaauhindade galal pürgivad parima Balti artisti tiilile Kerli Kõiv ja duo Rulers of the Deep, leedust ansambel Happyendless ja laulja Jurga ning lätist ansambel Detlef Zoo (parima regionaalse artisti kategooria nominentide poolt saab hääletada kuni 2. oktoobrini veebilehel www.mtvema.com)

  8. Using Sloane Rulers for Optimal Recovery Schemes in Distributed Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delhi Babu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Clusters and distributed systems offer fault tolerance and high performance through load sharing, and are thus attractive in real-time applications. When all computers are up and running, we would like the load to be evenly distributed among the computers. When one or more computers fail, the load must be redistributed. The redistribution is determined by the recovery scheme. The recovery scheme should keep the load as evenly distributed as possible even when the most unfavorable combinations of computers break down, i.e., we want to optimize the worst-case behavior. In this paper we compare the worst-case behavior of schemes such as Modulo ruler, Golomb ruler, Greedy sequence and Log sequence with worst-case behavior of Sloane sequence. Finally we observe that Sloane scheme performs better than all the other schemes. Keywords: Fault tolerance; High performance computing; Cluster technique; Recovery schemes; Sloane sequence;

  9. Is the baryon acoustic oscillation peak a cosmological standard ruler?

    CERN Document Server

    Roukema, Boudewijn F; Fujii, Hirokazu; Ostrowski, Jan J

    2016-01-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, the Universe is static in comoving coordinates; expansion occurs homogeneously and is represented by a global scale factor. The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak location is a statistical tracer that represents, in the standard model, a fixed comoving-length standard ruler. Recent gravitational collapse should modify the metric, rendering the effective scale factor, and thus the BAO standard ruler, spatially inhomogeneous. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show to high significance (P < 0.001) that the spatial compression of the BAO peak location increases as the spatial paths' overlap with superclusters increases. Detailed observational and theoretical calibration of this BAO peak location environment dependence will be needed when interpreting the next decade's cosmological surveys.

  10. Nanoplasmonic molecular ruler for nuclease activity and DNAfootprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fanqing Frank; Liu, Gang L.; Yin, Yadong; Gerion, Daniele; Kunchakarra, Siri; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Jett, Stephen D.; Bear, David G.; Alivisatos, Paul; Lee, Luke P.

    2006-08-15

    We have constructed a nanoplasmonic molecular ruler, which can perform label-free and real-time monitoring of DNA length changes and perform DNA footprinting. The ruler was created by tethering double-stranded DNA to single Au nanoparticles. The scattering spectra of Au-DNA nanoconjugates showed red-shifted peak plasmon resonance wavelength dependent on DNA length, which can be measured with sub-nanometer axial resolution, averaging {approx}1.24 nm peak wavelength shift per DNA base pair. The spectra of individual Au-DNA nanoconjugates in the presence of nuclease showed a time-resolved dependence on the reaction dynamics, allowing quantitative, kinetic and real-time measurement of nuclease activity. The ruler was further developed into a new DNA footprinting platform. We showed the specific binding of a protein to DNA and the accurate mapping of its footprint. This work promises a very fast and convenient platform for mapping DNA-protein interactions, for nuclease activity monitoring, and for other DNA size-based methods.

  11. Probing single nanometer-scale pores with polymeric molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E.; DiMarzio, Edmund A.; Wang, Qian; Stanford, Vincent M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that individual molecules of single-stranded DNA can be driven electrophoretically through a single Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin ion channel. Polynucleotides thread through the channel as extended chains and the polymer-induced ionic current blockades exhibit stable modes during the interactions. We show here that polynucleotides can be used to probe structural features of the α-hemolysin channel itself. Specifically, both the pore length and channel aperture profile can be estimated. The results are consistent with the channel crystal structure and suggest that polymer-based "molecular rulers" may prove useful in deducing the structures of nanometer-scale pores in general.

  12. Cosmological fast radio bursts as a cosmic ruler?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bei; Wang, Tao; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using cosmological fast radio bursts (FRBs) as a viable cosmic ruler. We find out that the contribution of the host galaxies to the detected dispersion measures may be ignorable for the FRBs not from galaxy centers or star forming regions. The inhomogeneity of the intergalactic medium (IGM), however, causes significant deviation of the dispersion measure from that predicted in the simplified homogeneous IGM model for individual event. Fortunately, with sufficient FRBs along different sightlines but within a very narrow redshift interval (e.g., $\\Delta z \\sim 0.05$), the mean from averaging observed dispersion measures does not suffer such a problem and hence may be used as a cosmic ruler. We show that in the optimistic case (e.g., tens FRBs in each $\\Delta z$ have been measured; the most distant FRBs were at redshift $\\geq 3$; the host galaxies and the FRB sources contribute little to the detected dispersion measures), FRBs could help constrain the equation of state of dark energ...

  13. Plasmon ruler with gold nanorod dimers: utilizing the second-order resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Anton T; Dubrovina, Natalia; Lupu, Anatole; Fedyanin, Andrey A

    2014-01-01

    The idea of utilizing the second-order plasmon resonance of the gold nanorod {\\pi}-dimers for plasmon rulers is introduced. We report on a qualitatively different dependence of the plasmon resonance shift on the interparticle distance for the first- and second-order longitudinal modes, extending the working range of plasmon rulers up to the distance values of 400 nm.

  14. Enhancing Academic Performance and Social and Emotional Competence with the RULER Feeling Words Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Reyes, Maria R.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of a 30-week, theoretically-based social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, The RULER Feeling Words Curriculum ("RULER"), on the academic performance and social and emotional competence of 5th and 6th grade students (N = 273) in fifteen classrooms in three schools.…

  15. Designing a multicolor long range nanoscopic ruler for the imaging of heterogeneous tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Viraka Nellore, Bhanu Priya; Pramanik, Avijit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Jones, Stacy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment and diagnosis. A multicolor optical ruler is essential to address the heterogeneous tumor cell complexity. Driven by this need, the current article reports the design of a multicolor long range nanoscopic ruler for screening tumor heterogeneity by accurately identifying epithelial cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) simultaneously. A nanoscopic surface energy transfer (NSET) ruler has been developed using blue fluorescence polymer dots (PDs) and red fluorescence gold cluster dots (GCDs) as multicolor fluorescence donor and plasmonic gold nanoparticle (GNP) acts as an excellent acceptor. Reported experimental results demonstrated that the multicolor nanoscopic ruler's working window is above 35 nm distances, which is more than three times farther than that of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) distance limit. Theoretical modeling using Förster dipole-dipole coupling and dipole to nanoparticle surface energy transfer have been used to discuss the possible mechanism for multicolor nanoscopic ruler's long-range capability. Using RNA aptamers that are specific for the target cancer cells, experimental data demonstrate that the nanoscopic ruler can be used for screening epithelial and CSCs simultaneously from a whole blood sample with a detection capability of 10 cells per mL. Experimental data show that the nanoscopic ruler can distinguish targeted cells from non-targeted cells.

  16. Improving classroom quality with the RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning: proximal and distal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Brackett, Marc A; Rivers, Susan E; Salovey, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning ("RULER") is designed to improve the quality of classroom interactions through professional development and classroom curricula that infuse emotional literacy instruction into teaching-learning interactions. Its theory of change specifies that RULER first shifts the emotional qualities of classrooms, which are then followed, over time, by improvements in classroom organization and instructional support. A 2-year, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to test hypotheses derived from this theory. Sixty-two urban schools either integrated RULER into fifth- and sixth-grade English language arts (ELA) classrooms or served as comparison schools, using their standard ELA curriculum only. Results from multilevel modeling with baseline adjustments and structural equation modeling support RULER's theory of change. Compared to classrooms in comparison schools, classrooms in RULER schools exhibited greater emotional support, better classroom organization, and more instructional support at the end of the second year of program delivery. Improvements in classroom organization and instructional support at the end of Year 2 were partially explained by RULER's impacts on classroom emotional support at the end of Year 1. These findings highlight the important contribution of emotional literacy training and development in creating engaging, empowering, and productive learning environments.

  17. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  18. A practical approach for the validation of sterility, endotoxin and potency testing of bone marrow mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration in compliance with good manufacturing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Mauro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main scope of the EU and FDA regulations is to establish a classification criterion for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP. Regulations require that ATMPs must be prepared under good manufacturing practice (GMP. We have validated a commercial system for the determination of bacterial endotoxins in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.14, the sterility testing in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.1 and a potency assay in an ATMP constituted of mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration. Methods For the potency assay, cells were placed in the upper part of a modified Boyden chamber containing Endocult Basal Medium with supplements and transmigrated cells were scored. The invasion index was expressed as the ratio between the numbers of invading cells relative to cell migration through a control insert membrane. For endotoxins, we used a commercially available system based on the kinetic chromogenic LAL-test. Validation of sterility was performed by direct inoculation of TSB and FTM media with the cell product following Eu Ph 2.6.1 guideline. Results and discussion The calculated MVD and endotoxin limit were 780× and 39 EU/ml respectively. The 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions were selected for the validation. For sterility, all the FTM cultures were positive after 3 days. For TSB cultures, Mycetes and B. subtilis were positive after 5 and 3 days respectively. The detection limit was 1-10 colonies. A total of four invasion assay were performed: the calculated invasion index was 28.89 ± 16.82% (mean ± SD. Conclusion We have validated a strategy for endotoxin, sterility and potency testing in an ATMP used in cardiac regeneration. Unlike pharmaceutical products, many stem-cell-based products may originate in hospitals where personnel are unfamiliar with the applicable regulations. As new ATMPs are developed, the regulatory framework is likely to evolve. Meanwhile, existing regulations provide an appropriate structure for

  19. [Complications of tubal sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, W E

    1986-05-01

    In Europe and the US, tubal sterilization by laparoscopy has become the most widely used technique for female sterilization. The overall rate of intra- and postoperative complications differs between 0.145% and 0.85% in the numerous studies which have been done. This means 1 severe complication in 120-700 laparoscopic sterilizations. The lethality of tubal sterilization by laparoscopy lies between 3-10 deaths/100,000 interventions. The so-called "post-tubal ligation syndrome" is a rare complication. The overall pregnancy rate after tubal sterilization is 3-10/1000 women. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is very high and varies between 13.6% and 90%. Only 5% of the sterilized women show dissatisfaction. Several factors are relevant with regard to psychological sequelae and must be considered before tubal sterilization can be performed. 1 of the most important is the individual comprehensive counselling of the female or the couple prior to the sterilization.

  20. The ruler of inclusion in the process of people learning with visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Eliane; Batiz, Eduardo Concepcion; Macedo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of a pedagogical tool that could address the needs related to the learning process of the blind and could also be used in the pedagogical process of people who are visually impaired. This project also has the objective of showing how the forms of the Ruler of Inclusion were planned in order to facilitate learning while addressing issues related to its safety, practicality and multifunctionality, aspects that are broached in a future work using descriptive, exploratory and phenomenological analyses to verify the understanding of the learning concepts applied to the ruler.

  1. Enhancing Teacher Effectiveness in Spain: A Pilot Study of the Ruler Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ruth; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Brackett, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) program, The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning (RULER), on teacher self reports of engagement, teacher-student interactions, and burnout. Participants were 47 teachers from 19 public schools in Spain who either volunteered for training on RULER…

  2. Measuring the Reliability of Sagittal Facial Anthropometric Measurements under Soft Tissue Displacement Using a Modified Ruler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the current use of radiography for quantifying sagittal skeletal measurements, it is an unsuitable way for screening or epidemiologic purposes. Although not fully approved, anthropometric measurements have been suggested as a substitute, and considering displacement of soft tissues, could possibly lead to more consistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of anthropometric anteroposterior facial measurements under soft tissue compression using a special ruler.Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were done with a specifically designed sliding ruler twice on 36 adult patients with a 14 day lag between two measurements. The ruler measured the distance between the external acoustic meatus and the nasion (Na, subnasal (Sn point and the soft tissue pogonion (Pog. The soft tissue was displaced during measurements only to the extent that the underlying hard tissue resistance was felt subjectively by each assessor. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated for both inter- and intra- rater measurements using SPSS software.Results: All measurements had inter- and intrarater agreements above 0.9, with only a few parameters having lower bound confidence intervals below 0.9, but more than 0.8.Conclusion: Sagittal facial anthropometric measurements under soft tissue displacement using the specific ruler are valid and reliable and could possibly aid orthodontists in chairside craniofacial assessments.

  3. Wound Measurement Techniques: Comparing the Use of Ruler Method, 2D Imaging and 3D Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aj; Wollak, C; Shah, J B

    2013-12-01

    The statistics on the growing number of non-healing wounds is alarming. In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated US $25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide.(1) Accurate wound measurement techniques will help health care personnel to monitor the wounds which will indirectly help improving care.(7,9) The clinical practice of measuring wounds has not improved even today.(2,3) A common method like the ruler method to measure wounds has poor interrater and intrarater reliability.(2,3) Measuring the greatest length by the greatest width perpendicular to the greatest length, the perpendicular method, is more valid and reliable than other ruler based methods.(2) Another common method like acetate tracing is more accurate than the ruler method but still has its disadvantages. These common measurement techniques are time consuming with variable inaccuracies. In this study, volumetric measurements taken with a non-contact 3-D scanner are benchmarked against the common ruler method, acetate grid tracing, and 2-D image planimetry volumetric measurement technique. A liquid volumetric fill method is used as the control volume. Results support the hypothesis that the 3-D scanner consistently shows accurate volumetric measurements in comparison to standard volumetric measurements obtained by the waterfill technique (average difference of 11%). The 3-D scanner measurement technique was found more reliable and valid compared to other three techniques, the ruler method (average difference of 75%), acetate grid tracing (average difference of 41%), and 2D planimetric measurements (average difference of 52%). Acetate tracing showed more accurate measurements compared to the ruler method (average difference of 41% (acetate tracing) compared to 75% (ruler method)). Improving

  4. Kingdom, office and church: a story of A.A. van Ruler's Doctrine of Ecclestiastical Office with implications for the North American Ecumenical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The dissertation explores the doctrine of office within the theology of A.A. van Ruler. It argues that Van Ruler's theology of office provides a consistent Reformed setting for ecclesiastical office within the kingdom of God. In so doing, the dissertation explores Van Ruler's ecclesiology. It furt

  5. Reimplantation of an Extruded Femoral Segment After Gamma Sterilization in A Type IIIA Supracondylar Femur Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizah N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded bone is a rare complication of high energy open fractures, and there is only a handful of literature on reimplantation of the extruded segment. No clear guidelines exist regarding timing of reimplantation, stabilization of extruded bone segments, and also bone disinfection and sterilization techniques. Previous reports describe sterilization using thermal or chemical methods. We present a case of successful reimplantation of an extruded metaphyseal segment of femur after gamma sterilization in a fourteen- year old boy.

  6. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  7. Sterile neutrinos at LBNE

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sensitivity of the Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment to the inclusion of two new sterile neutrino flavors with masses in the eV range. We implement a modified Casas-Ibarra parametrization which can accommodate medium scale mass eigenstates and introduces a new complex mixing angle. We explore the new mixing angle parameter space and demonstrate how LBNE can be used to either provide evidence for or rule out a particular model of sterile neutrinos. Certain three-flavor CP-violation scenarios cannot be distinguished from the sterile neutrinos. Constraints from the Daya Bay reactor experiment are used to help lift this degeneracy.

  8. Figure of merit for macrouniformity based on image quality ruler evaluation and machine learning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibao; Overall, Gary; Riggs, Travis; Silveston-Keith, Rebecca; Whitney, Julie; Chiu, George; Allebach, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of macro-uniformity is a capability that is important for the development and manufacture of printer products. Our goal is to develop a metric that will predict macro-uniformity, as judged by human subjects, by scanning and analyzing printed pages. We consider two different machine learning frameworks for the metric: linear regression and the support vector machine. We have implemented the image quality ruler, based on the recommendations of the INCITS W1.1 macro-uniformity team. Using 12 subjects at Purdue University and 20 subjects at Lexmark, evenly balanced with respect to gender, we conducted subjective evaluations with a set of 35 uniform b/w prints from seven different printers with five levels of tint coverage. Our results suggest that the image quality ruler method provides a reliable means to assess macro-uniformity. We then defined and implemented separate features to measure graininess, mottle, large area variation, jitter, and large-scale non-uniformity. The algorithms that we used are largely based on ISO image quality standards. Finally, we used these features computed for a set of test pages and the subjects' image quality ruler assessments of these pages to train the two different predictors - one based on linear regression and the other based on the support vector machine (SVM). Using five-fold cross-validation, we confirmed the efficacy of our predictor.

  9. Sterilization by Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If pregnancy does occur, the risk of an ectopic pregnancy is higher than in women who did not ... pregnant. Also, the risk of problems, such as ectopic pregnancy, is increased. What are some alternatives to sterilization? ...

  10. Light sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  11. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  12. Solar-like oscillating stars as standard clocks and rulers for Galactic studies

    CERN Document Server

    Miglio, Andrea; Rodrigues, Thaise S; Stello, Dennis; Chaplin, William J

    2014-01-01

    The CoRoT and Kepler space missions have detected oscillations in hundreds of Sun-like stars and thousands of field red-giant stars. This has opened the door to a new era of stellar population studies in the Milky Way. We report on the current status and future prospects of harvesting space-based photometric data for ensemble asteroseismology, and highlight some of the challenges that need to be faced to use these stars as accurate clocks and rulers for Galactic studies.

  13. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)]. E-mail: brazem@irb.hr; Hamitouche, Katia [Centre de Recherche et Developpement Saidal, El Harrach (Algeria); Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Kos, Karmen [Belupo Pharmaceutical Works, Koprivnica 48000 (Croatia); Pucic, Irina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Britvic-Budicin, Smiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Razem, Dusan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6{+-}0.1)x10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixture of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  14. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  15. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  16. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches.

  17. Laser confocal measurement system for curvature radius of lenses based on grating ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiwei; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Nan; Zhao, Weirui; Zhao, Weiqian

    2015-02-01

    In the modern optical measurement field, the radius of curvature (ROC) is one of the fundamental parameters of optical lens. Its measurement accuracy directly affects the other optical parameters, such as focal length, aberration and so on, which significantly affect the overall performance of the optical system. To meet the demand of measurement instruments for radius of curvature (ROC) with high accuracy in the market, we develop a laser confocal radius measurement system with grating ruler. The system uses the peak point of the confocal intensity curve to precisely identify the cat-eye and confocal positions and then measure the distance between these two positions by using the grating ruler, thereby achieving the high-precision measurement for the ROC. The system has advantages of high focusing sensitivity and anti-environment disturbance ability. And the preliminary theoretical analysis and experiments show that the measuring repeatability can be up to 0.8 um, which can provide an effective way for the accurate measurement of ROC.

  18. The faithful and the rulers: Calvin's two sermons of 1554 on 1 Timothy 2:1-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Pont

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Calvin's two sermons on 1 Timothy 2:1-2 are examined and the contents briely analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that Calvin is not giving a treatise on the biblical doctrine on princes and rulers, but is addressing the faithful. In doing so, he explains to the congregation their position vis-à-vis the rulers and what Paul's injunctions mean intheir situation. It is true preaching as Calvin only expounds the Biblical message as it is found in this text.

  19. Disinfection and sterilization: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection, and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization.

  20. Naturally light sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, U

    1999-01-01

    A simple model to accomodate light sterile neutrinos naturally with large mixing with the usual neutrinos has been proposed. The standard model gauge group is extended to include an $SU(2)_S$ gauge symmetry. Heavy triplet higgs scalars give small masses to the left-handed neutrinos, while a heavy doublet higgs scalar give mixing with the sterile neutrinos of the same order of magnitude. The neutrino mass matrix thus obtained can explain the solar neutrino deficit, the atmospheric neutrino deficit, the LSND data and hot dark matter. Lepton number is violated here through decays of the heavy triplet higgs, which generates the lepton asymmetry of the universe, which in turn generates a baryon asymmetry of the universe.

  1. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  2. The pH ruler: a Java applet for developing interactive exercises on acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrette-Ng, Isabelle H

    2011-07-01

    In introductory biochemistry courses, it is often a struggle to teach the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry in a manner that is relevant to biological systems. To help students gain a more intuitive and visual understanding of abstract acid-base concepts, a simple graphical construct called the pH ruler Java applet was developed. The applet allows students to visualize the abundance of different protonation states of diprotic and triprotic amino acids at different pH values. Using the applet, the student can drag a widget on a slider bar to change the pH and observe in real time changes in the abundance of different ionization states of this amino acid. This tool provides a means for developing more complex inquiry-based, active-learning exercises to teach more advanced topics of biochemistry, such as protein purification, protein structure and enzyme mechanism.

  3. Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili, E-mail: weili.zhang@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-10-28

    The collective coherent interactions in a meta-atom lattice are the key to myriad applications and functionalities offered by metasurfaces. We demonstrate a collective coherent response of the nearest neighbor coupled split-ring resonators whose resonance shift decays exponentially in the strong near-field coupled regime. This occurs due to the dominant magnetic coupling between the nearest neighbors which leads to the decay of the electromagnetic near fields. Based on the size scaling behavior of the different periodicity metasurfaces, we identified a collective coherent metasurface ruler equation. From the coherent behavior, we also show that the near-field coupling in a metasurface lattice exists even when the periodicity exceeds the resonator size. The identification of a universal coherence in metasurfaces and their scaling behavior would enable the design of novel metadevices whose spectral tuning response based on near-field effects could be calibrated across microwave, terahertz, infrared, and the optical parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Trying on tRNA for Size: RNase P and the T-box Riboswitch as Molecular Rulers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwei; Ferré-DAmaré, Adrian R

    2016-04-01

    Length determination is a fundamental problem in biology and chemistry. Numerous proteins measure distances on linear biopolymers to exert effects with remarkable spatial precision. Recently, ruler-like devices made of noncoding RNAs have been structurally and biochemically characterized. Two prominent examples are the RNase P ribozyme and the T-box riboswitch. Both act as molecular calipers. The two RNAs clamp onto the elbow of tRNA (or pre-tRNA) and make distance measurements orthogonal to each other. Here, we compare and contrast the molecular ruler characteristics of these RNAs. RNase P appears pre-configured to measure a fixed distance on pre-tRNA to ensure the fidelity of its maturation. RNase P is a multiple-turnover ribozyme, and its rigid structure efficiently selects pre-tRNAs, cleaves, and releases them. In contrast, the T-box is flexible and segmented, an architecture that adapts to the intrinsically flexible tRNA. The tripartite T-box inspects the overall shape, anticodon sequence, and aminoacylation status of an incoming tRNA while it folds co-transcriptionally, leading to a singular, conditional genetic switching event. The elucidation of the structures and mechanisms of action of these two RNA molecular rulers may augur the discovery of new RNA measuring devices in noncoding and viral transcriptomes, and inform the design of artificial RNA rulers.

  5. Trying on tRNA for Size: RNase P and the T-box Riboswitch as Molecular Rulers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Length determination is a fundamental problem in biology and chemistry. Numerous proteins measure distances on linear biopolymers to exert effects with remarkable spatial precision. Recently, ruler-like devices made of noncoding RNAs have been structurally and biochemically characterized. Two prominent examples are the RNase P ribozyme and the T-box riboswitch. Both act as molecular calipers. The two RNAs clamp onto the elbow of tRNA (or pre-tRNA and make distance measurements orthogonal to each other. Here, we compare and contrast the molecular ruler characteristics of these RNAs. RNase P appears pre-configured to measure a fixed distance on pre-tRNA to ensure the fidelity of its maturation. RNase P is a multiple-turnover ribozyme, and its rigid structure efficiently selects pre-tRNAs, cleaves, and releases them. In contrast, the T-box is flexible and segmented, an architecture that adapts to the intrinsically flexible tRNA. The tripartite T-box inspects the overall shape, anticodon sequence, and aminoacylation status of an incoming tRNA while it folds co-transcriptionally, leading to a singular, conditional genetic switching event. The elucidation of the structures and mechanisms of action of these two RNA molecular rulers may augur the discovery of new RNA measuring devices in noncoding and viral transcriptomes, and inform the design of artificial RNA rulers.

  6. Popular Explanations of Physical Phenomena: Broken Ruler, Oxygen in the Air and Water Attracted by Electric Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Héctor G.

    2012-01-01

    The inquiry-based approach to learning has proven to be quite effective, since Socrates, but it is difficult to found good questions to induce reasoning. Many sources explain wrongly some experimental results, which can be used as discrepant events. Some use the breaking of a ruler with a newspaper to "show" that the atmospheric pressure…

  7. Research on the Surname of Rulers of the State of Ju%莒国族姓考辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富祥

    2015-01-01

    古莒国的历史可以一直推溯到史前,因相传其族出于嬴姓的东夷少昊集团,故后世多称其国为嬴姓。古籍或又称其国为曹姓,实是以曹地为中心的一种地域性的划分,大抵相当于曹氏,不是莒国本来的姓号。史书又明确记载西周以来的莒国为己姓,此说应是有根据的,其根源即在莒国与纪国通婚,相因于古代从母姓之俗,用纪国本来的日名“己”表姓,故有己姓之称。所以,对于古莒国公族的姓这一问题,需要联系中国古代姓氏制度的演变来具体分析,不宜作简单的取舍。%The history of the State of Ju can be traced back to the pre -historical period of the ancient China .Since it is said that the clan of Ju is probably a branch of the Shaohao ethnic group or tribe , it is commonly believed that the rulers of Ju have the ancestral name of Ying .It is also recorded in some ancient books that the rulers of Ju may take the ancestral name of Cao , but this is actually a name geo-graphically derived from the place of Cao where some people of Ju inhabit .Hence, Cao can be seen as the clan name of the rulers of Ju , but not their ancestral name .Furthermore , there is a clear historical record that the rulers of Ju have taken the ancestral name of Ji since the Western Zhou .This seems to be reasonable because people of Ju are intermarried with those of the State of Ji , and according to the ancient tradition of taking the name of the mother , the rulers of Ju are very likely to have the ancestral name of Ji, which is the"day-name"(riming) of the rulers of Ji.Therefore, it is not proper to take a hasty po-sition on the problem of the ancestral name of the rulers of Ju , which shall require specific analysis on the basis of the evolution of the Chinese surname system .

  8. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  9. Optimizing sterilization logistics in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Klundert, Joris; Muls, Philippe; Schadd, Maarten

    2008-03-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the flow of sterile instruments in hospitals which takes place between the sterilization department and the operating theatre. This topic is especially of interest in view of the current attempts of hospitals to cut cost by outsourcing sterilization tasks. Oftentimes, outsourcing implies placing the sterilization unit at a larger distance, hence introducing a longer logistic loop, which may result in lower instrument availability, and higher cost. This paper discusses the optimization problems that have to be solved when redesigning processes so as to improve material availability and reduce cost. We consider changing the logistic management principles, use of visibility information, and optimizing the composition of the nets of sterile materials.

  10. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  11. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  12. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  13. The Readiness Ruler as a measure of readiness to change poly-drug use in drug abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Readiness to change is a crucial issue in the treatment of substance use disorders. Experiences with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT has shown that continuous drug and alcohol use with all its consequences characterize most MMT programs. In a prospective study of drug abusers seeking opiate agonist maintenance treatment in the City of Copenhagen, subjects were administered the Addiction Severity Index, and the Readiness Ruler for each of 11 different licit and illicit drugs by research technicians. Data was collected upon admission to the program and at a 18 month follow-up. Subjects who indicated they wanted to quit or cut down upon admission, reported less drug use at 18 month follow-up, after controlling for severity of drug problems at intake. Subjects who expressed readiness to change their drug use upon admission decreased their drug use. It is concluded that the Readiness Ruler measures a construct related to actual readiness, supporting its use in the clinical context.

  14. The Readiness Ruler as a measure of readiness to change poly-drug use in drug abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Readiness to change is a crucial issue in the treatment of substance use disorders. Experiences with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has shown that continuous drug and alcohol use with all its consequences characterize most MMT programs. In a prospective study of drug abusers seeking opiate...... agonist maintenance treatment in the City of Copenhagen, subjects were administered the Addiction Severity Index, and the Readiness Ruler for each of 11 different licit and illicit drugs by research technicians. Data was collected upon admission to the program and at a 18 month follow-up. Subjects who...... indicated they wanted to quit or cut down upon admission, reported less drug use at 18 month follow-up, after controlling for severity of drug problems at intake. Subjects who expressed readiness to change their drug use upon admission decreased their drug use. It is concluded that the Readiness Ruler...

  15. Dark energy constraints from joint analysis of standard rulers and standard candles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Biesiada; Beata Malec; Aleksandra Piórkowska

    2011-01-01

    We performed joint analysis of five cosmological models invoked to explain the accelerating expansion of the Universe.We used the data from strong gravitational lensing systems, locations of cosmic microwave background acoustic peaks and baryon acoustic oscillation data in combination with supernova Ia data (Union2 compilation).The observables we used came from both standard rulers and standard candles, so they had different parameter degeneracies and different restrictive powers in the parameter spaces of cosmological models.The best fits we obtained for the model parameters in joint analysis turned out to prefer cases effectively equivalent to the ACDM model.They were also in agreement with other combined studies performed by other authors on different sets of diagnostic probes.Information theoretic methods used to assess which model is most supported by the data lead to the conclusion that the concordance model ACDM is clearly preferred in joint analysis.The quintessence (both having constant or time varying equation of state) and Chaplygin gas get considerably less support from the data while the brane world (DGP) scenario is practically ruled out.

  16. A coiled-coil domain acts as a molecular ruler in LPS chain length regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuukkanen, Anne; Danciu, Iulia; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hussain, Rohanah; Liu, Huanting; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain bacterial polysaccharides play important roles in pathogenicity. In Escherichia coli O9a, a model for ABC transporter dependent polysaccharide assembly, a large extracellular carbohydrate with a narrow distribution of size is polymerized from monosaccharides by a complex of two proteins, WbdA (polymerase) and WbdD (terminating protein). Such careful control of polymerization is recurring theme in biology. Combining crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering, we show that the C-terminal domain of WbdD contains an extended coiled-coil that physically separates WbdA from the catalytic domain of WbdD. The effects of insertions and deletions within the coiled-coil region were analyzed in vivo, revealing that polymer size is controlled by varying the length of the coiled-coil domain. Thus, the coiled-coil domain of WbdD functions as a molecular ruler that, along with WbdA:WbdD stoichiometry, controls the chain length of a model bacterial polysaccharide. PMID:25504321

  17. Optical position sensor based on a digital wavelength-encoding grating ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Huoyao; Liu, Zhengkun; Hong, Yilin

    2016-10-01

    A wavelength-encoding optical position sensor was designed in this study. The critical component of the sensor is its innovative digital encoding grating ruler (DEGR), which is a substrate on which several blazed grating units with different line densities are arranged parallel to one another following a certain order. Two types of multi-DEGR were designed. We obtained over 100,000 codes that significantly assisted in designing long-range and high-resolution position sensors by optimizing the coding algorithm. The wavelength signals generated by the multi-DEGR were demodulated using concave grating and several photosensitive elements. A 100-mm multi-DEGR with 1000 codes was successfully fabricated using the combined methods of direct laser writing and holographic technology. We described the principle of the sensor in detail and established the entire sensor system. A bench test was conducted to test the signal response of the sensor. Bench test results exhibited 100% accuracy of the signal response of the optical sensor and an excellent temperature performance within -55°C and 75°C.

  18. Siim Nestor soovitab : Rulers of the Deep. Tartu Popi ja Roki Instituut. Väliskülalised / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Duo Rulers of the Deep heliplaadi "Next Evolution" esitlustest 28. apr. Ranna klubis Sillamäel, 29. apr. klubis Hollywood Tallinnas, 30. apr. Rakvere teatrikohvikus, 5. mail klubis Privé Tallinnas, 6. mail klubis Illusion Tartus. Ansambli Tartu Popi ja Roki Instituut esikalbumi "Madise margikogu" esitlusest 29. apr. Sõbra Majas Tartus. James Mowbray 28. apr. klubis Privé Tallinnas ja 29. apr. klubis Illusioon, Maga Mo peol "Bassikultuur" 28. apr. Von Krahlis Tallinnas

  19. Sterile Keratitis following Collagen Crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report a keratoconic eye that developed severe sterile keratitis and corneal scar after collagen crosslinking necessitating corneal transplantation. Case Report: A 26-year-old man with progressive keratoconus underwent collagen crosslinking and presented with severe keratitis 72 hours after the procedure. The initial impression was infectious corneal ulcer and a fortified antibiotic regimen was administered. However, the clinical course and confocal microscopy results prompted a diagnosis of sterile keratitis. The eye developed severe corneal scars leading to reduced visual acuity and necessitating corneal transplantation. Conclusion: Sterile keratitis may develop after collagen crosslinking resulting in profound visual loss leading to corneal transplantation. PMID:25709779

  20. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  2. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    OpenAIRE

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  3. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-10-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  4. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  5. Phenomenology of the Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate several topics in neutrino physics, with an em- phasis on the phenomenology of the sterile neutrinos. We study the existence of a light sterile neutrino within the so called 3+1 scenario using the data of the medium baseline reactor experiments. We will also probe the parameters of the Large Extra Dimension model with the high energy atmospheric data of the IceCube experiment, and will find an equivalence between the Kaluza Klein modes and the sterile neutrinos. We will study the secret interaction of the ster- ile neutrinos which is proposed to solve the tension between cosmology and the sterile neutrino hypothesis. In addition to these, we will show that a minimal 2-Higgs-Doublet-Model extended with a U(1) or Z_2 symmetry cannot explain the smallness of the neutrino masses.

  6. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  7. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxid...

  8. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  9. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-10-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  10. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2016-01-01

    This work estimates the probability of $\\mu$ to $e$ neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5x5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4x4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  11. Development of sterilization and storage processes of Xeno-skins by gamma irradiation for the Industrialization as dressing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Hum; Sung, Nak Yun; Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Jeong Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Allografts have been increased in concerns as treatment methods to be use in replacement and reconstruction procedures of tissue. The major concern about tissue and bone transplantation is the risk of transferring bacteria, viruses from recipient to the donors, especially from different species. To avoid these risks, tissue and bone banks use many different sterilization methods such as a deep-frozenness, freeze-drying ethylene oxide-sterilization and gamma-irradiation. Among these methods, gamma-irradiation has been widely used to sterilize the tissue for allograft and xenograft safety. Gamma irradiation could be an effective method for sterilization of soft tissue for the development of xenografts. Also, this study suggests the potential of development as tissue graft with the improved mechanical property of the structural stability and protection of tissue materials by antioxidant on porcine skin irradiated for sterilization and storage process

  12. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  13. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  14. The limits of sterility assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-09-03

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10(-6) is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10(-6). By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10(-6) is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10(-6) corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into "High-level disinfection", "Intermediate-level disinfection" and "Low-level disinfection". The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options.In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10(-3) is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of at least 2

  15. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Morejón-Alonso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence of sterilization methods: ethylene oxide; autoclaving; dry oven. On the other hand, mechanical strength decreased with regard to non sterilized material in the sterilization sequence: ethylene oxide; dry oven; autoclaving. The compressive strength was 8.5 ± 1.0; 9.0 ± 1.2; 8.2 ± 0.8 and 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas diametral tensile strength was 2.1 ± 0.3; 2.5 ± 0.1; 1.9 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.3 for the material sterilized by ethylene oxide, dry oven, and autoclaving, respectively. Several compositional and microstuctural changes were detected after dry heat and autoclave sterilization. Ethylene oxide sterilization had lesser effect on the chemical composition and strength than dry heat and autoclaving.

  16. Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences Generation for Optical WDM Systems: A Novel Parallel Hybrid Multi-objective Bat Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shonak; Singh, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Neena

    2016-07-01

    In real-life, multi-objective engineering design problems are very tough and time consuming optimization problems due to their high degree of nonlinearities, complexities and inhomogeneity. Nature-inspired based multi-objective optimization algorithms are now becoming popular for solving multi-objective engineering design problems. This paper proposes original multi-objective Bat algorithm (MOBA) and its extended form, namely, novel parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm (PHMOBA) to generate shortest length Golomb ruler called optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences at a reasonable computation time. The OGRs found their application in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems as channel-allocation algorithm to reduce the four-wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk. The performances of both the proposed algorithms to generate OGRs as optical WDM channel-allocation is compared with other existing classical computing and nature-inspired algorithms, including extended quadratic congruence (EQC), search algorithm (SA), genetic algorithms (GAs), biogeography based optimization (BBO) and big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization algorithms. Simulations conclude that the proposed parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm works efficiently as compared to original multi-objective Bat algorithm and other existing algorithms to generate OGRs for optical WDM systems. The algorithm PHMOBA to generate OGRs, has higher convergence and success rate than original MOBA. The efficiency improvement of proposed PHMOBA to generate OGRs up to 20-marks, in terms of ruler length and total optical channel bandwidth (TBW) is 100 %, whereas for original MOBA is 85 %. Finally the implications for further research are also discussed.

  17. A cracked mirror? - forming the ideal ruler in Epirus and Nicaea in the first half of the 13th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the 13th century both Byzantine Empire and the image of its ideal ruler had to undergo a transformation. By applying mostly the narratological analysis to the parenetic texts written in the two successor states of the Empire, the paper sheds light on the dynamic ‘negotiations’ within the Roman elites of the place that the Emperor should have inside the symbolic order, and suggests a possible model of approach to other Byzantine texts and periods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177015

  18. Sterile neutrinos at the CNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Donini, A; Meloni, D; Migliozzi, P; Terranova, F

    2007-01-01

    We study the potential of the CNGS beam in constraining the parameter space of a model with three active plus one sterile neutrino such as to explain the LSND results. We perform our analysis using the OPERA detector as a reference (our analysis can be upgraded including a detailed simulation of the ICARUS detector). We point out that the best channel to look for sterile neutrinos at the CNGS beam is numu to nutau, that is precisely the main signal for which both OPERA and ICARUS have been designed. We also analyse numu to nue oscillations. We take advantage of the expected efficiencies and backgrounds for these signals and evaluate the OPERA potential to look for sterile neutrinos. Combination of data from both channels permit to cover almost all of the allowed CP-conserving 3+1 neutrino model parameter space.

  19. Neutrinos in a Sterile Throat

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We consider field-theoretic models of a warped extra dimension with multiple throats, in which fermions that are singlets of the Standard Model gauge group propagate in a separate throat from the Standard Model fields, which we call the sterile throat. The singlets mix with Standard Model fields via interactions localized on the UV brane that connects the two throats. This leads to three, light, mostly-active, Majorana neutrinos via a higher-dimensional see-saw mechanism, together with Kaluza-Klein towers of mostly-sterile neutrinos, whose scale is set by the warp factor in the sterile throat and can be very low if the throat is deep. We suggest that a model of this kind may explain all the neutrino data, reconciling the LSND result with astrophysical constraints.

  20. Sporicidal efficacy of genipin: a potential theoretical alternative for biomaterial and tissue graft sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael S; Akkus, Ozan

    2013-09-01

    Terminal sterilization of musculoskeletal allografts by gamma radiation minimizes the risk of disease transmission but impairs allograft mechanical properties. Commonly employed crosslinking agents can sterilize tissues without affecting mechanical properties adversely; however, these agents are toxic. Genipin is reported to be a benign crosslinking agent that strengthens mechanical properties of tissues; however, the antimicrobial capacity of genipin is largely unknown. The present study's aims were: (1) to assess the sporicidal potential of genipin, (2) to improve antimicrobial capacity by changing chemical and physical treatment conditions. To establish genipin's sterilization potential Bacillus subtilis var. niger spore strips were treated with 0-10% genipin in PBS or in 1:1 DMSO:PBS up to 72 h at room temperature (RT). Sterilizing doses and concentrations of genipin were used to treat B. pumilus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores to assess broader spectrum sporicidal activity of genipin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate gross morphological changes after genipin treatment. Optimal sterilization conditions were determined by evaluating the effects of temperature (RT-50 °C), DMSO:PBS ratio (0:100-100:0), and treatment duration (24-72 h) on B. subtilis. Genipin penetration of full thickness bovine patellar tendon and cortical bone specimens was observed to assess the feasibility of the agent for treating grafts. Initial studies showed that after 72 h of treatment at RT with 0.63-10% genipin/DMSO:PBS B. subtilis spore strips were sterilized; 0.63% genipin/PBS did not sterilize spore strips at 72 h at RT. Genipin doses and concentrations that sterilized B. subtilis spore strips sterilized B. pumilus and G. stearothermophilus spore strips. SEM revealed no gross morphological differences between untreated and treated spores. Treatment optimization resulted in sterilization within 24 h with 100% PBS, and DMSO facilitated sporicidal

  1. Förster resonance energy transfer and protein-induced fluorescence enhancement as synergetic multi-scale molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Evelyn; Lerner, Eitan; Husada, Florence; Roelfs, Martin; Chung, Sangyoon; Hohlbein, Johannes; Weiss, Shimon; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-09-01

    Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE). We show that donor brightness (via PIFE) and energy transfer efficiency (via FRET) can simultaneously report on e.g., the conformational state of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) following its interaction with unlabelled proteins (BamHI, EcoRV, and T7 DNA polymerase gp5/trx). The PIFE-FRET assay uses established labelling protocols and single molecule fluorescence detection schemes (alternating-laser excitation, ALEX). Besides quantitative studies of PIFE and FRET ruler characteristics, we outline possible applications of ALEX-based PIFE-FRET for single-molecule studies with diffusing and immobilized molecules. Finally, we study transcription initiation and scrunching of E. coli RNA-polymerase with PIFE-FRET and provide direct evidence for the physical presence and vicinity of the polymerase that causes structural changes and scrunching of the transcriptional DNA bubble.

  2. Förster resonance energy transfer and protein-induced fluorescence enhancement as synergetic multi-scale molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Evelyn; Lerner, Eitan; Husada, Florence; Roelfs, Martin; Chung, SangYoon; Hohlbein, Johannes; Weiss, Shimon; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE). We show that donor brightness (via PIFE) and energy transfer efficiency (via FRET) can simultaneously report on e.g., the conformational state of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) following its interaction with unlabelled proteins (BamHI, EcoRV, and T7 DNA polymerase gp5/trx). The PIFE-FRET assay uses established labelling protocols and single molecule fluorescence detection schemes (alternating-laser excitation, ALEX). Besides quantitative studies of PIFE and FRET ruler characteristics, we outline possible applications of ALEX-based PIFE-FRET for single-molecule studies with diffusing and immobilized molecules. Finally, we study transcription initiation and scrunching of E. coli RNA-polymerase with PIFE-FRET and provide direct evidence for the physical presence and vicinity of the polymerase that causes structural changes and scrunching of the transcriptional DNA bubble. PMID:27641327

  3. Mao Zedong as the Last Confucian Ruler? The Moral-Didactic Aspect of “Confucian” Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the moral-didactic aspect of “Confucian” art, as seen primarily in the form of narrative illustration. In order to legitimize their authority, many rulers used visual media to promote or affirm Confucian social and political values, and thereby presented themselves as ideal Confucian rulers. The article analyses the use of narrative illustration by two exemplary historical figures – the first emperor of the Tang dynasty, Taizong (589–649 and the founder of the Southern Song dynasty, Gaozong (1107–1187 – in order to define the concept of the “Confucian ideal ruler”. Based on this concept, the article then analyses the pictorial propaganda of the great Chinese communist leader, Mao Zedong (1893–1976. Mao also used didactic illustrations, in the form of propaganda posters, to disseminate communist ideology. He implicitly followed the model of the “Confucian ruler”, even if the figure was couched in the symbols of a 20th-century ideology. The article concludes by arguing that Mao Zedong can thus be considered the last “Confucian ideal ruler”.

  4. 壮族传统游戏打尺子的物理原理分析%Physics Analysis of Zhuang Nationality Traditional Game-Playing a Ruler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦金明; 易其顺

    2014-01-01

    在介绍传统民族体育竞技活动的打尺子游戏的基础上,从力学的角度分析了打尺子游戏中尺子几个运动过程的物理原理。着重定量分析尺子的上抛运动,给出最佳的击打位置。%This text analyzes , from the Angle of mechanics, several physical principles of the process of the game of playing a ruler. The results of the analysis for raising the grade of the ruler game have a great role in promoting. The development of traditional ethnic sports activities has a certain guiding significance. At the same time, by al owing students to analyze their familiar ruler game, the physical principle of cultivating the students' ability to use physical knowledge to solve practical problems.

  5. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  6. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  7. Sterile neutrinos at the CNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Andrea; Maltoni, Michele; Meloni, Davide; Migliozzi, Pasquale; Terranova, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    We study the potential of the CNGS beam in constraining the parameter space of a model with one sterile neutrino separated from three active ones by an Script O(eV2) mass-squared difference, Δ mSBL2. We perform our analysis using the OPERA detector as a reference (our analysis can be upgraded including a detailed simulation of the ICARUS detector). We point out that the channel with the largest potential to constrain the sterile neutrino parameter space at the CNGS beam is νμ→ντ. The reason for that is twofold: first, the active-sterile mixing angle that governs this oscillation is the less constrained by present experiments; second, this is the signal for which both OPERA and ICARUS have been designed, and thus benefits from an extremely low background. In our analysis we also took into account νμ→νe oscillations. We find that the CNGS potential to look for sterile neutrinos is limited with nominal intensity of the beam, but it is significantly enhanced with a factor 2 to 10 increase in the neutrino flux. Data from both channels allow us, in this case, to constrain further the four-neutrino model parameter space. Our results hold for any value of Δ mSBL2gtrsim0.1 eV2, i.e. when oscillations driven by this mass-squared difference are averaged. We have also checked that the bound on θ13 that can be put at the CNGS is not affected by the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  8. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionising photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the DES survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  9. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  10. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  11. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  12. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Widrow, L.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics

    1993-03-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed or sterile neutrinos. This model has been studied extensively in the context of the hot dark matter scenario. We reexamine this model and find that hot, warm, and cold dark matter are all possibilities. We focus on the case where sterile neutrinos are the dark matter. Since their only direct coupling is to left-handed or active neutrinos, the most efficient production mechanism is via neutrino oscillations. If the production rate is always less than the expansion rate, then these neutrinos will never be in thermal equilibrium. However, they may still play a significant role in the dynamics of the Universe and possibly provide the missing mass necessary for closure. We consider a single generation of neutrino fields ({nu}{sub L}, {nu}{sub R}) with a Dirac mass, {mu}, and a Majorana mass for the right-handed components only, M. For M {much_gt} {mu} we show that the number density of sterile neutrinos is proportional to {mu}{sup 2}/M so that the energy density today is independent of M. However M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe. In particular, M {approx_equal} 0.1--1.0 key leads to warm dark matter and a structure formation scenario that may have some advantages over both the standard hot and cold dark matter scenarios.

  13. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  14. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Sownak; Jun, Hou; Lacey, Cedric G; Lovell, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflecte...

  15. A coiled-coil domain acts as a molecular ruler to regulate O-antigen chain length in lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelueken, Gregor; Clarke, Bradley R; Huang, Hexian; Tuukkanen, Anne; Danciu, Iulia; Svergun, Dmitri I; Hussain, Rohanah; Liu, Huanting; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain bacterial polysaccharides have important roles in pathogenicity. In Escherichia coli O9a, a model for ABC transporter-dependent polysaccharide assembly, a large extracellular carbohydrate with a narrow size distribution is polymerized from monosaccharides by a complex of two proteins, WbdA (polymerase) and WbdD (terminating protein). Combining crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering, we found that the C-terminal domain of WbdD contains an extended coiled-coil that physically separates WbdA from the catalytic domain of WbdD. The effects of insertions and deletions in the coiled-coil region were analyzed in vivo, revealing that polymer size is controlled by varying the length of the coiled-coil domain. Thus, the coiled-coil domain of WbdD functions as a molecular ruler that, along with WbdA:WbdD stoichiometry, controls the chain length of a model bacterial polysaccharide.

  16. The Interaction Effects of Program Training, Dosage, and Implementation Quality on Targeted Student Outcomes for The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Regina; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how training, dosage, and implementation quality of a social and emotional learning program, The RULER Approach, were related to students' social and emotional competencies. There were no main effects for any of the variables on student outcomes, but students had more positive outcomes when their teachers (a) attended more…

  17. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  18. The Power of Rulers and Violent Resistance Against an Unlawful Rule in the Political Theory of William of Ockham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Miethke

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here is intended a short analysis of Ockham's political theory focussed on his use of some central concepts: "unlawful violence" (violentia, "lawful force" (potentia, and "lawful rule" (potestas. Ockham is devellopping these concepts within the framework of his general assumptions. Establishing rulers is a license given by god to men after the loss of paradise together with the license to sort out property (dominium in order to make possible preservation. This final aim is justification, standard and limit for rulership. Rulers ought to be measured by their subjects by this original intention. Therefore resistance against unlawful rule, even in violent terms, is not only possible, but is the obligation, if men want to live in a free constitutionEl articulo intenta realizar un breve analisis sobre la teoria política de Ockham, enfocado en algunos conceptos centrales de su obra: Violencia indebida (violentia, fuerza legítima (potentia y autoridad legal (potestas. Ockham desarrolla estos conceptos en un marco de sus creencias generales. El establecimiento de reglas es una licencia otorgada por Dios a los hombres después de la pérdida del paraíso en conjunto con la licencia de organizar la propiedad (dominium con el objetivo de hacer posible la preservación. El objetivo final es justificar, estandarizar y limitar el poder. Los gobernantes deben ser medidos por sus materias de acuerdo a esta intención original. De esta forma, la resistencia en contra de la violencia indebida, incluso por la vía violenta, no es solo posible, es también una obligación si el hombre quiere vivir en libertad

  19. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  20. Sterilizing tissue-materials using pulsed power plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarkhan Tehrani, Ashkan; Davari, Pooya; Singh, Sanjleena; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the potential of pulsed power to sterilize hard and soft tissues and its impact on their physico-mechanical properties. It hypothesizes that pulsed plasma can sterilize both vascular and avascular tissues and the transitive layers in between without deleterious effects on their functional characteristics. Cartilage/bone laminate was chosen as a model to demonstrate the concept, treated at low temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in short durations and in buffered environment using a purposed-built pulsed power unit. Input voltage and time of exposure were assigned as controlling parameters in a full factorial design of experiment to determine physical and mechanical alteration pre- and post-treatment. The results demonstrated that, discharges of 11 kV sterilized samples in 45 s, reducing intrinsic elastic modules from 1.4 ± 0.9 to 0.9 ± 0.6 MPa. There was a decrease of 14.1 % in stiffness and 27.8 % in elastic-strain energy for the top quartile. Mechanical impairment was directly proportional to input voltage (P value connective tissues with varying level of loss in mechanical robustness which we argue to be acceptable in certain medical and tissue engineering application.

  1. Mechanism of Sterility and Breeding Strategies for Photoperiod/Thermo- Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; XIAO Ying-hui; LEI Dong-yang

    2010-01-01

    To understand the male sterility mechanism of photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile [P(T)GMS] lines in rice, the research progress on genetics of photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genic male sterility in rice was reviewed. A new idea was proposed to explain the sterility mechanism of P(T)GMS rice. The fertility transition from sterile to fertile is the result of cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes with photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genes, but not the so-called pgms gene in P(T)GMS rice. The minor-effect genes, which exhibit accumulative effect on sterility, are the important factors for the critical temperature of sterility transition. The more minor-effect genes the sterile line holds, the lower the critical temperature of sterility transition is. The critical temperature of sterility transition will be invariable if all the minor-effect genes are homozygous. The strategies for breeding P(T)GMS rice were also proposed. The selective indices of critical photoperiod and temperature for sterility transition should be set according to varietal type and ecological region. Imposing selection pressure is a key technology for breeding P(T)GMS rice with lower critical temperature for sterility, and improving the comprehensive performance of the whole traits and combining ability is vital for breeding P(T)GMS rice lines.

  2. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan; Ozer, A Yekta

    2014-06-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation.

  3. Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Tram, Thomas [Institut de Théorie des Phénomenènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Recent cosmological data favor additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons. Light sterile neutrinos are prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived assuming that they are thermalized at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch and such assumption is not justified a priori. We will discuss the evolution of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe and their thermalization just before BBN begins.

  4. Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter with Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Bibhushan

    2016-01-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  5. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards, the uncer...

  6. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.;

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  7. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  8. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  9. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  10. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  11. Care and sterilization of endourologic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, E; Simmons, D; Weinberg, J J

    1988-08-01

    All endourologic instruments must be handled properly if they are to continue to function properly. Care must be taken in washing and sterilizing of this equipment, as not all endoscopic equipment can endure all methods, and people who are working with these instruments must be taught the proper care and sterilization methods of each. For example, fiberoptic telescopes and light cables must never be autoclaved; ethylene oxide is the method of choice. Disinfectant is an alternative. Loops, sheaths, high-frequency cables, resectoscopes, and working elements should be sterilized by ethylene oxide. Loops and high-frequency cables should not be soaked in a disinfectant, but other instruments may be soaked. All instruments should be dried before sterilization. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the importance of proper storage of these very fragile fiberoptic instruments. With proper care and sterilization, these instruments will need fewer repairs and function properly for a longer time.

  12. Sterilization in Honduras: assessing the unmet demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Nunez, J A; Covington, D L; Colven, C E

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the availability of sterilization services at two hospitals in Honduras. Approximately 7,000 women who had given birth at the Hospital Materno Infantil in Tegucigalpa and the Hospital Leonardo Martinez in San Pedro Sula were asked about their desire for sterilization. Of the women who wanted to be sterilized, a considerable percentage had not been sterilized four months after they had given birth--58 percent of those who had delivered at Materno Infantil and 79 percent of those who had delivered at Leonardo Martinez. Twenty-three percent of the women who delivered at Materno Infantil and 4 percent of the women who delivered at Leonardo Martinez were sterilized before they were discharged. The difference may be attributed to the poor quality of the facilities at Leonardo Martinez.

  13. Higgs production through sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In scenarios with sterile (right-handed) neutrinos with an approximate “lepton-number-like” symmetry, the heavy neutrinos (the mass eigenstates) can have masses around the electroweak scale and couple to the Higgs boson with, in principle, unsuppressed Yukawa couplings, while the smallness of the light neutrinos’ masses is guaranteed by the approximate symmetry. The on-shell production of the heavy neutrinos at lepton colliders, together with their subsequent decays into a light neutrino and a Higgs boson, constitutes a resonant contribution to the Higgs production mechanism. This resonant mono-Higgs production mechanism can contribute significantly to the mono-Higgs observables at future lepton colliders. A dedicated search for the heavy neutrinos in this channel exhibits sensitivities for the electron neutrino Yukawa coupling as small as ˜ 5 × 10-3. Furthermore, the sensitivity is enhanced for higher center-of-mass energies, when identical integrated luminosities are considered.

  14. Status of sterile neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwetz, Thomas

    2013-02-15

    There are several independent hints for neutrino oscillations with a mass-squared difference at the eV{sup 2} scale. If confirmed, this would imply the existence of sterile neutrinos. I discuss the present status of the hints for ν{sub e} disappearance from reactor experiments and Gallium source experiments, as well as from the LSND and MiniBooNE ν{sub μ}→ν{sub e} appearance searches. A consistent interpretation of the global data in terms of neutrino oscillations is challenged by the non-observation of a positive signal in ν{sub μ} disappearance experiments. There is a strong tension in the global data, irrespective of the number of eV-scale neutrino states.

  15. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  16. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  17. Sterilization: women fit to be tied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, B

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization abuse is both systematic and widespread. Frequently, women are misled about the dangers of surgery, misinformed about its permanence, and coerced while under the stress of labor or abortion. Generally, instances of abuses in the health system are treated as illegitimate, illegal aberations of an otherwise decent health care system. Careful examination of these so called abuses would reveal that each can be causally connected to particular aspects of the care of America's health system. Sterilization abuse stems from a combination of factors inherent in the health system plus 1 critical additional factor. Besides resulting from teaching and research imperatives, profit making, and the fee for service systems, such abuse is the most widespread example of medicine as an instrument of social control. Sterilization is the most extreme form of birth control and birth control is official US government policy. There were about 500,000 sterilizations performed on American women in 1973. None of the sterilization methods is innocuous, and each is associated with some physical and psychological side effects. General agreement exists in the medical literature that some risk is attendant to each procedure. Sterilization is the most dangerous and the fastest growing method of birth control. Since 1970 the figures show an almost 3-fold increase in the incidence of female sterilization, from 192,000 in 1970 to 548,000 in 1974. Much evidence exists to suggest that the increase in the number of sterilizations has fueled a trend toward the sterilization of younger women with fewer children. Official accommodation to liberalization of sterilization practices in the US came in 1969, when the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) withdrew its age parity formula. This liberalization of sterilization guidelines opened the floodgates to abuse. Some of the increase in the number of operations performed is due to increased demand, some of it is the result

  18. Complications of female sterilization: immediate and delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, G R; Sondheimer, S J

    1984-03-01

    Surgical sterilization in women has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. The development of laparoscopy and minilaparotomy have made the procedure readily available even in developing countries. In the United States, changing social values and changes in hospital regulations have done as much as technology to account for the tremendous increases in the number of women undergoing sterilization. Improved sterilization procedures have resulted in lower costs for sterilization and lowered morbidity and mortality rates. Hysterectomy for sterilization alone carries unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Originally, laparoscopic techniques utilized unipolar cautery. However, bowel burns, a rare but serious complication, were reported, and this led to newer techniques. These techniques, using bands, clips, and bipolar cautery, have gained increasing popularity and have eliminated many of the serious complications of female sterilization. Historically, there has been concern that tubal sterilization by any method produces, in significant numbers of patients, the subsequent gynecologic and psychologic problems called "post-tubal ligation syndrome." A review of earlier literature indicates that many of these studies have serious methodologic problems, including recall bias, inappropriate control groups, failure to elicit prior history of gynecologic or psychologic problems, and failure to account for the use of oral contraceptives or IUDs. More recent large prospective epidemiologic studies that have controlled for prior gynecologic problems and contraceptive usage have failed to show increased incidence of gynecologic sequelae in large numbers of women. However, there are some data to support the concept that in certain individuals, sterilization may result in disruption of ovarian blood or nerve supply, producing gynecologic sequelae. Additional data from these ongoing large-scale studies and others should help to elucidate this problem in the future. Pregnancy

  19. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile ...... neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range....

  20. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodejohann, Werner, E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Zhang, He, E-mail: he.zhang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2014-10-07

    We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  1. Basics of sterile compounding: bubble point testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies that compound sterile preparations must choose sterile filters that are approved for human use. They may rely on the filter manufacturer's Certificate of Quality to ensure the sterile filter is pyrogen free and has been tested for bacterial retention. The Certificate of Quality from the filter manufacturer also contains other useful information about the filter such as: flow rate and maximum pressure drop, thermal and hydraulic stress, and membrane results of the initial integrity test performed on the filter membrane with water, if a hydrophilic membrane. This article discusses the integrity test, which is often called the water bubble point test.

  2. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Rodejohann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  3. A Sterile Neutrino at DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Berryman, Jeffrey M; Kelly, Kevin J; Kobach, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to probe the existence and effects of a fourth neutrino mass-eigenstate. We study the mixing of the fourth mass-eigenstate with the three active neutrinos of the Standard Model, including the effects of new sources of CP-invariance violation, for a wide range of new mass-squared differences, from lower than 10^-5 eV^2 to higher than 1 eV^2. DUNE is sensitive to previously unexplored regions of the mixing angle - mass-squared difference parameter space. If there is a fourth neutrino, in some regions of the parameter space, DUNE is able to measure the new oscillation parameters (some very precisely) and clearly identify two independent sources of CP-invariance violation. Finally, we use the hypothesis that there are four neutrino mass-eigenstates in order to ascertain how well DUNE can test the limits of the three-massive-neutrinos paradigm. In this way, we briefly explore whether light sterile neutrinos can serve as proxies for ot...

  4. Radiation sterilization of pancreatin preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Syojiro (Osaka Coll. of Pharmacy, Matsubara (Japan)); Sako, Michiyo; Kanbashi, Toshitaka; Jo, Hisanobu; Koide, Hiroaki

    1984-11-01

    The enzymatic activities (in detail, amylase-, lipase- and protease-activity) of ..gamma..-irradiated pancreatin powder preparation decrease to 50 - 95% at doses range of 50 kR - 8 MR. The dose-inactivation relation-ships vary depending on every different manufactory lot. In the case of higher moisture content preparation as irradiation sample, amylase activities are more stable, the other side, protease activities are less stable. On the variation of these activities by ..gamma..-irradiation, there are no difference between room temperature and lower temperature (-70/sup 0/C) as irradiation condition. The D/sub 10/ values of contained bacteria and fungus (contamination number: about 1 x 10/sup 3/ cells/g and 9 x 10/sup 2/ spores/g) of a pancreatin preparation are 74C/kg (280 kR) and 60 C/kg(230 kR). Then, these values are corresponded to 645 C/kg (2.5 MR) and 540 C/kg (2.1 MR) as perfect sterilization.

  5. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Timmons, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  6. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  7. Sterile Neutrinos in astrophysical and cosmological sauce

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, M

    2004-01-01

    The study of sterile neutrinos has recently acquired a different flavor: being now excluded as the dominant solution for the solar or atmospheric conversions, sterile neutrinos, still attractive for many other reasons, have thus become even more elusive. The present relevant questions are: which subdominant role can they have? Where (and how) can they show up? Cosmology and supernovae turn out to be powerful tools to address these issues. With the most general mixing scenarios in mind, I present the analysis of many possible effects on BBN, CMB, LSS, and in SN physics due to sterile neutrinos. I discuss the computational techniques, present the state-of-the-art bounds, identify the still allowed regions and study some of the most promising future probes. I show how the region of the LSND sterile neutrino is excluded by the constraints of standard cosmology.

  8. Cosmological and astrophysical implications of sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. The interplay among the new couplings introduced in the Standard Model can accommodate the neutrino oscillation data for a variety of choices: the new particles can be extremely heavy and practically unobservable, or they can be light, in which case they can solve several long-standing puzzles. It has been shown, for example, that sterile neutrinos in some range of masses can account for dark matter, their emission from a supernova can explain pulsar kicks, arid their decays can play an important role in the formation of the first stars. Though indirect, these clues indicate that sterile neutrinos can be the minimal solution to a variety of unsolved problems. This emphasizes the importance of investigating further the consequences of these new degrees of freedom for cosmology and astrophysics. In this dissertation, I explore the possible role of sterile neutrinos of different mass scales in some cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge- singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce a relic population of keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. The latter can account for the dark matter of the universe. The mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. Relic sterile neutrinos produced via decays at the electroweak scale constitute colder dark matter than those produced via other previously suggested mechanisms. The primordial thermal content of dark matter has important implications for the formation of cosmic structures, such as clusters and galaxies. The assessment of the relevant properties suggests that sterile neutrinos produced at the electroweak scale are a

  9. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  10. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)], E-mail: nazly@batan.go.id; Febrida, A.; Basril, A. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)

    2007-11-15

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  11. Advance in the research of sterilants against rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advances in the application of sterilizing techniques against pest rodents in China are introduced in the paper. The development of chemosterilants, improvements of botanic sterilants, production of new steroid hormone sterilants, introduction of immunosterility and excellent properties of the sterilants are outlined. The "Space Occupation Theory" of sterile techniques is advanced after practice. The botanic sterilants with gossypol and trichosanthin as its main agents were screened and successfully applied in the large area control in the northern forest area of China. The safety of sterilants to non-target animals such as rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys and chickens was summarized.

  12. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  13. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  14. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  15. Desferrioxamine for Stimulation of Fracture Healing and Revascularization in a Bone Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    changes of 0.6N hydrochloric acid ( HCl ). The bone was then rinsed with sterile saline and titrated to a pH between 7 and 7.4 using concentrated sodium...hydroxide ( NaOH ). The DBM was then placed in 70% ethanol for 12 hours. The wet DBM was weighed and allotted into sterile micro-centrifuge tubes

  16. Anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburne, J I

    1983-04-01

    This issue of the Bulletin deals with the principles of anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization with emphasis on techniques for laparoscopy and minilaparotomy. General anesthesia techniques provide analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation and are particularly useful for managing the anxious patient. Disadvantages include increased expense, need for specialized equipment, and highly trained personnel, and delayed recovery. Complications, though relatively rare, can be life-threatening and include aspiration of stomach contents, hypoxia, hypercarbia, hypotension, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death. There is no single preferred technique of general anesthesia, athough most anesthetists employ methods that allow rapid recovery of faculties, enabling the patient to be discharged soon after surgery. To accomplish this end, light anesthesia with sodium thiopental induction and nitrous oxide maintenance is often used. Short duration muscle relaxation with an agent such as succinylcholine supplements this technique. Other techniques include light anesthesia with inhalational anesthetic agents and the use of intravenous ketamine. Local anesthesia augmented by systemic and/or inhalational analgesia is supplanting general anesthesia techniques for laparoscopy in many locales. This approach is also particularly well-suited for minilaparotomy in developing countries, where it has achieved its greatest popularity. The local technique carries with it reduced morbidity and mortality but may not entirely relieve discomfort. The primary danger of local anesthesia is respiratory depression due to excessive narcosis and sedation. The operator must be alert to the action of the drugs and should always use the minimal effective dose. Although toxicity due to overdosage with local anesthetic drugs is occasionally experienced, allergic reactions to the amide-linkage drugs such as lidocaine or bupivacaine are exceedingly rare. For outpatient

  17. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  18. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  19. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  20. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Aaron C; Hernandez, Pilar; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Mena, Olga

    2014-01-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to overclosure, seen as a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter $R_{CMB}$ and the sound horizon $r_s$ from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the ...

  1. [Sterilization and disinfection in clinical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, I; Haydar, B

    1989-11-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the spread of hepatitis b and aids viruses and the high risk of contamination of these viruses during the dental operations has made orthodontists more aware of the necessity of sterilization and disinfection. This article discusses the methods of sterilization and disinfection. Avoidance of corrosion of instruments and the use of a ultrasonic cleaner to avoid contamination has been explained. In the conclusion the measures that the orthodontist has to take in order to protect himself is discussed.

  2. Sterile Neutrinos: An Introduction to Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, J M

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written as one chapter in a collection of essays on neutrino physics for beginning graduate students. The text presents important experimental methods and issues for those interested in searches for sterile neutrinos. Other essays in the collection, written by other authors, will cover introduction to neutrinos in the Standard Model, a description of the theory, and discussion of details of detectors, thus these aspects are not covered here. However, beyond these points, this represents a self-contained tutorial on experimental studies of sterile neutrino oscillations, covering such issues as signals vs. limits, designing experiments, and performing and interpreting global fits to the oscillation data.

  3. Nursing concerns and hospital product sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, R.B. Jr.; Anderson, N.A.

    Nurses and other health care professionals must be aware of the rationale and methodology for in-hospital health care product standardization, including consideration of the hospital standardization committee composition, pilot-study prerequisites, and general evaluation criteria. They must be familiar with the techniques of product sterilization, their effectiveness, and the materials required to maintain sterile product shelf-life until a product is used. Hospital standardization committees can assist in the product-use decisionmaking process. Product evaluation criteria should include considerations pertaining to cost, quality, service, and comparison to similar products.

  4. Transient Two-Phase Flow in Slide-Gate Nozzle and Mold of Continuous Steel Slab Casting with and without Double-Ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Mook; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-10-01

    Transient mold flow could produce undesirable surface instabilities and slag entrainments, leading to the formation of defects during continuous slab casting of steel. In this work, two Large Eddy Simulations coupled with Discrete Phase Model are run, with and without MagnetoHydroDynamic model, to gain new insights into the surface variations of molten steel-argon gas flow with anisotropic turbulence in the slide-gate nozzle and the mold, with and without double-ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking (EMBr). The model calculations are validated with plant measurements, and applied to investigate the flow variations related to the slide gate on nozzle swirl, jet wobbling, and surface flow variations by quantifying the variations of velocity, horizontal angle, and vertical angle of the transient flow. Transient flow in the slide-gate nozzle bottom is almost always swirling, alternating chaotically between clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation. The clockwise swirl, caused by stronger flow down the same side of the nozzle as the open area near the Outside Radius side of the slide-gate middle plate, produces faster jet flow and higher velocity flow across the top surface of the mold. Counter-clockwise swirl produces slower jet and surface flow, but with more variations. The double-ruler EMBr decreases the asymmetry and duration of velocity variations during nozzle swirl flipping, resulting in less flow variations in the jet and across the surface in the mold.

  5. Radio sterilized human ligaments and their clinical application;Ligamentos humanos radioesterilizados y su aplicacion clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Hernandez R, G., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, 50130 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The ligaments are human tissues that are used in the transplantation area. A ligament is an anatomical structure in band form, composed by resistant fibers that connect the tissues that unite the bones with the articulations. In an articulation, the ligaments allow and facilitate the movement inside the natural anatomical directions, while it restricts those movements that are anatomically abnormal, impeding lesions that could arise of this type of movements. The kneecap ligament is a very important tissue in the knee mobility and of walking in the human beings. This ligament can injure it because of automobile accidents, for sport lesions or illnesses, and in many cases the only form of recovering the knee movement is carried out a transplant with the purpose of replacing the damage ligament by allo gen kneecap ligament processed in specialized Tissue Banks where the tissue is sterilized with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co at very low temperatures, obtaining high quality ligaments for clinical application in injured patients. The kneecap ligaments are processed in the Tissue Banks with a segment of kneecap bone, a segment of tibial bone, the contained ligament between both bones and in some cases a fraction of the quadriceps tendon. In this work is given a description of the selection method of the tissue that includes the donor's serologic control, the kneecap ligament processing in the Radio Sterilized Tissues Bank, its sterilization with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co, also it is indicated like the clinical application of the allo gen ligament was realized in a hasty patient and whose previous crossed ligament was injured. Finally the results are presented from the tissue obtaining until the clinical application of it is, and in this case is observed a favorable initial evolution of the transplantation patient. (Author)

  6. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  7. Bone scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  8. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  9. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  10. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R

    2004-03-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  11. Methods for intraoperative, sterile pose-setting of patient-specific microstereotactic frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Benjamin; Müller, Samuel; Kundrat, Dennis; Ortmaier, Tobias; Kahrs, Lüder A.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes new methods for a microstereotactic frame based on bone cement fixation. Microstereotactic frames are under investigation for minimal invasive temporal bone surgery, e.g. cochlear implantation, or for deep brain stimulation, where products are already on the market. The correct pose of the microstereotactic frame is either adjusted outside or inside the operating room and the frame is used for e.g. drill or electrode guidance. We present a patientspecific, disposable frame that allows intraoperative, sterile pose-setting. Key idea of our approach is bone cement between two plates that cures while the plates are positioned with a mechatronics system in the desired pose. This paper includes new designs of microstereotactic frames, a system for alignment and first measurements to analyze accuracy and applicable load.

  12. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem.

  13. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  14. Diluted Equilibrium Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Amol V; Kishimoto, Chad T; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ~ keV to ~ MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, large scale structure, and X-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ~ TeV to ~ EeV rest mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to ...

  15. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ˜keV to ˜MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, and large-scale structure, as well as x-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early Universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ˜TeV to ˜EeV rest-mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high-energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to evade current x-ray or lifetime constraints. Nevertheless, we discuss how future x-ray observations, future lepton number constraints, and future observations and sophisticated simulations of large-scale structure could, in conjunction, provide evidence for this model and/or constrain and probe its parameters.

  16. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  18. [Anesthesia for laparoscopy in sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrath, B; Borgwardt, D; Langanke, D; Alexander, H; Baier, D; Haake, K W

    1990-01-01

    During 5 years 382 laparoscopies were carried through in female patients with sterility in different kinds of anaesthesia (Intubation anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, and i.v. anaesthesia). We found the most advantageous results in the cases of i.v. anaesthesia with Ketamin and Diazepam.

  19. Constraining Sterile Neutrinos Using Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, Ivan; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang, He; Zhou, Shun

    2014-01-01

    Models of neutrino mixing involving one or more sterile neutrinos have resurrected their importance in the light of recent cosmological data. In this case, reactor antineutrino experiments offer an ideal place to look for signatures of sterile neutrinos due to their impact on neutrino flavor transitions. In this work, we show that the high-precision data of the Daya Bay experi\\-ment constrain the 3+1 neutrino scenario imposing upper bounds on the relevant active-sterile mixing angle $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{14} \\lesssim 0.06$ at 3$\\sigma$ confidence level for the mass-squared difference $\\Delta m^2_{41}$ in the range $(10^{-3},10^{-1}) \\, {\\rm eV^2}$. The latter bound can be improved by six years of running of the JUNO experiment, $\\sin^22\\theta_{14} \\lesssim 0.016$, although in the smaller mass range $ \\Delta m^2_{41} \\in (10^{-4} ,10^{-3}) \\, {\\rm eV}^2$. We have also investigated the impact of sterile neutrinos on precision measurements of the standard neutrino oscillation parameters $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\Delta m^2...

  20. Sterile soil from Antarctica: organic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, N H; Bauman, A J; Cameron, R E; Geiger, P J; Hubbard, J S; Shulman, G P; Simmonds, P G; Westberg, K

    1969-05-30

    Soils from the dry-valley region of Antarctica can be sterile by the usual microbiological criteria and yet contain significant amounts of organic carbon. Examination of one such soil shows that the organic material is finely divided anthracite coal. These findings have significant implications for the biological exploration of Mars.

  1. Cornering (3+1) sterile neutrino schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Maltoni, M; Valle, José W F

    2001-01-01

    Using the most recent atmospheric neutrino data, as well as short-baseline and tritium $\\beta$-decay data we show that (3+1) sterile neutrino schemes are severely disfavored, in contrast to the theoretically favored (2+2) schemes.

  2. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  3. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  4. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  5. Trends in sterilization and disinfection procedures in orthodontic offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R G

    1990-10-01

    The present survey is a repetition of a 1987 survey examining the sterilization/disinfection procedures of Georgia's orthodontists. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in orthodontic sterilization/disinfection procedures. Orthodontists in Georgia have dramatically changed their sterilization and disinfection procedures. The major changes represented are greater use of protective barrier wear by doctor and staff members; increased heat sterilization methods for instruments, pliers, and handpieces; and increased disinfection of alginate impressions.

  6. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide.

  7. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yezdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged, molar bands and mouth mirrors used in the patient′s mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups - Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate and set B (0.025% betadine and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse. The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37°C for 24 h. For sterility control, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518 was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculated with the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min.

  8. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  9. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  10. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  11. MSI's unique, multi-functional contract sterilization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern, Kennard H.

    Medical Sterilization Inc. is a unique company supplying sterilization services to regional hospitals in the New York area and also providing contract sterilization and radiation processing services to industry. The evolution from a concept to an operational entity is reviewed in this report.

  12. The dynamics of gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. .1. Frequencies of male-steriles and their cytoplasmic male sterility types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Luyten, R.M.J.M.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of a gynodioecious breeding system (hermaphrodites and male-steriles) was studied in Plantago lanceolata. Cytoplasmic-nuclear inheritance is important in the maintenance of male-steriles. The male-sterile trait is cytoplasmically based (CMS), and male fertility can be restored by nuc

  13. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  14. [Microbiological control of sterilized canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, I

    1977-01-01

    Biologic investigation was carried out in 1974 and 1975 of a total of 1,393, tins of sterilized canned fish belonging to 14 assortments. The tins were kept in a thermostat at 37 degrees C for 70 days, and the bacteriologically seeded material was cultured at 37 degrees C for 10 days for the presence of mesophylic bacteria, and at 56 degrees C for 5 days for the presence of thermophylic bacteria. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the results obtained: 1. Thermostat storing of tins for 5--6 day-and-night periods at 37 degrees C makes it possible to detect all tins that are nonsterile. 2. Culturing of seeded material under the specified conditions makes it possible to establish the presence of residual microflora in the tins of fish. 3. Both procedures referred to could successfully meet the requirements of the modern production of sterilized canned fish and of the microbiologic control.

  15. Quasi Goldstone fermion as a sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, E J; Smirnov, Yu A

    1996-01-01

    The existence of sterile neutrino is hinted by simultaneous explanation of diverse neutrino anomalies. We suggest that the quasi Goldstone fermions (QGF) arising in supersymmetric theory as a result of spontaneous breaking of global symmetry like the Peccei-Quinn symmetry or the lepton number symmetry can play a role of the sterile neutrino. The smallness of mass of QGF (m_S \\sim 10^{-3}-10 eV) can be related to the specific choice of superpotential or K\\"ahler potential (e.g., no-scale kinetic terms for certain superfields). Mixing of QGF with neutrinos implies the R-parity violation. It can proceed via the coupling of QGF with the Higgs supermultiplets or directly with the lepton doublet. A model which accounts for the solar and atmospheric anomalies and the dark matter is presented.

  16. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  17. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Dose mapping for documentation of radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards EN 552 and ISO 11137 require that dose mapping in real or simulated product be carried in connection with the process qualification. This paper reviews the recommendations given in the standards and discusses the difficulties and limitations of practical dose...... mapping. The paper further gives recommendations for effective dose mapping including traceable dosimetry, documented procedures for placement of dosimeters, and evaluation of measurement uncertainties. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  20. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala; Stephanie Aresta-DaSilva; Katherine Tang; David Alvarez; Webber, Matthew J.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Lavin, Danya M.; Omid Veiseh; Doloff, Joshua C; Suman Bose; Arturo Vegas; Minglin Ma; Gaurav Sahay; Alan Chiu; Andrew Bader

    2015-01-01

    In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcap...

  1. From pollen actin to crop male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Actin plays an important role in the life activity of animal and plant cells. Pollen cells have plenty of actin whose structure and characteristics are very similar to the animal actin. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of plant actin gene are very similar to those of the animal gene. The content of pollen actin from male sterile plants is much more lower than that from its maintainer plants. The expression of actin gene is organ-specific during the plant development. The expression quantity of actin gene in pollen is much more higher than those from root, stem and leaf. The expression plasmid of the anti-sense actin gene was constructed, transferred to the protoplasts of wheat and tomato to inhibit the expression of actin gene in pollen and thus the male sterile plants of wheat and tomato were obtained. The actin in pollens from the transgenic plants was reduced significantly, whereas the pistil was not affected. This study might pave a new way to breeding male sterile lines for the application of hybrid vigor of wheat and tomato.

  2. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  3. Sterile subperiosteal fluid collections accompanying orbital wall infarction in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Shah, Ankoor S

    2014-10-01

    Infarction of the orbital wall is an uncommon manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD) that may mimic an infectious process. We report a patient with two separate orbital infarctions with different presenting symptoms involving different bones. Radiologic-guided sampling of a periosteal fluid collection in the first episode showed likely sterile inflammatory exudates. This case highlights the range of findings in orbital wall infarction in SCD as well as helpful clinical and imaging entities that may differentiate infarction from infection, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate management.

  4. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-23

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

  5. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  6. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

    2012-02-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    Full Text Available The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1 up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2 down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3 down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  9. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, Denise A.; Nablo, Sam V.

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. most of these products are filled under aseptic conditions so that for qualification as a sterile product, techniques are often required only for treatment of the container surfaces and package interior. Gas sterilization (ETO) is often used for this purpose but is beset with difficulties known to the reader, especially for critical "contact" products such as in the ophthalmic field. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and x-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating x-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Some of these data illustrating package: parenteral ratios of 10 5:1 have been reported (Rangwalla et al, 1985; Aaronson and Nablo, 1988). Standard techniques have been developed for the validation of the process and are reported here. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed.

  10. Sterilization among currently married men in the United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forste, R; Tanfer, K; Tedrow, L

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 1991 National Survey of Men indicate that about 12% of married men aged 20-39 have had a vasectomy and about 13% are married to a woman who is sterilized. Multivariate analyses indicate that the likelihood of sterilization rises with husband's age, wife's age, duration of marriage and number of children. Black couples are significantly less likely than white couples to rely on sterilization, and interracial couples are less likely than same-race couples to be sterilized. The likelihood of reliance on vasectomy rather than tubal ligation also rises with husband's age, while black men are significantly less likely than white men to elect male over female sterilization. Use of male sterilization is strongly associated with having had a recent contraceptive failure while using a male method.

  11. Cytological causes of blond psyllium for male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish G. Vala, Fougat. R.S. ,Roshni.S. and Vinay Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytological male sterility is a useful trait in plant breeding, especially in medicinal plants such as Cassia angustifolia, Commiphorawightii, Asparagus racemosus .Abnormalities appeared to be the cause of male sterility in plants, we carried out this research in anattempt to make clear the characteristics and inheritance of this male sterility. In Plantago ovata germplasm cytoplasmicabnormality was found to be the cause of abnormality. cytomixis varied from 2% to 48 % in plants. Maximum numbers of PMCscarrying B-chromosomes were recorded in male sterile plants of line JI-214(62%. No B-chromosomes were observed in fertile,sterile and partial male sterile line of JI-107 and maximum abnormal chromosomal segregation was recorded in JI-206. Thesecytological abnormality parameters can be used for hetrosis breeding and hybrid seed production to improve quality of psyllium.

  12. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  13. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen;

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  14. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  15. [Sterilization with ozone in health care: an integrative literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cristina Silva; Torres, Lilian Machado; Azevedo, Marcela Padilha Facetto; de Camargo, Tamara Carolina; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this integrative literature review was to find evidence to support using ozone as a sterilizing agent for health products. The search was performed on the following bases: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, COMPENDEX, INSPEC and ENGINEERING RESEARCH DATABASE; using ozone and sterilization as descriptors. Five articles were found between 1990 and 2008, which tested ozone as a sterilizer. All studies used the same type of investigation (experimental laboratory study) and achieved sterilization with ozone, but with different scopes and products, besides using different methodological procedures. Considering the ever-growing technology for new products, with the vast range of forms and materials, the findings point at ozone sterilization as a promising method, but still in an initial phase of investigation. Further experimental studies are needed to provide broader evidence regarding the possibilities and limitations of ozone sterilization.

  16. Cold-sterilization of copper IUDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    The International Fertility Research Program (IFRP) conducted a study to identify a feasible method for cold-sterilization of copper IUDs. 5 classes of disinfectants were selected for preliminary laboratory trials because of their known disinfectant activity and general product attributes. The types of disinfectants tested for both antibacterial and sporicidal ability were a formaldehyde, an alkaline glutaraldehyde, 2 experimental chlorine-liberating compounds, an iodophor, and quaternary ammonium salts. Initially, tests were conducted on plastic, noncopper bearing IUDs. The different disinfectants were evaluated for their ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli vegetative bacteria within 10 minutes. The formaldehyde solution destroyed both types of bacteria in 1 minute. Both chlorine-liberating compounds and the quaternary ammonium salts destroyed the bacteria within 5 minutes. When used on copper IUDs, only formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde solutions proved to be effective sporicides and, therefore, appropriate for cold-sterilization. The 2 chlorine-liberating compounds were sporicidal if exposed for more than 1 hour, but when immersed in the disinfectant for that period of time the copper corroded. In a subsequent study, 2 commercial glutaraldehydes were compared to a formaldehyde for both antibacterial and sporicidal activity. In this 2nd study, copper bearing IUDs were inoculated with the same microorganisms as used previously. Against the vegetative bacteria, all 3 disinfectants were effective within 10 minutes. Against Bacillus globigii spores, each of these 3 disinfectants was an effective sporicidal agent after 5 hours immersion. An important findint that is relevant to field use is that Sporicidin can be mixed with tap water in a 1:5 dilution, and remain sporicidal after an exposure time of 6 3/4 hours. This eliminates the need for sterile water in preparing the solution.

  17. Research of tare hydrodynamic behaviour at sterilization of canned fish

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to research on improving the equipment that ensures the absolute safety of mineral nutrients in the production of sterilized canned fish. The results of experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics moving sterilized jars of canned fish of different sizes under the influence of circulating gas-liquid heat-carrying medium in the capacity have been presented. Some experimental setup with organized top-down and bottom-up flows in it modeling a sterilizer (autoclave) has...

  18. Lightest sterile neutrino abundance within the nuMSM

    OpenAIRE

    Asaka, Takehiko; Laine, Mikko; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2006-01-01

    We determine the abundance of the lightest (dark matter) sterile neutrinos created in the Early Universe due to active-sterile neutrino transitions from the thermal plasma. Our starting point is the field-theoretic formula for the sterile neutrino production rate, derived in our previous work [JHEP 06(2006)053], which allows to systematically incorporate all relevant effects, and also to analyse various hadronic uncertainties. Our numerical results differ moderately from previous computations...

  19. On the intrinsic sterility of 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kaitlin J.; Zaman, Luis; Tung, Emily; Pudlo, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture. PMID:27920950

  20. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  1. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  2. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  3. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  4. Dark Matter Relic Abundance and Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yi-Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass $\\lesssim 100 \\text{ GeV}$ in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such case, if the Yukawa coupling between Higgs and sterile neutrino $y_N$ is small, this process gives rise to a larger $\\Omega_{\\text{DM}} h^2$ so we need a larger coupling between dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  5. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them to the at......We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  6. Are there sterile neutrinos at the eV scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Joachim; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2011-08-26

    New predictions for the antineutrino flux from nuclear reactors suggest that reactor experiments may have measured a deficit in this flux, which can be interpreted in terms of oscillations between the known active neutrinos and new sterile states. We perform a reanalysis of global short-baseline neutrino oscillation data in a framework with one or two sterile neutrinos. While one sterile neutrino is still not sufficient to reconcile the signals suggested by reactor experiments and by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments with null results from other searches, we find that, with the new reactor flux prediction, the global fit improves considerably when two sterile neutrinos are introduced.

  7. Controlling Bone Graft Substitute Microstructure to Improve Bone Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Drager, Justin; Zhang, Yu Ling; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Tamimi, Faleh; Barralet, Jake

    2016-07-01

    Vertical bone augmentation procedures are frequently carried out to allow successful placement of dental implants in otherwise atrophic ridges and represent one of the most common bone grafting procedures currently performed. Onlay autografting is one of the most prevalent and predictable techniques to achieve this; however, there are several well documented complications and drawbacks associated with it and synthetic alternatives are being sought. Monetite is a bioresorbable dicalcium phosphate with osteoconductive and osteoinductive potential that has been previously investigated for onlay bone grafting and it is routinely made by autoclaving brushite to simultaneously sterilize and phase convert. In this study, monetite disc-shaped grafts are produced by both wet and dry heating methods which alter their physical properties such as porosity, surface area, and mechanical strength. Histological observations after 12 weeks of onlay grafting on rabbit calvaria reveal higher bone volume (38%) in autoclaved monetite grafts in comparison with the dry heated monetite grafts (26%). The vertical bone height gained is similar for both the types of monetite grafts (up to 3.2 mm). However, it is observed that the augmented bone height is greater in the lateral than the medial areas of both types of monetite grafts. It is also noted that the higher porosity of autoclaved monetite grafts increases the bioresorbability, whereas the dry heated monetite grafts having lower porosity but higher surface area resorb to a significantly lesser extent. This study provides information regarding two types of monetite onlay grafts prepared with different physical properties that can be further investigated for clinical vertical bone augmentation applications.

  8. Quasi Goldstone fermion as a sterile neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Chun, E. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 586, 34100 Trieste (Italy); Joshipura, A.S. [Theoretical Physics Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380 009 (India); Smirnov, A.Y. [International Center for Theoretical Physics P.O. Box 586, 34100 Trieste (Italy)]|[Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russia)

    1996-10-01

    The existence of sterile neutrinos is hinted by the simultaneous presence of diverse neutrino anomalies. We suggest that the quasi Goldstone fermions (QGF{close_quote}s) arising in supersymmetric theory as a result of spontaneous breaking of global symmetry such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry or the lepton number symmetry can play the role of the sterile neutrino. The smallness of the mass of QGF{close_quote}s ({ital m}{sub {ital S}}{approximately}10{sup {minus}3}{endash}10 eV) can be related to the specific choice of superpotential or K{umlt a}hler potential (e.g., no-scale kinetic terms for certain superfields). Mixing of QGF{close_quote}s with neutrinos implies {ital R}-parity violation. It can proceed via the coupling of QGF{close_quote}s with Higgs supermultiplets or directly with a lepton doublet. A model which accounts for the solar and atmospheric anomalies and dark matter is presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Can sterile neutrinos be the dark matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Seljak, U; McDonald, P; Trac, H; Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey; Donald, Patrick Mc; Trac, Hy

    2006-01-01

    We use the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum measured by the SDSS and high-resolution spectroscopy observations in combination with cosmic microwave background and galaxy clustering constraints to place limits on a sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate in the warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. Such a neutrino would be created in the early universe through mixing with an active neutrino and would suppress structure on scales smaller than its free streaming scale. We ran a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations with varying neutrino mass to describe the effect of a sterile neutrino on the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum. We find that the mass limit is m_s >14 keV at 95% c.l. (10keV at 99.9%), which is nearly an order of magnitude tighter constraint than previously published limits and is above the upper limit allowed by X-ray constraints, excluding this candidate as dark matter in this model. The corresponding limit for a neutrino that decoupled early while in thermal equilibrium is 2.5keV (95% c.l....

  10. Sterile Neuroinflammation and Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Banjara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile neuroinflammation is essential for the proper brain development and tissue repair. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes. The endogenous intracellular molecules so called damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins or damage signals that are released by activated or necrotic cells are thought to play a crucial role in initiating an immune response. Sterile inflammatory response that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury (TBI creates a vicious cycle of unrestrained inflammation, driving progressive neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism in the progression (e.g., AD and PD or secondary injury development (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, stress, and TBI of multiple brain conditions. Hence, it provides an opportunity for the therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function. The key for developing anti-neuroinflammatory treatment is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of inflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotropic effects, thereby creating ideal conditions for regeneration and repair. This review outlines how inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of major nonpathogenic neuroinflammatory conditions and discusses the complex response of glial cells to damage signals. In addition, emerging experimental anti-neuroinflammatory drug treatment strategies are discussed.

  11. Sterile Neuroinflammation and Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sterile neuroinflammation is essential for the proper brain development and tissue repair. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes. The endogenous intracellular molecules so called damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins or damage signals that are released by activated or necrotic cells are thought to play a crucial role in initiating an immune response. Sterile inflammatory response that occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a vicious cycle of unrestrained inflammation, driving progressive neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism in the progression (e.g., AD and PD) or secondary injury development (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, stress, and TBI) of multiple brain conditions. Hence, it provides an opportunity for the therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function. The key for developing anti-neuroinflammatory treatment is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of inflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotropic effects, thereby creating ideal conditions for regeneration and repair. This review outlines how inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of major nonpathogenic neuroinflammatory conditions and discusses the complex response of glial cells to damage signals. In addition, emerging experimental anti-neuroinflammatory drug treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:28127491

  12. A sterile neutrino search at NEOS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y J; Kim, J Y; Han, B Y; Jang, C H; Jeon, E J; Joo, K K; Kim, H J; Kim, H S; Kim, Y D; Lee, Jaison; Lee, J Y; Lee, M H; Oh, Y M; Park, H K; Park, H S; Park, K S; Seo, K M; Siyeon, Kim; Sun, G M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment to search for light sterile neutrinos was performed at a reactor with a thermal power of 2.8 GW located at the Hanbit nuclear power complex. The search was done with a detector consisting of a ton of Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in a tendon gallery approximately 24 m from the reactor core. The measured antineutrino event rate is 1965 per day with a signal to background ratio of about 23. The shape of the antineutrino energy spectrum obtained from eight-month data-taking period is compared with a hypothesis of oscillations due to active-sterile antineutrino mixing. It is found to be consistent with no oscillation. An excess around 5 MeV prompt energy range is observed as seen in existing longer baseline experiments. Most of the allowed parameter space of $\\Delta m^{2}_{41}\\leq 4$ eV$^{2}$ range for a previously reported reactor antineutrino anomaly, is excluded with a confidence level higher than 95%.

  13. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  14. Evaluating structural and microstructural changes of PDMS –SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials after sterilization by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lancastre, Joana [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Vaz Fernandes, M. Helena [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A.; Ferreira, Luís [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M., E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    PDMS–SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials obtained by sol–gel process have been extensively studied over the past years due to its promising biomedical applications namely as bone substitutes, catheters, and drug delivery devices. Regardless of the intended biomedical application, all these materials should go through a sterilization process before interfacing with a living structure. However, it is unclear whether they undergo structural and microstructural changes when subjected to sterilization by gamma irradiation. This paper addresses this issue by showing that a sol–gel processed biomaterial based on the PDMS–CaO–SiO{sub 2} hybrid system suffers only small structural changes when submitted to a radiation dose of 25 kGy, the dose usually recommended to achieve a Sterility Assurance Level of 10{sup −6} when the natural contamination level and microorganism types cannot be calculated. The characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si–{"1H} CP-MAS, thermal analysis (DTG), and SEM. - Highlights: • Hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2} materials were subjected to sterilization by γ-irradiation. • Materials suffer only small structural changes when irradiated. • Characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si-{"1H} CP-MAS, DTG and SEM.

  15. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  16. The political-economic education of the rulers in the discourses to the king Philip III by Pedro de Valencia (1555-1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Luis PARADINAS FUENTES

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Present-day economical crisis resembles partly that one suffered in Spain at the beginning of the 17th century. In those days, the Spanish Crown, which like all modern States had needed to carry out new functions such as deciding the ell into a deep economic crisis. Many treatises and discourses, several of them addressed to the king Philip III were written to change the economic policy of the State, which was considered responsible for the evils affecting Spain. Some of these texts have been studied by the historians of economics, but not by the historians of education, however they can be, in our opinion, included in that literary genre whose objective was the education of the princes. In this work we will analyse the writings dedicated to that king by the Spanish humanist Pedro de Valencia with the aim of educating the rulers of the Monarchy so that they could acquire the necessary intellectual and moral virtues to accomplish their duties. There are in his texts many teachings that are still valid nowadays.

  17. Muslim Women in Past and Present Governmental Leadership: Case of Rulers of the Sultanate of Aceh and the Fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Syamtasiyah Ahyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Muslim woman is a woman who believes in Islam.  In its historical path, Indonesia has been led by Muslim women along with the development of Islam in the Archipelago in the 17th century. A case example among others is the Sultanate of Aceh during the colonial period. During the independence period, Indonesia was also led by a Muslim woman as the fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia around the early 21st century. In these case examples of Muslim women as rulers, they received criticism during their reigns from men who viewed the matter from the perspective of Islam. This made an impact on the ongoing governance and the people.  The article discusses how Muslim women leaders faced these criticisms from men who viewed the matter from the point of view of Islam and how it affected their governmental administration. Therefore, the article is expected to be able to reconstruct how Muslim women leaders face criticism from men who viewed the matter from the perspective of Islam. Research in this paper is conducted through historical method actions, preceded by source collection, selection and interpretation along with the reconstruction of the intended events, which is referred to as historiography. The study is also based on local sources, documents, and writings of related critics on the issue.

  18. Inheritance of the Male Sterility in a New Photo/Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line B06S of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hao-hua; HUANG Wen-xin; PENG Xiao-song; ZHU Chang-lan; LIU Yi-bai

    2004-01-01

    The major male sterile genes in a new photo/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) line B06S of rice were analyzed by the manipulation of mixture distribution theory. The results indicated that a pair of major male sterile nuclear genes with large effects were responsible for controlling the male sterility of B06S.

  19. Pulsar Kicks With Sterile Neutrinos and Landau Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S; Johnson, Mikkel B

    2007-01-01

    We use a model with two sterile neutrinos obtained by fits to the MiniBoone and LSND experiments. Using formulations with neutrinos created by URCA Processes in a strong magnetic field, so the lowest Landau level has a sizable probability, we find that with known paramenters the assymetric sterile neutrino emissivity might account for large pulsar kicks.

  20. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  1. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  2. 21 CFR 522.82 - Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection. 522.82 Section 522.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.82 Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection. (a) Specifications....

  3. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F)...

  4. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  5. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments.

  6. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  7. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vul...... abiotic source must also be present perhaps abiotic mineralization of labile BC components....

  8. Review of neutrino oscillations with sterile and active neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-08-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  9. Review of Neutrino Oscillations With Sterile and Active Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2016-01-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  10. Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to $\\sim$ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet $S$ are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, $ m_{\

  11. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen; Tamborra, Irene; Tram, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as 'dark' radiation. Light sterile neutrinos is one of the prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on...

  12. Access to sterilization in two hospitals in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Núñez, J

    1981-01-01

    The availability of postpartum sterilizations for women with obstetric deliveries at 2 hospitals in Honduras -- the Hospital Materno-Infantil in Teguicgalpa and the Hospital Leonardo Martinez in San Pedro -- was examined. Data were collected from the hospitals using a maternity record form that provided information regarding patients' sociodemographic backgrounds, obstetric histories, and contraceptive practices. The patients were asked about thier use of contraceptives before pregnancy and about their possible plans for contraception after delivery. If the patient was sterilized before leaving the hospital, this information was also recorded on the form. Analysis of the data reveals that the hospitals do not encourage women to be sterilized, and that they do a poor job of providing services for those women interested in sterilization. Of 18,523 women giving birth from 1977 through 1979, a total of 13,241 (71.5%) indicated that they did not want any more children. Thus, these women constituted a group for which female sterilization could be the contraceptive method of choice. Of these, 13,241 women, 3063 said that they planned to be sterilized. Among women having abortions at these hospitals, about 1/2 do not return for a followup visit 4-6 weeks later. To be eligible for sterilization in Honduras, a woman is supposed to satisfy the "rule of 80" (living children times age must equal 80). Only 6.8% of the women who planned to be but were not sterilized did not satisfy this rule. Among the women who were sterilized, the percentage of those who had cesarean deliveries was 69%. Of the women who said they planned to be sterilized but were not sterilized at delivery, less than 1% had cesarean sections. It seems apparent that women who have abdominal deliveries find it easier to obtain a sterilization at the time of delivery than do women with vaginal deliveries. At both hospitals, the proportion of sterilized women who did not satisfy the "rule of 80" was higher among

  13. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.K.; Graves, D.C.; Rohrer, M.D.; Bulard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  14. Electric dipole moments of charged leptons with sterile fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Abada, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. We show that in order to have a non-vanishing contribution to electric dipole moments, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least two sterile fermion states. Sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. In addition, the Majorana nature of neutrinos is also important. Furthermore, we apply the computations of the electric dipole moments for the most minimal realisation of the Inverse Seesaw mechanism, in which the Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and two sterile fermion states. We show that the two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigenstates can give significant contributions to the electron electric dipole moment, lying close to future experimental sensitivity. We further discuss the possibility of beyond the minimal Inverse Seesaw models and...

  15. Sterile neutrinos with pseudoscalar self-interactions and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos in the electronvolt mass range are hinted at by a number of terrestrial neutrino experiments. However, such neutrinos are highly incompatible with data from the Cosmic Microwave Background and large scale structure. This paper discusses how charging sterile neutrinos under a new pseudoscalar interaction can reconcile eV sterile neutrinos with terrestrial neutrino data. We show that this model can reconcile eV sterile neutrinos in cosmology, providing a fit to all available data which is way better than the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model with one additional fully thermalized sterile neutrino. In particular it also prefers a value of the Hubble parameter much closer to the locally measured value.

  16. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  17. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  18. Safe use of chemicals for sterilization in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, P Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chemical sterilization is necessary for temperature sensitive items that cannot be sterilized with steam. These chemical sterilants are by their nature hazardous; otherwise, they would not function well. Modern sterilizers and associated equipment are designed so that these chemicals can be used safely. Whether through mechanical failure, wear and tear, or user error, leaks do sometimes occur. The maximum chemical exposure is determined by OSHA permissible exposure limits, if available, and if not available, employers should use recognized standards. Employers have a duty to ensure safe work environment and take appropriate action to mitigate potential risks. Employers should therefore assess the hazards of the chemicals used, the potential modes for leakage, means for identifying leaks and the risk of exposure of employees. Ideally, work practices should be developed by healthcare facilities so that sterile processing employees know what to do in case of a chemical leak or spill, and how to safely use these chemicals to ensure their own, and patient safety.

  19. Bacteriological evaluation of bone grafts stored by cryogenic freezing at –24°C from a canine (Canis familiaris bone bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline França dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis of bone transplantation was established during the mid-nineteenth century, when the osteogenic properties of the bone and periosteum, beneficial influence of cold preservation of bones, and first conventional attempt to store bones for elective use, were described. A bone bank has several advantages, such as the immediate availability of grafts in large quantities, and different shapes and sizes, and maintenance of osteoinductive activity in grafts. In addition, it reduces patient blood loss, surgical time, and quantity of anesthetics required. Clinical applications include the correction of comminuted fractures, treatment of non-union bones, and replacement of bone loss due to infections or malignancies. The success of these procedures depends on the preservation and integrity of the graft. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of maintaining a canine bone bank (Canis familiaris by quantifying the bacterial contamination of bone grafts preserved at –24°C. The samples were evaluated through a monthly assessment of bacteriological cultures over a period of 6 months. The harvest method was efficient and sterile, reducing the risk of contamination. We conclude that the techniques chosen for the implementation of a bone bank were effective and feasible (use of a common freezer reaching a temperature below –24°C. The viability of the bones was attested during a 6-month period, and the samples demonstrated a 100% sterility rate.

  20. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  1. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  2. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  3. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  4. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  5. New sterilization techniques accent ease, speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    New techniques are being developed for permanent male and female sterilization. The new methods are cheaper, easier to use, and effective. Vassoclude, a device under development by the Population Council, is used in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. A pin hole created by the Vassoclude opens the way to apply a staple-like mechanism to place clips on the vas deferens. The method requires less manual dexterity than other tools, and there is no puncture hole. A new female method uses quinacrine hydrochloride pellets, which are inserted into the uterus with an IUD inserter. Permanent scarring of the fallopian tubes prevents pregnancy. The method is cheap, safe, and easy to use. The disadvantage is that multiple visits are required before the fallopian tubes are blocked. About 500,000 women currently use quinacrine worldwide. There have been few clinical trials. Most of the women live in Vietnam and Pakistan. Toxicological tests conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization have shown the product not to be safe. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception reports that there are 140 million couples relying on female sterilization worldwide, while only 42 million men undergo vasectomies. In the US, reports are that 23% of American couples rely on tubal ligations, compared to 13% relying on vasectomy. 500,000 men underwent vasectomies in the US in 1991. Neither quinacrine nor the Vassoclude was available in the US in 1993. There is little interest in producing and marketing vasectomy tools, and studies continue to examine vasectomy's side effects or links with cancer, which discourages the choice of vasectomy as a contraceptive method.

  6. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C.-P.; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-05-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile neutrino can give rise to its conversion to an active neutrino through radiative decay or nonstandard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic x-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with low-threshold low-background germanium detectors, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from astrophysical observations.

  7. Lightest sterile neutrino abundance within the nuMSM

    CERN Document Server

    Asaka, T; Shaposhnikov, M E; Asaka, Takehiko; Laine, Mikko; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2007-01-01

    We determine the abundance of the lightest (dark matter) sterile neutrinos created in the Early Universe due to active-sterile neutrino transitions from the thermal plasma. Our starting point is the field-theoretic formula for the sterile neutrino production rate, derived in our previous work [JHEP 06(2006)053], which allows to systematically incorporate all relevant effects, and also to analyse various hadronic uncertainties. Our numerical results differ moderately from previous computations in the literature, and lead to an absolute upper bound on the mixing angles of the dark matter sterile neutrino. Comparing this bound with existing astrophysical X-ray constraints, we find that the Dodelson-Widrow scenario, which proposes sterile neutrinos generated by active-sterile neutrino transitions to be the sole source of dark matter, is only possible for sterile neutrino masses lighter than 3.5 keV (6 keV if all hadronic uncertainties are pushed in one direction and the most stringent X-ray bounds are relaxed by ...

  8. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Sterilization Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the sterilization policy in China. First, several indices are used to measure the status of China’s markets and to determine effectiveness and sustainability of the sterilization policy and the possible impacts it may have induced. Second, within a microeconomic framework, we incorporate the housing price variable into the target loss function of the monetary authority to explore its financial capabilities and evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of China’s sterilization policy. The empirical results show that Chinese monetary authorities sterilize almost all of the effects of international capital inflows and increase foreign exchange reserves on the monetary base. That is, increased capital mobility does not sabotage the independence of the Chinese monetary policy. Nevertheless, analyses of the sustainability of sterilization policy indicate that the sustainability of the monetary sterilization policy has been seriously challenged since March 2008, which suggests that Chinese monetary authority has endured tremendous pressure for unsustainable sterilization.

  9. Retrospective Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Quinacrine Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菊红; 陆卫群; 丁婉华; 朱红; 童建孙

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization.Methods A total of 572 cases of quinacrine sterilization preformed during the 4 years from 1993to 1997in Jiangsu and Guizhou Provinces were employed in this study. The efficacy and safety of quinacrine sterilization in those case were studied and evaluated, with 588 cases of surgical sterilization performed at the same time being the control group.Results Both groups were with identical demographic and gynecological characteristics. The result of multiple decrement life table analysis showed the 12th gross cumulative failure rates for quinacrine sterilization was 3. 13% and serious side effects occurred in only 2 cases accounting for O. 35%. One was ectopic pregnancy (20 months after treatment). The other was due to anaphylaxis in 10 minutes after the second insertion). No difference in the liver and nephic functions was detected and no suspected cancer cells or cancer cells were found in the two groups. 99. 6% of the 572 women interviewed accepted the quinacrine sterilization.Conclusions Quinacrine sterilization method is with high acceptability but comparatively low effectiveness. It has been proved to be a safe method of contraception in short-term. However, the safety of long-term still needs further study.

  10. Influence of various sterilization procedures on TiO2 nanotubes used for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Mukta; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Mazare, Anca; Flašker, Ajda; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolíček, Petr; Resnik, Matic; Schmuki, Patrik; Mozetič, Miran; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is the final surface treatment procedure of all implantable devices and is one of the key factors which have to be considered before implementation. Since different sterilization procedures for all implantable devices influence mechanical properties as well as biological response, the influence of different sterilization techniques on titanium nanotubes was studied. Commonly used sterilization techniques such as autoclaving, ultra-violet light sterilization, hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization as well as the not so frequently used gaseous oxygen plasma sterilization were used. Three different nanotube diameters; 15 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm were employed to study the effects of various sterilization techniques. It was observed that autoclave sterilization resulted in destruction of nanotubular features on all three studied nanotube diameters, while UV-light and both kinds of plasma sterilization did not cause any significant morphological changes on the surfaces. Differences between the sterilization techniques employed influenced cytocompatibility, especially in the case of nanotubes with 100 nm diameter.

  11. Antimycoplasmal antibiotics and hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaghan, R P; Ehrman, L

    1970-07-03

    Male hybrids between the Santa Marta and Mesitas strains of Drosophila paulistorum are sterile. The sterility can be partially alleviated by treatment of the Santa Marta mothers with the antimycoplasmal antibiotics tylosin tartrate and tetracycline hydrochloride. The proportions of hybrid males in which there are mature motile spermatozoa are higher in the progenies of drug-treated mothers than in the controls. Electron microscopy reveals mycoplasma-like bodies in the untreated controls, but not in the sons of the treated females. The mycoplasma-like symbionts appear to be implicated in the production of the sterility in the hybrid males.

  12. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  13. Low reheating temperature and the visible sterile neutrino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2004-08-20

    We present here a scenario, based on a low reheating temperature T(R)inflation, in which the coupling of sterile neutrinos to active neutrinos can be as large as experimental bounds permit (thus making this neutrino "visible" in future experiments). In previous models this coupling was forced to be very small to prevent a cosmological overabundance of sterile neutrinos. Here the abundance depends on how low the reheating temperature is. For example, the sterile neutrino required by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector result may not have any cosmological problem within our scenario.

  14. Image Sterilization to Prevent LSB-based Steganographic Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Goutam

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is a very popular word used in biomedical testing (like removal of all microorganisms on surface of an article or in fluid using appropriate chemical products). Motivated by this biological analogy, we, for the first time, introduce the concept of sterilization of an image, i.e., removing any steganographic information embedded in the image. Experimental results show that our technique succeeded in sterilizing around 76% to 91% of stego pixels in an image on average, where data is embedded using LSB-based steganography.

  15. Pseudoscalar - sterile neutrino interactions: reconciling the cosmos with neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Giunti, Carlo; Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus; Laveder, Marco; Tram, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Short BaseLine (SBL) neutrino oscillation anomalies hint at the presence of a sterile neutrino with a mass of around 1 eV. However, such a neutrino is incompatible with cosmological data, in particular observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. However, this conclusion can change by invoking new physics. One possibility is to introduce a secret interaction in the sterile neutrino sector mediated by a light pseudoscalar. In this pseudoscalar model, CMB data prefer a sterile neutrino mass that is fully compatible with the mass ranges suggested by SBL anomalies. In addition, this model predicts a value of the Hubble parameter which is completely consistent with local measurements.

  16. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  17. Bacterial spores survive treatment with commercial sterilants and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test suggest that commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  18. Search For Sterile Neutrinos Using The Miniboone Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, M

    2005-01-01

    The possible existence of light sterile neutrinos in Nature is motivated, and the prospects to extend sterile neutrino searches beyond current limits is substantiated, using the MiniBooNE neutrino beam and detector at Fermilab. We report on the neutrino flux predictions for the MiniBooNE experiment, on the characterization of the charged-current, quasi-elastic interactions of muon neutrinos (νμn → μ −p) observed, and on the experiment's sensitivity to sterile neutrinos via muon neutrino disappearance.

  19. Use of radioimmunoassay to diagnose some forms of endocrine sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabolkin, M.I.; Gerasimov, G.A. (Moskovskij Meditsinskij Stomatologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    The possibility is considered of using a metoclopramide test combined with radioimmunoassay for determining prolactin in the blood to diagnose some forms of endocrine sterility of 17 women examined 5 are practically healthy, sterility of 6 women is caused by tumor of hypophysis verified by X-rayograms, 6 women suffered from disorderded prolactin secretion and sterility without roentgenologic signs of disordered sella turcica. Metoclopramide has been injected intravenously in the 10 mm dose. A series of advantages is noted of the metoclopramide sample characteristic of high availability of the preparation and practically complete absence of side-effects.

  20. Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

    2006-05-01

    With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials

  1. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  2. Upgrading sterilization in the orthodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, J F

    1986-04-01

    In today's orthodontic practice, disease control must undergo major reevaluation and restructuring. The knowledge of the natural history and treatment of many highly transmissible diseases to which orthodontic personnel are at high risk is changing rapidly. Among these diseases are acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus, and the herpesvirus complex (currently five types). If barrier techniques are not in place, it is possible to cross-infect orthodontic personnel and patients alike. Clinical orthodontics, with its higher volume of patients (on a daily basis) than other dental practices, requires a custom-made sterilization schema tailored to each office. Proper organization of instruments to permit orderly processing, storing, and use is even more important than before. Turnaround time of processing instruments, corrosion control, and minimizing of dulling of cutting edges are critical. Treatment of surfaces and chair/unit facilities with improved disinfection techniques is a necessity. Protection of hands and eyes by appropriate means is discussed with practical guidelines for the use of gloves by chairside personnel. Many fomites (inanimate disease transmitters) lurk in the orthodontic office and must be eliminated. Finally, the most important ingredient to any change--the orthodontic office staff--must be enlightened, trained, and supervised by the orthodontist to effectively and efficiently switch from the old to the new.

  3. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  4. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  5. Light sterile neutrinos and pseudoscalar interactions in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gariazzo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The Short BaseLine (SBL) neutrino oscillations anomalies hint at the presence of a sterile neutrino with a mass of around 1 eV. However, such neutrino is highly incompatible with the cosmological data, in particular from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), if no new physics is assumed. An interesting possibility for reconciling the 1 eV sterile neutrino presence in cosmology is related to the existence of a new pseudoscalar interaction. If the sterile neutrinos experience such a pseudoscalar interaction, the cosmological analyses of the full CMB data prefer a sterile neutrino mass that is fully compatible with the SBL determinations. The additional interaction allows to obtain also an improved compatibility of the cosmological predictions with the local measurements of the Hubble parameter.

  6. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika;

    2010-01-01

    is based on the report of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and completed with systematic literature searches up to April 8, 2008. SETTING: The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program of the Finnish National Research and Development Center for Health and Welfare. PATIENT(S): Women over...... sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. CONCLUSION(S): The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published......OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. DESIGN: The review...

  7. Tips for maintaining sterilization in your orthodontic work station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Panchali; Jyothikiran, H

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization and disinfection have been a matter of concern amongst dental health care workers since long. Delicate materials, electrical parts, orthodontic pliers, orthodontic wire cutters, are to be treated according to the manufacturer's instructions to safe guard the life of the instrument as well as to claim warranty for any damage incurred. Sterilization procedures used in Orthodontics should be simple but effective and of relatively short duration so that there is a readily available supply of sterile instruments and materials. The procedure should not cause any appreciable damage to dental instruments and other materials. An attempt has been made through this article, to provide information concerning methods and means of disinfection and sterilization of orthodontic clinics, instruments, materials and also waste disposal which can be adopted in private clinics as well as in hospital set ups.

  8. Effects of sterilization on the Tekscan digital pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agins, Howard J; Harder, Valerie S; Lautenschlager, Eugene P; Kudrna, James C

    2003-11-01

    Investigations into the effects of sterilization on a new biomechanical pressure sensor are necessary before contemplating in vivo use. Ten, designated Experimental, "K-Scan" digital pressure sensor arrays were sterilized with ethylene oxide gas (EtO), and their ability to accurately and reproducibly measure an applied load of 2225 N (500 lb) was assessed. Simultaneously, 10 un-sterilized sensor arrays, designated Control, were assessed. Each array was loaded 10 times inside a two-dimensional curved surface, and all arrays exhibited high reproducibility (coefficients of variation0.05, beta0.05, beta<0.05). Results suggest that, following EtO sterilization, accurate and reproducible pressure measurements can be obtained from K-Scan sensors when calibration is performed at time of use.

  9. Self-shielding Electron Beam Installation for Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linac; Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has developed a self-shielding electron beam installationfor sterilization as handling letters with anthrax germ or spores which has the least volume and the least

  10. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  11. Effects of active-sterile neutrino mixing during primordial nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Saez, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we discuss the effects of the inclusion of sterile-active neutrino oscillations during the production of primordial light-nuclei. We assume that the sterile neutrino mass-eigenstate might oscillate with the two lightest active neutrino mass- eigenstates, with mixing angles ${\\phi}_1$ and ${\\phi}_2$. We also allow a constant renormalization (represented by a parameter (${\\zeta}$)) of the sterile neutrino occupation factor. Taking ${\\zeta}$ and the mixing angles as free parameters, we have computed distribution functions of active and sterile neutrinos and primordial abundances. Using observable data we set constrains in the free parameters of the model. It is found that the data on primordial abundances are consistent with small mixing angles and with a value of ${\\zeta}$ smaller than 0.65 at 3${\\sigma}$ level.

  12. Compulsory Sterilization: The Change in India's Population Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulhati, Kaval

    1977-01-01

    Reviews India's previous stand regarding family planning which favored the notion that economic development would provide the incentive for fertility control. Recent recommendations, however, include raising minimum marriage age for girls and increasing incentives for acceptance of sterilization. (CS)

  13. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, Mioara [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IRASM Radiation Processing Centre (Romania)]. E-mail: m_alexandru@irasm.ro; Ene, Mihaela [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IRASM Radiation Processing Centre (Romania)

    2007-08-15

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  14. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  15. Eugenics, sterilization, and historical memory in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Minna Stern

    Full Text Available Abstract From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and “suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited.” Working with a unique resource – a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations – my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice.

  16. Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernova simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, MacKenzie L; Mathews, Grant; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that an interesting oscillation in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

  17. Sterile Neutrinos and Flavor Ratios in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Brdar, Vedran; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full global fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neu...

  18. Bounds on sterile neutrino mixing for cosmologically interesting mass range

    CERN Document Server

    Nunokawa, H; Rossi, A; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    This talk summarizes our recent work which studied the impact of resonant neutrino) conversions on supernova physics, under the assumption that the mass of the sterile state is in the few eV -cosmologically significant range.

  19. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  20. Bone graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  1. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation; Esterilizacion de tejidos biologicos con radiacion ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Martinez P, M.E.; Luna Z, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  2. A dominant gene for male sterility in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Shu

    Full Text Available A natural male sterile mutant of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Sh-B was found during field survey in 2002. Our objective was to analyze its genetic mechanism for producing F1 hybrid seeds and to develop a molecular marker linked to male sterile gene for selection of a hybrid parent line. The segregation ratios of male sterile plants to fertile plants in the progenies of both testcross and backcross were 1:1 in continuous experiments conducted in 2006-2009. The male sterile Sh-B was heterozygous (Msms. The male sterile plants could capture most pollen (2 granule/cm(2·24 h with row ratio (female:male 2:1 within 45-cm distance and harvest the largest amount of 6495 g hybrid seeds per hectare. We also developed DNA markers linked to the male sterile gene in a segregating population using bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP techniques. The segregating population was subjected to BSA-AFLP with 128 primer combinations. One out of fourteen AFLP markers (E11/M4208 was identified as tightly linked to the dominant male sterile gene with a recombination frequency of 6.85% and at a distance of 6.89 cM. This marker could be converted to PCR-based assay for large-scale selection of fertile plants in MAS (marker-assisted selection at the seedling stage. Blastn analysis indicated that the male sterile gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1-5, and was more likely to encode S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, in which DNA methylation regulated the development of plant gametogenesis.

  3. How secret interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  4. Earth matter effect on active-sterile neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some experimental observations. In a four-neutrino mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  5. Decontamination of laboratory microbiological waste by steam sterilization.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A steam sterilizer (autoclave) was tested to determine the operating parameters that affected sterilization of microbiological waste. Tests involved standardized loads (5, 10 ad 15 lb [ca. 2.27, 4.54, and 6.80 kg, respectively]) contaminated petri plates in autoclave bags placed in polypropylene or stainless steel containers. Thermal and biological data were obtained by using a digital potentiometer and a biological indicator containing spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, respectively. The...

  6. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  7. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-01-01

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.).

  8. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  9. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  10. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding.

  11. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  12. Historical Events of “Making Peace with Rulers of Minority Nationalities in the Border Areas Through Marriage” in the Western Regions by the Hun%匈奴西域“和亲”史事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子今

    2012-01-01

    Before the political and cultural influence of the Han dynasty entered the western regions,the Hun once exercised control over"Loulan,Wusun,Hujie and other twenty-six countries".After the Han culture extended to the western regions,the Hun force still tried repeatedly and persistently to gain control of the western regions by diplomatic and military means."Making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"is one of the diplomatic means used by the Hun for the control of the countries in the western regions.The Hun once tried the strategy of"making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"in terms of the several countries in the western regions.For the strategy of"making peace with rulers of minority nationalities in the border areas through marriage"used by the Han dynasty,the Hun tried desperately to destroy its implementation.%在汉王朝政治文化影响进入西域之前,匈奴曾经施行对"楼兰、乌孙、呼揭及其旁二十六国"的控制。汉文化扩张至西域后,匈奴势力依然反复对这一地区进行军事外交的顽强争夺。"和亲",是匈奴控制西域国家的外交方式之一。匈奴在施用军事高压的同时,也曾经对西域数国推行"和亲"策略。对于汉王朝与西域国家的"和亲",匈奴亦竭力予以破坏。

  13. Feudal villains or just rulers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller-Hann, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on representations of the Muslim dynasty that exercised power locally under the Qing dynasty until 1930 in the oasis of Qumul in eastern Xinjiang, this article challenges the binary notions of ‘official’ versus ‘unofficial’ discourse by looking at the production of historical knowledge o...... with contradictions and ambiguities, portraying the Muslim dynasty sometimes as feudal exploiters, at other times as models of good governance. It will be shown how historical knowledge is produced at the junctures of the oral and the written, and of official and unofficial discourses....

  14. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C -P; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-01-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile-to-active neutrino conversion gives rise to not only radiative decay of a sterile neutrino, but also its non-standard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic X-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with germanium detectors that have fine energy resolution in keV and sub-keV regimes, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from ast...

  15. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  16. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  17. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii.

  18. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  19. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  20. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  1. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  2. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  3. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  4. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  5. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Junting [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm412 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  6. Microbiological evaluation of the steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Carolina de Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: assess the safety of steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments with challenge contamination. Method: a laboratory experimental study, using as test samples trocars and laparoscopic graspers. Geobacillus stearothermophillus ATCC-7953 was used, with a microbial population of 106UFC/Filter paper substrate, removed from the biological indicator. Three of them were introduced into each instrument at the time of assembly, and sterilized at pressurized saturated steam, 134oC for 5 minutes. After sterilization, the instrument was disassembled and each filter paper substrate was inoculated in soybean casein culture and incubated at 56oC for 21 days. In case of absence of growth, they were subjected to heat shock of 80oC, for 20 minutes and re-incubated for 72 hours. Sample size: 185 graspers and 185 trocars, with 95% power. We paired the experiments with comparative negative control groups (5 graspers and 5 trocars with challenge contamination, sterilized disassembled and positive control (30 filter paper supports, unsterilized, subject to the same incubation procedures. Results: there was no microbial growth in experimental and negative control. The results of the positive control were satisfactory. Conclusion: this study provided strong scientific evidence to support the safety of steam sterilizing of the assembled laparoscopic instrument.

  7. Minilaparotomy, laparoscopic sterilization accepted enthusiastically by women in Mexico, Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Reports from voluntary sterilization programs in Mexico and Colombia show that significant numbers of poor, uneducated Latin American women take advantage of this family planning method. Data from 56 Mexican women show that they married young, had more than 6 children on the average by the time they were 30-34 years old, were poor, and had received little education. These women sought to limit their family size out of concern for their health and because of their proverty. At follow-up, almost all reported that they had recommended the procedure to others. In the 1st 2 years of the Colombia program, 10,000 women (approximately 1200/day) have been sterilized. These women are an average of 32 years old and have 5 living children. Sterilizations have been performed on an outpatient basis with good results. In order to institute such a program, the need must be assessed so that trained personnel can be available. By keeping sterilization within the purview of family planning services, the cost/benefit ratio will remain favorable. The provision of sterilization services will generate debate, the consequence of which is, ironically, an increased demand for the services.

  8. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubour, Jean; Jenson, Katherine; Richter, Hannah; Yarbrough, Josiah; Oden, Z Maria; Schuler, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

  9. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone...

  10. Improved determination of sterile neutrino dark matter spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ghiglieri, J

    2015-01-01

    The putative recent indication of an unidentified 3.55 keV X-ray line in certain astrophysical sources is taken as a motivation for an improved theoretical computation of the cosmological abundance of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos. If the line is interpreted as resulting from the decay of Warm Dark Matter, the mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino are known. Our computation then permits for a determination of the lepton asymmetry that is needed for producing the correct abundance via the Shi-Fuller mechanism, as well as for an estimate of the non-equilibrium spectrum of the sterile neutrinos. The latter plays a role in structure formation simulations. Results are presented for different flavour structures of the neutrino Yukawa couplings and for different types of pre-existing lepton asymmetries, accounting properly for the charge neutrality of the plasma and incorporating approximately hadronic contributions.

  11. Sterile Neutrino portal to Dark Matter II: Exact Dark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, Miguel; Sanz, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a dark sector composed of a scalar and a fermion, both singlets under the SM gauge group but charged under a dark sector symmetry group. Sterile neutrinos, which are singlets under both groups, mediate the interactions between the dark sector and the SM particles, and generate masses for the active neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. We explore the parameter space region where the observed Dark Matter relic abundance is determined by the annihilation into sterile neutrinos, both for fermion and scalar Dark Matter particles. The scalar Dark Matter case provides an interesting alternative to the usual Higgs portal scenario. We also study the constraints from direct Dark Matter searches and the prospects for indirect detection via sterile neutrino decays to leptons, which may be able to rule out Dark Matter masses below and around 100 GeV.

  12. Toxicity of methods of implant material sterilization on corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.; Boehnke, Mv.; von Domarus, D.; Draeger, J.

    1985-11-01

    The toxicity of different procedures utilized for the sterilization of intraocular implant material was assessed on the endothelium of organ-cultured porcine corneas. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses sterilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and gamma radiation were added to a culture medium containing normal porcine corneas. Considering the viability of endothelial cells, appearance of intracellular degenerative vacuoles, and denudation of corneal Descemet's membrane as criterion for the evaluation of toxicity of different methods of sterilization, the NaOH-treated lenses were found to be the least toxic to porcine corneal endothelium. Phase-contrast microscopy and vital staining of the endothelium permitted direct viewing of the endothelium aiding in the assessment of toxicity.

  13. Axion-Assisted Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  14. Performance of annular flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T.; Yoneya, M.; Ohashi, H. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted on the UV-inactivation characteristics of Bacillus subtilis spores in an annular-flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp located at the center of the inner tube. Experimental results for sterilizer performance in laminar spore-suspension flow were well simulated dynamically and statically by theoretical considerations which incorporated multi-targets with single-hit model for the UV-inactivation kinetic and the diffuse light model for the angle characteristic of lamp, along with due attention to the parabolic velocity distribution and the negligible diffusion of spores. Scale on the outside wall of the inner tube was checked by the use of a cylindrical chemical actinometer. Calculated examples elucidate the reason why careful inspection is needed of UV-inactivation kinetics, angle characteristics of lamp, and fluid mixing to evaluate performance of actual flow UV sterilizers at high extent of inactivation up to the order of 99.999%.

  15. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  16. Modelling and analysis of impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhan; Song, Xinyu; Li, Jia

    2017-12-01

    To study the impact of releasing sterile mosquitoes on mosquito-borne disease transmissions, we propose two mathematical models with impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes. We consider periodic impulsive releases in the first model and obtain the existence, uniqueness, and globally stability of a wild-mosquito-eradication periodic solution. We also establish thresholds for the control of the wild mosquito population by selecting the release rate and the release period. In the second model, the impulsive releases are determined by the closely monitored wild mosquito density, or the state feedback. We prove the existence of an order one periodic solution and find a relatively small attraction region, which ensures the wild mosquito population is under control. We provide numerical analysis which shows that a smaller release rate and more frequent releases are more efficient in controlling the wild mosquito population for the periodic releases, but an early release of sterile mosquitoes is more effective for the state feedback releases.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Panoramic Radiography, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and Clinical Measurement in Determining Bone Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Babaloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calculation of the bone dimensions is of great importance for implant treatment. Several radiographic modalities have been used for this purpose. This study compared the accuracy of mesiodistal measurements of bone using panoramic radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, and the clinical methods. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, panoramic and CBCT images were obtained from 100 implant patients. Mesiodistal bone dimensions (distance between tooth CEJ in the mesial of edentulous region and CEJ of the tooth in distal of edentulous region were calculated using a scaled ruler on the orthopantomograms and the system software in the CBCT images. During the implant insertions, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and clinical dimensions of the bone were measured by a periodontal probe and bone gauge. The differences of bone height and thickness measurements between gold standard and CBCT or panoramic modalities were analyzed using Student’s t- test. Results: The mean bone height was 10.64±1.55, 11.44±1.51, and 10.68±1.6 mm in the clinical, panoramic and CBCT modalities, respectively. Statistically significant difference was noted between the clinical and panoramic techniques (P0.05. During the bone height calculations, 79%, 62% and 78% of the images were ranked in the normal range using CBCT, panoramic and gold standard measurements, respectively. The mean areas under the ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.83 in CBCT and panoramic techniques, respectively. Conclusion: Accuracy of the CBCT images was higher than panoramic technique in measuring the bone dimensions and this technique can be confidently used to calculate the bone dimensions for the implant surgeries.   Keywords: Partially edentulous jaw; panoramic radiography; cone-beam computed tomography; bone dimensions

  18. Icariin suppresses bone resorption activity of rabbit osteoclasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; ZHANG JinChao; ZHANG TianLan; WANG Kui

    2007-01-01

    The effect of icariin on the bone resorption activity of rabbit osteoclasts is assessed in vitro. Osteoclasts were isolated from Japanese white rabbits and cultured on plates with a sterilized bone slice in each well. After treatment with icariin at various concentrations, the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts was evaluated by examining pit areas, superoxide anion (O2-) generation, size and number of actin rings and intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i. As revealed by these data, icariin elicited continuous decline of [Ca2+]1, making actin ring constricted and O2- generation decreased. These events resulted in smaller and fewer pits which indicate suppressed bone resorption activity of rabbit osteoclasts by icariin.

  19. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.

  20. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed.

  1. Material Properties of the Mandibular Trabecular Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Lakatos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical simulation aided, experimental method for the measurement of Young’s modulus of the trabecular substance in the human mandible. Compression tests were performed on fresh cadaveric samples containing trabecular bone covered with cortical layer, thus avoiding the destruction caused by the sterilization, preservation, and storage and the underestimation of the stiffness resulting from the individual failure of the trabeculae cut on the surfaces. The elastic modulus of the spongiosa was determined by the numerical simulation of each compression test using a specimen specific finite element model of each sample. The received mandibular trabecular bone Young’s modulus values ranged from 6.9 to 199.5 MPa.

  2. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  3. Male sterile line in Rice Xu 29A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The line is an early Indica rice line of WA type and with early maturity. It is bred by CHHRRC and was released by HCVRC in January, 2000.Its maintaining line is bred with the backcrossing Progeny of V20A×the F3 of (Digu B×Jin 23B).The line is characterizied by its short growth duration,about two days earlier than Jin 23 A, Stable sterility which is proved by its sterile plant rate to 100%,aborted pollen rate to 99.99% and selfed seeds to zero under the tests by pollen microscopic inspection and bagged for selfing for multiple generations.

  4. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frias, Jose E [Instituto de BioquImica Vegetal y FotosIntesis (IBVF-CSIC). Centro de Investigaciones CientIficas Isla de la Cartuja. Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: jhueso@icmse.csic.es

    2008-05-07

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma mixtures. The NO{sup *} species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O{sup *} and Ar{sup *} species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO{sup *} species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  5. Sterile neutrinos in the 3+s scenario and solar data

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The flatness of the SuperKamiokande neutrino electron scattering spectrum and the apparent downturn of the charged current spectrum in the SNO data which the Large Mixing Angle solution (LMA) to the solar neutrino problem fails to predict are analysed in the context of an extension to the standard electroweak model with light sterile neutrinos. It is found that a sterile neutrino which is quasi degenerate with the active ones with $\\Delta m^2_{41}=10^{-5}eV^2$ and mixing $sin\\theta_{14}=0.04$ provides a suitable improvement to the LMA data fits.

  6. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed.

  7. Relic keV sterile neutrinos and reionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Peter L; Kusenko, Alexander

    2006-03-10

    A sterile neutrino with a mass of several keV can account for cosmological dark matter, as well as explain the observed velocities of pulsars. We show that x rays produced by the decays of these relic sterile neutrinos can boost the production of molecular hydrogen, which can speed up the cooling of gas and the early star formation, which can, in turn, lead to a reionization of the Universe at a high enough redshift to be consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results.

  8. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  9. Product Sterility Testing . . . To Test or Not to Test? That Is the Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Elaine; Bryans, Trabue; Darnell, Kimbrell; Hansen, Joyce; Hitchins, Victoria M; Saavedra, Manuel

    2016-04-02

    The applications for sterility testing in the validation and routine control of sterilization of medical devices have changed dramatically over the years. As the definition of sterility assurance has evolved, so has the state of the science associated with product sterility testing. Historically, product sterility testing has been applied to such things as sterilization validation, sterilization lot release, packaging qualification, aseptic processing qualification, and determination of shelf life for the packaged medical device. In most of these cases, however, the results obtained from performing sterility testing on products do not provide the desired confirmation and assurance. Utilizing sterility testing on fully processed finished product is not appropriate for determination of sterilization process effectiveness, sterility assurance level, package integrity, or shelf life. The industry has developed more robust methods for validation of these applications to assure sterility and package performance. This article outlines the appropriate applications for sterility testing and highlight the applications currently in use that have significant limitations within the results and introduce undesirable risk to the validity of the data.

  10. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K.S.; Supreetha, S.; Raghu, K.N.; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization. PMID:26236684

  11. Sterile neutrinos and flavor ratios in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full global fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neutrinos from dark matter decay may require analyzing the flavor composition as a function of neutrino energy.

  12. Measuring growth index in a Universe with sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistency tests for the general relativity (GR can be performed by constraining the growth index γ using the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD in conjunction with other observations. In previous studies, deviations from the GR expected value of γ≈0.55 at the 2–3σ level were found. In this work, we reconsider the measurement of γ in a Universe with sterile neutrinos. We constrain the sterile neutrino cosmological model using the RSD measurements combined with the cosmic microwave background data (Planck temperature data plus WMAP 9-yr polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich cluster counts data, and the galaxy shear data. We obtain the constraint result of the growth index, γ=0.584−0.048+0.047, well consistent with the GR expected value (the consistency is at the 0.6σ level. For the parameters of sterile neutrino, we obtain Neff=3.62−0.42+0.26 and mν,sterileeff=0.48−0.14+0.11 eV. We also consider the BICEP2 data and perform an analysis on the model with tensor modes. Similar fit results are obtained, showing that once light sterile neutrino is considered in the Universe, GR will become well consistent with the current observations.

  13. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions — lasting friendship with cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiaoyong [International Center for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34014 (Italy); Dasgupta, Basudeb [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Kopp, Joachim [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudingerweg 7, Mainz, 55128 (Germany)

    2015-10-06

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≃1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A{sup ′}. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A{sup ′}-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such “secret” interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space — one at very small A{sup ′} coupling, one at relatively large A{sup ′} coupling — where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A{sup ′} coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A{sup ′} boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  14. Properties of Resonantly Produced Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter Subhalos

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Abazajian, Kevork N; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly-adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism. Using accurate matter power spectra, we run cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo and explore the abundance of massive subhalos, their radial distributions, and their internal structure. We also simulate the halo with thermal 2.0 keV warm dark matter for comparison and discuss quantitative differences. We find that the resonantly produced sterile neutrino model for the 3.55 keV line provides a good description of structures in the Local Group, including the number of satellite...

  15. Helicitogenesis: WIMPy baryogenesis with sterile neutrinos and other realizations

    CERN Document Server

    Racker, J

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for baryogenesis from particle decays or annihilations that can work at the TeV scale. Some heavy particles annihilate or decay into a heavy sterile neutrino N (with M > 0.5 TeV) and a "light" one \

  16. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Ryder, Oliver A

    2013-01-01

    Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF) domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  17. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Steiner

    Full Text Available Prdm9 (Meisetz is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Pachytene Spermatocytes of Sterile Hybrid Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Yueshuai; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Weidong; Song, Gendi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Hefeng; Guo, Xuejiang; Sun, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Incompatibilities in interspecific hybrids, such as reduced hybrid fertility and lethality, are common features resulting from reproductive isolation that lead to speciation. Subspecies crosses of house mice produce offspring in which one sex is infertile or absent, yet the molecular mechanisms of hybrid sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in pachytene spermatocytes of sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male). We report the high-confidence identification of 4005 proteins in the pachytene spermatocytes of fertile F1 males (PWK/Ph male × C57BL/6J female) and sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male), of which 215 were upregulated and 381 were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteome led to the identification of 43 and 59 proteins known to be essential for male meiosis and spermatogenesis in mice, respectively. Characterization of the proteome of pachytene spermatocytes associated with hybrid male sterility provides an inventory of proteins that is useful for understanding meiosis and the mechanisms of hybrid male infertility.

  19. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  20. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  1. Microbicidal effectiveness of X-rays used for sterilization purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallentire, Alan; Miller, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The radiation response of spores of Bacillus pumilus was examined for irradiation with 5–7 MeV X-ray at commercial sterilization facilities. The response was found to be the same as that for irradiation with cobalt 60 photons, 10 MeV electrons and low energy electrons at 100 and 80 keV....

  2. Influence of heat sterilization on the organoleptic quality of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarse, H.; Nijssen, L.M.; Nowak, M.

    1982-01-01

    Heat sterilization and storage of food products containing spices often results in a change of their organoleptic quality. Our knowledge about the stability of individual spices, however, is low. Therefore the heat stability of 8 different spices most frequently used has been investigated: cinnamon,

  3. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation.

  4. Structure of Self-shielding Electron Beam Installation for Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to prevent terrorist using letters with anthrax germ or spores to postal route and disturbsociety, and defend the people’s life-safety China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has developed aself-shielding electron beam installation for sterilization (SEBIS).

  5. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hansen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements. (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects...

  6. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Evaluation of 10-year Microsurgical Tubal Reversal after Tubal Sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 法韫玉; 罗冬英

    1996-01-01

    One thousand and twenty-nine women with microsurgical tubal reversal after tubal sterilization were followed up. The rate of intrauterine pregnancy was found to be 93. 29%. The rate of intrauterine pregnancy was the highest (73. 28 % ) in the first year after tubal reversal. In the firs tyear, the chance of pregnancy in the first 6 months was higher (54.81%) than that (40. 86%) in the second 6 months (P <0. 01), and the chance in the first 3 months was higher (37.41%) than that (27. 80%) in the second3 months (P<0. 01). The rates of ectopic pregnancy after tubal reversal in various stages were not significantly different (P >0. 05). The rate of intrauterine pregnancy was not related with the period from sterilization to tubal reversal. Early postoperative hydropertubation can only decrease the rate of intrauterine pregnancy. The rate of intrauterine pregnancy of the tubal reversal after Uchida’s method and clips tubal sterilization was higher than that after Pomeroy’s tubal ligation. The reanastomosis of isthmus and isthmus resulted in the highest rate of intrauterine pregnancy, so we think that Uchida’s or clips tubal sterilization in the isthmus of the tubal are ideal and reversible techniques at present.

  8. A novel approach to sterile pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Christopher Lee Albert; Millward, Huw; Cooper, Rose; Landon, John

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach has been developed that enables sterile pharmaceutical products to be freeze-dried in the open laboratory without specialist facilities. The product is filled into vials, semi-stoppered and sealed inside one, followed by a second, sterilization pouch under class 100 conditions. The product is then freeze-dried in the laboratory where the vials are shelf-stoppered before being returned to class 100, unwrapped and crimped. The sterilization pouches increased the resistance to water vapor movement during sublimation, thereby increasing the sublimation time and product temperature. Ovine immunoglobulins were double wrapped and lyophilized (as above) adjusting the primary drying time and shelf temperature for increased product temperature and, therefore, prevention of collapse. Ovine immunoglobulin G formulations freeze-dried to ≤ 1.1% residual moisture with no effect on protein aggregation or biological activity. The process was simulated with tryptone soya broth and no growth of contaminating microbial cells was observed after incubation at 35 °C for 2 weeks. Although increasing lyophilization time, this approach offers significant plant and validation cost savings when sterile freeze-drying small numbers of vials thereby making the manufacture of treatments for neglected and orphan diseases more viable economically.

  9. Quinacrine pellet nonsurgical female sterilization in Wonosobo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhadi, A; Soejoenoes, A

    1997-05-01

    A female sterilization regimen involving transcervical insertion of pellets containing 252 mg of quinacrine and 55.5 mg of ibuprofen in the proliferative phase of 2 consecutive menstrual cycles was found to be safe, acceptable, and effective. Subjects included 200 healthy volunteers (mean age, 33.2 years) who presented to a family planning clinic in Central Java Province, Indonesia, seeking sterilization. The insertion procedure (Kimia Farma) is similar to that for the Copper-T IUD. Only 3 women declined the second insertion. One month after insertion, side effects included lower abdominal pain (58.0%), fever (13.5%), and leukorrhea; however, these rates decreased to 0.5%, 2.0%, and 2.0%, respectively, 1 year after the second insertion and to 0.5%, 0.0%, and 1.6%, respectively, after 2 years. During the 2-year study period, 4 women became pregnant 4, 5, 14, and 18 months after the second insertion. The cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.0% 0-12 months after insertion and 2.0% in the second year. One of these women selected pregnancy termination; no malformations were noted in the 3 infants delivered. Quinacrine sterilization has the potential to meet the unmet need for female sterilization in developing countries without access to trained personnel and sophisticated surgical equipment.

  10. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic.

  11. The use of sterilized mosquito nets for hernioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C G; Rosenberg, J

    2012-01-01

    Hernia repair is among the most frequent surgeries performed. Surgeons prefer the tension-free mesh repair, but in large parts of the world, commercial meshes are unavailable or unaffordable. Consequently, surgeons have been experimenting with insertion of inexpensive non-commercial meshes, the m......, the most common being a non-impregnated, sterilized mosquito net....

  12. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats as an antidote in the treatment of poisoning due to those pesticides and chemicals of the organophosphate class which have anticholinesterase activity... for at least 48 hours. Following severe poisoning, a second dose of sterile pralidoxime chloride...

  13. A light sterile neutrino from Friedberg–Lee symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao-Gang [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai (China); INPAC and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); CTS, CASTS and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liao, Wei, E-mail: liaow@ecust.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2014-01-20

    Light sterile neutrinos of mass about an eV with mixing U{sup -tilde}{sub ls} of a few percent to active neutrinos may solve some anomalies shown in experimental data related to neutrino oscillation. How to have light sterile neutrinos is one of the theoretical problems which have attracted a lot of attentions. In this article we show that such an eV scale light sterile neutrino candidate can be obtained in a seesaw model in which the right-handed neutrinos satisfy a softly-broken Friedberg–Lee (FL) symmetry. In this model a right-handed neutrino is guaranteed by the FL symmetry to be light comparing with other two heavy right-handed neutrinos. It can be of eV scale when the FL symmetry is softly broken and can play the role of eV scale sterile neutrino needed for explaining the anomalies of experimental data. This model predicts that one of the active neutrino is massless. We find that this model prefers inverted hierarchy mass pattern of active neutrinos than normal hierarchy. An interesting consequence of this model is that realizing relatively large |U{sup -tilde}{sub es}| and relatively small |U{sup -tilde}{sub μs}| in this model naturally leads to a relatively small |U{sup -tilde}{sub τs}|. This interesting prediction can be tested in future atmospheric or solar neutrino experiments.

  14. A light sterile neutrino from Friedberg-Lee symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Liao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Light sterile neutrinos of mass about an eV with mixing U of a few percent to active neutrinos may solve some anomalies shown in experimental data related to neutrino oscillation. How to have light sterile neutrinos is one of the theoretical problems which have attracted a lot of attentions. In this article we show that such an eV scale light sterile neutrino candidate can be obtained in a seesaw model in which the right-handed neutrinos satisfy a softly-broken Friedberg-Lee (FL) symmetry. In this model a right-handed neutrino is guaranteed by the FL symmetry to be light comparing with other two heavy right-handed neutrinos. It can be of eV scale when the FL symmetry is softly broken and can play the role of eV scale sterile neutrino needed for explaining the anomalies of experimental data. This model predicts that one of the active neutrino is massless. We find that this model prefers inverted hierarchy mass pattern of active neutrinos than normal hierarchy. An interesting consequence of this model is that realizing relatively large |U| and relatively small |U| in this model naturally leads to a relatively small |U|. This interesting prediction can be tested in future atmospheric or solar neutrino experiments.

  15. A Light Sterile Neutrino from Friedberg-Lee Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Light sterile neutrinos of mass about an eV with mixing $\\tilde U_{ls}$ of a few percent to active neutrinos may solve some anomalies shown in experimental data related to neutrino oscillation. How to have light sterile neutrinos is one of the theoretical problems which have attracted a lot of attentions. In this article we show that such an eV scale light sterile neutrino candidate can be obtained in a seesaw model in which the right-handed neutrinos satisfy a softly-broken Friedberg-Lee (FL) symmetry. In this model a right-handed neutrino is guaranteed by the FL symmetry to be light comparing with other two heavy right-handed neutrinos. It can be of eV scale when the FL symmetry is softly broken and can play the role of eV scale sterile neutrino needed for explaining the anomalies of experimental data. This model predicts that one of the active neutrino is massless. We find that this model prefers inverted hierarchy mass pattern of active neutrinos than normal hierarchy. An interesting consequence of this m...

  16. Checking T and CPT violation with sterile neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Pant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post LSND results, sterile neutrinos have drawn attention and motivated the high energy physics, astronomy and cosmology to probe physics beyond the standard model considering minimal 3+1 (3 active and 1 sterile to 3+N neutrino schemes. The analytical equations for neutrino conversion probabilities are developed in this work for 3+1 neutrino scheme. Here, we have tried to explore the possible signals of T and CPT violations with four flavor neutrino scheme at neutrino factory. Values of sterile parameters considered in this analysis are taken from two different types of neutrino experiments viz. long baseline experiments and reactor+atmospheric experiments. In this work golden and discovery channels are selected for the investigation of T violation. While observing T violation we stipulate that neutrino factory working at 50 GeV energy has the potential to observe the signatures of T violation through discovery channel if sterile parameter values are equal to that taken from reactor+atmospheric experiments. The ability of neutrino factory for constraining CPT violation is enhanced with increase in energy for normal neutrino mass hierarchy (NH. Neutrino factory with the exposure time of 500 kt-yr will be able to capture CPT violation with δc31≥3.6×10−23 GeV at 3σ level for NH and for IH with δc31≥4×10−23 GeV at 3σ level.

  17. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  18. Development and Validation of Sterility Systems for Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Steve; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Caiping (Cathleen)

    2007-03-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate sterility systems in poplar with the ultimate goal of fulfilling the basic requirements for commercial use. For this, sterility must be complete and stable over multiple growing seasons, cause no detrimental effects on vegetative growth, and successful transformation events must be identifiable via molecular tests when trees are still juvenile. Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving and demonstrating complete sterility in trees, our approach was to study alternate sterility systems in Arabidopsis and/or early-flowering tree systems. The public benefit from this work is the capacity for containment of genes or exotic forms of trees so they can be of benefit for industry for production of wood, energy, and renewable products, while having minimal impact on wild populations of trees. We tested three methods for engineering sterility: dominant negative mutant (DNM) proteins, floral tissue ablation, and RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress the expression of several floral regulatory genes. The ultimate goal of this work was to produce a number of transgenic poplars that could be outplanted to enable future assessments of the effectiveness of these transgenic sterility methods. Our attempts to produce ablation constructs that did not interfere with tree health were partially successful. Using the poplar LEAFY gene promoter and the barnase/barstar system, we were able to regenerate plants that grew well in the greenhouse, but they showed poor health in the field. Four of seven DNM genes tested were considered promising enough, based on results in Arabidopsis, to produce transgenic poplars. Single, double, and triple RNAi genes were produced and transformed into poplar. Over all, we produced 1,964 PCR-confirmed transgenic events with 19 different kinds of sterility genes and several kinds of control genes. We propagated 5,640, 6,820, and 7,055 trees for each of three test poplar genotypes, and field

  19. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  20. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control.

  1. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  2. Economic method of development of canned food sterilization regimes for industry autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the sterilization equipment AVK-30M for development of sterilization regimes of canned food for industrial autoclaves, particularly for ASCAMAT 230, has been described. Energy consumption of autoclaves during stages of heating and sterilization has been compared as well

  3. The effects of inbreeding and heat stress on male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Bijlsma, Kuke

    2011-01-01

    in benign and stressful environments using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Male sterility was compared in 21 inbred lines and five non-inbred control lines at 25.0 and 29.0 °C. The effect of inbreeding on sterility was significant only at 29.0 °C. This stress-induced increase in sterility...

  4. Induction, maintenance and utilization of male sterility in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvertand, B.C.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes research work performed in leek in relation to efforts to obtain or exploit a male sterility system for hybrid leek breeding. Male sterile plants can be found in every leek cultivar. The male sterility trait can be explained by a nuclear monogenic inheritance or by a nucleo-cyt

  5. On the 100th anniversary of sterile catgut kuhn: Franz Kuhn (1866-1929) and the epistemology of catgut sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Ulrich A; Kehl, Franz; Hamelmann, Wulf; Weisser, Christoph

    2007-12-01

    The long road to effective catgut sterilization began with the work of Lord Joseph Lister (1867) and did not end until 40 years later. At the end of the nineteenth century dozens of different techniques were used to "sterilize" catgut, by immersing the cord in a cold chemical solution, by exposing it to steam, or by a combination of the two techniques, yet none of these approaches offered the ultimate solution. One of the many physicians working on the catgut problem at that time was the German surgeon Franz Kuhn (1866-1929), best known as a pioneer of intubation anesthesia. This review offers a brief biographical sketch of Kuhn's life and career on the occasion of the centenary of Sterile Catgut Kuhn. The goal of the present study is to describe several landmarks in the development of the catgut sterilization method. To explain this process, two approaches are taken: first, an analysis to see whether the character traits of the typical surgeon at that time provided the soil in which innovation could thrive, and second, an epistemological examination of the conceptual models for the attainment of knowledge current at that time. Perspectives for the future are explored in light of the "imperative of responsibility" of Hans Jonas.

  6. Inheritance of the Pale-Green Leaf Marker and Sterility Trait in Photo-Thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhen-tao; XUE Qing-zhong

    2003-01-01

    P/TGMS (photo-thermo sensitive genic male sterility) lines with pale-green leaf color have beendeveloped in japonica rice. The marker trait is used as an assistant selection in the production of the two-linessystem hybrid rice for the improvement of F1 seed purity. A joint inheritance study of both leaf color and malesterility is presented for P/TGMS line with pale-green leaf color. The segregation ratios for leaf color in the F2populations of the three crosses showed 13 : 3 and 15 : 1 at early and late sowing stages (April 26 and June23) respectively, implying that the leaf color is controlled by two genes with fertility gene as dominant. Steril-ity level is higher in the early sowing stage than that in the late sowing. The inducement of male sterility isclosely related to longer day-length and higher temperature at the developmental stages of young panicle. Thegenes to govern the leaf color and male fertility are inherited independently.

  7. TERATOGENICITY TOXICITY EVALUATION ON CENTRAL VEIN CATHETER STERILIZED BY RADIATION%中心静脉导管辐射灭菌后致畸毒性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莹; 刘清芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the teratogenicity foxicity of central vein catheter sterilized by radiation, and provide the basis for security application for single - use medical products. Methods According the method prescribed by the ISO11137 standard, chromosome aberrations and mutagenic toxicity test were used to test the central vein catheter sterilized by radiation. Results After irradiation sterilization by Co60 ,the central venous catheter had no genetic boxicity in experimental animals, did not increase the bone marrow cells micronucleus nicidence, and had no mutagenic effect. Conclusion The central vein catheters sterilized in the setting of dose irradiation sterilization was safe.%目的 评价中心静脉导管辐照灭菌后致畸毒性,为一次性使用医疗产品安全应用提供依据.方法 采用ISO11137标准规定的方法,对辐射灭菌后的中心静脉导管进行了染色体畸变和致突变等毒性试验观察.结果 经钴60辐照灭菌后的中心静脉导管样品,对试验动物无遗传毒性,无诱导骨髓多染红细胞微核发生率增高作用,无致突变作用.结论 经设定剂量辐照灭菌后的中心静脉导管具有良好的使用安全性.

  8. Culture of osteoblasts on bio-derived bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu; YANG Zhi-ming; GE Bao-feng; LIU Xue-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bio-derived bones, as substitutes of autogenous bone grafts and demineralized cadaver bones, on the attachment, spreading and proliferation of isolated osteoblasts. Methods: Osteoblasts were isolated from the calvaria of a fetal rabbit through sequential collagenase digestion. In the attachment study, the osteoblasts labeled with 3H-leucine were incubated with the bio-derived bone materials in sterile microcentrifugale tubes for 15, 90 and 180 minutes, and 24 hours, respectively. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. In the proliferation study, the osteoblasts were cultured with the bio-derived bone materials for 24 hours and 3H-thymidine was added during the last 2 hours of the incubation. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. Osteoblasts were seeded on the bone graft materials for 60 or 120 minutes, 24 or 48 hours, and 3 or 7 days, then the co-culture was processed for scanning electron microscopy to observe the interaction of osteoblasts and the bio-derived bone materials. Results: Osteoblasts attached to the bio-derived bone materials in a time-dependent manner. There were significantly (P<0.05) more attached cells after 180 minutes than after 15 and 90 minutes of incubations (P<0.05). Osteoblasts were proliferated in a large amount on the surface and in the materials. Osteoblasts seeded onto 100 mg bio-derived bones resulted in significantly (P<0.05) more measurable proliferation than those seeded onto 10 mg bones. Osteoblasts appeared round as they attached to the materials, then flattened and spread over with time passing. Conclusions: Bio-derived bones can provide a good environment for the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  9. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  10. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  11. Effectiveness of Bench Top Non-Vacuum Autoclaves on Dental Turbine Chamber Sterilization Effectiveness of Bench Top Non-Vacuum Autoclaves on Dental Turbine Chamber Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental turbine chamber is a suitable reservoir for living microorganisms, so chamber sterilization is necessary for reducing cross contamination risk. On the other hand, in non-vacuum autoclaves, steam penetration into turbine chamber is doubtful, while they are still in use in dental clinics. In this study, performance of small non-vacuum autoclave in turbine chamber sterilization was evaluated. Methods: A total of 48 dental turbines were sterilized by large vacuum autoclaves. The turbin chamber cap was opened in aseptic enviroment and a strip contaminated with bacillus stearothermophilus endospores was placed into chamber and chamber cap was closed. Twelve dental turbines were loaded in each of four autoclaves (2 large pre-vacuum autoclaves, 2 bench top non-vacuum autoclaves and sterilization process preformed according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the sterilization cycle, the strips were transferred to culture medium and incubated at 56°C for 48 Hours. As control sample, a biologic indicator that had not been autoclaved was used for each group. Results: Being loaded in different autoclaves, All 48 turbines were sterilized properly and all the cultures were negative. The culture results of four control indicators which were not sterilized, were positive. Conclusion: There was no difference between performance of vacuum and non-vacuum autoclaves in dental turbine chamber sterilization. Both types performed sterilization properly.

  12. [Genetic analysis of maize cytoplasmic male sterile mutants obtained by space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Bo; Yuan, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Pan, Guang-Tang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production.

  13. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization.

  14. Suppressing resistance to Bt cotton with sterile insect releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2010-12-01

    Genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely for pest control. However, insect adaptation can reduce the toxins' efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide susceptible insects to mate with resistant insects. Variable farmer compliance is one of the limitations of this approach. Here we report the benefits of an alternative strategy where sterile insects are released to mate with resistant insects and refuges are scarce or absent. Computer simulations show that this approach works in principle against pests with recessive or dominant inheritance of resistance. During a large-scale, four-year field deployment of this strategy in Arizona, resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) to Bt cotton did not increase. A multitactic eradication program that included the release of sterile moths reduced pink bollworm abundance by >99%, while eliminating insecticide sprays against this key invasive pest.

  15. Cosmological Imprints of Frozen-In Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate observable cosmological aspects of sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the freeze-in mechanism. The study is performed in a framework that admits many cosmologically interesting variations: high temperature production via annihilation processes from higher dimensional operators or low temperature production from decays of a scalar, with the decaying scalar in or out of equilibrium with the thermal bath, in supersymmetric or non-supersymmetric setups, thus allowing us to both extract generic properties and highlight features unique to particular variations. We find that while such sterile neutrinos are generally compatible with all cosmological constraints, interesting scenarios can arise where dark matter is cold, warm, or hot, has nontrivial momentum distributions, or provides contributions to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during Big Bang nucleosynthesis large enough to be probed by future measurements.

  16. Omnibus experiment: CPT and CP violation with sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, K. K.; Novikov, N. Yu; Smirnov, M. V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Wurm, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose to probe both the CPT and CP violation together with the search for sterile neutrinos in one do-it-all experiment. This omnibus experiment would utilize neutrino oscillometry with large scintillator detectors like LENA, JUNO or RENO-50 and manmade radioactive sources similar to the ones used by the GALLEX experiment. Our calculations indicate that such an experiment is realistic and could be performed in parallel to the main research plan for JUNO, LENA, or RENO-50. Assuming as the starting point the values of the oscillation parameters indicated by the current global fit (in 3 active + 1 sterile scenario) and requiring at least 5 sigma confidence level, we estimate that with the proposed experiment we would be able to detect CPT mass anomalies of the order of 1% or larger.

  17. Hybrid male sterility is caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Although it is known that the hybrid male mouse is sterile just like any other animal's heterogametic sex, the reason why only the male germ cells are impaired has yet to be discovered. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay using a confocal fluorescence microscope and DNA fragmentation assay of hybrid testis indicated destruction of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rather than the nuclear DNA. Previously we reported that maternal mtDNA inheritance is through selective sperm mtDNA elimination based on the sperm factor and two egg factors, and expression of these three factors was recognized in the hybrid testis. It was thereby assumed that mtDNA destruction caused by the expression of maternal mtDNA inheritance system in male germ cells is implicated in the hybrid male sterility of mice.

  18. Physiological sex predicts hybrid sterility regardless of genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John H; Michalak, P

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between biological species is characterized by Haldane's rule, which states that the heterogametic sex (XY or ZW) suffers the most dysfunctional effects of hybridization. It has been hypothesized that, in addition to X-linked recessive genes, Haldane's rule also reflects the faster evolution of genes related to male reproduction (faster-male evolution). We used sex-reversed hybrid Xenopus to test faster-male evolution by examining the fertility of sex-reversed individuals with the genotype of the inverse phenotypic sex. Hybrid males are sterile and hybrid females are fertile irrespective of their genotypic sex. Gene expression profiles match these adult phenotypes, and our results demonstrate that faster-male evolution is the most likely mechanism producing hybrid male sterility.

  19. Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, X; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Draeger, E; Du, X F; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fu, J Y; Ge, L Q; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, G H; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiang, H J; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, W C; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, A; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Luk, K B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Kebwaro, J Monari; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Nemchenok, I; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tam, Y H; Tang, X; Themann, H; Tsang, K V; Tsang, R H M; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, H Y; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C C; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, J Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, B; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Q; Zhang, S H; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2014-01-01

    A search for light sterile neutrino mixing was performed with the first 217 days of data from the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9~GW$_{\\rm th}$ nuclear reactors to six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512~m and 561~m) and one far (1579~m) underground experimental halls makes it possible to test for oscillations to a fourth (sterile) neutrino in the $10^{\\rm -3}~{\\rm eV}^{2} < |\\Delta m_{41}^{2}| < 0.3~{\\rm eV}^{2}$ range. The relative spectral distortion due to electron antineutrino disappearance was found to be consistent with that of the three-flavor oscillation model. The derived limits on $\\sin^22\\theta_{14}$ cover the $10^{-3}~{\\rm eV}^{2} \\lesssim |\\Delta m^{2}_{41}| \\lesssim 0.1~{\\rm eV}^{2}$ region, which was largely unexplored.

  20. Can decaying sterile neutrinos account for all dark matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of unexplained X-ray line of $3.5-3.6$ keV emitted from the Perseus cluster of galaxies and M31 and the excess X-ray line of $8.7$ keV emitted from the Milky Way center may indicate that dark matter would decay. In this article, I show that approximately 80 \\% of dark matter being 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos and 20 \\% of dark matter being 17.4 keV sterile neutrinos can satisfactorily explain the observed X-ray lines and account for all missing mass. No free parameter is needed in this model. This scenario is also compatible with current robust observational constraints from the matter power spectrum in large-scale structures and would alleviate the challenges faced by the existing dark matter models.

  1. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate 'hybrid' biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification.

  2. [Microcontroller temperature regulator MPT110 for drying-sterilizing cabinets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, N N; Gavrishchuk, V I; Zelepukin, S A; Shkulepa, V M; Zharov, E N

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes a MPT-110 temperature microcontroller developed by the closed joint-stock company "OPLEKS" (Orel, Russia) and the results of comparative tests performed in the @IIICC-80 drying sterilizing cabinet. The use of the MPT-110 controller is shown to improve the quality of control and to shorten the times that is taken for the cabinet to reach the preset temperature point.

  3. Genetics of Fertility Restoration in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pepper hybrid seeds production using male sterility could lower cost by reducing time and labour, and increase the genetic purity of the F1 seeds. To investigate the genetics of fertility restoration of the Peterson cytoplasmic sterility in pepper, a doubled haploid population of 115 pepper lines obtained from anther culture of the F1 hybrid between Yolo Wonder (sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (fertility restorer line) and the parental lines were test-crossed by 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genic male sterile line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed in greenhouse and open field with the following three criteria: pollen index (PI, visual estimation of pollen amount per flower), pollen number (PN, pollen counting under microscope), and seed number (SN, the number of seeds per fruit in open pollination). Correlations between the each couple of criteria within, as well as between the cultivation methods ranged from 0.55 to 0.84. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype (DH line) and environment were the significant sources of variation of the fertility.Narrow sense of heritance of fertility restoration ranged from 0.38 to 0.92, depending on the criteria and environment. The distribution of the progeny was continuous between the parental genotypes indicating the quantitative inheritance of fertility restoration. Inferred from segregation according to Snape et al.(1984), the number of segregating genes was estimated to be that three to four genetic factors were involved in pollen traits (PI and PN) and five to eight genetic factors in seed production (SN). The heredity analysis of the CMS will be helpful for understanding of the genetic mechanism of the fertility restoration and the exploitation of the CMS in hybrid seed production.

  4. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adey, D.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J. J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S. A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S. B.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S. J.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M. A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; de Gouvêa, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartz, M.; Hernández, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J. M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K. T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S. R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfín, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M. A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Smith, D. R.; Smith, P. J.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Søby, L.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Taylor, I. J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.

    2014-04-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8GeV/c±10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10σ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simultaneous muon neutrino disappearance analysis that will facilitate tests of various sterile neutrino models.

  5. Developing the Use of Quality Indicators in Sterilization Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mehrabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated infections are a major threat to the safety of patient care. Control of such problem is a major criterion for hospital accreditation. This study was aimed to determine the developing use of chemical (class 6 products and biological indicators in Tabriz district hospitals since 1997 to 2011.Methods: We conducted this time-trend interventional study with all of the public and private hospitals, which counted to 21 in Tabriz district as a sample. The situations of indicator use were presented for each time in the base of indicator groups. Furthermore, the results were showed in the base of hospital groups.Results: All of district hospital (n=21 with 74 autoclave machine and 22 central sterilization room were studied. The result of second time study in 2008 showed a markedly improvement in the control of sterilization processes. Furthermore, we continued our intervention results 6 month later in 2009 and 2 years later in 2011. The most striking result were use of chemical indicator in 100% of hospitals. However, there are defects in the use of biological indicators (63.65%.Conclusion: The most obvious finding was significant improvement in sterilization control especially in development the use of chemical indicators. The finding of this study has a number of important implications for hospital managers and infection control practitioners such as continuous practical training of CSSD personnel in hospitals and mandating of indicator using in all sterilization process with controlling of this subject in evaluation and accreditation of hospital programs.

  6. Gamma-Ray Sterilization of Mars Analog Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft on Mars, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Plans call for the samples to be placed immediately in biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazard. It is recommended that "controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. Various techniques are routinely used to sterilize biological samples. These include dry heating to temperatures of 150C or higher, heating in the presence of steam, exposure to poisonous gases such as formaldehyde and propiolactone, exposure to H2O2 vapor or plasma, exposure to ultraviolet light, and exposure to gamma radiation. The appropriate technique depends on the physical characteristics of the sample and the desired results. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. The most commercial sterilizers use Cobalt 60, which emits gamma photons with energies of 1. 173 and 1. 332 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 106 rad (104 gamma ray is equal to 104 ergs/gm) are sufficient to destroy most bacteria. The current study is designed to investigate the effects of lethal doses of Cobalt 60 gamma radiation on geologic materials analogous to the first samples to be returned from Mars. The goals are (1) to determine the gamma ray dose required to kill microorganisms within geologic samples, and (2) to determine the effects of lethal doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the samples.

  7. Histological Study on a Novel Bone Graft Substitute: Human Derived Tooth-Hydroxyapatite Compared With Coralline Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    HCl, Eczacýbaþý, Ýstanbul, Turkey). After anesthesia the tibial section of the right leg was shaved and disinfected. Under sterile surgical...conditions after incising the skin, the muscles and periost were dissected. The spongious bone medially at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia was

  8. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... lambs were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at birth. During the first 14 days of life AKG was administered orally to the experimental group (n=12) at the dosage of 0.1 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (n=11) received an equal dose of the vehicle. Lambs were slaughtered...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  9. Checking T and CPT violation with sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, Yogita; Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, R B

    2015-01-01

    Post LSND results, sterile neutrinos have drawn attention and motivated the high energy physics, astronomy and cosmology to probe physics beyond the standard model considering minimal 3+1 (3 active and 1 sterile) to 3+N neutrino schemes. The analytical equations for neutrino conversion probabilities are devloped in this work for 3+1 neutrino scheme. Here we have tried to explore the possible signals of T and CPT violations with four flavor neutrino scheme at neutrino factory. To investigate the T violation we have taken into consideration the golden and discovery channels. In our analysis the optimal values of Jarlskog factor for discovery channel coming from the constrained values of sterile parameters from long baseline and short baseline experiments are 0.169 and 0.163 respectively. Whereas the values of Jarlskog factor for golden channel are 0.0131 and 0.0143 coming from long and short baseline constraints respectively. This obesrevation promotes discovery channel to be the potential channel for probing T...

  10. Homestake result, sterile neutrinos and low energy solar neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    De Holanda, P C

    2003-01-01

    The large mixing (LMA) MSW solution predicts ~2-sigma higher Ar-production rate, Q_{Ar}, than the Homestake result. Also there is no apparent upturn of the spectrum (R=N_obs/N_SSM) at low energies in SNO and Super-Kamiokande (SK). Both these facts can be explained if a light, \\Delta m^2_{01} ~ (2 - 20)10^{-5} eV^2, sterile neutrino exists which mixes very weakly with active neutrinos: sin^2 2\\alpha ~ (10^{-5} - 10^{-3}). We perform both the analytical and numerical study of conversion effects in the system of two active neutrinos with the LMA parameters and one weakly mixed sterile neutrino. The presence of sterile neutrino leads to a dip in the survival probability in the intermediate energy range E = (0.5 - 5) MeV thus suppressing the Be, or/and pep, CNO as well as B neutrino fluxes. Apart from diminishing Q_{Ar} it leads also to decrease of the Ge-production rate and may lead to decrease of the BOREXINO signal and CC/NC ratio at SNO. Future studies of the solar neutrinos by SNO, SK, BOREXINO and KamLAND as...

  11. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa' alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander, E-mail: luke.alphey@zoo.ox.ac.u [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  12. Scrutinising sterile neutrino dark matter production from scalar decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate in detail the production of sterile neutrino dark matter from the decay of a scalar singlet to which the sterile neutrinos couple via a Yukawa-type interaction. The scalar couples to the Standard Model via a Higgs portal, the size of which determines whether or not the scalar singlet enters thermal equilibrium in the early Universe. If both couplings are chosen adequately, the mechanism can produce the correct observed relic abundance. While previous studies restricted themselves to limiting cases where the abundance and the momentum distribution are approximately accessible with analytic approaches, we present a fully numerical computation in order to cover the whole parameter space of the model. This allows us to gain deeper insight into the assumptions and simplifications usually made in the literature and it moreover yields refined results for the momentum distribution function of the sterile neutrino, which is the vital input quantity for the formation of large-scale structure in the Universe. In particular we show that the momentum distribution function can differ significantly from the analytical estimates present in the literature, which opens a wide range of possibilities for addressing the small scale problems in structure formation.

  13. Characterization and Use of Male Sterility in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoqing Li; Daichang Yang; Yingguo Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding that was initiated in China in the 1970s led to a great improvement in rice productivity. In general, it increases the grain yield by over 20% to the inbred rice varieties, and now hybrid rice has been widely introduced into Africa, Southern Asia and America. These hybrid varieties are generated through either three-line hybrid and two-line hybrid systems; the former is derived from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the latter derived from genie male sterility (GMS). There are three major types of CMS (HL, BT and WA) and two types of GMS (photoperiod-sensitive (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive (TGMS)). The BT- and HL-type CMS genes are characterized as orf79and orfH79, which are chimeric toxic genes derived from mitochondrial rearrangement, fffdfor CMS-WA is located on chromosome 1, while Rf1, Rf4, RfSand Rf6 correspond to CMS-BT, CMS-WA and CMS-HL, located on chromosome 10. The Rf1 gene for BT-CMS has been cloned recently, and encodes a mitochondria-targeted PPR protein. PGMS is thought to be controlled by two recessive loci on chromosomes 7 and 12, whereas nine recessive alleles have been identified for TGMS and mapped on different chromosomes. Attention is still urgently needed to resolve the molecular complexity of male sterility to assist rice breeding.

  14. Mechanistic Differences Leading to Infectious and Sterile Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Faranak; Sheller, Samantha; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a physiologic component of pregnancy and parturition. Overwhelming intrauterine inflammatory load promotes quiescent feto-maternal tissues into a contractile phenotype. Like inflammation, oxidative stress is an inevitable component of both pregnancy and parturition. Pathologic activation of host innate immune response to adverse pregnancy conditions can lead to premature activation of inflammatory and oxidative stress. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers seen with both sterile and infectious inflammation are often similar; therefore, it is difficult to understand causality of conditions like spontaneous preterm birth. This review demonstrates potential mechanistic pathways of activation of sterile and infectious inflammation. We demonstrate the activation of two unique pathways of inflammation by factors that are well-documented proxies for oxidative stress (cigarette smoke extract) and infection (lipopolysaccharide). Sterile inflammation seen after exposure to an oxidative stress inducer is due to cellular elemental damage resulting in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced cellular senescence. Infectious inflammation is through activation of transcription factor NF-κB and independent of oxidative stress-associated damages and p38 MAPK-induced senescence. Understanding the differences in the inflammatory pathway activation by various risk factors is important to design better screening, diagnostic and intervention strategies to reduce the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Sterility and the disinfection potential of Indian contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinathan Usha

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular infection associated with microbial contamination of contact lens care products is a major problem in contact lens wearers. The sterility and the antimicrobial activity of contact lens care systems reflect their suitability for disinfection of contact lenses. These factors remain to be evaluated for the various newer contact lens care products manufactured in India. In this study, 35 bottles of contact lens solutions marketed by different manufacturing units in India were tested for sterility. Seven solutions were tested for antimicrobial effectiveness employing the D value method of analysis. The D value is defined as the time required to reduce a population of organisms by 90% (one log unit. A standard inoculum of the ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Acanthamoeba castellanii were used as challenge organisms. Bacterial contamination was detected in 20 (57.1% solution bottles and none yielded fungus or Acanthamoeba. Pseudomonas species were the most commonly encountered contaminant (11/20; 55%. Only sterile solutions were analyzed for antimicrobial activity. D values ranging between 12 and 20 minutes were demonstrated by six of the seven solutions against bacterial challenge. Good antifungal activity was noticed in five solutions against Fusarium solani though results varied with Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. All solutions were adequately effective against Acanthamoeba.

  16. FURTHERSTUDIES ON STERILITY PRODUCED IN MALE MICE BY DEUTERIUMOXIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Ann M.; Bennett, Edward L.; Calvin, Melvin.

    1960-06-01

    The authors have previously reported that deuterium oxide in the drinking water of either male or female mice produces sterility. An investigation of some of the conditions--with particular reference to time--of deuterium oxide treatment to produce sterile C{sub 57} male mice indicated that the sensitive phase of sperm production centered around the late prophase of meiosis. In some experiments, although D{sub 2}O was almost completely absent during maturation of the sperm, and when the mice mated, these sperm exhibited the effects of their much earlier contact with D{sub 2}O. No viable offspring were obtained from these matings. They concluded that the presence of D{sub 2}O during the late prophase and meiotic divisions interfered with the normal construction or division (or both) of genetic material. It was suggested that changes in the forces, principally hydrogen bonds, in macromolecules affected their structural characteristics and resulted in abnormal division. The objective of the experiments reported here was to determine the phases of embryonic development of the mouse at which the lethal action of deuterium oxide on sperm is manifested. These investigations on embryonic growth initiated by sperm developed in D{sub 2}O have yielded additional evidence that D{sub 2}O severely damages the genetic material of developing sperm, with resulting sterility of the male mouse.

  17. Evidence and Search for Sterile Neutrinos at Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Louis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The LSND short-baseline neutrino experiment has published evidence for antineutrino oscillations at a mass scale of ~1 eV2. The MiniBooNE experiment, designed to test this evidence for oscillations at an order of magnitude higher neutrino energy and distance, observes excesses of events in both neutrino mode and antineutrino mode. While the MiniBooNE neutrino excess has a neutrino energy spectrum that is softer than expected from LSND, the MiniBooNE antineutrino excess is consistent with neutrino oscillations and with the LSND oscillation signal. When combined with oscillation measurements at the solar and atmospheric mass scales, assuming that the LSND and MiniBooNE signals are due to neutrino oscillations, these experiments imply the existence of more than three neutrino mass states and, therefore, one or more sterile neutrinos. Such sterile neutrinos, if proven to exist, would have a big impact on particle physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics and would contribute to the dark matter of the universe. Future experiments under construction or proposed at Fermilab, ORNL, CERN, and in Japan will provide a definitive test of short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will have the capability of proving the existence of sterile neutrinos.

  18. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    CERN Document Server

    Adey, D; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S.A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S.B.; Bramsiepe, S.G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S.J.; Bross, A.D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M.A.; Ghosh, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; de Gouvea, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P.F.; Hartz, M.; Hernandez, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J.M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K.T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S.R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M.A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Smith, D.R.; Smith, P.J.; Sobczyk, J.T.; Sby, L.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H.A.; Taylor, I.J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C.D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M.O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M.J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.

    2014-01-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8 GeV/c $\\pm$ 10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10$\\sigma$ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simulta...

  19. A Sterile-Neutrino Search with the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Philip [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the the NuMI beamline at Fermilab, USA. Using a near detector at 1 km distance from the neutrino production target, and a far detector at 735 km from the target, it is designed primarily to measure the disappearance of muon neutrinos. This thesis presents an analysis using MINOS data of the possibility of oscil- lation of the neutrinos in the NuMI beam to a hypothetical sterile flavour, which would have no Standard Model couplings. Such oscillations would result in a deficit in the neutral current interaction rate in the MINOS far detector relative to the expectation derived from the near detector data. The method used to identify neutral current and charged current events in the MINOS detectors is described and a new method of predicting and fitting the far detector spectrum presented, along with the effects of systematic uncertainties on the sterile neutrino oscillation analysis. Using this analysis, the fraction fs of the disappearing neutrinos that go to steriles is constrained to be below 0.15 at the 90% confidence level in the absence of electron neutrino appearance in the NuMI beam. With electron appearance at the CHOOZ limit, fs < 0.41 at 90% C.L.

  20. Surface characterization of titanium alloys sterilized for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández de Gatica, Norma L.; Jones, Gary L.; Gardella, Joseph A.

    1993-05-01

    The high biocompatibility of Ti and Ti-based implants is closely related to the properties of the surface oxide formed during the implant preparation stages. During the machining process, the metal is exposed to the ambient atmosphere and oxidized. This surface oxide layer may be modified during the subsequent implant preparation steps: cleaning and sterilization. In this study, surface elemental and chemical information as well as the thickness of the oxide layer are evaluated for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy before and after different sterilization procedures: UV radiation, steam autoclaving, and radio-frequency glow-discharge (RFGD) treatment in argon atmosphere. The analytical techniques used are: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and the scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). The results of this study indicate that among steam autoclaving, UV radiation and RFGD treatment, the latter yields cleaner surfaces. Also, depth profiles of the specimens treated with RFGD in argon showed an increase in the oxide layer thickness with respect to the values observed for non-sterilized samples.

  1. Axion-Assisted Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher [Chicago U.; Hooper, Dan [Chicago U., KICP

    2016-10-12

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  2. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  3. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  4. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco-Hernández A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Axel Orozco-Hernández,1 Ximena Ortega-Larrocea,1 Gustavo Sánchez-Bermúdez,1 Gerardo García-Aguirre,1 Virgilio Morales Cantón,1 Raul Velez-Montoya2 1Retina Department, Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Background: Since the ophthalmological community adopted the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as an accepted off-label treatment for neovascular diseases, the amount of knowledge regarding its effects and properties has been increasing continually. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports about sterile intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure elevations after intravitreal bevacizumab. In the following case series, we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of ten consecutive cases of patients developing mild-to-severe sterile intraocular inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab and their management. Methods: This report presents a retrospective case series. We reviewed the medical records of ten consecutive patients from a group of 46, in whom repackaged bevacizumab in individual aliquots from two vials from the same batch were used. All surgical procedures were performed using standard sterile techniques in the operating room. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and posterior fundus examination. Results: Ten patients presented sterile endophthalmitis with an onset time of 3.5±1.95 days. The clinical characteristics were mild pain, slight visual loss, conjunctival hyperemia, and various degrees of intraocular inflammation with microhypopyon. All cultures were negative. All patients were managed with topical steroids and antibiotics, except two, in whom, due to severe vitreous cells, intravitreal antibiotics were

  5. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinwen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-12-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (S(i)S(j)) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility.

  6. Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng

    2014-02-01

    Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency.

  7. Plant Temperature for Sterile Alteration of a Temperature-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice, Peiai64S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The forecast of sterile alteration for the temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line in two-line hybrid rice seed production was traditionally based on screen temperature determined by weather station. The article put forward a new approach based on plant temperature, which was more exact and direct than the traditional method. The result of the simulation of the self-seeded setting rate of a widely used TGMS line, Peiai64S, by several temperature parameters and durations, showed that the fertility was directly affected by the plant temperature at a height of 20 cm or the air temperature around it in three days duration. Using the stem temperature of three days at a height of 20 cm as the simulation parameter,the fertility of Peiai64S had the maximum, minimum and optimum temperatures as 22.8, 21.7 and 22.5℃, respectively,whereas 23.2, 21.5 and 21.8℃ when using the air temperature of three days around the height of 20 cm as the parameter.Such temperature indices can be used to conclude the sterile alteration of TGMS for safeguarding seed production of twoline hybrid rice. The article also established a statistic model to conclude plant temperature by water temperatures at inflow and outflow, and air temperature and cloudage from weather station.

  8. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  9. Orchestration of bone remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moester, Martiene Johanna Catharina

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, a balance exists between bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can lead to higher or lower bone mass, and disease such as osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis generally inhibits bone resorption, but does not rebuild bone to a healthy strength. More kno

  10. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  11. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  12. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  13. Do women's attitudes towards abortion and contraceptive methods influence their option for sterilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation and moist heat for sterilization on sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingzhang; Yang, Yongwei; Tan, Lili; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Guixue

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides, such as alginates, are already being used as carriers for drug delivery. The physicochemical and biological properties of alginates may be affected via irradiation and thermal treatments. To explore and compare effects of two kinds of sterilization methods, gamma irradiation and moist heat, on sodium alginate (SA), physicochemical and biological properties of SA powder and solutions were investigated after sterilization. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the SA after sterilization. The research showed that 25 kGy gamma ray can effectively sterilize microorganism. Both gamma irradiation and moist heat hardly affect the native pH of SA. Compared to irradiation sterilization, moist heat sterilization showed smaller changes in intrinsic viscosity for all SA samples and lead to less glycosidic bond breaking of SA powders. The moist heat sterilization can cause the main chain scission and double bonds formation of the SA solutions. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that sterilized SA powers and SA solutions treated by gamma ray sterilization can increase the viability of HUVEC. However, SA solutions treated by moist heat sterilization were found to present severe cytotoxicity. The research results may provide interesting future advancements toward the development of SA-based products for biomedical applications.

  15. Do women's attitudes towards abortion and contraceptive methods influence their option for sterilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Elisabeth Meloni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.

  16. Genetic analysis of X-linked hybrid sterility in the house mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchová, Radka; Gregorová, Sona; Buckiová, Daniela; Kyselová, Vendula; Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-07-01

    Hybrid sterility is a common postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism that appears in the early stages of speciation of various organisms. Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus represent two recently separated mouse subspecies particularly suitable for genetic studies of hybrid sterility. Here we show that the introgression of Chr X of M. m. musculus origin (PWD/Ph inbred strain, henceforth PWD) into the genetic background of the C57BL/6J (henceforth B6) inbred strain (predominantly of M. m. domesticus origin) causes male sterility. The X-linked hybrid sterility is associated with reduced testes weight, lower sperm count, and morphological abnormalities of sperm heads. The analysis of recombinant Chr Xs in sterile and fertile males as well as quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of several fertility parameters revealed an oligogenic nature of the X-linked hybrid sterility. The Hstx1 locus responsible for male sterility was mapped near DXMit119 in the central part of Chr X. To ensure full sterility, the PWD allele of Hstx1 has to be supported with the PWD allelic form of loci in at least one proximal and/or one distal region of Chr X. Mapping and cloning of Hstx1 and other genes responsible for sterility of B6-X PWD Y B6 males could help to elucidate the special role of Chr X in hybrid sterility and consequently in speciation.

  17. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: somafe@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Flu deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 {mu}m filter membrane is usually adopted for {sup 18}FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for {sup 18}FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. {sup 18}FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, {sup 18}FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of {sup 18}FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure {sup 18}FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of {sup 18}FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for {sup 18}FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. {sup 18}FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine {sup 18}FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  18. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    DISEASE Both age and disease can affect the structure of bone, the effects of which are often similar. The most common bone disease is osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis is a disease that results in reduced bone mass and density. This reduction of bone mass and density has a greater impact on trabecular...Bone loss in females is linked to a decrease in estrogen ; the decrease of estrogen associated with menopause increases osteoclast activity [89]. This

  20. GI饮食标尺在社区糖尿病管理中的应用及疗效分析%Application of GI diet ruler in management of community diabetes and analysis of its efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江帆; 沈蓓立

    2012-01-01

      Objective:To explore the effective model of the community diabetes nutritional intervention by conducting the health education to the community diabetes patients with GI diet ruler. Method:One hundred and twenty type 2 diabetes patients in Daning community were randomly selected and divided into the control group and intervention group. The GI diet ruler was made themselves according to the the glycemic index. The patients in the intervention group were educated for health for one year. The efficacy of the blood glucose of two groups was compared. Result:After intervention, the fasting glucose averaged 7.22 mmol/L in the intervention group and 8.08 mmol/L in the control group. An average of glycosylated hemoglobin was 7.32%in the intervention group and 7.90%in the control group. Two hour blood sugar was 8.15 mmol/L in the intervention group and 9.55 mmol/L in the control group. The comparative difference of two groups has statistic significance (P<0.01). Conclusion:Using GI diet ruler to guide the diabetes patients to control their food is simple and easy, which can effectively enhance the patients diabetes prevention knowledge awareness and blood sugar control rate.%  目的:通过对社区糖尿病患者进行“GI饮食标尺”相关的健康教育,探索社区糖尿病营养干预的有效模式.方法:随机抽取大宁社区2型糖尿病患者120人,分为对照组、干预组各60名.根据“食物血糖指数”自制“GI饮食标尺”,对干预组患者进行为期1年的相关健康教育,比较两组患者血糖控制的效果.结果:干预后,干预组空腹血糖平均为7.22 mmol/L,对照组为8.08 mmol/L;干预组糖化血红蛋白平均为7.32%,对照组为7.90%;干预组餐后2 h血糖平均为8.15 mmol/L,对照组为9.55 mmol/L,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:利用“GI饮食标尺”指导糖尿病患者控制饮食,简便易用,能有效提高患者的糖尿病防治知识知晓率,并能提高血糖的控制率.

  1. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  2. Sterilization characteristics of dental instruments using oxygen plasma produced by narrow gap RF discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Goto, Masaaki; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    Sterilization characteristics and material compatibility of low-pressure RF oxygen plasma sterilization method for dental instruments are investigated. Regarding the characteristics of the plasma sterilizer for dental instruments, it is small and can rapidly sterilize owing to a narrow gap discharge. Sterilization of vial-type biological indicators is achieved for the shortest treatment period of 40 min at an RF power of 80 W at a temperature of 70 °C. At a temperature lower than 60 °C, a sterilization period of 90 min is required using a water-cooled electrode. No surface modifications of dental instruments such as chemical composition and deterioration of fine crystals of a diamond bar were observed under a scanning electron microscope.

  3. Altered heterochromatin binding by a hybrid sterility protein in Drosophila sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Joshua J; Malik, Harmit S

    2009-12-11

    Hybrid sterility of the heterogametic sex is one of the first postzygotic reproductive barriers to evolve during speciation, yet the molecular basis of hybrid sterility is poorly understood. We show that the hybrid male sterility gene Odysseus-site homeobox (OdsH) encodes a protein that localizes to evolutionarily dynamic loci within heterochromatin and leads to their decondensation. In Drosophila mauritiana x Drosophila simulans male hybrids, OdsH from D. mauritiana (OdsHmau) acts as a sterilizing factor by associating with the heterochromatic Y chromosome of D. simulans, whereas D. simulans OdsH (OdsHsim) does not. Characterization of sterile hybrid testes revealed that OdsH abundance and localization in the premeiotic phases of spermatogenesis differ between species. These results reveal that rapid heterochromatin evolution affects the onset of hybrid sterility.

  4. Sterile Neutrino Production Through a Matter Effect Enhancement at Long Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    If sterile neutrinos have a neutral coupling to standard model fermions, matter effect resonant transitions to sterile neutrinos and excess neutral-current events could manifest at long baseline experiments. Assuming a single sterile neutrino with a neutral coupling to fermionic matter, we re-examine bounds on sterile neutrino production at long baselines from the MINOS result Pνμ →νs space of sterile neutrino matter effect fits of the LSND and MiniBooNe data, we show that in the case of a vector singlet coupling of sterile neutrinos to matter, some favored parametrizations of these fits would create neutral-current event excesses above standard model predictions at long baseline experiments (e.g. MINOS and OPERA).

  5. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  6. The safety of field tubal sterilization: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswosudarmo, R

    1991-01-01

    A cohort study on female sterilization has been carried out to compare the safety of field-based procedures with hospital-based procedures. A total of 217 women were recruited, consisting of 103 field-based and 114 hospital-based acceptors. Married and healthy women 20-45 years of age, having at least two living children, not obese, no history of major abdominal surgery, no signs of acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and no contraindication to ketamin were included in the study. Women with severe pelvic adhesions encountered during surgery were excluded from the study. The ambulatory procedure was used for all acceptors except those who were sterilized in hospital immediately after delivery. They were asked to come to th Sarjito Hospital (hospital-based) or Puskesmas (primary health care center or field-based), after fasting the night before. Ketamin, 50-100 mg, was used intravenously for general anesthesia. Minilaparotomy followed by the Pomeroy method was used for standard female tubal sterilization. Tetracycline, 3 x 500 mg was given for five days prophylactically. Follow-up was carried out one and six weeks after the day of operation. Data were processed with an IBM-compatible PC, using version 3.0 SPSS program. Students t-test, chi-square test and relative risk (95% confidence limit (CL)) were used for statistical analysis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, parity, body weight, and body height. The duration of operation in the field was somewhat longer than that in the hospital, i.e. 24.58 vs 21.14 minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Research of tare hydrodynamic behaviour at sterilization of canned fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeev G. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research on improving the equipment that ensures the absolute safety of mineral nutrients in the production of sterilized canned fish. The results of experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics moving sterilized jars of canned fish of different sizes under the influence of circulating gas-liquid heat-carrying medium in the capacity have been presented. Some experimental setup with organized top-down and bottom-up flows in it modeling a sterilizer (autoclave has been proposed for the research. The experiments have been performed in the superficial gas velocity ranging from 0.03 m/s to 0.15 m/s corresponding to stable operation of the apparatus. Cans drag coefficient in the flow of heat-carrying medium has been determined by two methods for two heat-carrying media – pure glycerol and water solutions in experiments on precipitation and air – cans when blowing in the wind tunnel. The significant difference in the rates of cans upstream and downstream is reliably established, and therefore it has been proposed to use for the cans' motion characterization the indicator averaged over the two specified rates and called cans circulation speed. An empirical equation describing the dependence of the cans circulation rate from the superficial gas velocity has been obtained. Based on the analysis of studies some empirical dependencies on calculation of the drag coefficients of various types of packaging in the range of Reynolds criterion values from 1 to 4 000 have been offered. The necessity of using the qualifying factor for calculating the real drag on the results of the experiment has been determined.

  8. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Claudio O. [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). CCTVal y Dept. of Physics; Kim, C.S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and IPAP; Wang, Kechen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zhang, Jue [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    2016-06-15

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup ±}μ{sup -+}ν and μ{sup ±}μ{sup ±}e{sup -+}ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass m{sub N} below M{sub W} in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, what would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}, for two benchmark scenarios m{sub N}=20 GeV and 50 GeV, at least a 3σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as e.g. vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} or vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, provided that vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} are both above ∝2 x 10{sup -6}.

  9. Direct detection of relic active and sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., $^3$H) and EC-decaying (e.g., $^{163}$Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+$N_{\\rm s}$) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.

  10. Apparent faster than light propagation from light sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Recent data from the OPERA experiment seem to point to neutrinos propagating faster than light. One possible physics explanation for such a result is the existence of light sterile neutrinos which can propagate in a higher dimensional bulk and achieve apparent superluminal velocities when measured by an observer confined to the 4D brane of the standard model. Such a model has the advantage of easily being able to explain the non-observation of superluminal neutrinos from SN1987A. Here we discuss the phenomenological implications of such a model and show that it can provide an explanation for the observed faster than light propagation of neutrinos.

  11. Application of ionizing radiation in sterilization of Selasan milk replacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrichova, D.; Zouharova, A.; Buriankova, E. (Statni Vyzkumny Ustav Textilni, Veverska Bityska (Czechoslovakia). Centrum Radiacnich Technologii)

    1984-08-01

    The effect of eight ascending doses of radiation within the range of 3 to 30 kGy on isolated microflora was observed in the milk replacer Selasan with initial contamination 4.9x10/sup 4/ germs per 1 gram of preparation. Microorganisms which survived the said radiation dose were evaluated micro and macroscopically. The level of resistance of isolates was determined on the basis of parameters of inactivation curves Nsub(D)=N/sub 0/.esup(-kD). The obtained data served as the basis for determining the minimum sterilization dose 25 kGy for the Selasan replacer.

  12. Sterile Textiles A Key Area of Tech-Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Traditional labor-intensive textile industry is reshaped for more technical orientations in the process of the integration of industrialization and informationization to improve the core competitiveness and sustainability of the industry. New technical textiles have to be manufactured to meet the new rising demand. Sterile textile is one of the innovations that focus on the fiber differentiation and multifunction. In addition, the innovation can also be found in the improvement of technology in the spinning, weaving, nonwovens, dyeing and finishing equipment, key component parts, etc.

  13. Hunt for Sterile Neutrinos: Decay at Rest Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Suekane, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the standard model of the elementary particles, the number of neutrino flavor is three. However, there have been indications of existence of 4th neutrino, called sterile neutrino, in some neutrino oscillation related experiments. A number of experiments are planned to test whether such indications are true or not. Among them, experiments which use neutrinos from pi+, K+, mu+ decay at rest (DAR) are promising because the energy spectra of neutrinos are very well known and clean oscillation measurements are possible. In this proceedings, properties of such DAR neutrinos and LSND, JSNS2, OscSNS and KPipe experiments are briefly introduced.

  14. Critical phase distractions in anaesthesia and the sterile cockpit concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, M A; Capek, A L; Carachi, P; Akeroyd, M A; Hilditch, G

    2011-03-01

    In aviation, the sterile cockpit rule prohibits non-essential activities during critical phases of flight, takeoff and landing, phases analogous to induction of, and emergence from, anaesthesia. We studied distraction during 30 anaesthetic inductions, maintenances and emergences. Mean (SD) noise during emergence (58.3 (6.2) dB) was higher than during induction (46.4 (4.3) dB) and maintenance (52 (4.5) dB; pcockpit rule may be a useful addition to our clinical practice.

  15. A Left-Right Symmetric Theory with Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Duerr, Michael; Lindner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    A simple theoretical framework for the spontaneous breaking of parity, baryon and lepton numbers is proposed. In this context, the baryon and lepton numbers are independent local gauge symmetries, while parity is defined making use of the left-right symmetry. We show that in the minimal model the new leptoquark fields needed to define an anomaly-free theory also generate neutrino masses through the type III seesaw mechanism. The spectrum of neutrinos and some phenomenological aspects are discussed. This theory predicts the possible existence of two light sterile neutrinos.

  16. Dimensional stability of an addition silicone after disinfection/sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, J; Martins, F.; Reis, J.; Maurício, P.; Félix, S.

    2015-01-01

    Poster presented at the “From Basic Sciences to Clinical Research” – First International Congress of CiiEM. Egas Moniz, Caparica, Portugal, 27-28 November 2015 "Dental impressions play a key role in clinical practice, and it is crucial to know the impact of disinfection or sterilization on it. The success of oral rehabilitation depends on the accuracy and reproducibility of the oral impressions [1,2,3]. The addition silicones and polyethers tend to be used most frequently for its physical ...

  17. Radiation resistence of microorganisms from radiation sterilization processing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabovljev, Svetlana A.; Žunić, Zora S.

    The radiation resistance of microorganisms was examined on the samples of dust collected from the radiation sterilization processing environments including assembly, storage, and sterilization plant areas. The isolation of radiation resistant strains was performed by irradiation with screening doses ranging from 10 to 35 kGy and test pieces containing 10 6 to 10 8 CFU in dried serum-broth, representing 100 to 5000 colonies of primary cultures of microorganisms from 7 different sites. In an examination of 16900 colonies of aerobic microorganisms from 3 hygienically controlled production sites and 4 uncontrolled ones, 30 strains of bacteria were isolated. Of those 15 were classified as genus Bacillus, 9 as Micrococcus and 6 as Sarcina. All of the 15 strains of Gram positive sporeforming aerobic rods exhibited an exponential decrease in the surviving fraction as a function of dose, indicating that the inactivation of spores of aerobic rods is a consequence of a single energy deposition into the target. All strains were found to be moderately resistant to radiation with D-6 values (dose required to reduce survival to 6 log cycles) between 18 and 26 kGy. All of the isolated Gram positive cocci showed inactivation curves having a shoulder, indicating that different processes are involved in the inactivation of these cells, e.g. accumulation of sublethal lesions, or final repair capacity of potential lethal lesions. Moderate radiation resistance was observed in 13 strains with D-6 values between 16 to 30 kGy. Two slow-growing, red pigmented strains tentatively classified as genus Micrococcus isolated from uncontrolled sites (human dwellings) were exceptionally resistant with D-6 more than 45 kGy. For hygienically controlled sites, Gram positive spereforming rods composed two thirds of the resistant microflora, while Gram positive cocci comprised one third. For hygienically uncontrolled sites this ratio was reversed. An assumption is made that one isolated strain has grown

  18. Melioidosis from contaminated bore water and successful UV sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Godoy, Daniel; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2013-08-01

    Two cases of melioidosis at a residence in rural northern Australia were linked to the unchlorinated domestic bore (automated well) water supply, which was found to have a high concentration of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using multilocus sequence typing, clinical B. pseudomallei isolates from both cases were identical to an isolate from the bore water supply. A simple UV sterilizer reduced B. pseudomallei from the domestic water supply to undetectable levels. We have shown that UV treatment is highly effective for remediation of water contaminated with B. pseudomallei and recommend its consideration in households where individuals may be at heightened risk of contracting melioidosis.

  19. Sealing and External Sterilization of a Sample Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Olorunsola, Ayoola

    2008-01-01

    A method of (1) sealing a sample of material acquired in a possibly b iologically contaminated ("dirty") environment into a hermetic conta iner, (2) sterilizing the outer surface of the container, then (3) d elivering the sealed container to a clean environment has been propos ed. The method now proposed was originally intended to be used to ret urn samples from Mars to Earth, but could also be used on Earth to t ransport material samples acquired in environments that contain biol ogical hazards and/or, in some cases, chemical hazards.

  20. Regulation of Bone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

  1. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX). PMID:28367467

  2. [Radiation sterilization of units of a Mars descent module--a miniature meteorological station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, D V; Trofimov, V I; Aleksashkin, S N; Khamidullina, N M; Novikova, N D; Deshevaia, E A; Polikarpov, N A

    2010-01-01

    Subject of the test was a procedure of electron sterilization of Mars descent module units. As a result, data on distribution of absorbed dose field across the surface and by the entire volume of the mockup of a miniature meteorological station (MMS) were obtained In addition, electron sterilization technology was developed and the range of absorbed dose from electron radiation that will sterilize reliably packaged MMS hardware were defined in the interval from 30 to 40 kGy.

  3. Gasification technology assessment of sterile coal to clean electrical power generation.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sterile coal is a low-value residue associated to the coal extraction and mining activity. According to the type and origin of the coal bed configuration, sterile coal production can mainly vary on quantity, calorific value and presence of sulphur compounds. In addition, the potential availability of sterile coal within Spain is apparently high and its contribution to the local power generation would be of interest playing a significant role. The proposed study evaluates the availability an...

  4. [Mechanization of the work of the personnel of the sterilization service of therapeutic-preventive institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin'kiĭ, B Ia

    1978-01-01

    The presently functioning service of central sterilization departments at medical institutions has presented itself in a good light. The home industry already puts out the necessary basic facilities and is putting into production the ancillary ones to equip them. Further development of the sterilization service centralization follows the way of setting up sterilization centres organized on the principle of highly mechanized and automated industrial enterprises.

  5. Testing keV sterile neutrino dark matter in future direct detection experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, Miguel D

    2016-01-01

    We determine constraints on sterile neutrino warm dark matter through direct detection experiments, taking XENON100 and its future stages as example. If keV-scale sterile neutrinos scatter inelastically with bound electrons of the target material, an electron recoil signal is generated. This can be used to set limits on the sterile neutrino mass and its mixing with the active sector. While not competitive with astrophysical constraints from X-ray data, the constraints are the first direct laboratory bounds on sterile neutrino warm dark matter, and will be in some parts of parameter space the strongest limits on keV-scale neutrinos.

  6. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  7. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  8. A study on radiation sterilization of medical devices in the South of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhutang, Wen; Riyou, Lou; Meilan, Li; Xueqin, Liu; Najie, Lin; Mingsheng, Zeng

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, directing at the peculiarity of south China, the technique and quality control of Co-80 r radiation sterilization of medical devices have been studied. Radiation dose setting is determined by the AAMI method. Experiment shows that radiation treatment has no effect upon the attributes of the products. Under the same condition of packing and environment, storing time of radiation sterilization is 4 times than that of sterilization by heat. Clinical appliances of 1000 carton products show that radiation sterilization products are safe and reliable.

  9. Investigation of a sterilization system using active oxygen species generated by ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Tatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Shinobu; Noda, Kazutoshi; Oya, Kei; Iwamori, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been investigating an advanced sterilization system that employs active oxygen species (AOS). We designed the sterilization equipment, including an evacuation system, which generates AOS from pure oxygen gas using ultraviolet irradiation, in order to study the conditions necessary for sterilization in the system's chamber. Using Geobachillus stearothermophilus spores (10(6) CFU) in a sterile bag as a biological indicator (BI) in the chamber of the AOS sterilization apparatus, we examined the viability of the BI as a function of exposure time, assessing the role of the decompression level in the sterilization performance. We found that the survival curves showed exponential reduction, and that the decompression level did not exert a significant influence on the survival curve. Subsequently, we investigated the sterilization effect as influenced by the spatial and environmental temperature variation throughout the chamber, and found that the sterilization effect varied with position, due to the varying environmental temperature in the respective areas. We confirmed that temperature is one of the most important factors influencing sterilization in the chamber, and estimated the temperature effect on the distribution of atomic oxygen concentration, using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method with fluorocarbon thin film prepared by radio frequency sputtering.

  10. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  11. Implication of Sterile Fermions in Particle Physics and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lucente, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass generation mechanism, the nature of dark matter and the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe are three compelling questions that cannot be accounted for in the Standard Model of particle physics. In this thesis we focus on all these issues by providing a possible solution in terms of a minimal extension of the Standard Model, consisting in the addition of a set of sterile fermions to the field content of the theory. Sterile fermions are gauge singlet fields, that can interact via mixing with the active neutrinos. We focus on the Inverse Seesaw mechanism, which is characterised by a low (TeV or lower) new physics scale and that can be tested in current and future experimental facilities. We present the model building analysis that points towards the minimal realisations of the mechanism, and the phenomenological study in order to accommodate light neutrino masses and to impose all the relevant experimental constraints in the model, as well as the expected experimental signatures. We...

  12. The effect of steam sterilization on recombinant spider silk particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Matthias; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-03-15

    In this work, the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) was used to fabricate particles in the submicron range using a micromixing method. Furthermore, particles in the micrometer range were produced using an ultrasonic atomizer system. Both particle species were manufactured by an all-aqueous process. The submicroparticles were 332 nm in average diameter, whereas 6.70 μm was the median size of the microparticles. Both particle groups showed a spherical shape and exhibited high β-sheet content in secondary structure. Submicro- and microparticles were subsequently steam sterilized and investigated with respect to particle size, secondary structure and thermal stability. Sterilization temperature and time were increased to assess the thermal stability of eADF4(C16) particles. Actually, particles remained stable and their properties did not change even after autoclaving at 134°C. Both, the untreated and the autoclaved submicroparticles showed no overt cytotoxicity on human dermal fibroblasts after incubation for 72 h. The eADF4(C16) particles were already loaded with proteins and small molecules in previous studies. With that, we can provide a highly promising parenteral drug delivery system based on a defined polypeptide carrier, manufactured with an all-aqueous process and being fully sterilizable.

  13. Tropics accelerate the evolution of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate speciation and explain global patterns of species diversity has remained a challenge for decades. The most general pattern of species biodiversity is the latitudinal gradient, whereby species richness increases toward the tropics. Although such a global pattern probably has a multitude of causes, recent attention has focused on the hypothesis that speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation occur faster in the tropics. Here, I tested this prediction using a dataset on premating and postzygotic isolation between recently diverged Drosophila species. Results showed that while the evolution of premating isolation was not greater between tropical Drosophila relative to nontropical species, postzygotic isolation evolved faster in the tropics. In particular, hybrid male sterility was much greater among tropical Drosophila compared to nontropical species pairs of similar genetic age. Several testable explanations for the novel pattern are discussed, including greater role for sterility-inducing bacterial endosymbionts in the tropics and more intense sperm-sperm competition or sperm-egg sexual conflict in the tropics. The results imply that processes of speciation in the tropics may evolve at different rates or may even be somewhat different from those at higher latitudes.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation for the sterilization of contact lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritz, D.C.; Lee, T.Y.; McDonnell, P.J.; Shih, K.; Baron, N. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Two sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation with peak wavelengths in the UV-C or UV-B ranges were compared for their ability to sterilize contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acanthamoeba castellani, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Also examined was the effect of prolonged UV light exposure on soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. The UV-C lamp (253.7 nm, 250 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms within 20 minutes but caused destruction of the soft lens polymers within 6 hours of cumulative exposure. UV-C caused damage to RGP lenses in less than 100 hours. The UV-B lamp (290-310 nm, 500 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms tested (except Aspergillus) with a 180-minute exposure and caused less severe changes in the soft lens polymers than did the UV-C lamp, although cumulative exposure of 300 hours did substantially weaken the soft lens material. RGP materials were minimally affected by exposure to 300 hours of UV-B. Ultraviolet light is an effective germicidal agent but is injurious to soft lens polymers; its possible utility in the sterilization of RGP lenses and lens cases deserves further study.

  15. Physics Reach of DUNE with a Light Sterile Neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the implications of one light eV scale sterile neutrino on the physics potential of the proposed long-baseline experiment DUNE. If the future short-baseline experiments confirm the existence of active-sterile oscillations, and the new mixing angles ($\\theta_{14}, \\theta_{24}, \\theta_{34}$) turn out to be comparable to $\\theta_{13}$, then it can have significant impact on mass hierarchy (MH) and CP-violation (CPV) searches at DUNE. We find that the MH sensitivity still remains above 5$\\sigma$ if the three new mixing angles are all close to $\\theta_{13}$. In contrast, it can decrease to 4$\\sigma$ if the least constrained mixing angle $\\theta_{34}$ is close to its upper limit $\\sim 30^0$. We also assess the sensitivity to the CPV induced both by the standard CP-phase $\\delta_{13} \\equiv \\delta$, and the new CP-phases $\\delta_{14}$ and $\\delta_{34}$. In the 3+1 scheme, the discovery potential of CPV induced by $\\delta_{13}$ gets substantially deteriorated compared to the 3$\

  16. Constraints on sterile neutrino oscillations using DUNE near detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sandhya; Pramanik, Dipyaman

    2017-01-01

    DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) is a proposed long-baseline neutrino experiment in the US with a baseline of 1300 km from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) to Sanford Underground Research Facility, which will house a 40 kt Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) as the far detector. The experiment will also have a fine grained near detector for accurately measuring the initial fluxes. We show that the energy range of the fluxes and baseline of the DUNE near detector is conducive for observing νμ →νe oscillations of Δm2 ∼ eV2 scale sterile neutrinos, and hence can be effectively used for testing to very high accuracy the reported oscillation signal seen by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments. We study the sensitivity of the DUNE near detector to sterile neutrino oscillations by varying the baseline, detector fiducial mass and systematic uncertainties. We find that the detector mass and baseline of the currently proposed near detector at DUNE will be able to test the entire LSND parameter region with good precision. The dependence of sensitivity on baseline and detector mass is seen to give interesting results, while dependence on systematic uncertainties is seen to be small.

  17. Constraints on sterile neutrino oscillations using DUNE near detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Choubey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is a proposed long-baseline neutrino experiment in the US with a baseline of 1300 km from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab to Sanford Underground Research Facility, which will house a 40 kt Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC as the far detector. The experiment will also have a fine grained near detector for accurately measuring the initial fluxes. We show that the energy range of the fluxes and baseline of the DUNE near detector is conducive for observing νμ→νe oscillations of Δm2∼ eV2 scale sterile neutrinos, and hence can be effectively used for testing to very high accuracy the reported oscillation signal seen by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments. We study the sensitivity of the DUNE near detector to sterile neutrino oscillations by varying the baseline, detector fiducial mass and systematic uncertainties. We find that the detector mass and baseline of the currently proposed near detector at DUNE will be able to test the entire LSND parameter region with good precision. The dependence of sensitivity on baseline and detector mass is seen to give interesting results, while dependence on systematic uncertainties is seen to be small.

  18. Cosmological constraints on a light nonthermal sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, Mario A

    2009-01-01

    Although the MiniBooNE experiment has severely restricted the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos, a few anomalies persist in oscillation data, and the possibility of extra light species contributing as a subdominant hot (or warm) component is still interesting. In many models, this species would be in thermal equilibrium in the early universe and share the same temperature as active neutrinos, but this is not necessarily the case. In this work, we fit up-to-date cosmological data with an extended LambdaCDM model, including light relics with a mass typically in the range 0.1 -10 eV. We provide, first, some nearly model-independent constraints on their current density and velocity dispersion, and second, some constraints on their mass, assuming that they consist either in early decoupled thermal relics, or in non-resonantly produced sterile neutrinos. Our results can be used for constraining most particle-physics-motivated models with three active neutrinos and one extra light species. For instance, ...

  19. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrentera, L.; Rodriguez, R.R. (Unidad Merida (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV)); Uribe, R.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States)); Carrillo, R.E. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1994-03-01

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 [mu]m filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m[sup -2] yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile. (author).

  20. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentera, Laura; Uribe, Roberto M.; Rodríguez, Romana R.; Carrillo, Ricardo E.

    1994-03-01

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 μm filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m -2 yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile.

  1. IsoDAR - A Definitive Search for Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, William

    2013-04-01

    The steady development of high power cyclotrons, mostly in industry, is making possible a definitive, highly cost effective approach to the search for sterile neutrinos. In the proposed IsoDAR experiment a 600 kW beam of protons from a 60 MeV, H2+ cyclotron will impinge on a lithium target to generate copious Li-8. The Li-8 then decays at rest to yield a powerful source of anti-neutrinos that can be located ˜20 m from a hydrogenous detector. In particular our collaboration has been designing the accelerator / target system to be consistent with installation in the Kamioka mine to use the Kamland detector to record inverse beta decay events. We show that this source / detector combination can reveal or exclude the global-fit allowed region at 5 sigma in four months and differentiate between 1 and 2 sterile neutrinos with a few years of continued running. Our studies also show that high power cyclotrons will provide the most cost effective source for such an experiment. In addition, the 60 MeV IsoDAR cyclotron would be an ideal injector for DAEdALUS, our approach to measuring CP violation in the neutrino sector with decay-at-rest experiment.

  2. Active to sterile neutrino oscillations: Coherence and MINOS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D., E-mail: dhernand@ictp.it [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A.Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2012-01-05

    We study the {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub s} oscillation effects in the near detector of the MINOS experiment. Conceptually, the MINOS search for sterile neutrinos with mass {approx}1 eV realizes an interesting situation of partial decoherence of the neutrino state at the production. This corresponds to a difference of energies of the two mass eigenstates that is comparable with or bigger than the width of the initial state (pion). We show that these effects modify the MINOS bound on mixing of sterile neutrino for {Delta}m{sub 41}{sup 2}{>=}0.5 eV{sup 2} and make the experiment insensitive to oscillations with {Delta}m{sub 41}{sup 2}{>=}15 eV{sup 2}. Oscillations with {Delta}m{sub 41}{sup 2}=(1-3) eV{sup 2} could explain some deficit of events observed in the low energy bins in the near detector and correspondingly the excess of events in the far detector.

  3. Sterile particles from the flavor gauge model of masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Our motivation is to study a dynamics which has the ambition to underlie models of the electroweak symmetry breaking via the condensation of known fermions. The right-handed neutrinos and the seesaw mechanism are necessary ingredients for viability of this scenario. The existence of right-handed neutrinos follows from theoretical consistence of a model based on dynamical flavor gauge symmetry breaking. The model is defined by a particular flavor representation setting of electroweakly charged fermions. Only finite number of versions of the model exists. They differ by the number and the flavor structure of the right-handed neutrino sector. We choose for inspection one of them, the non-minimal version with right-handed neutrinos in one sextet and four anti-triplet flavor representations. We show that a Majorana pairing of the sextet right-handed neutrinos is responsible for the flavor symmetry breaking and for the seesaw pattern of the neutrino mass matrix. The dynamically generated neutrino mass matrix spontaneously breaks the lepton number and the chiral sterility symmetry of the right-handed neutrino sector. As a result, a spectrum of majorons, neutrino composites, manifests. We study main characteristics of both massive sterile neutrinos and majorons.

  4. Reduced rates of non-union with modified periacetabular osteotomy using peracetic-acid sterilized cancellous allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, Georgi I; Janz, Viktor; Renner, Lisa; Perka, Carsten; Pruss, Axel

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results of periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) using Kirschner wire fixation and an allogeneic cancellous bone graft. This retrospective cohort study included 73 patients (85 PAOs). The allografts were processed from distal femur of cadaveric donors, defatted, sterilized with a peracetic-acid ethanol solution and freeze-dried. The clinical outcome, as measured by the Harris Hip Scores (HHS), the complication rate and the acetabular correction, as measured by radiological parameters, were compared. The postoperative femoral head coverage and HSS were significantly improved. Major complications occurred in five cases (6 %), but in no case did we observe a non-union or a graft-associated adverse effect. Fixation of the acetabular fragment with Kirschner wires in combination with an allogeneic cancellous bone graft is a safe method, with a low complication rate, no loss of correction and can prevent the occurrence of non-union with a high degree of probability.

  5. 元朝统治者信奉藏传佛教倚重萨迦派的原因探析%Reason Analysis of the Rulers of the Yuan Dynasty Believing in Tibetan Buddhism and Relying Heavily on the Sakyapa Sect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文萍; 张付新

    2015-01-01

    The rulers the Yuan dynasty converted to Tibetan Buddhism and relied heavily on the Sakyapa sect to manage local affairs in Tibet, which became one of their management and governance policies in Tibet. An analy⁃sis has been done on the reasons of why the Yuan’s rulers executed the policy by referring to a large number of historical facts, and it is found that the rebellions of other Mongolian tribes in Central Asia and the close relation⁃ship between the Sakyapa and Mongolian royalty were the main reasons why the Yuan rulers adopted this policy.%元朝统治者选择信仰藏传佛教,并倚重萨迦派管理西藏地方事务,成为其管理和治理西藏的策略之一。文章基于大量的历史事实,分析了藏传佛教界对蒙古王室的积极传教,元朝中央为应对中亚蒙古宗王的反叛以及萨迦派与元王室的联姻等是影响元统治者采取这一政策的重要因素。

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cell implantation for stimulation of long bone healing aggravates Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Elisabeth; Holschbach, Jeannine; Buchta, Nicole; Bitsch, Rudi Georg; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Richter, Wiltrud

    2015-07-01

    Large bone defects requiring long-term osteosynthetic stabilization or repeated surgeries show a considerable rate of infection. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to enhance bone regeneration, but their powerful immunomodulatory effects may impose an enhanced risk for osteomyelitis development. In order to unravel whether implantation of MSCs aggravates a simultaneous bone infection, a hydrogel-supported osteomyelitis ostectomy model was developed in which rats received a femoral bone defect with rigid plate-fixation. After fibrin-assisted transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), effects of MSC implantation on osteomyelitis development were quantified over 3-4 weeks. All SA-infected animals developed an acute local osteomyelitis with significantly increased blood neutrophil count, abscess formation and bone destruction. MSC-treatment of infected defects aggravated osteomyelitis according to a significantly elevated osteomyelitis score and enhanced distal bone loss with spongy alteration of cortical bone architecture. Increased attraction of macrophages, osteoclasts and regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were potential MSC actions. Overall trophic actions of MSCs implanted into non-sterile bone defects may enhance an infection and/or exacerbate osteomyelitis. Studies on antibiotic carrier augmentation or antibiotic treatment are warranted to decide whether MSC implantation is a safe and promising therapy for orthopedic implant-stabilized bone defects at high risk for development of infection.

  7. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body. There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on ...

  8. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  9. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  10. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  11. Androgens and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Boonen, Steven; Lindberg, Marie K; Bouillon, Roger; Ohlsson, Claes

    2004-06-01

    Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and

  12. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  13. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  14. Experimental Study on Polymer Artificial Bone with HA Coated and Fiber Liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Layers of ante-polymerized PMMA ( Polymethylmethacrylate ) are manually smeared on both sides of carbon fiber and polyester fiber to a certain thickness. It was pre-solidified , stripped and cat for sterilization. Based on the results of a series of experiments, HA coated artificial bone is considered to be a non-sensitizing, non- irritant, and non- toxic biomaterial for medical applications. The artificial bone has excellent mechanical and biological property. And it conforms to the national standard requirement. Safety analysis guarantees it a prosperous future of clinical application.

  15. Evaluation of sterile uveitis after iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Sedaghat

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the prognosis is usually benign, sterile uveitis occurred in 10.3% of patients after iris-fixated pIOL implantation. The implantation of a foldable pIOL was the only variable associated with sterile uveitis. Appropriate medical management can be effective treatment, without the need for pIOL replacement.

  16. Imprints of CP-violating phases induced by sterile neutrinos in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Klop, N

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of light ($\\sim$ eV) sterile neutrinos in the long-baseline experiment T2K. We show that, within the 3+1 scheme, for mass-mixing parameters suggested by the short-baseline anomalies, the interference among the sterile and the atmospheric oscillation frequencies induces a new term in the $\

  17. Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Colliec-Jouault

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are highly heat-sensitive macromolecules, so high temperature treatments are greatly destructive and cause considerable damage, such as a great decrease in both viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer. The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus and Alteromonas infernus was previously demonstrated using a bioproduct manufacturing process. The objective of this study was to determine which sterilization method, other than heat sterilization, was the most appropriate for these marine exopolysaccharides and was in accordance with bioprocess engineering requirements. Chemical sterilization using low-temperature ethylene oxide and a mixture of ionized gases (plasmas was compared to the sterilization methods using gamma and beta radiations. The changes to both the physical and chemical properties of the sterilized exopolysaccharides were analyzed. The use of ethylene oxide can be recommended for the sterilization of polysaccharides as a weak effect on both rheological and structural properties was observed. This low-temperature gas sterilizing process is very efficient, giving a good Sterility Assurance Level (SAL, and is also well suited to large-scale compound manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Effect of ethylene oxide sterilization on enamel and dentin demineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Renske Z.; Ruben, Jan L.; ten Bosch, Jaap J.; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    For in situ studies into caries prevention, sterilization of tooth samples is essential. However, sterilization may influence the caries process itself. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sterilising sound human enamel and dentin with ethylene oxide on lesion depth and mineral loss be

  19. Genome-wide dissection of hybrid sterility in Drosophila confirms a polygenic threshold architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Tomás; Fontdevila, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    To date, different studies about the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility (HMS), a postzygotic reproductive barrier thoroughly investigated using Drosophila species, have demonstrated that no single major gene can produce hybrid sterility without the cooperation of several genetic factors. Early work using hybrids between Drosophila koepferae (Dk) and Drosophila buzzatii (Db) was consistent with the idea that HMS requires the cooperation of several genetic factors, supporting a polygenic threshold (PT) model. Here we present a genome-wide mapping strategy to test the PT model, analyzing serially backcrossed fertile and sterile males in which the Dk genome was introgressed into the Db background. We identified 32 Dk-specific markers significantly associated with hybrid sterility. Our results demonstrate 1) a strong correlation between the number of segregated sterility markers and males' degree of sterility, 2) the exchangeability among markers, 3) their tendency to cluster into low-recombining chromosomal regions, and 4) the requirement for a minimum number (threshold) of markers to elicit sterility. Although our findings do not contradict a role for occasional major hybrid-sterility genes, they conform more to the view that HMS primarily evolves by the cumulative action of many interacting genes of minor effect in a complex PT architecture.

  20. Hybrid male sterility in rice is due to epistatic interactions with a pollen killer locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-11-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F(1)) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC(2)F(1) population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis.