WorldWideScience

Sample records for bone repair biomaterial

  1. Development of Nano-biomaterials for Bone Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of nano-biomaterials of nano apatite ( NA ) and polyamide8063 ( PA ) composite was prepared by direct using NA slurry. The experimental results showed that the NA content in the composite was similar to that of natural bone. Interface chemical bonding was formed between NA and PA. The NA keeps the original morphological structure with a crystal size of 10- 30 nm in width by 50- 90 nm in length with a ratio of~ 2.5 and distributed uniformly in the polymer. The synthetic nano-biomaterials could be one of the best bioactive materials for load-bearing bone repair or substitution materials.

  2. Biomaterials with Antibacterial and Osteoinductive Properties to Repair Infected Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity. Infected bone defects are conventionally treated by a systemic/local administration of antibiotics to control infection and a subsequent implantation of bone grafts, such as autografts and allografts. However, these treatment options are time-consuming and usually yield less optimal efficacy. To approach these problems, novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties have been developed. The antibacterial property can be conferred by antibiotics and other novel antibacterial biomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles. Bone morphogenetic proteins are used to functionalize the biomaterials with a potent osteoinductive property. By manipulating the carrying modes and release kinetics, these biomaterials are optimized to maximize their antibacterial and osteoinductive functions with minimized cytotoxicity. The findings, in the past decade, have shown a very promising application potential of the novel biomaterials with the dual functions in treating infected bone defects. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties.

  3. Preparation of porous PLA/DBM composite biomaterials and experimental research of repair rabbit radius segmental bone defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Jianru; Wang, Jue; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Jianchun; Gao, Lan; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Chu, Kaibo

    2015-12-01

    Bone substitutes are used in wide range of orthopaedic application. An ideal bone substitute should exhibit superior osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. Neither bio-derived materials nor synthetic materials can meet the needs of an ideal bone substitute. Preparation of composite materials is a promising way to improve properties of biomaterial. In this study, the porous poly lactic acid (PLA)/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) composite biomaterials prepared by supercritical CO2 technique were implanted to repair rabbit radius segmental bone defect. By comparing with PLA and bone autograft, the X-ray result and histological analysis showed the repair effect of PLA/DBM porous composite materials is significantly better than that of the PLA group and the blank control group, and is similar to autologous bone. The PLA/DBM can promote the healing of bone defects and can be used as a kind of ideal alternative materials to repair bone defects.

  4. Biomaterials with antibacterial and osteoinductive properties to repair infected bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Liu, Y.; Guo, J.; Wu, H.; Wang, J.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity.

  5. New frontiers in biomaterials research for tissue repair and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Liu; Haoran Liu; Aaron Clasky; Huilin Yang; Lei Yang

    2016-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has recently emerged to augment or replace lost or damaged tissues and organs due to the human body’s limited ability to self-heal large defects. Historically, metallic components, polymers, ceramics, and composite materials were utilized as synthetic materials along with natural materials to assist in therapy. Various novel biomaterials were developed to respond to a significant amount of new medical challenges in the past decade. Therefore, there is a need to review these newly developed biomaterials and their potential to improve tissue repair and regeneration in a variety of applications. Here, we briefly review the different strategies and attempts to use novel biomaterials, including self-assembled and macromolecular biomaterials, hydrogels, metamaterials, decellularized tissues, and biomaterials obtained via synthetic biology, used either for tissue repair and regeneration or for therapeutic use by exploiting other mechanisms of healing. All these methods aim to create functional materials, devices, systems, and/or organisms with novel and useful functions on the basis of catalogued and standardized biological building blocks. This review details the various methods and introduces the applications of these biomaterials in tissue repair and regeneration, especially for bone, nerve, and skin applications.

  6. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  7. Bone defect animal models for testing efficacy of bone substitute biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Large bone defects are serious complications that are most commonly caused by extensive trauma, tumour, infection, or congenital musculoskeletal disorders. If nonunion occurs, implantation for repairing bone defects with biomaterials developed as a defect filler, which can promote bone regeneration, is essential. In order to evaluate biomaterials to be developed as bone substitutes for bone defect repair, it is essential to establish clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo testing models for investigating their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, degradation, and interactional with culture medium or host tissues. The results of the in vitro experiment contribute significantly to the evaluation of direct cell response to the substitute biomaterial, and the in vivo tests constitute a step midway between in vitro tests and human clinical trials. Therefore, it is essential to develop or adopt a suitable in vivo bone defect animal model for testing bone substitutes for defect repair. This review aimed at introducing and discussing the most available and commonly used bone defect animal models for testing specific substitute biomaterials. Additionally, we reviewed surgical protocols for establishing relevant preclinical bone defect models with various animal species and the evaluation methodologies of the bone regeneration process after the implantation of bone substitute biomaterials. This review provides an important reference for preclinical studies in translational orthopaedics.

  8. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  9. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  10. 硫酸钙/骨基质明胶复合人工骨修复骨缺损%Calcium sulphate/bone matrix gelatin composite biomaterial for repair of bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建民; 刘方刚; 金大地

    2008-01-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To verify the potential ofCS/bone matrix gelatin (BMG) composite biomaterial in the repair of segmental bone defects.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An in vivo multi-dimensional observation was performed in the Laboratory Animal Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University between December 2004 and April 2006.MATERIALS: Twenty-one healthy adult New Zealand rabbits, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg, were included. The segmental ulnar defects of 15 mm were created bilaterally. CS and BMG were self-prepared.METHODS: CS and BMG were composited at 2:1 and then implanted into 15-mm rabbit ulnar bone defect. The present study consisted of 3 groups: CS/BMG group, defects were filled with CS/BMG; CS group, defects were filled with CS; and blank control group, untreated control defects.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At weeks 4, 8, and 12 post-surgery, repair of bone defect was observed by gross observation, radiographic, histomorphological and tetracycline tracing analysis.RESULTS: Surgical incisions all primarily healed. No inflammatory or foreign reaction was found around all the defects. Both CS/BMG and CS were almost completely absorbed at week 8 post-surgery. In the CS/BMG group, newly formed bone was found throughout the defects after 4 weeks; all defects were repaired with a well-organized trabecular pattern and a thit neocortex after 12 weeks. In the CS group, mass of new bone tissue formed at the periphery of the defect at week 4 post-surgery, but the development of new bone in the center of defect was latter compared with the CS/BMG group: at 12 weeks, all defects were bridged by newly formed bone tissue with little adjacent medullary bone. In the blank control group, slight new bone was found at the periphery of the defect region, and the defects were filled with fibrous tissue.CONCLUSION: CS/BMG composite is totally bioresorbable and biocompatible. The composite can repair bone defects effectively as a bone graft substitute.

  11. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  12. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  13. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic sur

  14. Application of Biomaterials in Cardiac Repair and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. The demand for new therapeutic interventions is increasing. Although pharmacological and surgical interventions dramatically improve the quality of life of cardiovascular disease patients, cheaper and less invasive approaches are always preferable. Biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, exhibit great potential in cardiac repair and regeneration, either as a carrier for drug delivery or as an extracellular matrix substitute scaffold. In this review, we discuss the current treatment options for several cardiovascular diseases, as well as types of biomaterials that have been investigated as potential therapeutic interventions for said diseases. We especially highlight investigations into the possible use of conductive polymers for correcting ischemic heart disease-induced conduction abnormalities, and the generation of biological pacemakers to improve the conduction pathway in heart block.

  15. Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifke, Michael B; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the potential injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds currently being investigated for application in bone tissue regeneration. Two types of injectable biomaterial scaffolds are focused in this review, including injectable microspheres and injectable gels. The injectable microspheres section covers several polymeric materials, including poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA, poly(propylene fumarate), and chitosan. The injectable gel section covers alginate gels, hyaluronan hydrogels, poly(ethylene-glycol)-PEG hydrogels, and PEG-PLGA copolymer hydrogels. This review focuses on the effect of cellular behavior in vitro and in vivo in terms of material properties of polymers, such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porosity, microsphere size, and cross-linking nature. Injectable polymeric biomaterials offer a major advantage for orthopedic applications by allowing the ability to use noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment methods. Therefore, combining injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds with cells have a significant potential to treat orthopedic bone defects, including spine fusion, and craniofacial and periodontal defects.

  16. Biodegradable Materials for Bone Repairs: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tan; Xiaoming Yu; Peng Wan; Ke Yang

    2013-01-01

    With attractive research and development of biomaterials,more and more opportunities have been brought to the treatments of human tissue repairs.The implant is usually no need to exist in the body accompanied with the recovery or regeneration of the tissue lesions,and the long-term effect of exotic substance to human body should be reduced as lower as possible.For this purpose,biodegradable materials,including polymers,magnesium alloys and ceramics,have attracted much attention for medical applications due to their biodegradable characters in body environment.This paper in turn introduces these three different types of widely studied biodegradable materials as well as their advantages as implants in applications for bone repairs.Relevant history and research progresses are summarized.

  17. BIOMATERIAL IMPLANTS IN BONE FRACTURES PRODUCED IN RATS FIBULAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: The biomaterials used demonstrated biocompatibility and osteoconductive capacity that was capable of stimulating osteogenesis, even in bones with secondary mechanical and morphological functions such as the fibula of rats. PMID:27047813

  18. Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intini Francesco E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the present study we introduce a novel and simple biomaterial able to induce regeneration of bone. We theorized that nourishing a bone defect with calcium and with a large amount of activated platelets may initiate a series of biological processes that culminate in bone regeneration. Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore avoiding the need to activate the platelets with an agonist. Methods First, we tested CS-Platelet in heterotopic (muscle and orthotopic (bone bone regeneration bioassays. We then utilized CS-Platelet in a variety of dental and craniofacial clinical cases, where regeneration of bone was needed. Results The heterotopic bioassay showed formation of bone within the muscular tissue at the site of the implantation of CS-Platelet. Results of a quantitative orthotopic bioassay based on the rat calvaria critical size defect showed that only CS-Platelet and recombinant human BMP2 were able to induce a significant regeneration of bone. A non-human primate orthotopic bioassay also showed that CS-Platelet is completely resorbable. In all human clinical cases where CS-Platelet was used, a complete bone repair was achieved. Conclusion This study showed that CS-Platelet is a novel biomaterial able to induce formation of bone in heterotopic and orthotopic sites, in orthotopic critical size bone defects, and in various clinical situations. The discovery of CS-Platelet may represent a cost-effective breakthrough in bone regenerative therapy and an alternative or an adjuvant to the current treatments.

  19. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Eriberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering.

  20. [Biomaterials for bone filling: comparisons between autograft, hydroxyapatite and one highly purified bovine xenograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Zhioua, A; Grizon, F; Basle, M F; Rebel, A

    1993-12-01

    Bone grafts are becoming increasingly common in orthopaedics, neurosurgery and periodontology. Twenty one New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study comparing several materials usable as bone substitutes. A 4.5 mm hole was drilled in the inner femoral condyles. Holes were filled with either an autograft (from the opposite condyle), an hydroxylapatite (Bioapatite), or a highly purified bovine xenograft (T650 Lubboc). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months post implantation and a quantitative analysis of newly-formed bone volume (BNF/IV) and remaining biomaterials (BMAT/IV) was done. In addition, some holes were left unfilled and served as controls. At 6 months, there was no tendency for spontaneous repair in the control animals. The autografted animals have repaired their trabecular mass and architecture within the first month. Hydroxylapatite appeared unresorbed at six months and only thin and scanty new trabeculae were observed. The xenograft induced woven bone trabeculae formation on the first month. This was associated with resorption of the material by two multinucleated cell populations. At six months, the epiphyseal architecture was restored and the biomaterial has disappeared in most cases. Xenografts appear a promising alternative to autografts and allografts, whose infectious risks and ethical problems should always be borne in mind.

  1. Current trends and future perspectives of bone substitute materials - from space holders to innovative biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Andreas; Handschel, Jörg; Drescher, Wolf; Rothamel, Daniel; Kloss, Frank; Blessmann, Marco; Heiland, Max; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Smeets, Ralf

    2012-12-01

    An autologous bone graft is still the ideal material for the repair of craniofacial defects, but its availability is limited and harvesting can be associated with complications. Bone replacement materials as an alternative have a long history of success. With increasing technological advances the spectrum of grafting materials has broadened to allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials, providing material specific advantages. A large number of bone-graft substitutes are available including allograft bone preparations such as demineralized bone matrix and calcium-based materials. More and more replacement materials consist of one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which supports the ingrowth of new bone; and osteoinductive proteins, which sustain mitogenesis of undifferentiated cells; and osteogenic cells (osteoblasts or osteoblast precursors), which are capable of forming bone in the proper environment. All substitutes can either replace autologous bone or expand an existing amount of autologous bone graft. Because an understanding of the properties of each material enables individual treatment concepts this review presents an overview of the principles of bone replacement, the types of graft materials available, and considers future perspectives. Bone substitutes are undergoing a change from a simple replacement material to an individually created composite biomaterial with osteoinductive properties to enable enhanced defect bridging.

  2. Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mourik, P.; Van Dam, J.; Picken, S.J.; Ursem, B.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of living organisms produce biomaterials. Hence, in principle biomaterials are fully sustainable. This does not mean that their processing and application have no impact on the environment, e.g. the recycling of natural rubber remains a problem. Biomaterials are applied in a w

  3. Biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Migonney , Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in the 20th century, biomaterials have contributed to many of the incredible scientific and technological advancements made in recent decades. This book introduces and details the tenets of biomaterials, their relevance in a various fields, practical applications of their products, and potential advancements of the years to come. A comprehensive resource, the text covers the reasons that certain properties of biomaterials contribute to specific applications, and students and researchers will appreciate this exhaustive textbook.

  4. Bone grafting with granular biomaterial in segmental maxillary osteotomy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orion Luiz Haas Junior

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of bone grafting with a granular biomaterial in segmental maxillary osteotomy. Successful formation of new bone with density greater than that of the surrounding tissue was achieved, preventing pseudarthrosis and postoperative instability.

  5. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, J.P.; Lalani, Z.; Bossano, C.M.; Brey, E.M.; Demian, N.; Johnston, C.M.; Dean, D.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion.

  6. 聚乳酸/骨基质明胶多孔复合材料的生物相容性研究%BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF POROUS POLY LACTIC ACID/BONE MATRIX GELATIN COMPOSITE BIOMATERIALS FOR BONE REPAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育敏; 李晶; 牛晓军; 刘建春; 王珏; 高岚

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨超临界CO2法制备的聚乳酸(poly lactic acid,PLA)/骨基质明胶(bone matrix gelatin, BMG)多孔复合材料的生物相容性,为其下一步骨缺损修复奠定基础.方法 取小鼠成骨前体细胞MCT3T-E1细胞,分别与PLA/BMG多孔复合材料和PLA材料的浸提液培养7d,每天采用MTT法测定细胞增殖率并进行细胞毒性分级.将PLA/BMG多孔复合材料与MC3T3-E1细胞复合培养,1、3、5d于倒置相差显微镜下观察细胞生长及与材料贴附情况,5d时取材行扫描电镜观察细胞贴附情况.将PLA材料(PLA组)及PLA/BMG多孔复合材料(PLA/BMG组)分别植于15只Wistar大鼠背部两侧皮下,术后大体观察大鼠一般情况,2、4、8周取材行组织学观察,测量包膜厚度、炎性细胞数及血管面积.结果 体外细胞毒性检测示,培养1 ~7 d PLA/BMG组细胞增殖率均达100%以上,细胞毒性均为0级;而PLA组除1、3、5、6d细胞毒性为0级外,2、4、7d细胞增殖率均低于100%,细胞毒性级为1级.PLA/BMG多孔复合材料与细胞复合培养,可见随时间延长细胞逐渐长入材料孔隙内,细胞形态良好.材料皮下植入后,大鼠均存活至实验完成,切口愈合良好;PLA组材料被纤维结缔组织所包裹,周围组织及材料内含有较多炎性细胞,结缔组织向材料内部生长缓慢;PLA/BMG组纤维组织包裹不明显,结缔组织易于向材料中心长入且其中炎性细胞少见.两组各时间点包膜厚度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PLA/BMG组2、4、8周炎性细胞数均显著低于PLA组(P<0.05),8周血管面积高于PLA组(P<0.05).结论 超临界CO2法制备的PLA/BMG多孔复合材料具有良好的细胞和组织相容性.

  7. Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalling, Simone Suzette

    Connective tissue injuries of skin, tendon and ligament, heal by a reparative process in adults, filling the wound site with fibrotic, disorganized scar tissue that poorly reflects normal tissue architecture or function. Conversely, fetal skin and tendon have been shown to heal scarlessly. Complete regeneration is not intrinsically ubiquitous to all fetal tissues; fetal diaphragmatic and gastrointestinal injuries form scars. In vivo studies suggest that the presence of fetal fibroblasts is essential for scarless healing. In the orthopaedic setting, adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) heals poorly; however, little is known about the regenerative capacity of fetal ACL or fetal ACL fibroblasts. We characterized in vitro wound healing properties of fetal and adult ACL fibroblasts demonstrating that fetal ACL fibroblasts migrate faster and elaborate greater quantities of type I collagen, suggesting the healing potential of the fetal ACL may not be intrinsically poor. Similar to fetal ACL fibroblasts, fetal dermal fibroblasts also exhibit robust cellular properties. We investigated the age-dependent effects of dermal fibroblasts on tendon-to-bone healing in rat supraspinatus tendon injuries, a reparative injury model. We hypothesized delivery of fetal dermal fibroblasts would increase tissue organization and mechanical properties in comparison to adult dermal fibroblasts. However, at 1 and 8 weeks, the presence of dermal fibroblasts, either adult or fetal, had no significant effect on tissue histology or mechanical properties. There was a decreasing trend in cross-sectional area of repaired tendons treated with fetal dermal fibroblasts in comparison to adult, but this finding was not significant in comparison to controls. Finally, we synthesized a novel polysaccharide, methacrylated methylcellulose (MA-MC), and fabricated hydrogels using a well-established photopolymerization technique. We characterized the physical and mechanical properties of MA-MC hydrogels in

  8. 人工材料在急性运动骨损伤中的应用与表面修饰%Surface modified biomaterials for repairing acute exercise-induced bone damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雨春

    2011-01-01

    depend on the material surface properties, local morphology, surface energy or chemical energy, etc. These surface characteristics determine how to adsorb to the material surface, cell positioning and cell functional behavior. Therefore, the complexity of biomaterials and cell-biomaterial surface interactions determine the importance of surface modification of biological scaffolds. Ideal surface modification should take into account the surface topology, specific identification, hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance, protein adsorption, thus obtaining functionalized new tissue. Currently, the most widely used material for su rface modification is collagen I, futu re research will focus on complementary roles of a variety of composite materials for surface modification, as well as gene therapy and the development of nano-materials, becomes a hot issue in the field of bone tissue engineering study .

  9. Endochondral ossification for enhancing bone regeneration: converging native extracellular matrix biomaterials and developmental engineering in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, S Connor; Berkland, Cory J; Bonewald, Lynda F; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Autologous bone grafting (ABG) remains entrenched as the gold standard of treatment in bone regenerative surgery. Consequently, many marginally successful bone tissue engineering strategies have focused on mimicking portions of ABG's "ideal" osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic composition resembling the late reparative stage extracellular matrix (ECM) in bone fracture repair, also known as the "hard" or "bony" callus. An alternative, less common approach that has emerged in the last decade harnesses endochondral (EC) ossification through developmental engineering principles, which acknowledges that the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in developmental skeletogenesis, specifically EC ossification, are closely paralleled during native bone healing. EC ossification naturally occurs during the majority of bone fractures and, thus, can potentially be utilized to enhance bone regeneration for nearly any orthopedic indication, especially in avascular critical-sized defects where hypoxic conditions favor initial chondrogenesis instead of direct intramembranous ossification. The body's native EC ossification response, however, is not capable of regenerating critical-sized defects without intervention. We propose that an underexplored potential exists to regenerate bone through the native EC ossification response by utilizing strategies which mimic the initial inflammatory or fibrocartilaginous ECM (i.e., "pro-" or "soft" callus) observed in the early reparative stage of bone fracture repair. To date, the majority of strategies utilizing this approach rely on clinically burdensome in vitro cell expansion protocols. This review will focus on the confluence of two evolving areas, (1) native ECM biomaterials and (2) developmental engineering, which will attempt to overcome the technical, business, and regulatory challenges that persist in the area of bone regeneration. Significant attention will be given to native "raw" materials and ECM-based designs that

  10. Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Remya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc seeded extracellular matrix [ECM] was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim bladder (FSB. Goat bone marrow-derived cells (G-BMdc were seeded over this decellularized matrix. Efficacy of this cell matrix construct in wound repair was tested by implanting it over 20 mm2 × 20 mm2 size fullthickness skin wound created over the dorsum of rat. The study was conducted in 16 clinically healthy adult rats of either sex. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 8 animals each. In Group I, animal’s wounds were repaired with a cellular FSB matrix. In Group II, wounds were repaired with G-BMdc seeded a cellular FSB matrix. Immune response and efficacy of healing were analyzed. Results: Quality of healing and immuno tolerance to the biological substitute was significantly better in Group II than Group I. Conclusion: Seeding with BMdc increases the wound healing potency and modulates the immune response to a significantly negligible level. The BMdc seeded acellular FSB matrix was found to be a novel biomaterial for wound management.

  11. The Effects of Surface Properties of Nanostructured Bone Repair Materials on Their Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been expected to be an extraordinarily promising method for bone repair. Meanwhile, the promise of nanobiomaterials for therapeutic applications has been widely reported, and a lot of studies have been made in terms of repairing bone using nanomaterials accompanied by rapid development of nanotechnology. Compared with conventional biomaterials, nanostructured implants have been shown to possess positive effects on cellular functions because of their unique surface properties, such as nanotopography, increased wettability, larger surface area, and microenvironment similar to extracellular matrix. Moreover, many positive cellular responses have been found to take place at the interface between nanostructured implants and host bone. In this paper, we will give a review about the effects of surface properties of nanostructured bone repair materials on their performances in terms of several aspects and a detailed interpretation or introduction on the specific cellular recognitions at the interface between nanostructured implants and host bone.

  12. Assessment of bone healing in rabbit calvaria grafted with three different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takauti, Carlos Alberto Yoshihiro; Futema, Fabio; Brito Junior, Rui Barbosa de; Abrahão, Aline Corrêa; Costa, Claudio; Queiroz, Celso Silva

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the bone regeneration process in rabbit calvaria induced by three types of biomaterials: two xenogenous, consisting of deproteinized bovine bone, while the other was alloplastic, based on biphasic calcium phosphate. Five New Zealand white rabbits weighing between 2,900 and 3,500 g were submitted to four standard 8 mm-diameter perforations at the parietal bone. Three perforations were filled with three grafts and biomaterials, two of them received bovine Bio-Oss® and Endobon® Xenograft Granules, and the other consisted of fully alloplastic Straumann® Bone Ceramic. The fourth remaining cavity was used as control with coagulum. After eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the samples were prepared for morphometric and qualitative analysis. The cavities filled with alloplastic biomaterials showed higher percentages of newly formed bone (pbiomaterials showed higher amount of residual graft (pbiomaterial for bone induction process.

  13. Preparation of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Conceição Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has evolved from the use of biomaterials for bone substitution that fulfill the clinical demands of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogeneity, structural strength and porosity. Porous scaffolds have been developed in many forms and materials, but few reached the need of adequate physical, biological and mechanical properties. In the present paper we report the preparation of hybrid porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/bioactive glass through the sol-gel route, using partially and fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, and perform structural characterization. Hybrids containing PVA and bioactive glass with composition 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 were synthesized by foaming a mixture of polymer solution and bioactive glass sol-gel precursor solution. Sol-gel solution was prepared from mixing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, triethylphosphate (TEP, and calcium chloride as chemical precursors. The hybrid composites obtained after aging and drying at low temperature were chemically and morphologically characterized through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of hydrolysis of PVA, concentration of PVA solution and different PVA-bioglass composition ratios affect the synthesis procedure. Synthesis parameters must be very well combined in order to allow foaming and gelation. The hybrid scaffolds obtained exhibited macroporous structure with pore size varying from 50 to 600 µm.

  14. From repair to regeneration: biomaterials to reprogram the meniscus wound microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2015-03-01

    When the field of tissue engineering first arose, scaffolds were conceived of as inert three-dimensional structures whose primary function was to support cellularity and tissue growth. Since then, advances in scaffold and biomaterial design have evolved to not only guide tissue formation, but also to interact dynamically with and manipulate the wound environment. At present, these efforts are being directed towards strategies that directly address limitations in endogenous wound repair, with the goal of reprogramming the local wound environment (and the cells within that locality) from a state that culminates in an inferior tissue repair into a state in which functional regeneration is achieved. This review will address this approach with a focus on recent advances in scaffold design towards the resolution of tears of the knee meniscus as a case example. The inherent limitations to endogenous repair will be discussed, as will specific examples of how biomaterials are being designed to overcome these limitations. Examples will include design of fibrous scaffolds that promote colonization by modulating local extracellular matrix density and delivering recruitment factors. Furthermore, we will discuss scaffolds that are themselves modulated by the wound environment to alter porosity and modulate therapeutic release through precise coordination of scaffold degradation. Finally, we will close with emerging concepts in local control of cell mechanics to improve interstitial cell migration and so advance repair. Overall, these examples will illustrate how emergent features within a biomaterial can be tuned to manipulate and harness the local tissue microenvironment in order to promote robust regeneration.

  15. Low dose BMP-2 treatment for bone repair using a PEGylated fibrinogen hydrogel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Dror; Srouji, Samer; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossover, Olga; Ivanir, Eran; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph; Seliktar, Dror; Livne, Erella

    2013-04-01

    Bone repair strategies utilizing resorbable biomaterial implants aim to stimulate endogenous cells in order to gradually replace the implant with functional repair tissue. These biomaterials should therefore be biodegradable, osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and maintain their integrity until the newly formed host tissue can contribute proper function. In recent years there has been impressive clinical outcomes for this strategy when using osteoconductive hydrogel biomaterials in combination with osteoinductive growth factors such as human recombinant bone morphogenic protein (hrBMP-2). However, the success of hrBMP-2 treatments is not without risks if the factor is delivered too rapidly and at very high doses because of a suboptimal biomaterial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a PEGylated fibrinogen (PF) provisional matrix as a delivery system for low-dose hrBMP-2 treatment in a critical size maxillofacial bone defect model. PF is a semi-synthetic hydrogel material that can regulate the release of physiological doses of hrBMP-2 based on its controllable physical properties and biodegradation. hrBMP-2 release from the PF material and hrBMP-2 bioactivity were validated using in vitro assays and a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. Critical size calvarial defects in mice were treated orthotopically with PF containing 8 μg/ml hrBMP-2 to demonstrate the capacity of these bioactive implants to induce enhanced bone formation in as little as 6 weeks. Control defects treated with PF alone or left empty resulted in far less bone formation when compared to the PF/hrBMP-2 treated defects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a semi-synthetic biomaterial containing small doses of osteoinductive hrBMP-2 as an effective treatment for maxillofacial bone defects.

  16. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R [Institute of Applied Physics ' Nello Carrara' , National Research Council, via Madonna del Piano 10 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  17. Physiological Challenges of Bone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    necrosis factor a. In this early phase, periosteal pre-osteoblasts and local osteoblasts begin to form new bone. Mesenchymal cells and fibroblasts...of cartilage lead to a prolongation of endochondral ossification, delayed onset of periosteal reaction, decreased overall bone formation, and impaired

  18. Use of Biomaterials Associated or not to the Platelet-Rich Plasma in Cranial Bone Defects. Microscopical Study in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edevaldo Tadeu CAMARINI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was to evaluate a possible accelerating activity of the bone repair process through the use platelet-rich plasma (PRP, associated to biomaterials in sockets produced in cranial skull of dogs. Method: Six animals of indefinite race has been selected, females, approach weight of 8 kg, being carried through six sockets of 8 mm with trefine drill that had been divided in six groups: each group it filled with the following materials: Group I: blood (control group; Group II: blood and PRP; Group III: Biogran® (bioactive glass and blood; Group IV: Biogran®, blood and PRP; Group V: Bio-Oss® (natural hidroxiapatite of bovine origin and blood; Group VI: Bio-Oss®, blood and PRP. Thirty and sixty days after procedure the animals had sacrificed themselves and the parts had been fixed in formol 10%, demineralized in EDTA solution, processed and follow to Hematoxilin and Eosin (HE technique. Results: It did not have significant difference between the control groups (Groups I and II. To the 30 days, it had development of the hard tissue repair, however, if it did not observe significant differences between the two biomaterials (Biogran and Bio-Oss. In 60 days, was observed a bone is in mature state, however, if it microscopically did not evidence significant differences between the use or not of the PRP influencing in the tissue repairing. Conclusion: Carried through the microscopical analysis, concluded that the materials had presented osteoconduction property and absence of inflammatory reaction. The presence or not of PRP did not intervene with the evolution of the repair and is necessity the continuity of new scientific inquiries involving the PRP and its applications.

  19. Repair of injured spinal cord using biomaterial scaffolds and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikesh; Coykendall, Katherine; Li, Yongchao; Moon, Alex; Priyadarshani, Priyanka; Yao, Li

    2014-08-01

    The loss of neurons and degeneration of axons after spinal cord injury result in the loss of sensory and motor functions. A bridging biomaterial construct that allows the axons to grow through has been investigated for the repair of injured spinal cord. Due to the hostility of the microenvironment in the lesion, multiple conditions need to be fulfilled to achieve improved functional recovery. A scaffold has been applied to bridge the gap of the lesion as contact guidance for axonal growth and to act as a vehicle to deliver stem cells in order to modify the microenvironment. Stem cells may improve functional recovery of the injured spinal cord by providing trophic support or directly replacing neurons and their support cells. Neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been seeded into biomaterial scaffolds and investigated for spinal cord regeneration. Both natural and synthetic biomaterials have increased stem cell survival in vivo by providing the cells with a controlled microenvironment in which cell growth and differentiation are facilitated. This optimal multi‒disciplinary approach of combining biomaterials, stem cells, and biomolecules offers a promising treatment for the injured spinal cord.

  20. Bone Repair and Military Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    L929, and HUVEC ). Months 1-24. FY10 Task 3: Determine the biological response to silorane bone cement in animal models, Subtask 3a. Small Animal...cement identified in Specific Aim 1 with relevant cell lines (i.e., MLO-A5, MSCs, L929, and HUVEC ). Months 1-36. FY10 Task 3: Determine the...chemically initiated silorane bone cement identified in Specific Aim 1 with relevant cell lines (i.e., MLO-A5, MSCs, L929, and HUVEC ). Months 1-36

  1. Bone Repair and Military Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    Corporation, Rolla, Missouri Received 3 January 2011; revised 1 July 2011; accepted 5 July 2011 Published online 18 November 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com...January 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.32649 Abstract: Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has

  2. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John P; Lalani, Zahid; Bossano, Carla M; Brey, Eric M; Demian, Nagi; Johnston, Carol M; Dean, David; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E K; Mikos, Antonios G

    2004-03-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion. To test this hypothesis, healing bone was investigated within a rabbit incisor extraction socket, a subcritical size bone defect that resists significant soft tissue invasion by virtue of its conformity. After removal of the incisor teeth, one tooth socket was left as an empty control, one was filled with crosslinked polymer networks formed from the hydrophobic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), and one was filled with a hydrogel formed from the hydrophilic oligomer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF). At five different times (4 days as well as 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), jaw bone specimens containing the tooth sockets were removed. We analyzed bone healing by histomorphometrical analysis of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections as well as immunohistochemically stained sections. The proposed hypothesis, that a hydrophilic material would hinder bone healing, was supported by the histomorphometrical results. In addition, the immunohistochemical results reflect molecular signaling indicative of the early invasion of platelets, the vascularization of wound-healing tissue, the differentiation of migrating progenitor cells, and the formation and remodeling of bone tissue. Finally, the results emphasize the need to consider biomaterial properties and their differing effects upon endogenous growth factors, and thus bone healing, during the development of tissue engineering devices.

  3. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.].

  4. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide) composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was...

  5. Role of bone marrow macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simranpreet; Raggatt, Liza Jane; Batoon, Lena; Hume, David Arthur; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Pettit, Allison Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages, named for their phagocytic ability, participate in homeostasis, tissue regeneration and inflammatory responses. Bone and adjacent marrow contain multiple functionally unique resident tissue macrophage subsets which maintain and regulate anatomically distinct niche environments within these interconnected tissues. Three subsets of bone-bone marrow resident tissue macrophages have been characterised; erythroblastic island macrophages, haematopoietic stem cell niche macrophages and osteal macrophages. The role of these macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches is reviewed in detail.

  6. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Biljana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

  7. Animal models for implant biomaterial research in bone: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A I Pearce

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of an optimal interface between bone and orthopaedic and dental implants has taken place for many years. In order to determine whether a newly developed implant material conforms to the requirements of biocompatibility, mechanical stability and safety, it must undergo rigorous testing both in vitro and in vivo. Results from in vitro studies can be difficult to extrapolate to the in vivo situation. For this reason the use of animal models is often an essential step in the testing of orthopaedic and dental implants prior to clinical use in humans. This review discusses some of the more commonly available and frequently used animal models such as the dog, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit models for the evaluation of bone-implant interactions. Factors for consideration when choosing an animal model and implant design are discussed. Various bone specific features are discussed including the usage of the species, bone macrostructure and microstructure and bone composition and remodelling, with emphasis being placed on the similarity between the animal model and the human clinical situation. While the rabbit was the most commonly used of the species discussed in this review, it is clear that this species showed the least similarities to human bone. There were only minor differences in bone composition between the various species and humans. The pig demonstrated a good likeness with human bone however difficulties may be encountered in relation to their size and ease of handling. In this respect the dog and sheep/goat show more promise as animal models for the testing of bone implant materials. While no species fulfils all of the requirements of an ideal model, an understanding of the differences in bone architecture and remodelling between the species is likely to assist in the selection of a suitable species for a defined research question.

  8. New operational techniques of implantation of biomaterials and titanium implants in the jaw with the atrophy of the bone and soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakov, A. L.; Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Baimurzin, D. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The research into dynamics of quality of clinical use in 2003 - 2012 of autologous and xenogeneic biomaterials at dental transplantation and implantation among 1,100 of adult patients was made. The analysis results show that at autologous bone transplantation implant survival is observed only in 72% of cases, and the "necessary" result of bone repair occurred only in 6 - 9 months. Transplantation of biomaterials of OsteoBiol® (materials "mp3", "Genos" and "Evolution") provided engraftment and bone regeneration in 100 % of cases and allowed the use of dental implantation immediately after transplantation even in case of reduction in the patient's alveolar crest down to 2.0 mm. Replace Select implants of Nobel Biocare® were used at plantation. In order to exclude Schneiderian membrane's perforation lighting of Highmore's sinus with the cold blue-violet light from inside at sinus elevation is recommended as well as deepening of dental instruments into the bone only until the blue-violet light appears under them. To exclude deficiency of soft tissue under the cervical part of the ceramic crown application of special anti-fissure technology involving biomaterial flap dissection and its laying around the implant is suggested.

  9. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 stimulation on osteoblasts cultured on different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açil, Yahya; Springer, Ingo N G; Broek, Vanessa; Terheyden, Hendrik; Jepsen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an in vitro stimulation of human osteoblasts by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) on the collagen types and the quantity of the collagen cross-links synthesized in a three-dimensional culture on various biomaterials for bone replacement. Trabecular bone chips were harvested from human iliac crests, and cell cultures were established at standard conditions. One hundred and fifty nanograms per milliliter of rhBMP-7 was added. For the second passage a cell scraper was used to bring the cells into suspension, and 100 microl osteoblasts (at a density of 3.3 x 10(5)) were transferred onto nine blocks of either Bio-Oss, Tutoplast, or PepGen p-15. Blocks incubated with cells that were not treated with rhBMP-7 served as controls. Cell colonization of the biomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after a period of 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Throughout the experiment medium, supernatants were collected and collagen was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Finally, the collagen cross-link residues hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) were quantified by HPLC. Within 4 weeks the cells became confluent on all of the studied biomaterials. All samples synthesized bone specific LP and collagen type I. However, in rhBMP-7-stimulated samples, the amount of HP and LP found was increased by 45% compared to non-stimulated samples. Cell proliferation and collagen synthesis was similar on the different biomaterials, but was consistently reduced in specimen not stimulated with rhBMP-7. In vitro stimulation of osteoblasts on Bio-Oss, Tutoplast, or PepGen p-15 with rhBMP-7 and subsequent transplantation of the constructs might lead to an enhanced osseointegration of the biomaterials in vivo.

  10. Muscle as an osteoinductive niche for local bone formation with the use of a biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, D B; Gupta, A; Petersen, M M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We have observed clinical cases where bone is formed in the overlaying muscle covering surgically created bone defects treated with a hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial. Our objective was to investigate the osteoinductive potential of the biomaterial and to determine if growth...... factors secreted from local bone cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of muscle cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We seeded mouse skeletal muscle cells C2C12 on the hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial and the phenotype of the cells was analysed. To mimic surgical conditions with leakage of extra...... microscopy. RESULTS: C2C12 cells differentiated into osteoblast-like cells expressing prominent bone markers after seeding on the biomaterial. The conditioned media of the ROS 17/2.8 contained bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 8.4 ng/mg, standard deviation (sd) 0.8) and BMP-7 (50.6 ng/mg, sd 2.2). In vitro...

  11. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  12. Cartilage repair: surgical techniques and tissue engineering using polysaccharide- and collagen-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galois, L; Freyria, A M; Grossin, L; Hubert, P; Mainard, D; Herbage, D; Stoltz, J F; Netter, P; Dellacherie, E; Payan, E

    2004-01-01

    Lesions of articular cartilage have a large variety of causes among which traumatic damage, osteoarthritis and osteochondritis dissecans are the most frequent. Replacement of articular defects in joints has assumed greater importance in recent years. This interest results in large part because cartilage defects cannot adequately heal themselves. Many techniques have been suggested over the last 30 years, but none allows the regeneration of the damaged cartilage, i.e. its replacement by a strictly identical tissue. In the first generation of techniques, relief of pain was the main concern, which could be provided by techniques in which cartilage was replaced by fibrocartilage. Disappointing results led investigators to focus on more appropriate bioregenerative approaches using transplantation of autologous cells into the lesion. Unfortunately, none of these approaches has provided a perfect final solution to the problem. The latest generation of techniques, currently in the developmental or preclinical stages, involve biomaterials for the repair of chondral or osteochondral lesions. Many of these scaffolds are designed to be seeded with chondrocytes or progenitor cells. Among natural and synthetic polymers, collagen- and polysaccharide-based biomaterials have been extensively used. For both these supports, studies have shown that chondrocytes maintain their phenotype when cultured in three dimensions. In both types of culture, a glycosaminoglycan-rich deposit is formed on the surface and in the inner region of the cultured cartilage, and type II collagen synthesis is also observed. Dynamic conditions can also improve the composition of such three-dimensional constructs. Many improvements are still required, however, in a number of key aspects that so far have received only scant attention. These aspects include: adhesion/integration of the graft with the adjacent native cartilage, cell-seeding with genetically-modified cell populations, biomaterials that can be

  13. A tissue regeneration approach to bone and cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstan, Colin; Rosen, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing exhaustively the current state of the art of tissue engineering strategies for regenerating bones and joints through the use of biomaterials, growth factors and stem cells, along with an investigation of the interactions between biomaterials, bone cells, growth factors and added stem cells and how together skeletal tissues can be optimised, this book serves to highlight the importance of biomaterials composition, surface topography, architectural and mechanical properties in providing support for tissue regeneration. Maximizing reader insights into the importance of the interplay of these attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this book also provides a detailed reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of growth factors to drive tissue regeneration and stem cell recruitment is discussed along with a review the potential and challenges of adult or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to further enhance the...

  14. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  15. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asa’ad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.

  16. Magnetic forces and magnetized biomaterials provide dynamic flux information during bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandro; Bianchi, Michele; Sartori, Maria; Parrilli, Annapaola; Panseri, Silvia; Ortolani, Alessandro; Sandri, Monica; Boi, Marco; Salter, Donald M; Maltarello, Maria Cristina; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena; Dediu, Valentin; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2016-03-01

    The fascinating prospect to direct tissue regeneration by magnetic activation has been recently explored. In this study we investigate the possibility to boost bone regeneration in an experimental defect in rabbit femoral condyle by combining static magnetic fields and magnetic biomaterials. NdFeB permanent magnets are implanted close to biomimetic collagen/hydroxyapatite resorbable scaffolds magnetized according to two different protocols . Permanent magnet only or non-magnetic scaffolds are used as controls. Bone tissue regeneration is evaluated at 12 weeks from surgery from a histological, histomorphometric and biomechanical point of view. The reorganization of the magnetized collagen fibers under the effect of the static magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet produces a highly-peculiar bone pattern, with highly-interconnected trabeculae orthogonally oriented with respect to the magnetic field lines. In contrast, only partial defect healing is achieved within the control groups. We ascribe the peculiar bone regeneration to the transfer of micro-environmental information, mediated by collagen fibrils magnetized by magnetic nanoparticles, under the effect of the static magnetic field. These results open new perspectives on the possibility to improve implant fixation and control the morphology and maturity of regenerated bone providing "in site" forces by synergically combining static magnetic fields and biomaterials.

  17. Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Preventing Stress Shielding between Implant Devices and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niinomi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available β-type titanium alloys with low Young's modulus are required to inhibit bone atrophy and enhance bone remodeling for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. At the same time, these titanium alloys are required to have high static and dynamic strength. On the other hand, metallic biomaterials with variable Young's modulus are required to satisfy the needs of both patients and surgeons, namely, low and high Young's moduli, respectively. In this paper, we have discussed effective methods to improve the static and dynamic strength while maintaining low Young's modulus for β-type titanium alloys used in biomedical applications. Then, the advantage of low Young's modulus of β-type titanium alloys in biomedical applications has been discussed from the perspective of inhibiting bone atrophy and enhancing bone remodeling. Further, we have discussed the development of β-type titanium alloys with a self-adjusting Young's modulus for use in removable implants.

  18. Evaluation of different rotary devices on bone repair in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Junior, Paulo Domingos; Barleto, Christiane Vespasiano; Ribeiro,Daniel Araki; Matsumoto,Mariza Akemi

    2007-01-01

    In oral surgery, the quality of bone repair may be influenced by several factors that can increase the morbidity of the procedure. The type of equipment used for ostectomy can directly affect bone healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone repair of mandible bone defects prepared in rabbits using three different rotary devices. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=5) according to type of rotary device used to create bone defects: I - pneumatic low-speed r...

  19. Virus immobilization on biomaterial scaffolds through biotin-avidin interaction for improving bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Wen; Wang, Zhuo; Krebsbach, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    To spatially control therapeutic gene delivery for potential tissue engineering applications, a biotin-avidin interaction strategy was applied to immobilize viral vectors on biomaterial scaffolds. Both adenoviral vectors and gelatin sponges were biotinylated and avidin was applied to link them in a virus-biotin-avidin-biotin-material (VBABM) arrangement. The tethered viral particles were stably maintained within scaffolds and SEM images illustrated that viral particles were evenly distributed in three-dimensional (3D) gelatin sponges. An in vivo study demonstrated that transgene expression was restricted to the implant sites only and transduction efficiency was improved using this conjugation method. For an orthotopic bone regeneration model, adenovirus encoding BMP-2 (AdBMP2) was immobilized to gelatin sponges before implanting into critical-sized bone defects in rat calvaria. Compared to gelatin sponges with AdBMP2 loaded in a freely suspended form, the VBABM method enhanced gene transfer and bone regeneration was significantly improved. These results suggest that biotin-avidin immobilization of viral vectors to biomaterial scaffolds may be an effective strategy to facilitate tissue regeneration.

  20. Skeletal Blood Flow in Bone Repair and Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan E.Tomlinson; Matthew J.Silva

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue, although this aspect of bone is often overlooked. In this article, the importance of blood flow in bone repair and regeneration will be reviewed. First, the skeletal vascular anato-my, with an emphasis on long bones, the distinct mechanisms for vascularizing bone tissue, and methods for remodeling existing vasculature are discussed. Next, techniques for quantifying bone blood flow are briefly summarized. Finally, the body of experimental work that demonstrates the role of bone blood flow in fracture healing, distraction osteogenesis, osteoporosis, disuse osteopenia, and bone grafting is examined. These results illustrate that adequate bone blood flow is an important clinical consideration, particularly during bone regeneration and in at-risk patient groups.

  1. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS.

  2. Evaluation of Volumetric Changes of Augmented Maxillary Sinus With Different Bone Grafting Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, B Alper; Cansiz, Erol; Borahan, Oguz; Mangano, Carlo; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Yalcin, Serdar

    2016-03-01

    Extensive alveolar bone resorption because of pneumatized maxillary sinus is a common problem that limits dental implant placement. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) is an accepted treatment protocol that provides sufficient bone volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of graft volume reduction following MSFA using cone beam computed tomography. In this retrospective study, cone beam computed tomography scans of MSFA were measured to evaluate the volume of the grafted sinus with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), mineralized allograft (MA), or a mixture of MA and demineralized allograft as a composite. The volumetric changes in sinus augmentation between 2 weeks (T-I) and 6 months (T-II) after operation were analyzed. Thirty-nine patients were included in this study. The average percent volume reduction was 8.14 ± 3.76%, 19.38 ± 9.22%, and 24.66 ± 4.68% for DBB, MA, and composite graft, respectively. A significant graft volume reduction was found between T-I and T-II for all groups (P Biomaterials can influence the bone graft volume change before implant placement. Deproteinized bovine bone may offer greater volume stability during healing than mineralized and composite allografts.

  3. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic f

  4. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ming; WANG Wei; LI Xiu-cui; PENG Lei; LIN Zhong-qin; X(ü) Hua-zi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model.Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citraterhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2) group and rhBMP-2 only group.Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respectively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits.Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg)combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg) or rhBMP-2 alone were implanted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab.Bone granules were obtained at 2,4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis.LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis.Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones,and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group.The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks,and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all).At 2 weeks,mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group.Conclusion: From this study,it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly enhances bone regeneration in bone defects.This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions.

  5. Strategies to stimulate mobilization and homing of endogenous stem and progenitor cells for bone tissue repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta eHerrmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the treatment of critical sized bone defects is autologous or allogenic bone graft. This has several limitations including donor site morbidity and the restricted supply of graft material. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies represent an alternative approach. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been considered as a source of osteoprogenitor cells. More recently, focus has been placed on the use of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, since vascularization is a critical step in bone healing. Although many of these approaches have demonstrated effectiveness for bone regeneration, cell-based therapies require time consuming and cost expensive in vitro cell expansion procedures. Accordingly, research is becoming increasingly focused on the homing and stimulation of native cells. The stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 – CXCR4 axis has been shown to be critical for the recruitment of MSCs and EPCs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key factor in angiogenesis and has been targeted in many studies. Here, we present an overview of the different approaches for delivering homing factors to the defect site by absorption or incorporation to biomaterials, gene therapy or via genetically manipulated cells. We further review strategies focusing on the stimulation of endogenous cells to support bone repair. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the treatment of critical size bone defects and fracture non-unions.

  6. A new Fe–Mn–Si alloplastic biomaterial as bone grafting material: In vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fântânariu, Mircea, E-mail: mfantanariu@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 8, 700489, Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 3, 700490, Iasi (Romania); Solcan, Carmen, E-mail: csolcan@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 8, 700489, Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 3, 700490, Iasi (Romania); Strungaru, Ştefan, E-mail: strungaru_stefan@yahoo.com [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Biology, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Şindilar, Eusebiu Viorel, E-mail: esindilar@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 8, 700489, Iasi (Romania); Plăvan, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.plavan@uaic.ro [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Biology, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Fe–Mn–Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft material for bone implants. • Fe–Mn–Si alloy degradation rate was preliminary evaluate with SEM and EDAX techniques. • Biochemical, histological, RX and CT investigations were done in rats with subcutaneous and tibiae implants. • Fe–Mn–Si alloy assured an ideal compromise between degradation and mechanical integrity during bone regeneration. - Abstract: Designing substrates having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key's development of bio-materials for medical application. In orthopedics, graft material may be used to fill bony defects or to promote bone formation in osseous defects created by trauma or surgical intervention. Incorporation of Si may increase the bioactivity of implant locally, both by enhancing interactions at the graft–host interface and by having a potential endocrine like effect on osteoblasts. A Fe–Mn–Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft materials for bone implants that need long recovery time period. The surface morphology of the resulted specimens was investigated using scanning electrons microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffractions (X’Pert equipment) or X-ray dispersive energy analyze (Bruker EDS equipment). This study objective was to evaluate in vivo the mechanisms of degradation and the effects of its implantation over the main metabolic organs. Biochemical, histological, plain X radiography and computed tomography investigations showed good compatibility of the subcutaneous implants in the rat organism. The implantation of the Fe–Mn–Si alloy, in critical size bone (tibiae) defect rat model, did not induced adverse biological reactions and provided temporary mechanical support to the affected bone area. The biodegradation products were hydroxides layers which adhered to the substrate surface. Fe–Mn–Si alloy assured the mechanical integrity in rat tibiae defects

  7. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  8. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  9. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALASANS-MAIA, Mônica Diuana; de MELO, Bruno Raposo; ALVES, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; RESENDE, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito; LOURO, Rafael Seabra; SARTORETTO, Suelen Cristina; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; ALVES, Gutemberg Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA) microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group) (n=5/period/group). After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption. PMID:26814461

  10. Silk-Hydroxyapatite Nanoscale Scaffolds with Programmable Growth Factor Delivery for Bone Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaozhao; Fan, Zhihai; Huang, Xiaowei; Lu, Qiang; Xu, Weian; Kaplan, David L

    2016-09-21

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are attractive for repairing a variety of bone defects, and biomimetic strategies are useful toward developing bone scaffolds with such capacity. Here, a multiple biomimetic design was developed to improve the osteogenesis capacity of composite scaffolds consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) and silk fibroin (SF). SF nanofibers and water-dispersible HA nanoparticles were blended to prepare the nanoscaled composite scaffolds with a uniform distribution of HA with a high HA content (40%), imitating the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was loaded in the SF scaffolds and HA to tune BMP-2 release. In vitro studies showed the preservation of BMP-2 bioactivity in the composite scaffolds, and programmable sustained release was achieved through adjusting the ratio of BMP-2 loaded on SF and HA. In vitro and in vivo osteogenesis studies demonstrated that the composite scaffolds showed improved osteogenesis capacity under suitable BMP-2 release conditions, significantly better than that of BMP-2 loaded SF-HA composite scaffolds reported previously. Therefore, these biomimetic SF-HA nanoscaled scaffolds with tunable BMP-2 delivery provide preferable microenvironments for bone regeneration.

  11. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...

  12. Design and development of mesoporous glass-based biomaterials for bone tissue engineering and drug release systems

    OpenAIRE

    Philippart, Anahí

    2016-01-01

    In order to overcome clinical challenges for bone tissue regeneration, current tissue engineering research focuses on developing highly performant biomaterials in terms of multifunctionality, i.e. materials that are capable of stimulating bone regeneration and exhibit drug delivery capabilities as well as sufficient mechanical stability. In the framework of this research topic, the work here presented focuses on the development of multifunctional mesoporous bioactive glasses (mBGs) and on the...

  13. Advanced biomaterials for repairing the nervous system: what can hydrogels do for the brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zin Z. Khaing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly developed hydrogels are likely to play significant roles in future therapeutic strategies for the nervous system. In this review, unique features of the central nervous system (i.e., the brain and spinal cord that are important to consider in developing engineered biomaterials for therapeutic applications are discussed. This review focuses on recent findings in hydrogels as biomaterials for use as (1 drug delivery devices, specifically focusing on how the material can change the delivery rate of small molecules, (2 scaffolds that can modify the post-injury environment, including preformed and injectable scaffolds, (3 cell delivery vehicles, discussing cellular response to natural and synthetic polymers as well as structured and amorphous materials, and (4 scaffolds for tissue regeneration, describing micro- and macro-architectural constructs that have been designed for neural applications. In addition, key features in each category that are likely to contribute to the translational success of these biomaterials are highlighted.

  14. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PPY

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis" which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed.

  15. Functional assay, expression of growth factors and proteins modulating bone-arrangement in human osteoblasts seeded on an anorganic bovine bone biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Trubiani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of bone tissue engineering include chemical composition and geometry of the scaffold design, because it is very important to improve not only cell attachment and growth but especially osteodifferentiation, bone tissue formation, and vascularization. Geistlich Bio-Oss® (GBO is a xenograft consisting of deproteinized, sterilized bovine bone, chemically and physically identical to the mineral phase of human bone.In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour and the ability to form focal adhesions on the substrate, using vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein, as a marker. Moreover, the expression of bone specific proteins and growth factors such as type I collagen, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, BMP-7 and de novo synthesis of osteocalcin in normal human osteoblasts (NHOst seeded on xenogenic GBO were evaluated. Our observations suggest that after four weeks of culture in differentiation medium, the NHOst showed a high affinity for the three dimensional biomaterial; in fact, cellular proliferation, migration and colonization were clearly evident. The osteogenic differentiation process, as demonstrated by morphological, histochemical, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and biochemical analysis was mostly obvious in the NHOst grown on three-dimensional inorganic bovine bone biomaterial. Functional studies displayed a clear and significant response to calcitonin when the cells were differentiated. In addition, the presence of the biomaterial improved the response, suggesting that it could drive the differentiation of these cells towards a more differentiated osteogenic phenotype. These results encourage us to consider GBO an adequate biocompatible three-dimensional biomaterial, indicating its potential use for the development of tissue-engineering techniques.

  16. Surface-modified functionalized polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal; Svend Le, Dang Quang;

    2014-01-01

    A porcine calvaria defect study was carried out to investigate the bone repair potential of three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with nanoporous PCL. A microscopic grid network was created by rapid prototyping making a 3D-fused deposition model (FDM...

  17. Pullulan/dextran/nHA macroporous composite beads for bone repair in a femoral condyle defect in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Schlaubitz

    Full Text Available The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300-500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site.

  18. Effect of collagen sponge and fibrin glue on bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ability of hemostatic agents to promote bone repair has been investigated using in vitro and in vivo models but, up to now, the results are inconclusive. Objective In this context, the aim of this study was to compare the potential of bone repair of collagen sponge with fibrin glue in a rat calvarial defect model. Material and Methods Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in rat calvariae and treated with either collagen sponge or fibrin glue; untreated defects were used as control. At 4 and 8 weeks, histological analysis and micro-CT-based histomorphometry were carried out and data were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test when appropriated (p≤0.05. Results Three-dimensional reconstructions showed increased bone formation in defects treated with either collagen sponge or fibrin glue compared with untreated defects, which was confirmed by the histological analysis. Morphometric parameters indicated the progression of bone formation from 4 to 8 weeks. Additionally, fibrin glue displayed slightly higher bone formation rate when compared with collagen sponge. Conclusion Our results have shown the benefits of using collagen sponge and fibrin glue to promote new bone formation in rat calvarial bone defects, the latter being discreetly more advantageous.

  19. Living with cracks: Damage and repair in human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Hazenberg, Jan G.; Lee, T. Clive

    2007-04-01

    Our bones are full of cracks, which form and grow as a result of daily loading activities. Bone is the major structural material in our bodies. Although weaker than many engineering materials, it has one trick that keeps it ahead - it can repair itself. Small cracks, which grow under cyclic stresses by the mechanism of fatigue, can be detected and removed before they become long enough to be dangerous. This article reviews the work that has been done to understand how cracks form and grow in bone, and how they can be detected and repaired in a timely manner. This is truly an interdisciplinary research field, requiring the close cooperation of materials scientists, biologists and engineers.

  20. Repair of microdamage in osteonal cortical bone adjacent to bone screw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Up to date, little is known about the repair mode of microdamage in osteonal cortical bone resulting from bone screw implantation. In this study, self-tapping titanium cortical bone screws were inserted into the tibial diaphyses of 24 adult male rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at 1 day, 2 weeks, 1 month and 2 months after surgery. Histomorphometric measurement and confocal microscopy were performed on basic fuchsin stained bone sections to examine the morphological characteristics of microdamage, bone resorption activity and spatial relationship between microdamage and bone resorption. Diffuse and linear cracks were coexisted in peri-screw bone. Intracortical bone resorption was significantly increased 2 weeks after screw installation and reach to the maximum at 1 month. There was no significant difference in bone resorption between 1-month and 2-months groups. Microdamage was significantly decreased within 1 month after surgery. Bone resorption was predisposed to occur in the region of <100 µm from the bone-screw interface, where had extensive diffuse damage mixed with linear cracks. Different patterns of resorption cavities appeared in peri-screw bone. These data suggest that 1 the complex microdamage composed of diffuse damage and linear cracks is a strong stimulator for initiating targeted bone remodeling; 2 bone resorption activities taking place on the surfaces of differently oriented Haversian and Volkmann canals work in a team for the repair of extensive microdamage; 3 targeted bone remodeling is a short-term reaction to microdamage and thereby it may not be able to remove all microdamage resulting from bone screw insertion.

  1. Repair of radius defect with bone-morphogenetic-protein loaded hydroxyapatite/collagen-poly(L-lactic acid) composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕴玉; 张超; 吕荣; 徐建强; 李丹

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method to repair bone defect with bone-morphogenetic-protein loaded hydroxyapatite/collagen-poly(L-lactic acid) composite. Methods: 18 adult beagle dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups. In Group A, bone-morphogenetic-protein (BMP) loaded hydroxyapatite/collagen-poly(L-lactic acid) (HAC-PLA) scaffold was implanted in a 2 cm diaphyseal defect in the radius. In Group B, unloaded pure HAC-PLA scaffold was implanted in the defects. No material was implanted in Group C (control group). The dogs were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively. Features of biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoinduction were evaluated with histological, radiological examinations and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements.Results: In Group A, the radius defect healed after the treatment with BMP loaded HAC-PLA. BMD at the site of the defect was higher than that of the contralateral radius. Fibrous union developed in the animals of the control group. Conclusions: BMP not only promotes osteogenesis but also accelerates degradation of the biomaterials. Optimized design parameters of a three-dimensional porous biomaterial would give full scope to the role of BMP as an osteoinductive growth factor.

  2. Comparative experiment of four different materials as carriers of Bone morphogenetic protein to repair long bone defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Kuan-hai; PEI Guo-xian; YANG Run-gong

    2001-01-01

    @@ OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of four different materials as carriers of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to repair long bone defect. METHODS 12 mm radius bone defects were made. They were divided into 4 groups in random and repaired respectively with the vascular muscle flap combined with FS/BMP (group A), vascular muscle flap/BMP (group B), bloodless muscle flap/BMP (group C) and autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone (AAA)/BMP (group D).Their abilities of bone forming to repair bone defects were observed.

  3. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades

    Full Text Available Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts.Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD technique, which is the gold standard method.All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR value of 80.3 ± 2.8%, with a blurring index (BI of 50.6 ± 4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6| with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005. The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring.This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair.

  4. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  5. How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Marchal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i skin; (ii cartilage; (iii bone; (iv nerve; and (v cardiac.

  6. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Organ Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are prototypical adult stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with a broad tissue distribution. MSCs not only differentiate into types of cells of mesodermal lineage but also into endodermal and ectodermal lineages such as bone, fat, cartilage and cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, neurons, and pancreatic islets. MSCs have been identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population and can be isolated from different adult tissues, including bone marrow (BM, umbilical cord, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. MSCs secrete factors, including IL-6, M-CSF, IL-10, HGF, and PGE2, that promote tissue repair, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of endogenous tissue progenitors, and decrease inflammatory and immune reactions. In this paper, we focus on the role of BM-derived MSCs in organ repair.

  7. Winner of the Young Investigator Award of the Society for Biomaterials at the 10th World Biomaterials Congress, May 17-22, 2016, Montreal QC, Canada: Microribbon-based hydrogels accelerate stem cell-based bone regeneration in a mouse critical-size cranial defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Hsin; Conrad, Bogdan; Chung, Michael T; Deveza, Lorenzo; Jiang, Xinyi; Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick; Yang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell-based therapies hold great promise for enhancing tissue regeneration. However, the majority of cells die shortly after transplantation, which greatly diminishes the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. Poor cell engraftment and survival remain a major bottleneck to fully exploiting the power of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Biomaterials such as hydrogels can serve as artificial matrices to protect cells during delivery and guide desirable cell fates. However, conventional hydrogels often lack macroporosity, which restricts cell proliferation and delays matrix deposition. Here we report the use of injectable, macroporous microribbon (μRB) hydrogels as stem cell carriers for bone repair, which supports direct cell encapsulation into a macroporous scaffold with rapid spreading. When transplanted in a critical-sized, mouse cranial defect model, μRB-based hydrogels significantly enhanced the survival of transplanted adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) (81%) and enabled up to three-fold cell proliferation after 7 days. In contrast, conventional hydrogels only led to 27% cell survival, which continued to decrease over time. MicroCT imaging showed μRBs enhanced and accelerated mineralized bone repair compared to hydrogels (61% vs. 34% by week 6), and stem cells were required for bone repair to occur. These results suggest that paracrine signaling of transplanted stem cells are responsible for the observed bone repair, and enhancing cell survival and proliferation using μRBs further promoted the paracrine-signaling effects of ADSCs for stimulating endogenous bone repair. We envision μRB-based scaffolds can be broadly useful as a novel scaffold for enhancing stem cell survival and regeneration of other tissue types. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1321-1331, 2016.

  8. Polymeric scaffolds as stem cell carriers in bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Santoro, Marco; Perale, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Although bone has a high potential to regenerate itself after damage and injury, the efficacious repair of large bone defects resulting from resection, trauma or non-union fractures still requires the implantation of bone grafts. Materials science, in conjunction with biotechnology, can satisfy these needs by developing artificial bones, synthetic substitutes and organ implants. In particular, recent advances in polymer science have provided several innovations, underlying the increasing importance of macromolecules in this field. To address the increasing need for improved bone substitutes, tissue engineering seeks to create synthetic, three-dimensional scaffolds made from polymeric materials, incorporating stem cells and growth factors, to induce new bone tissue formation. Polymeric materials have shown a great affinity for cell transplantation and differentiation and, moreover, their structure can be tuned in order to maintain an adequate mechanical resistance and contemporarily be fully bioresorbable. This review emphasizes recent progress in polymer science that allows relaible polymeric scaffolds to be synthesized for stem cell growth in bone regeneration.

  9. A novel porous gelatin composite containing naringin for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Yu; Lin, Kuen-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    As Gu-Sui-Bu (GSB) is a commonly used Chinese medical herb for therapeutic treatment of bone-related diseases, naringin is its main active component. This study elucidates how various concentrations of naringin solution affect the activities of bone cells, based on colorimetric, alkaline phosphatase activity, nodule formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays to determine the optimal concentration of naringin. GGT composite was obtained by combining genipin cross-linked gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate. GGTN composite was prepared by mixing GGT composite with the predetermined concentration of naringin. Porous GGT and GGTN composites were then made using a salt-leaching procedure. The potential of the composites in repairing bone defects was evaluated and compared in vivo by using the biological response of rabbit calvarial bone to these composites. Consequently, the most effective concentration of naringin was 10 mg/mL, which significantly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts, osteoclast activity, and nodule formation without affecting the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts and mitochondrial activity of mixed-bone cells. Radiographic analysis revealed greater new bone ingrowth in the GGTN composite than in the GGT composite at the same implantation time. Therefore, the GGTN composite is highly promising for use as a bone graft material.

  10. Evaluation of cartilage repair tissue after biomaterial implantation in rat patella by using T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrin-Pinzano, A; Ruaud, J-P; Cheli, Y; Gonord, P; Grossin, L; Bettembourg-Brault, I; Gillet, P; Payan, E; Guillot, G; Netter, P; Loeuille, D

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the ability of MR T2 mapping (8.5 T) to characterize ex vivo longitudinally, morphologically and quantitatively, alginate-based tissue engineering in a rat model of patellar cartilage chondral focal defect. Calibrated rat patellar cartilage defects (1.3 mm) were created at day 0 (D0) and alginate sponge with (Sp/C+) or without (Sp/C-) autologous chondrocytes were implanted. Animals were sacrificed sequentially at D20, D40 and D60 after surgery and dissected patellae underwent MRI exploration (8.5 T). T2 values were calculated from eight SE images by using nonlinear least-squares curve fitting on a pixel-by-pixel basis (constant repetition time of 1.5 s, eight different echo times: 5.5, 7.5, 10.5, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 ms). On the T2 map, acquired in a transversal plane through the repair zone, global T2 values and zonal variation of T2 values of repair tissue were evaluated versus control group and compared with macroscopic score and histological studies (toluidine blue, sirius red and hematoxylin-eosin). "Partial", "total" and "hypertrophic" repair patterns were identified. At D40 and D60, Sp/C+ group was characterized by a higher proportion of "total" repair in comparison to Sp/C- group. At D60, the proportion of "hypertrophic" repair was two fold in Sp/C- group versus Sp/C+ group. As confirmed morphologically and histologically, the T2 map also permitted the distinction of three types of repair tissue: "total", "partial" and "hypertrophic". "Total" repair tissue was characterized by high T2 values versus normal cartilage (p<0.05). Zonal variation, reflecting the collagen network organization, appeared only at D60 for Sp/C+ group (p<0.05). "Hypertrophic" tissue, mainly observed at D60, presented high T2 global values without zonal variation with cartilage depth. These results confirm the potency of the MR T2 map (8.5 T) to characterize macroscopically and microscopically the patterns of the scaffold guided-tissue repair of a focal chondral

  11. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Bai; Jiamu Dai; Guang Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM). Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  12. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Bai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM. Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  13. Synthetic scaffold coating with adeno-associated virus encoding BMP2 to promote endogenous bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Kenneth M; Boerckel, Joel D; Stevens, Hazel Y; Diab, Tamim; Kolambkar, Yash M; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds functionalized to stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms via the incorporation of osteogenic cues offer a potential alternative to bone grafting for the treatment of large bone defects. We first quantified the ability of a self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (scAAV2.5-BMP2) to enhance human stem cell osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In two-dimensional culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) displayed significant increases in BMP2 production and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls. hMSCs and human amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS cells) seeded on scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated three-dimensional porous polymer Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds also displayed significant increases in BMP2 production compared with controls during 12 weeks of culture, although only hMSC-seeded scaffolds displayed significantly increased mineral formation. PCL scaffolds coated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 were implanted into critically sized immunocompromised rat femoral defects, both with or without pre-seeding of hMSCs, representing ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy treatments, respectively. After 12 weeks, defects treated with acellular scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds displayed increased bony bridging and had significantly higher bone ingrowth and mechanical properties compared with controls, whereas defects treated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 scaffolds pre-seeded with hMSCs failed to display significant differences relative to controls. When pooled, defect treatment with scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds, both with or without inclusion of pre-seeded hMSCs, led to significant increases in defect mineral formation at all time points and increased mechanical properties compared with controls. This study thus presents a novel acellular bone-graft-free endogenous repair therapy for orthotopic tissue-engineered bone regeneration.

  14. Repair of dense connective tissues via biomaterial-mediated matrix reprogramming of the wound interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Feini; Pintauro, Michael P; Haughan, Joanne E; Henning, Elizabeth A; Esterhai, John L; Schaer, Thomas P; Mauck, Robert L; Fisher, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Repair of dense connective tissues in adults is limited by their intrinsic hypocellularity and is exacerbated by a dense extracellular matrix (ECM) that impedes cellular migration to and local proliferation at the wound site. Conversely, healing in fetal tissues occurs due in part to an environment conducive to cell mobility and division. Here, we investigated whether the application of a degradative enzyme, collagenase, could reprogram the adult wound margin to a more fetal-like state, and thus abrogate the biophysical impediments that hinder migration and proliferation. We tested this concept using the knee meniscus, a commonly injured structure for which few regenerative approaches exist. To focus delivery and degradation to the wound interface, we developed a system in which collagenase was stored inside poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) electrospun nanofibers and released upon hydration. Through a series of in vitro and in vivo studies, our findings show that partial digestion of the wound interface improves repair by creating a more compliant and porous microenvironment that expedites cell migration to and/or proliferation at the wound margin. This innovative approach of targeted manipulation of the wound interface, focused on removing the naturally occurring barriers to adult tissue repair, may find widespread application in the treatment of injuries to a variety of dense connective tissues.

  15. Effects of LED Phototherapy on Bone Defects Grafted with MTA in a Rodent Model: A Description of the Bone Repair by Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Santos, Nicole Ribeiro Silva; Correia, Neandder A.; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    We carried out a histological analysis on bone defects grafted (MTA) treated or not with LED, BMPs and GBR. Benefits of the isolated or combined use these techniques on bone repair have been suggested, but there is no report on their association with LED light. 36 rats were divided into 4 groups each subdivided into 3. Defects on G II and I were filled with the blood clot. G II was further irradiated with LED. G III-IV were filled with MTA+Collagen gel; G IV was further irradiated. LED was applied over the defect at 48 h intervals and repeated for 15 days. Specimens were processed, cut and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. The results showed that MTA, due to its characteristics seemed not being directly affected by the LED light. But, the use of LED positively affect bone repair similarly to what was observed on different studies by our team using other biomaterials and laser. It is concluded that MTA seems not be directed affected by the LED light due to it characteristics. However, the beneficial results reported with its usage might be improved by the use of LED PT.

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments.

  17. The Effect of Bioceramic Composite Extracellular Matrixes Used to Repair Bone Deficiency on Relevant Blood Biochemical Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    At the base of experimental animal model construction of bone defect in New Zealand rabbit, the promoting repair effect of bioactive ceramics on bone defect as well as its machanism was studied through testing body mineral elements, enzymes related to bone morphogenetic proteins and some biochemical indexes. Refering to some documents, materials of TCP, CHA and HA were combined and TCP/BMP/ TCP-β1 and CHA/BMP/ TCP-β1, HA/BMP/ TCP-β1 composite materials were made. All kinds of them were implanted into the radial defect site of rabbit, respectively. The chosen blood indexes (Ca, P, ALP, GGT, AST, ALT, TPA, BUN and Cr) were tested by colorimetry, speed rate and bromocresol green testing methods. No abnormal effects were found in any animal after operation. Serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP were increased with the length of time in all groups of the three kinds of composite material, mixed material and pure materials. The increases in composite material groups were more significant ( P <0.05). Comparison of the three kinds of material showed TCP > CHA > HA. There was a tendency of increased TPA and decreased BUN with the length of time. There was no significant difference between the composite material groups and pure material group (P >0.05). The three kinds of bioactive ceramics composed of extracellular matrix could increase the serum concentrations of Ca and P and activity of ALP after being implanted into defect bone and showed some repairing capacity. This provided a new area of machanism study of bone defect repair by biomaterials.

  18. Repair of bone defects using adipose-derived stem cells combined with alpha-tricalcium phosphate and gelatin sponge scaffolds in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORSETTI, Adriana; BAHUSCHEWSKYJ, Claudia; PONZONI, Deise; LANGIE, Renan; dos SANTOS, Luis Alberto; CAMASSOLA, Melissa; NARDI, Nance Beyer; PURICELLI, Edela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) combined with a modified α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) or gelatin sponge (GS) scaffolds for bone healing in a rat model. Material and Methods Bone defects were surgically created in the femur of adult SHR rats and filled with the scaffolds, empty or combined with ASCs. The results were analyzed by histology and histomorphometry on days seven, 14, 30, and 60. Results Significantly increased bone repair was observed on days seven and 60 in animals treated with α-TCP/ASCs, and on day 14 in the group treated with GS/ASCs, when compared with the groups treated with the biomaterials alone. Intense fibroplasia was observed in the group treated with GS alone, on days 14 and 30. Conclusions Our results showed that the use of ASCs combined with α-TCP or GS scaffolds resulted in increased bone repair. The higher efficacy of the α-TCP scaffold suggests osteoconductive property that results in a biological support to the cells, whereas the GS scaffold functions just as a carrier. These results confirm the potential of ASCs in accelerating bone repair in in vivo experimental rat models. These results suggest a new alternative for treating bone defects. PMID:28198971

  19. 钾盐型磷酸镁水泥作为新一代骨骼系统修复材料的研究与应用进展%Advance in study and application of magnesium potassium phosphate cement as a new generation of biomaterials for skeleton system repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩大庆; 王海; 蒋丽琴

    2013-01-01

    钾盐型磷酸镁水泥(MKPC)于2009年作为骨修复材料获得美国FDA的认证,目前已在美国临床使用.这种生物材料具有强大的黏合性,能把骨、韧带和肌腱黏附到骨;同时还具有良好的生物相容性、适度的生物降解性和成骨活性,是目前惟一既具有黏合性又具有成骨活性的骨修复材料.此新型材料进入临床必将给骨外科及其相关学科的治疗带来前所未有的改变.概述了MKPC的发展、组成与制备特点、反应机制、应用研究以及具有的优势.%A kind of magnesium potassium phosphate cement developed for bone repair was cleared by FDA in 2009 and has been presently in clinical use in America.The biomaterial has the powerful adhesive capability to bind bone,ligament,and tendon to bone,as well as possessing good biocompatiblity,appropriate biodegradability and osteogenicity; to data,it is the only material which possesses the combination of adhesivity and osteogenicity among bone repair biomaterials.The clinical application of the innovative biomaterial will unprecedentedly alter the treatment in orthopedic surgery and related disciplines.To provide a comprehensive appreciation of the innovative biomaterial,this article summaries its development,characteristics of composition and preparation,formation mechanism,application study and superiority.

  20. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  1. 3D artificial bones for bone repair prepared by computed tomography-guided fused deposition modeling for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Ye, Xiaojian; Wei, Daixu; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Yuyun; Xu, Guohua; He, Dannong

    2014-09-10

    The medical community has expressed significant interest in the development of new types of artificial bones that mimic natural bones. In this study, computed tomography (CT)-guided fused deposition modeling (FDM) was employed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL 3D artificial bones to mimic natural goat femurs. The in vitro mechanical properties, in vitro cell biocompatibility, and in vivo performance of the artificial bones in a long load-bearing goat femur bone segmental defect model were studied. All of the results indicate that CT-guided FDM is a simple, convenient, relatively low-cost method that is suitable for fabricating natural bonelike artificial bones. Moreover, PCL/HA 3D artificial bones prepared by CT-guided FDM have more close mechanics to natural bone, good in vitro cell biocompatibility, biodegradation ability, and appropriate in vivo new bone formation ability. Therefore, PCL/HA 3D artificial bones could be potentially be of use in the treatment of patients with clinical bone defects.

  2. Bone development and its relation to fracture repair. The role of mesenchymal osteoblasts and surface osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Shapiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone development occurs by two mechanisms: intramembranous bone formation and endochondral bone formation. Bone tissue forms by eventual differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into either mesenchymal osteoblasts (MOBL, which synthesize woven bone in random orientation, or surface osteoblasts (SOBL, which synthesize bone on surfaces in a well oriented lamellar array. Bone repair uses the same formation patterns as bone development but the specific mechanism of repair is determined by the biomechanical environment provided. Bone synthesis and maintenance are highly dependent on the blood supply of bone and on cell-cell communication via the lacunar-canalicular system. Recent investigations highlight the molecular cascades leading to cell differentiation, the components of the structural proteins such as the various collagens, and tissue vascularization. The patterning of bone matrix from an initial woven to an eventual lamellar orientation is essential for bone to develop its maximum strength. This review demonstrates the repetitive nature of woven to lamellar bone formation as mediated by MOBLs and SOBLs in both normal vertebrate bones and bone repair. Repair, using endochondral, primary, direct and distraction osteogenesis mechanisms, is reviewed along with the associated molecular, vascular, and biophysical features.

  3. Bone Injury and Repair Trigger Central and Peripheral NPY Neuronal Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencastre, Inês S.; Neto, Estrela; Ribas, João; Ferreira, Sofia; Vasconcelos, Daniel M.; Sousa, Daniela M.; Summavielle, Teresa; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Bone repair is a specialized type of wound repair controlled by complex multi-factorial events. The nervous system is recognized as one of the key regulators of bone mass, thereby suggesting a role for neuronal pathways in bone homeostasis. However, in the context of bone injury and repair, little is known on the interplay between the nervous system and bone. Here, we addressed the neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuronal arm during the initial stages of bone repair encompassing the inflammatory response and ossification phases in femoral-defect mouse model. Spatial and temporal analysis of transcriptional and protein levels of NPY and its receptors, Y1R and Y2R, reported to be involved in bone homeostasis, was performed in bone, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and hypothalamus after femoral injury. The results showed that NPY system activity is increased in a time- and space-dependent manner during bone repair. Y1R expression was trigged in both bone and DRG throughout the inflammatory phase, while a Y2R response was restricted to the hypothalamus and at a later stage, during the ossification step. Our results provide new insights into the involvement of NPY neuronal pathways in bone repair. PMID:27802308

  4. Growth and differentiation of a long bone in limb development, repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Shiro; Miura, Shinichirou; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Endo, Tetsuya; Tamura, Koji

    2014-06-01

    Repair from traumatic bone fracture is a complex process that includes mechanisms of bone development and bone homeostasis. Thus, elucidation of the cellular/molecular basis of bone formation in skeletal development would provide valuable information on fracture repair and would lead to successful skeletal regeneration after limb amputation, which never occurs in mammals. Elucidation of the basis of epimorphic limb regeneration in amphibians would also provide insights into skeletal regeneration in mammals, since the epimorphic regeneration enables an amputated limb to re-develop the three-dimensional structure of bones. In the processes of bone development, repair and regeneration, growth of the bone is achieved through several events including not only cell proliferation but also aggregation of mesenchymal cells, enlargement of cells, deposition and accumulation of extracellular matrix, and bone remodeling.

  5. Diaphragm Repair with a Novel Cross-Linked Collagen Biomaterial in a Growing Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Mayer

    investigated ACM is not a viable option for CDH repair.

  6. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  7. Molecular interactions in biomineralized hydroxyapatite amino acid modified nanoclay: In silico design of bone biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katti, Dinesh R., E-mail: Dinesh.Katti@ndsu.edu; Sharma, Anurag; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-01-01

    A simulations driven approach to design of a novel biomaterial nanocomposite system is described in this study. Nanoclays modified with amino acids (OMMT) were used to mineralize hydroxyapatite (HAP), mimicking biomineralization. Representative models of organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and OMMT-hydroxyapatite (OMMT-HAP) were constructed using molecular dynamics and validated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Attractive interactions exist between Ca atoms of HAP and C=O group of aminovaleric acid, indicating chelate formation in OMMT-HAP. Interaction energy maps describe molecular interactions among different constituents and their quantitative contributions in the OMMT and OMMT-HAP systems at both parallel and perpendicular orientations. High attractive and high repulsive interactions were found between PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and MMT clay as well as aminovaleric molecules in OMMT-HAP perpendicular and parallel models. Large non-bonded interactions in OMMT-HAP indicate influence of neighboring environment on PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in in situ HAPclay. Extensive hydrogen bonds were observed between functional hydrogen atoms of modifier and MMT clay in OMMT-HAP as compared to OMMT. Thus, HAP interacts with clay through the aminovaleric acid. This computational study provides a framework for materials design and selection for biomaterials used in tissue engineering and other areas of regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Representative models of a hybrid nanoclay-hydroxyapatite biomaterial are built. • Interaction energy maps are constructed using a molecular dynamics. • Quantitative interactions between the three components of the biomaterial are found. • The modeling and experimental approach provides insight into the complex nanomaterial.

  8. CXCR2 modulates bone marrow vascular repair and haematopoietic recovery post-transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah J M; Hale, Ashley B H; Zhang, Youyi; Sweeney, Dominic; Fisher, Nita; van der Garde, Mark; Grabowska, Rita; Pepperell, Emma; Channon, Keith; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Watt, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Murine models of bone marrow transplantation show that pre-conditioning regimens affect the integrity of the bone marrow endothelium and that the repair of this vascular niche is an essential pre-requisite for successful haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell engraftment. Little is known about the angiogenic pathways that play a role in the repair of the human bone marrow vascular niche. We therefore established an in vitro humanized model, composed of bone marrow stromal and endothelial cells and have identified several pro-angiogenic factors, VEGFA, ANGPT1, CXCL8 and CXCL16, produced by the stromal component of this niche. We demonstrate for the first time that addition of CXCL8 or inhibition of its receptor, CXCR2, modulates blood vessel formation in our bone marrow endothelial niche model. Compared to wild type, Cxcr2(-/-) mice displayed a reduction in bone marrow cellularity and delayed platelet and leucocyte recovery following myeloablation and bone marrow transplantation. The delay in bone marrow recovery correlated with impaired bone marrow vascular repair. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CXCR2 regulates bone marrow blood vessel repair/regeneration and haematopoietic recovery, and clinically may be a therapeutic target for improving bone marrow transplantation.

  9. How biomaterials can influence various cell types in the repair and regeneration of the heart after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Lister

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The healthy heart is comprised of many different cell types that work together to preserve optimal function. However, in a diseased heart the function of one or more cell types is compromised which can lead to many adverse events, one of which is myocardial infarction (MI. Immediately after MI, the cardiac environment is characterized by excessive cardiomyocyte death and inflammatory signals leading to the recruitment of macrophages to clear the debris. Proliferating fibroblasts then invade, and a collagenous scar is formed to prevent rupture. Better functional restoration of the heart is not achieved due to the limited regenerative capacity of cardiac tissue. To address this, biomaterial therapy is being investigated as an approach to improve regeneration in the infarcted heart, as they can possess the potential to control cell function in the infarct environment and limit the adverse compensatory changes that occur post-MI. Over the past decade, there has been considerable research into the development of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration post-MI; and various effects have been observed on different cell types depending on the biomaterial that is applied. Biomaterial treatment has been shown to enhance survival, improve function, promote proliferation, and guide the mobilization and recruitment of different cells in the post-MI heart. This review will provide a summary on the biomaterials developed to enhance cardiac regeneration and remodelling post-MI with a focus on how they control macrophages, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. A better understanding of how a biomaterial interacts with the different cell types in the heart may lead to the development of a more optimized biomaterial therapy for cardiac regeneration.

  10. How Biomaterials Can Influence Various Cell Types in the Repair and Regeneration of the Heart after Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Zachary; Rayner, Katey J; Suuronen, Erik J

    2016-01-01

    The healthy heart comprises many different cell types that work together to preserve optimal function. However, in a diseased heart the function of one or more cell types is compromised which can lead to many adverse events, one of which is myocardial infarction (MI). Immediately after MI, the cardiac environment is characterized by excessive cardiomyocyte death and inflammatory signals leading to the recruitment of macrophages to clear the debris. Proliferating fibroblasts then invade, and a collagenous scar is formed to prevent rupture. Better functional restoration of the heart is not achieved due to the limited regenerative capacity of cardiac tissue. To address this, biomaterial therapy is being investigated as an approach to improve regeneration in the infarcted heart, as they can possess the potential to control cell function in the infarct environment and limit the adverse compensatory changes that occur post-MI. Over the past decade, there has been considerable research into the development of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration post-MI; and various effects have been observed on different cell types depending on the biomaterial that is applied. Biomaterial treatment has been shown to enhance survival, improve function, promote proliferation, and guide the mobilization and recruitment of different cells in the post-MI heart. This review will provide a summary on the biomaterials developed to enhance cardiac regeneration and remodeling post-MI with a focus on how they control macrophages, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. A better understanding of how a biomaterial interacts with the different cell types in the heart may lead to the development of a more optimized biomaterial therapy for cardiac regeneration.

  11. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  12. Non-Metallic Biomaterials for Tooth Repair and Replacement. By Pekka Vallittu, Woodhead Publishing, 2013; 406 pages. Price £145.00/US$245.00/€175.00 ISBN 978-0-85709-244-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Discusses the properties of enamel and dentin and their role in adhesive dental restoration;2. Chapters also examine the wear properties of dental ceramics, glasses and bioactive glass ceramics for tooth repair and replacement;3. Dental composites and antibacterial restorative materials are also considered;4. Provides a concise overview of non-metallic biomaterials for dental clinicians, materials scientists and academic researchers alike.As the demand for healthy, attractive teeth increases, the methods and materials employed in restorative dentistry have become progressively more advanced. Non-metallic biomaterials for tooth repair and replacement focuses on the use of biomaterials for a range of applications in tooth repair and, in particular, dental restoration.

  13. Extrusion of bone anchor suture following flexor digitorum profundus tendon avulsion injury repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2011-09-01

    Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) zone I tendon avulsion injury is traditionally repaired with a pullout suture technique. More recently, bone anchor sutures have been used as a viable alternative and have largely replaced areas in hand surgery where pullout suture technique was once required. To date, there have been very few complications reported related to bone anchor suture use in FDP tendon reattachment to the bone. We report a very unusual case of extrusion of bone anchor through the nailbed, 6 years after zone I FDP tendon avulsion injury repair and a brief review of literature.

  14. Enhanced Bone Repair by Guided Osteoblast Recruitment Using Topographically Defined Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Kee; Kim, Hong Nam; Bhang, Suk Ho; Shin, Jung-Youn; Han, Jin; La, Wan-Geun; Jeong, Gun-Jae; Kang, Seokyung; Lee, Ju-Ro; Oh, Jaesur; Kim, Min Sung; Jeon, Noo Li; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2016-04-01

    The rapid recruitment of osteoblasts in bone defects is an essential prerequisite for efficient bone repair. Conventionally, osteoblast recruitment to bone defects and subsequent bone repair has been achieved using growth factors. Here, we present a methodology that can guide the recruitment of osteoblasts to bone defects with topographically defined implants (TIs) for efficient in vivo bone repair. We compared circular TIs that had microgrooves in parallel or radial arrangements with nonpatterned implants for osteoblast migration and in vivo bone formation. In vitro, the microgrooves in the TIs enhanced both the migration and proliferation of osteoblasts. Especially, the microgrooves with radial arrangement demonstrated a much higher efficiency of osteoblast recruitment to the implants than did the other types of implants, which may be due to the efficient guidance of cell migration toward the cell-free area of the implants. The expression of the intracellular signaling molecules responsible for the cell migration was also upregulated in osteoblasts on the microgrooved TIs. In vivo, the TI with radially defined topography demonstrated much greater bone repair in mouse calvarial defect models than in the other types of implants. Taken together, these results indicate that implants with physical guidance can enhance tissue repair by rapid cell recruitment.

  15. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  16. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J; Hyder, Md Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration.

  17. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, G.; Habibovic, P.; Bao, C.; Hu, J.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Yuan, H.; Chen, W.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagl

  18. Creating new functional biomaterials : construction and production of Bone Morphogenetic 2-ELP hybrid proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, J. Azevedo; Machado, Raul; Reis, R.L.; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos; Casal, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a potent osteoinductive cytokine from the TGF-β superfamily that triggers the development of stem cells into osteoblasts. Its therapeutic interest has led to the development of various production systems for recombinant variables of BMP-2. Production has been achieved in expression systems ranging from animal cells to bacteria, but is always associated with three major drawbacks: low production rates (in animal cells), low activity (bacterial cells) and...

  19. Effect of gamma rays on the bone repair process in rats with estrogen deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicarelli, Mariliani; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos, Flavia Maria de Moraes [Universidade Estadual de de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Radiologia Oral]. E-mail: laviamaria@fop.unicamp.br

    2007-01-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the bone repair process in ovariectomized rats submitted to an irradiation procedure. For this purpose, one hundred rats were randomly divided in four experimental groups: control, ovariectomized, irradiated and irradiated/ ovariectomized. A bone defect was made on all animals tibias. Three days after surgery, only irradiated and irradiated/ovariectomized rats received 8 Gy of gamma rays on the lower limbs region. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery in order to assess the repair process. It was possible to observe a delay in the bone repair process in the irradiated/ovariectomized group, in which there was a remarkable association between estrogen deficiency and ionizing radiation resulting in the reduction of newly formed bone production, thus accelerating the resorption process. (author)

  20. Effect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jonas D; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana S; Pagnoncelli, Rogério M

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy (RDT) is commonly used for cancer treatment, but high doses of ionizing radiation can directly affect healthy tissues. Positive biological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair have been demonstrated; however, this effect on surgical defects of bone previously compromised by radiotherapy has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of LLLT (λ = 830 nm) in femur repair after ionizing radiation. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (GC, n = 5) creation of bone defects (BDs) only; laser group (GL), with BD and LLLT (n = 5); radiotherapy group (GR), submitted to RDT and BD (n = 5); and radiotherapy and laser group (GRL), submitted to RDT, BD, and LLLT (n = 5). GL and GRL received punctual laser application (DE = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.04 cm(2)) immediately after surgery, with 48-h interval during 7 days. Animals were euthanized at 7 days after surgery, and bone sections were evaluated morphometrically with conventional microscopy. Bone repair was only observed in nonirradiated bone, with significant improvement in GL in comparison to GC. GR and GRL did not present any bone neoformation. The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation.

  1. Chapter 6: Degradation of Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, N.L.; Barrere-de Groot, F.YF.; Grijpma, D.W.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Boer, de J.

    2015-01-01

    The tissue engineering approach requires suitable biomaterials to serve as three-dimensional scaffolds to support cell growth and differentiation into functional tissues. Depending on the type of tissue in need of repair, a biomaterial must be designed with specific performance criteria in mind. Sev

  2. Editorial on the original article entitled "3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration" published in the Biomaterials on February 14, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Jiang, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The paper entitled "3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration" published in the Biomaterials recently illuminated the way to make particular scaffolds with calcium phosphate (CaP) powder, phosphoric acid, type I collagen and Tween 80 in low temperature. After the optimal concentration of each component was determined, the scaffolds were evaluated in a critically sized murine femoral defect model and exhibited good material properties. We made some related introduction of materials applied in 3D printing for bone tissue engineering based on this article to demonstrate the current progress in this field of study.

  3. [Effects of sintered bone modified with surface mineralization/P24 peptide composite biomaterial on the adhesion, proliferation and osteodifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfeng; Zheng, Qixin; Guo, Xiaodong; Chen, Liaobin

    2014-10-01

    In the present research, the effects of sintered bone modified with surface mineralization/P24 peptide composite biomaterials on the adhesion, proliferation and osteodifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated. The experiments were divided into three groups due to biomaterials used: Group A (composite materials of sintered bone modified with surface mineralization and P24, a peptide of bone morphogenetic protein-2); Group B (sintered bone modified with surface mineralization) and Group C (sintered bone only). The three groups were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before the experiments, respectively. Then MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the surfaces of the three kinds of material, respectively. The cell adhesion rate was assessed by precipitation method. The proliferative ability of MC3T3-E1 cells were measured with MTT assay. And the ALP staining and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were performed to assess the differentiation of cells into osteoblasts. The SEM results showed that the materials in the three groups retained the natural pore structure and the pore sizes were in the range between 200-850 μm. The adhesive ratio measurements and MTT assay suggested that adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in Group A were much higher than those in Group B and Group C (P composite material was confirmed to improve the adhesion rate and proliferation and osteodifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, and maintained their morphology.

  4. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fluorogold-labeled nerve fibers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was markedly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  5. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administrationvia the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve ifbers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and lfuorogold-labeled nerve ifbers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was mark-edly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  6. Does LED phototherapy influence the repair of bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration? A description of the repair process on rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Soares, Luiz G P; Barbosa, Artur F S; Ramalho, Luciana M P; dos Santos, Jean N

    2012-09-01

    This work carried out a histological analysis on bone defects grafted (MTA) treated or not with LED, BMPs, and membrane (GBR). Benefits of their isolated or combined usage on bone repair were reported, but not their association. Ninety rats were divided into ten groups and each subdivided into three. Defects on G II and I were filled with the blood clot. G II was further LED irradiated. G III and IV were filled with MTA; G IV was further LED irradiated. In G V and VI, the defects were filled with MTA and covered with a membrane (GBR). G VI was further LED irradiated. In G VII and VIII, BMPs were added to the MTA and group VIII was further LED irradiated. In G IX and X, the MTA + BMP graft was covered with a membrane (GBR). G X was further LED irradiated. LED was applied over the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 15 days. Specimens were processed, cut, and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. The use of LED light alone dramatically reduced inflammation. However, its use on MTA associated with BMP and/or GBR increased the severity of the inflammatory reaction. Regarding bone reabsorption, the poorest result was seen when the LED light was associated with the MTA + BMP graft. In the groups Clot and MTA + GBR, no bone reabsorption was detectable. Increased collagen deposition was observed when the LED light was associated with the use of the MTA associated with BMP and/or GBR. Increased new bone formation was observed when the LED light was used alone or associated with the use of MTA + GBR, MTA + BMP, on association of MTA + BMP + GBR and when BMP was added to the MTA. Our results indicate that the use of LED light alone or in association with MTA, MTA + BMP, MTA + GBR, and MTA + BMP + GBR caused less inflammation, and an increase of both collagen deposition and bone deposition as seen on both histological and morphometric analysis.

  7. Application of nerve conduit biomaterials in nerve repair%神经导管生物材料在神经修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁云锋; 商崇智

    2011-01-01

    背景:神经导管是由天然或人工合成材料制成的、用于桥接神经断端的组织工程支架材料,具有引导和促进神经再生作用.目的:总结近年来常用的神经导管生物材料在神经修复中的应用.方法:由作者应用计算机检索维普数据库中与神经导管生物材料在神经修复中应用有关的文章,检索时限2002-01/ 2010-12.检索关键词:神经导管;生物材料;神经损伤;神经修复;神经再生.纳入标准:与神经导管生物材料在神经修复中应用有关的文章.排除标准:重复研究或较陈旧文献.根据纳入排除标准共保留相关文献30篇.结果与结论:非生物降解材料由于其不可吸收性和对再生神经的远期不良影响使临床应用受到限制.生物降解材料在神经再生完成后可在体内降解吸收,无需二次手术取出,但目前未能利用生物降解材料完全仿制出具有天然神经结构的支架.生物衍生材料生物相容性好、排异反应小,可提供细胞外基质、胶原,起支架作用,但缺血后存在管形塌陷、再生不良、吸收瘢痕组织、增生及粘连等问题.神经导管生物材料在神经修复中的应用前景广阔,但单用一类材料难以制作出理想的神经导管生物材料,通过结合各类材料的优点,与神经营养因子、细胞外基质成分和许旺细胞等联合应用,制备新型具有生物活性的导管材料,将有利于神经修复进一步发展.%BACKGROUND: Nerve conduits made of natural or synthetic materials are used as tissue-engineered scaffolds for nervebridging, and have a guiding and promoting effect on nerve regeneration.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the application of nerve conduit biomaterials in nerve repair in recent years.METHODS: Papers regarding application of nerve conduit biomaterials to repair nerve defects published in VIP databasebetween January 2002 and December 2010 were researched by the authors using the keywords of “nerve conduit

  8. Low-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jonas Dantas; Sargenti-Neto, Sérgio; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda

    2015-07-01

    The biological effects of local therapy with laser on bone repair have been well demonstrated; however, this possible effect on bone repair outside the irradiated field has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (λ = 830 nm) on repair of surgical bone defects outside the irradiated field, in rats. Sixty Wistar rats were submitted to osteotomy on the left femur and randomly separated into four groups (n = 15): group I, control, bone defect only; group II, laser applied on the right femur (distant dose); group III, laser applied locally on the bone defect and also on the right femur (local and distant doses); and group IV, laser applied locally on the left femur (local dose). Laser groups received applications within a 48-h interval in one point per session of density energy (DE) = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.028 cm. Five animals of each group were euthanized 7, 15, and 21 days after surgery. Histologic analysis in all groups showed new bone formation in the region of interest (ROI) at 7 days. After 15 days, bone remodeling with a decrease of bone neoformation in the marrow area was observed in all groups. After 21 days, advanced bone remodeling with new bone mostly located in the cortical area was observed. The histomorphometric analysis showed at 7 days a significant increase of bone formation in groups III and IV compared to groups I and II. At days 15 and 21, histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences between them. Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area.

  9. Comparative in vitro study of the proliferation and growth of ovine osteoblast-like cells on various alloplastic biomaterials manufactured for augmentation and reconstruction of tissue or bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sandra C; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Kuschnierz, Jens; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Huebner, Ute; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Gutwald, Ralf

    2008-03-01

    In this in vitro study ovine osteoblast-like cells were cultured on seven different alloplastic biomaterials used for augmentation and for reconstruction of bone defects in dental and craniomaxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the growth behaviour (viability, cell density and morphology) of ovine osteoblast-like cells on the investigated biomaterials to get knowledge which biomaterial is qualified to act as a cell carrier system in further in vivo experiments. The biomaterials were either synthetically manufactured or of natural origin. As synthetically manufactured biomaterials Ethisorb, MakroSorb, PalacosR, and PDS film were used. As biomaterials of natural origin BeriplastP, Bio-Oss and Titanmesh were investigated. The cell proliferation and cell colonization were analyzed by a proliferation assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteoblast-like cells proliferated and attached on all biomaterials, except on Beriplast. On Ethisorb the highest cell proliferation rate was measured followed by PalacosR. Both biomaterials offer suitable growth and proliferation conditions for ovine osteoblast-like cells. The proliferation rates of Bio-Oss, MakroSorb, PDS-film and Titanmesh were low and SEM examinations of these materials showed less spread osteoblast-like cells. The results showed that ovine osteoblast-like cells appear to be sensitive to substrate composition and topography. This in vitro study provides the basis for further in vivo studies using the sheep model to examine the biocompatibility and the long-term interaction between the test material and tissue (bone regeneration).

  10. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  11. Bone Repair on Fractures Treated with Osteosynthesis, ir Laser, Bone Graft and Guided Bone Regeneration: Histomorfometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Aciole, Jouber Mateus; dos Santos Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the analysis of histomorfometric, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with osteosynthesis, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ780 nm, 50 mW, CW) associated or not to the use of hydroxyapatite and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Surgical fractures were created, under general anesthesia (Ketamina 0,4 ml/Kg IP and Xilazina 0,2 ml/Kg IP), on the dorsum of 15 Oryctolagus rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with wire osteosynthesis. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite and GBR technique used. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16 J/cm2, 4×4 J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death (overdose of general anesthetics) the specimes were routinely processed to wax and underwent histological analysis by light microscopy. The histomorfometric analysis showed an increased bone neoformation, increased collagen deposition, less reabsorption and inflammation when laser was associated to the HATCP. It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of CHA.

  12. Late surgical results of reattachment to bone in repair of chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzansky, Mark E; Gantsoudes, George D; Watters, Nathan

    2009-06-01

    All cases of lateral epicondylitis surgically treated in Dr. Pruzansky's office practice between October 1986 and December 2005 yielded 24 elbows for this study. Patients were treated with surgical débridement and direct repair to bone through bone tunnels (18 elbows), repair with suture anchors (3 elbows), or augmentation with autologous tendon graft and reattachment to bone via suture anchors (3 elbows). This series represents the earliest reattachment cases to be reported, and with the longest follow-up. Mean follow-up (both telephone and office interviews) was 64.7 months. All patients reported satisfaction and graded their outcomes as good or excellent. Mean time to full painless preinjury level of use of the elbow was 4.3 months for patients who underwent simple repair and 2.75 months for patients repaired with a graft. Surgical reattachment of the débrided extensor tendon of origin of the elbow to bone, either directly or with autologous tendon graft, provided pain relief and return to preinjury level of function in a predictable manner. Both primary repair and tendon graft procedures can be used in primary and salvage surgeries in tennis elbow cases in which conservative treatment fails.

  13. Injectable calcium phosphate cement for bone repair and implant fixation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Ooms, E.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Wolke, J.G.C.

    2005-01-01

    The studies as described are aimed at determining the efficacy of newly developed calcium phosphate cement when this material is used as a bone defect filler or gap filler around metal implants. An overview is provided about bone graft substitutes and methods of metal implant fixation.

  14. Radioprotective effect of sodium selenite on bone repair in the tibia of ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Deborah Queiroz de; Neves, Ellen Gaby; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Department of Oral Diagnosis. Oral Radiology Area; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes [Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Department of Clinical and Preventive Dentistry; Marques, Marcelo Rocha [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Division of Histology. Department of Morphology

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated protection by selenium (Se) in the bone repair process in ovariectomized rats after irradiation. For such purpose, 80 ovariectomized female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: ovariectomized (Ov), Ov/Se, Ov/irradiated (Irr) and Ov/ Se/Irr. A bone defect was created on the tibia of all animals 40 days after ovariectomy. Two days after surgery, only the Ov/Se and Ov/Se/Irr rats received 0.8 mg Se/kg. Three days after surgery, only the Ov/Irr and Ov/Se/Irr rats received 10 Gy of x-rays on the lower limb region. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery to assess the repair process, which was evaluated by analysis of trabecular bone number (Masson Trichrome) and birefringence analysis (Picrosirius). It was possible to observe a delay in the bone repair process in the ovariectomized/irradiated group and similarity between the ovariectomized, Ov/Se and Ov/Se/Irr groups. In conclusion, sodium selenite exerted a radioprotective effect in the bone repair of tibia of ovariectomized rats without toxicity. (author)

  15. Pre-clinical in vivo models for the screening of bone biomaterials for oral/craniofacial indications: focus on small-animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sculean, Anton; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Buser, Daniel; Klinge, Björn

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical in vivo experimental studies are performed for evaluating proof-of-principle concepts, safety and possible unwanted reactions of candidate bone biomaterials before proceeding to clinical testing. Specifically, models involving small animals have been developed for screening bone biomaterials for their potential to enhance bone formation. No single model can completely recreate the anatomic, physiologic, biomechanic and functional environment of the human mouth and jaws. Relevant aspects regarding physiology, anatomy, dimensions and handling are discussed in this paper to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of small-animal models. Model selection should be based not on the 'expertise' or capacities of the team, but rather on a scientifically solid rationale, and the animal model selected should reflect the question for which an answer is sought. The rationale for using heterotopic or orthotopic testing sites, and intraosseous, periosseous or extraskeletal defect models, is discussed. The paper also discusses the relevance of critical size defect modeling, with focus on calvarial defects in rodents. In addition, the rabbit sinus model and the capsule model in the rat mandible are presented and discussed in detail. All animal experiments should be designed with care and include sample-size and study-power calculations, thus allowing generation of meaningful data. Moreover, animal experiments are subject to ethical approval by the relevant authority. All procedures and the postoperative handling and care, including postoperative analgesics, should follow best practice.

  16. A Novel Porous Gelatin Composite Containing Naringin for Bone Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yu Chen; Kuen-Cherng Lin; Yueh-Sheng Chen; Chun-Hsu Yao

    2013-01-01

    As Gu-Sui-Bu (GSB) is a commonly used Chinese medical herb for therapeutic treatment of bone-related diseases, naringin is its main active component. This study elucidates how various concentrations of naringin solution affect the activities of bone cells, based on colorimetric, alkaline phosphatase activity, nodule formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays to determine the optimal concentration of naringin. GGT composite was obtained by combining genipin cross-linked...

  17. Technical Report: Correlation Between the Repair of Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in an Osteochondral Defect Using Bilayered, Biodegradable Hydrogel Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Steven; Lam, Johnny; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Lee, Esther J; Seyednejad, Hajar; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kasper, F Kurtis; Scott, David W; Wong, Mark E; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G

    2015-12-01

    The present work investigated correlations between cartilage and subchondral bone repair, facilitated by a growth factor-delivering scaffold, in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Histological scoring indices and microcomputed tomography morphological parameters were used to evaluate cartilage and bone repair, respectively, at 6 and 12 weeks. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between specific cartilage indices and subchondral bone parameters that varied with location in the defect (cortical vs. trabecular region), time point (6 vs. 12 weeks), and experimental group (insulin-like growth factor-1 only, bone morphogenetic protein-2 only, or both growth factors). In particular, significant correlations consistently existed between cartilage surface regularity and bone quantity parameters. Overall, correlation analysis between cartilage and bone repair provided a fuller understanding of osteochondral repair and can help drive informed studies for future osteochondral regeneration strategies.

  18. Bone marrow-derived cells in renal repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Martine

    2007-01-01

    The kidney can recover after acute renal injury due to its highly effective endogenous regenerative capacity. However, under certain conditions the balance between injury and repair can get disturbed. This can ultimately lead to chronic renal failure, which is an increasing problem in the clinical s

  19. A novel technique of lumbar hernia repair using bone anchor fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, A M; Kercher, K W; Sigmon, L; Matthews, B D; Sing, R F; Kneisl, J S; Heniford, B T

    2005-03-01

    Lumbar hernias are difficult to repair due to their proximity to bone and inadequate surrounding tissue to buttress the repair. We analyzed the outcome of patients undergoing a novel retromuscular lumbar hernia repair technique. The repair was performed in ten patients using a polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene mesh placed in an extraperitoneal, retromuscular position with at least 5 cm overlap of the hernia defect. The mesh was fixed with circumferential, transfascial, permanent sutures and inferiorly fixed to the iliac crest by suture bone anchors. Five hernias were recurrent, and five were incarcerated; seven were incisional hernias, and three were posttraumatic. Back and abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom. Mean hernia size was 227 cm(2) (60-504) with a mesh size of 620 cm(2) (224-936). Mean operative time was 181 min (120-269), with a mean blood loss of 128 ml (50-200). Mean length of stay was 5.2 days (2-10), and morphine equivalent requirement was 200 mg (47-460). There were no postoperative complications or deaths. After a mean follow-up of 40 months (3-99) there have been no recurrences. Our sublay repair of lumbar hernias with permanent suture fixation is safe and to date has resulted in no recurrences. Suture bone anchors ensure secure fixation of the mesh to the iliac crest and may eliminate a common area of recurrence.

  20. Effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound on repairing the periodontal bone of Beagle canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi Gu; Yong-Mei Li; Jing Guo; Li-Hua Zhang; Dong Li; Xiao-Dong Gai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repairing effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the Beagle canines periodontal bone defect. Methods: A total of 12 Beagle dogs with periodontal bone defect model were randomly divided into control group, LIPUS group, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) group and LIPUS+GTR group, with three in each. After completion of the models, no other proceeding was performed in control group; LIPUS group adopt direct exposure to radiation line LIPUS processing 1 week after modeling; GTR group adopted treatment with GTR, following the CTR standard operation reference; LIPUS+GTR group was treated with LIPUS joint GTR. Temperature change before treatment and histopathological change of periodontal tissue after repair was observed. Results: There was no significant difference in temperature changes of periodontal tissue between groups (P>0.05). The amount and maturity of LIPUS+GTR group were superior to other groups; new cementum, dental periodontal bones of GTR group were superior to the control group but less than LIPUS group; new collagen and maturity of the control group is not high relatively. Conclusions: LIPUS can accelerate the calcium salt deposition and new bone maturation, thus it can serve as promoting periodontal tissue repair, and shortening the periodontal tissue repair time.

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy and Calcitonin in Bone Repair: Densitometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pinto Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the association of low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 830 nm and calcitonin in bone repair considering that bone healing remains a challenge to health professionals. Calcitonin has antiosteoclastic action and LLLT is a treatment that uses low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes to alter cellular function. Both are used to improve bone healing. Densitometry is a clinical noninvasive valuable tool used to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD. Sixty male rats were submitted to bone defect with a trephine bur, randomly divided into four groups of 15 animals each: control (C; synthetic salmon calcitonin (Ca; LLLT (La; LLLT combined with calcitonin (LaCa. Animals from Ca and LaCa received 2 UI/Kg synthetic salmon calcitonin intramuscularly on alternate days after surgery. Animals from groups La and LaCa were treated with infrared LLLT (830 nm, 10 mW, 20 J/cm2, 6 s, contact mode. Five animals from each group were euthanized 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery and bone defects were analyzed by densitometry. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in BMD values in LaCa group at 7 and 21 days (=0,005. The results of the densitometric study showed that LLLT (830 nm combined with calcitonin improved bone repair.

  2. Effect of sodium selenite on bone repair in tibiae of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Anna Silvia Setti da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR, (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail: flaviamaria@fop.unicamp.br; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Stomatology; Chicareli, Mariliani [State Univ. of Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the radioprotective effect of sodium selenite on the bone repair process in tibiae of female rats. For such purpose, 100 female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=25), according to the treatment received: administration of distilled water (control); administration of sodium selenite; gamma radiation; and administration of sodium selenite plus gamma radiation. A bone defect was prepared on both tibiae of all animals. Three days after surgery, the gamma radiation and selenium/ gamma radiation groups received 8 Gy gamma rays on the lower limbs. Five animals per group were sacrificed 7, 14, 21, 28 days after surgery for evaluation of the repair process by bone volumetric density analysis. The 5 animals remaining in each group were sacrificed 45 days postoperatively for examination of the mature bone by scanning electron microscopy. Based on all analyzed parameters, the results of the present study suggest that sodium selenite exerted a radioprotective effect in the bone repair of tibia of irradiated rats. (author)

  3. Effect of dolomite on the repair of bone defects in rats: histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschi, Eduardo; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Dantas, Jailson Araujo; da Silva, Maria Angélica Raffaini Covas Pereira; Casaroto, Ana Regina; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate histologically and radiographically the tissue response to dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] and its osteogenic potential in the repair of bone cavities in the calvaria of rats. A bone defect 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm deep was made in the calvaria of male Wistar rats. The defects were filled with dolomite, inorganic bovine bone (positive control), or coagulum (negative control). The animals were euthanized 7, 15, 30, and 60 days after surgery, and specimens were collected for radiographic and microscopic analyses. The bone defects were processed for paraffin embedding and H&E staining. The histological study revealed that dolomite stimulated a moderate inflammatory response, with programmed cell death in the first 15 days, compared to bovine bone which showed a moderate to intense acute response. In the chronic phase, the inflammatory response was characterized by the occurrence of macrophages organized as epithelioid cells in the dolomite group, and giant cells in the bovine-bone group. Fibrosis developed in all three groups; however, encapsulation of the fragments, reabsorption, and osteoconductive activity occurred only in the defects filled with bovine bone. The radiographic analysis showed that the bovine bone was most efficient in the repair of the defects, followed by the dolomite and the coagulum. This study demonstrated that the dolomite stimulated a moderate acute inflammatory response with programmed cell death, and a chronic inflammatory response by means of the phagocytic mononuclear system. Although osteo-conductive activity was not shown, the dolomite favored the repair process, compared to the coagulum group.

  4. Application potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) based tissue-engineering for spinal cord defect repair in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshuai; Yuan, Zhengwei; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Hui; Zhao, Guifeng; Miao, Jiaoning; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Cao, Songying; An, Dong; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Qiushi; Gu, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Spina bifida aperta are complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of fusion in the spinal neural tube during embryogenesis. Despite surgical repair of the defect, most patients who survive with spina bifida aperta have a multiple system handicap due to neuron deficiency of the defective spinal cord. Tissue engineering has emerged as a novel treatment for replacement of lost tissue. This study evaluated the prenatal surgical approach of transplanting a chitosan-gelatin scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the healing the defective spinal cord of rat fetuses with retinoic acid induced spina bifida aperta. Scaffold characterisation revealed the porous structure, organic and amorphous content. This biomaterial promoted the adhesion, spreading and in vitro viability of the BMSCs. After transplantation of the scaffold combined with BMSCs, the defective region of spinal cord in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at E20 decreased obviously under stereomicroscopy, and the skin defect almost closed in many fetuses. The transplanted BMSCs in chitosan-gelatin scaffold survived, grew and expressed markers of neural stem cells and neurons in the defective spinal cord. In addition, the biomaterial presented high biocompatibility and slow biodegradation in vivo. In conclusion, prenatal transplantation of the scaffold combined with BMSCs could treat spinal cord defect in fetuses with spina bifida aperta by the regeneration of neurons and repairmen of defective region.

  5. Histomorphometric and ultrastructural analysis of the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Gotoh, Masafumi; Ohta, Keisuke; Honda, Hirokazu; Ohzono, Hiroki; Shimokobe, Hisao; Shiba, Naoto; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-09-20

    Successful rotator cuff repair requires biological anchoring of the repaired tendon to the bone. However, the histological structure of the repaired tendon-bone interface differs from that of a normal tendon insertion. We analysed differences between the normal tendon insertion and the repaired tendon-bone interface after surgery in the mechanical properties, histomorphometric analysis, and 3-dimensional ultrastructure of the cells using a rat rotator cuff repair model. Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent complete cuff tear and subsequent repair of the supraspinatus tendon. The repaired tendon-bone interface was evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. At each time point, shoulders underwent micro-computed tomography scanning and biomechanical testing (N = 6), conventional histology and histomorphometric analysis (N = 6), and ultrastructural analysis with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) tomography (N = 4). We demonstrated that the cellular distribution between the repaired tendon and bone at 12 weeks after surgery bore similarities to the normal tendon insertion. However, the ultrastructure of the cells at any time point had a different morphology than those of the normal tendon insertion. These morphological differences affect the healing process, partly contributing to re-tearing at the repair site. These results may facilitate future studies of the regeneration of a normal tendon insertion.

  6. Roles of the kidney in the formation, remodeling and repair of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Yin, Zhiwei; Xie, Yuansheng

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the kidney and bone is highly complex, and the kidney plays an important role in the regulation of bone development and metabolism. The kidney is the major organ involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, which is essential for bone mineralization and development. Many substances synthesized by the kidney, such as 1,25(OH)2D3, Klotho, bone morphogenetic protein-7, and erythropoietin, are involved in different stages of bone formation, remodeling and repair. In addition, some cytokines which can be affected by the kidney, such as osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, fibroblast growth factor -23 and parathyroid hormone, also play important roles in bone metabolism. In this paper, we summarize the possible effects of these kidney-related cytokines on bone and their possible mechanisms. Most of these cytokines can interact with one another, constituting an intricate network between the kidney and bone. Therefore, kidney diseases should be considered among patients presenting with osteodystrophy and disturbances in bone and mineral metabolism, and treatment for renal dysfunction may accelerate their recovery.

  7. Helium-neon laser improves bone repair in rabbits: comparison at two anatomic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccin, Maria Stella; de Oliveira, Flavia; Muniz Renno, Ana Claudia; Pacheco de Jesus, Gustavo Protasio; Pozzi, Renan; Gomes de Moura, Carolina Foot; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on bone repair of femur and tibia in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral bone damage (tibia and femur) using a spherical bur. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluency of 6 J∕cm(2) and wavelength of 632.8 nm was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right tibia or femur lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections and the morphometric data from bone tissue and hyaline cartilage were achieved. Histopathological analysis showed regular bone trabeculae covered by osteoblastic cells after 1 week in the group exposed to laser therapy from femur and tibia indistinctly. After 3 weeks, the laser group showed new bone formation coming from the bony walls in the femur and tibia as well. On the 5th week, well-defined trabecula undergoing remodeling process was detected for the most intense pattern in tibia only. Morphometric analysis revealed significant statistical differences (p helium-neon laser is able to improve bone repair in rabbits being the most pronounced effect in tibia.

  8. A nonsense mutation in the DNA repair factor Hebo causes mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Pondarre, Corinne; Pennarun, Gaelle; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Vera, Gabriella; France, Benoit; Chansel, Marie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Revy, Patrick; Lopez, Bernard; Soulier, Jean; Bertrand, Pascale; Callebaut, Isabelle; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-30

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are human conditions in which one or several cell lineages of the hemopoietic system are affected. They are present at birth or may develop progressively. They are sometimes accompanied by other developmental anomalies. Three main molecular causes have been recognized to result in bone marrow failure syndromes: (1) defects in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway, (2) defects in telomere maintenance, and (3) abnormal ribosome biogenesis. We analyzed a patient with mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly who did not present with the typical FA phenotype. Cells from this patient showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiations and phleomycin, attesting to a probable DNA double strand break (dsb) repair defect. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the ERCC6L2 gene. We identified a new ERCC6L2 alternative transcript encoding the DNA repair factor Hebo, which is critical for complementation of the patient's DNAdsb repair defect. Sequence analysis revealed three structured regions within Hebo: a TUDOR domain, an adenosine triphosphatase domain, and a new domain, HEBO, specifically present in Hebo direct orthologues. Hebo is ubiquitously expressed, localized in the nucleus, and rapidly recruited to DNAdsb's in an NBS1-dependent manner.

  9. A nonsense mutation in the DNA repair factor Hebo causes mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Pondarre, Corinne; Pennarun, Gaelle; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Vera, Gabriella; France, Benoit; Chansel, Marie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Revy, Patrick; Lopez, Bernard; Soulier, Jean; Bertrand, Pascale; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are human conditions in which one or several cell lineages of the hemopoietic system are affected. They are present at birth or may develop progressively. They are sometimes accompanied by other developmental anomalies. Three main molecular causes have been recognized to result in bone marrow failure syndromes: (1) defects in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway, (2) defects in telomere maintenance, and (3) abnormal ribosome biogenesis. We analyzed a patient with mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly who did not present with the typical FA phenotype. Cells from this patient showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiations and phleomycin, attesting to a probable DNA double strand break (dsb) repair defect. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the ERCC6L2 gene. We identified a new ERCC6L2 alternative transcript encoding the DNA repair factor Hebo, which is critical for complementation of the patient’s DNAdsb repair defect. Sequence analysis revealed three structured regions within Hebo: a TUDOR domain, an adenosine triphosphatase domain, and a new domain, HEBO, specifically present in Hebo direct orthologues. Hebo is ubiquitously expressed, localized in the nucleus, and rapidly recruited to DNAdsb’s in an NBS1-dependent manner. PMID:27185855

  10. Trabecular bone structure and strength - remodelling and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Lis; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig

    2000-01-01

    relationship is based on the fact that trabecular bone is a porous material. To date, it has not been possible to determine or quantify the influence other factors may have in determining the strength of a loadbearing trabecular network. However, it is known that with age: 1) There is a loss of connectivity...... through osteoclastic perforations of horizontal struts. 2) There is an increase in anisotropy - again due to loss of horizontal struts, and perhaps also due to micro-modelling drift or to thickening of some vertical trabeculae. 3) The changes in the network can lead to the slenderness ratio between...... can never be isolated in vivo, other factors need to be investigated: The interplay between the cortical shell and the trabecular network; transmission of load; the interplay between soft tissues (cartilage, connective tissue, muscle) and bone; the shock absorbing capacity of the discs...

  11. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  12. A quantitative study of bone repair after endodontic therapy on digital subtraction radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    This study was performed to prepare the quantitative method of judging the sensitive prognosis of chronic apical periodontitis as early as possible. The subjects were 25 cases with periapical radiolucencies of which were treated with endodontic treatment. Serial radiographs were taken by standardized method longitudinally. The density slice function of digital radiographic system were employed for quantitative and longitudinal assessment of the radiolucent area and the condensing osteitis simultaneously. Obtained results were as follows: 1. The amount of bone repair after endodontic treatment could be detected quantitatively by the density slice function of digital radiographic system. 2. Within the 6-week period after root canal filling, the prognosis could be evaluated by assessment both radiolucent area and condensing osteitis on digital radiographic system. 3. The pattern of bone repair showed peripheral type in most cases from the 6th week after root canal filling. 4. In longitudinal change, bone repair showed two patterns; the succeeding reduction of radiolucent area showing the increase of condensing osteitis in size till 6th week and following by static state or reduction tendency and the reduction following the initial increase of both areas. 5. Cases with pulpitis by trauma showed initial increase of condensing osteitis at 2nd week, marked reduction of radiolucent area and condensing osteitis at 6th week, and approximately normal bone state at 8th week after root canal filling.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: gumieiro@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  14. ROLE OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR β (TGF-β)IN REPAIRING OF BONE DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉鹏; 张皖清; 陆裕朴; 胡蕴玉; 马富成; 陈万禄

    1996-01-01

    TGF-β is a multifunctlonal cytoklne that regulates many aspects of cellular function, including periosteal mesenchymal cell proliferation, differontlation. This experiment is to study its effects on bone defect repair. A rabbit radial bone defect model was used to evaluate the effect of TGF-β, which was extracted and purified from bovine blood platelets, on the healing of a large segmental osteoperiosteal defect. A1.5-centinaeter segmental defect was created in the mid upper part of the radial shaft of adult rabbits. The defect was filled with implant containing TGF-β that consisted of carrier and bovine TGF-β Limbs servedas controls received carrier alone. The defects were examined radiographically and histologically at 4, 8,12, 16 and 20 weeks after implantation. The results showed that in TGF-β implant group, the defect areasat 12 weeks post operation were bridged by uniform new bone and the cut ends of cortex could not be seen Fwhile in control group, the defects remained clear. Only a sraall amount of new bone formed as a cap onthe cut bone ends. In the experimental group, new lamellar and woven bone formed in continuity with thecut ends of the cortex. An entirely raedullar canal appears to be forming and contained normal-appearanclng marrow elements; while the control group displayed entirely fibrous tissue within the defect site. Remnants of the cancellous bone carrier were observed in the control specimen. These data demonstrate that exogenous TGF-β initiate osteogenesis and stimulate the bone defects repair in animal model.

  15. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair.Keywords: mesoporous bioglass, polyamide, composite scaffolds, biocompatibility, bone repair

  16. Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Best, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Work in the area of biomaterials and stem cell therapy has revealed great potential for many applications, from the treatment of localized defects and diseases to the repair and replacement of whole organs. Researchers have also begun to develop a better understanding of the cellular environment needed for optimal tissue repair and regeneration. Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine explores a range of applications for biomaterials and stem cell therapy and describes recent research on suitable cell scaffolds and substrates for tissue repair and reconstruction. Featuring contrib

  17. Estudio experimental de la osteosustitución con biomateriales cerámicos formulados como cementos óseos Experimental study of the bone substitution with ceramic biomaterials formulated as bone cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Sanzana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los biomateriales cerámicos presentan interesantes propiedades biológicas, por lo que pueden ser utilizados en la sustitución ósea. En este estudio fueron comparados dos cementos óseos de fosfato de calcio con el autoinjerto óseo esponjoso. Se realizó un defecto cavitario de 6 mm en la metáfisis femoral distal derecha de 36 conejos machos Oryctolagus cuniculi. Los animales fueron divididos en 3 grupos de 12 conejos, que recibieron como implantes cemento de fosfato a tricálcico (TPC, cemento de fosfato monocálcico (MPC y autoinjerto óseo (CON. Los estudios radiológico e histológico han mostrado una correcta sustitución de ambos biomateriales por hueso neoformado. El estudio histomorfométrico ha revelado que la neoformación ósea obtenida con los 2 cementos, tanto a las 4 como las 12 semanas, es equivalente a la generada por el injerto óseo. No se han encontrado diferencias significativas en la reabsorción de los materiales. Finalmente, este trabajo ha concluido que los cementos óseos de fosfato de calcio son materiales osteoconductivos, osteotransductivos y biocompatibles que se comportan como sustitutivos óseos.Ceramic biomaterials have interesting biological properties that can be used in bone substitution. In this study two calcium phosphate bone cements were compared to cancellous bone autograft. A bone cavitary defect of 6 mm in diameter was carried out in the right distal femoral methaphyses of 36 male rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculi. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 12 rabbits receiving a tricalcium phosphate cement (TPC, monocalcium phosphate cement (MPC and autologous bone (CON as implants. The radiological and histological studies showed a correct substitution of both biomaterials with new bone. The histomorphometric study revealed that the bone neoformation obtained with the two cements at 4 and 12 weeks is equivalent to the bone generated by the bone graft. There were no significant differences in the

  18. Application of different biomaterials in Achilles tendon repair%不同生物材料修复跟腱损伤的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 李广杰

    2011-01-01

    背景:构建组织工程化肌腱的关键是寻找适于肌腱细胞黏附、生长及功能分化的支架材料.目的:评价不同生物材料在跟腱损伤修复中的效果.方法:以"生物材料,跟腱,修复" 为关键词在万方数据库中检索1985-01/2011-01关于生物材料治疗跟腱缺损的文章.结果与结论:陈旧性跟腱断裂难以自行愈合及修复,易遗留疼痛及功能障碍.长期以来,不少学者对跟腱缺损的治疗进行了较多的研究,从自体肌腱移植、同种异体肌腱移植到人工肌腱移植、组织工程肌腱移植等,实践证明这些方法手段都存在一定的优点和缺点.虽然肌腱组织工程中支架材料的研究与应用已经取得了一些成功,但是目前应用的材料或存在生物相容性问题、降解性问题或存在力学性能差、难加工成型等缺陷,与理想的支架材料还存在很大差距.%BACKGROUND: The key to construct tissue engineered tendon is to look for appropriate scaffold materials for tendon cell adhesion, growth and functional differentiation.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of different biomaterials on Achilles tendon injury.METHODS: “Biomaterial, Achilles tendon, repair” were used as keywords to retrieve articles about biomaterials for treatment of Achilles tendon injuries published 1985-01/2011-01 in Wanfang database.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Self-healing and repair of old Achilles tendon rupture is difficult, and pain and dysfunction easily occur. Over the years, there are many studies about treatment of Achilles tendon injuries from autologous tendon graft and tendon allograft to artificial tendon and tissue-engineered tendon. The above-mentioned methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Although studies on scaffold materials for tissue-engineered tendon have achieved some results, the poor biocompatibility, degradation or mechanical properties as well as difficulty to molding lead to a great difference from ideal scaffold

  19. A preclinical evaluation of alternative synthetic biomaterials for fascial defect repair using a rat abdominal hernia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ulrich

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fascial defects are a common problem in the abdominal wall and in the vagina leading to hernia or pelvic organ prolapse that requires mesh enhancement to reduce operation failure. However, the long-term outcome of synthetic mesh surgery may be unsatisfactory due to post-surgical complications. We hypothesized that mesh fabricated from alternative synthetic polymers may evoke a different tissue response, and provide more appropriate mechanical properties for hernia repair. Our aim was to compare the in vivo biocompatibility of new synthetic meshes with a commercial mesh. METHODS: We have fabricated 3 new warp-knitted synthetic meshes from different polymers with different tensile properties polyetheretherketone (PEEK, polyamide (PA and a composite, gelatin coated PA (PA+G. The rat abdominal hernia model was used to implant the meshes (25 × 35 mm, n = 24/ group. After 7, 30, 60, 90 days tissues were explanted for immunohistochemical assessment of foreign body reaction and tissue integration, using CD31, CD45, CD68, alpha-SMA antibodies. The images were analysed using an image analysis software program. Biomechanical properties were uniaxially evaluated using an Instron Tensile® Tester. RESULTS: This study showed that the new meshes induced complex differences in the type of foreign body reaction over the time course of implantation. The PA, and particularly the composite PA+G meshes, evoked a milder early inflammatory response, and macrophages were apparent throughout the time course. Our meshes led to better tissue integration and new collagen deposition, particularly with the PA+G meshes, as well as greater and sustained neovascularisation compared with the PP meshes. CONCLUSION: PA, PA+G and PEEK appear to be well tolerated and are biocompatible, evoking an overlapping and different host tissue response with time that might convey mechanical variations in the healing tissue. These new meshes comprising different polymers may

  20. [Cardiovascular biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisance, D

    1995-03-01

    Hemocompatible biomaterials, i.e. materials to be used in a biological environment, are of various origins (biological, synthetic). The great variety of physical and chemical characteristics has allowed design of various prosthesis and artificial organs. Use of biomaterials and artificial organs has made possible the development of substitutive therapies, a growing component of medical care. None of the biomaterials presently used is ideal. Everyone of them is responsible for a local and general reaction: foreign body reaction, coagulation, whole body inflammatory response. For years, these reactions have been poorly understood and development was of a very empirical nature. Progress in cellular and molecular biology permits today a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in these reactions. Use of biomaterials is facing to day a difficult problem; liability concerns threaten further developments and leads to market withdrawal of major basic materials.

  1. Surgical repair of central slip avulsion injuries with Mitek bone anchor--retrospective analysis of a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our technique of central slip repair using the Mitek bone anchor and to evaluate the treatment outcome. Eight digits in eight patients were reconstructed using the bone anchor: three little fingers, two middle fingers, two index fingers and one ring finger. There were two immediate and six delayed repairs (range from one day to eight months). Four patients had pre-operative intensive splinting and physiotherapy to restore passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint prior to central slip reconstruction. All patients have made good progress since surgery. No patient requires a second procedure and none of the bone anchors have dislodged or loosened. We conclude that the Mitek bone anchor is a reliable technique to achieve soft tissue to bone fixation in central slip avulsion injuries. We recommend that this technique be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring surgical repair.

  2. Adipose, Bone Marrow and Synovial Joint-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Christopher R.; Matta, Csaba; Zakany, Roza; Khan, Ilyas M.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Current cell-based repair strategies have proven unsuccessful for treating cartilage defects and osteoarthritic lesions, consequently advances in innovative therapeutics are required and mesenchymal stem cell-based (MSC) therapies are an expanding area of investigation. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and exerting paracrine effects. Due to their easy isolation, expansion, and low immunogenicity, MSCs are an attractive option for regenerative medicine for joint repair. Recent studies have identified several MSC tissue reservoirs including in adipose tissue, bone marrow, cartilage, periosteum, and muscle. MSCs isolated from these discrete tissue niches exhibit distinct biological activities, and have enhanced regenerative potentials for different tissue types. Each MSC type has advantages and disadvantages for cartilage repair and their use in a clinical setting is a balance between expediency and effectiveness. In this review we explore the challenges associated with cartilage repair and regeneration using MSC-based cell therapies and provide an overview of phenotype, biological activities, and functional properties for each MSC population. This paper also specifically explores the therapeutic potential of each type of MSC, particularly focusing on which cells are capable of producing stratified hyaline-like articular cartilage regeneration. Finally we highlight areas for future investigation. Given that patients present with a variety of problems it is unlikely that cartilage regeneration will be a simple “one size fits all,” but more likely an array of solutions that need to be applied systematically to achieve regeneration of a biomechanically competent repair tissue. PMID:28066501

  3. Biomaterials in periodontal regenerative surgery: effects of cryopreserved bone, commercially available coral, demineralized freeze-dried dentin, and cementum on periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecioğlu, Didem; Tözüm, Tolga F; Sengün, Dilek; Nohutcu, Rahime M

    2004-10-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to achieve successful periodontal regeneration. The effects of different biomaterials, allogenic and alloplastic, used in periodontal surgeries to achieve regeneration have been studied in vitro on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. The materials tested included cryopreserved bone allograft (CBA), coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), demineralized freeze-dried dentin (DFDD), and cementum. CBA and CH revealed an increase in initial PDL cell attachment, whereas CH resulted in an increase in long-term PDL cell attachment. Mineral-like nodule formation was observed significantly higher in DFDD compared to other materials tested for osteoblasts. Based on the results of this in vitro study, we conclude that the materials used are all biocompatible with human PDL cells and osteoblasts, which have pivotal importance in periodontal regeneration.

  4. Sustained release of VH and rhBMP-2 from nanoporous magnesium-zinc-silicon xerogels for osteomyelitis treatment and bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqian; Wu, Wen; Xiang, Li; Weng, Gan; Hong, Hua; Jiang, Hong; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous magnesium-zinc-silicon (n-MZS) xerogels with a pore size ∼4 nm, a surface area of 718 cm(2)/g, and a pore volume of 1.24 cm(3)/g were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The n-MZS xerogels had high capacity to load vancomycin hydrochloride (VH) and human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), after soaking in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 24 hours (1.5 and 0.8 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, the n-MZS xerogels exhibited the sustained release of VH and rhBMP-2 as compared with magnesium-zinc-silicon (MZS) xerogels without nanopores (showing a burst release). The VH/rhBMP-2/n-MZS system not only exhibited a good antibacterial property but also promoted the MG63 cell proliferation and differentiation demonstrating good bactericidal activity and cytocompatibility. The results suggested that n-MZS with larger surface area and high pore volume might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of VH and rhBMP-2. Hence, the VH/rhBMP-2/n-MZS system might be one of the promising biomaterials for osteomyelitis treatment and bone repair.

  5. EPO promotes bone repair through enhanced cartilaginous callus formation and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wan

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO/erythropoietin receptor (EPOR signaling is involved in the development and regeneration of several non-hematopoietic tissues including the skeleton. EPO is identified as a downstream target of the hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIF-α pathway. It is shown that EPO exerts a positive role in bone repair, however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we show that EPO and EPOR are expressed in the proliferating, pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic zone of the developing mouse growth plates as well as in the cartilaginous callus of the healing bone. The proliferation rate of chondrocytes is increased under EPO treatment, while this effect is decreased following siRNA mediated knockdown of EPOR in chondrocytes. EPO treatment increases biosynthesis of proteoglycan, accompanied by up-regulation of chondrogenic marker genes including SOX9, SOX5, SOX6, collagen type 2, and aggrecan. The effects are inhibited by knockdown of EPOR. Blockage of the endogenous EPO in chondrocytes also impaired the chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, EPO promotes metatarsal endothelial sprouting in vitro. This coincides with the in vivo data that local delivery of EPO increases vascularity at the mid-stage of bone healing (day 14. In a mouse femoral fracture model, EPO promotes cartilaginous callus formation at days 7 and 14, and enhances bone healing at day 28 indexed by improved X-ray score and micro-CT analysis of microstructure of new bone regenerates, which results in improved biomechanical properties. Our results indicate that EPO enhances chondrogenic and angiogenic responses during bone repair. EPO's function on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation is at least partially mediated by its receptor EPOR. EPO may serve as a therapeutic agent to facilitate skeletal regeneration.

  6. EPO promotes bone repair through enhanced cartilaginous callus formation and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lin; Zhang, Fengjie; He, Qiling; Tsang, Wing Pui; Lu, Li; Li, Qingnan; Wu, Zhihong; Qiu, Guixing; Zhou, Guangqian; Wan, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO)/erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) signaling is involved in the development and regeneration of several non-hematopoietic tissues including the skeleton. EPO is identified as a downstream target of the hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIF-α) pathway. It is shown that EPO exerts a positive role in bone repair, however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we show that EPO and EPOR are expressed in the proliferating, pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic zone of the developing mouse growth plates as well as in the cartilaginous callus of the healing bone. The proliferation rate of chondrocytes is increased under EPO treatment, while this effect is decreased following siRNA mediated knockdown of EPOR in chondrocytes. EPO treatment increases biosynthesis of proteoglycan, accompanied by up-regulation of chondrogenic marker genes including SOX9, SOX5, SOX6, collagen type 2, and aggrecan. The effects are inhibited by knockdown of EPOR. Blockage of the endogenous EPO in chondrocytes also impaired the chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, EPO promotes metatarsal endothelial sprouting in vitro. This coincides with the in vivo data that local delivery of EPO increases vascularity at the mid-stage of bone healing (day 14). In a mouse femoral fracture model, EPO promotes cartilaginous callus formation at days 7 and 14, and enhances bone healing at day 28 indexed by improved X-ray score and micro-CT analysis of microstructure of new bone regenerates, which results in improved biomechanical properties. Our results indicate that EPO enhances chondrogenic and angiogenic responses during bone repair. EPO's function on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation is at least partially mediated by its receptor EPOR. EPO may serve as a therapeutic agent to facilitate skeletal regeneration.

  7. A biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability for bone tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Alves, Luís C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N.10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-01

    The increasing interest in the effect of strontium in bone tissue repair has promoted the development of bioactive materials with strontium release capability. According to literature, hybrid materials based on the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2} have been considered a plausible alternative as they present a mechanical behavior similar to the one of the human bone. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability. A hybrid material, in the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO, was prepared with the incorporation of 0.05 mol of titanium per mol of SiO{sub 2}. Calcium and strontium were added using the respective acetates as sources, following a sol–gel technique previously developed by the present authors. The obtained samples were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state NMR, and SAXS, and surface roughness was analyzed by 3D optical profilometry. In vitro studies were performed by immersion of the samples in Kokubo's SBF for different periods of time, in order to determine the bioactive potential of these hybrids. Surfaces of the immersed samples were observed by SEM, EDS and PIXE, showing the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Supernatants were analyzed by ICP, revealing the capability of the material to simultaneously fix phosphorus ions and to release calcium and strontium, in a concentration range within the values reported as suitable for the induction of the bone tissue repair. The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with MG63 osteoblastic cells, exhibiting an inductive effect on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. - Highlights: • A hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO material was prepared with the incorporation of Ti. • Sr was released in concentrations suitable for the induction of bone tissue repair. • The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with osteoblastic cells.

  8. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  9. Assessment of bovine biomaterials containing bone morphogenetic proteins bound to absorbable hydroxyapatite in rabbit segmental bone defects Avaliação de biomateriais bovinos contendo proteínas morfogenéticas ósseas absorvidas a hidroxiapatita em defeitos ósseos segmentares em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Hasegawa Gonçalves Caporali

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the osteo-regenerative capacity of two proprietary bone grafting materials, using a segmental defect model in both radial diaphyses of rabbits. METHODS: The right defect was filled with pooled bone morphogenetic proteins (pBMPs bound to absorbable ultrathin powdered hydroxyapatite (HA mixed with inorganic and demineralized bone matrix and bone-derived collagen, derived from bovine bone (Group A. The left defect was filled with bovine demineralized bone matrix and pBMPs bound to absorbable ultrathin powdered HA (Group B. In both groups, an absorbable membrane of demineralized bovine cortical was used to retain the biomaterials in the bone defects, and to guide the tissue regeneration. The rabbits were euthanized 30, 90 and 150 days after surgery. Radiographic, tomographic and histologic evaluations were carried out on all specimens. RESULTS: At 30 days, the demineralized cortical bone cover was totally resorbed in both groups. HA was totally resorbed from Group A defects, whereas HA persisted in Group B defects. A prominent foreign body reaction was evident with both products, more pronounced in sections from Group B. At 90 days, the defects in Group B exhibited more new bone than Group A. However, at 150 days after surgery, neither treatment had stimulated complete repair of the defect. CONCLUSION: The partial bone healing of the segmental defect occurred with low or none performance of the biomaterials tested.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade osteo-regenerativa de dois biomateriais utilizando um modelo de defeito segmentar efetuado nas diáfises do rádio de coelhos. MÉTODOS: O defeito direito foi preenchido com pool de proteínas morfogenéticas ósseas (pBMPs e hidroxiapatita em pó ultrafina absorvível (HA combinada com matriz óssea inorgânica desmineralizada e colágeno, derivados do osso bovino (Grupo A. O defeito esquerdo foi preenchido com matriz óssea desmineralizada bovina com pBMPs e hidroxiapatita em p

  10. Repair of segmental bone defects with bone marrow and BMP-2 adenovirus in the rabbit radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijia; Lu, Xiaofeng; Shi, Yujun; Li, Li; Xue, Jing; Zhang, Li; Xia, Jie; Wang, Yujia; Zhang, Xingdong; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is approached via implantation of autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), marrow cells, or platelet-rich plasma, etc. To the contrary, gene therapy combining with the bone marrow (BM) has not been often reported. This study was performed to investigate whether a modified BTE method, that is, the BM and a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 adenovirus (Ad.hBMP-2) gene administering in hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramics could accelerate the healing of segmental defects in the rabbit radius. In our study, ceramics were immersed in the adenovirus overnight, and half an hour before surgery, autologous BM aspirates were thoroughly mixed with the ceramics; at the same time, a 15-mm radius defect was introduced in the bilateral forelimbs of all animals, after that, this defect was filled with the following: (1) Ad.hBMP-2 + HA/β-TCP + autologous BM (group 1); (2) HA/β-TCP + Ad.hBMP-2 (group 2); (3) HA/β-TCP alone (group 3); (4) an empty defect as a control (group 4). Histological observation and μ-CT analyses were performed on the specimens at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, respectively. In group 1, new bone was observed at week 4 and BM appeared at week 12, in groups 2 and 3, new bone was observed at week 8 and it was more mature at week 12, in contrast, the defect was not bridged in group 4 at week 12. The new bone area percentage in group 1 was significantly higher than that in groups 2 and 3. Our study indicated that BM combined with hBMP-2 adenovirus and porous ceramics could significantly increase the amount of newly formed bone. And this modified BTE method thus might have potentials in future clinical application.

  11. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  12. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  13. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in the cartilage and subchondral bone repair of dogs - Histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Eleotério

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate nutraceuticals are commonly used in the management of degenerative articular disease in veterinary routine. However, there are controversies on the contribution of these substances to articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate-based veterinary nutraceutical on the repair of an induced osteochondral defect in a dog femoral condyle, by macroscopic, histological and histomorphometric analyses. The nutraceutical was orally administered the day following injury induction, every 24 hours (treated group, TG, n=24, compared with animals that did not receive the product (control group, CG, n=24. Six animals per group were anaesthetized for sample collection at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after surgery. At 15 days, defects were macroscopically filled with red-pinkish tissue. After 30 days, whitish color tissue was observed, both in TG and CG animals, with firmer consistency to touch at 60 and 90 postoperative days. Histological analysis demonstrated that, in both groups, there was initial blood clot formation, which was subsequently substituted by a fibrin net, with capillary proliferation from the adjacent bone marrow and infiltration of mesenchymal cells in clot periphery. As cellular differentiation developed, repair tissue presented a fibrocartilage aspect most of the time, and new subchondral bone formation occurred in the deepest area corresponding to the defect. Histomorphometry suggested that the nutraceutical did not favor the articular cartilage repair process. It was concluded that nutraceutical did not significantly influence chondrocytes proliferation or hyaline architecture restoration.

  14. Repair of sheep long bone cortical defects filled with COLLOSS, COLLOSS E, OSSAPLAST, and fresh iliac crest autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, William E; Benedict, James J; Turner, A S; Briest, Arne; Rettenmaier, Robert; Springer, Marco; Walboomers, X F

    2007-08-01

    COLLOSS and COLLOSS E are osteoinductive bone void fillers consisting of bone collagen and noncollagenous proteins from bovine and equine bone, respectively. The aim of this study was to compare COLLOSS, COLLOSS E, iliac bone autograft, sintered beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP; OSSAPLAST), and COLLOSS E plus OSSAPLAST. Materials were placed for 4, 8, or 24 weeks in 5-mm cortical bone defects in sheep long bones. Histological sections in a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the bone were used to measure the total repair area (original defect plus callus) and the area of bone within the total repair area. The incidence of defect union was also evaluated. At 4 and 8 weeks, defects treated with COLLOSS and COLLOSS E with or without OSSAPLAST had total repair and bone areas equivalent to autograft, and larger than OSSAPLAST-treated defects. At 8 weeks, the incidence of defect union was higher in defects treated with autograft or COLLOSS E plus OSSAPLAST than in untreated defects. At 24 weeks, the incidence of union was 100% in all treatment groups and 0% in untreated defects. The incidence of union was related to the degree of remodeling between 8 and 24 weeks. This was greater in all treated than nontreated defects. In conclusion, COLLOSS and COLLOSS E were equivalent to each other and to autograft, and superior to beta-TCP, in this study model.

  15. Founder's award to Antonios G. Mikos, Ph.D., 2011 Society for Biomaterials annual meeting and exposition, Orlando, Florida, April 13-16, 2011: Bones to biomaterials and back again--20 years of taking cues from nature to engineer synthetic polymer scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretlow, James D; Mikos, Antonios G

    2011-09-01

    For biomaterials scientists focusing on tissue engineering applications, the gold standard material is healthy, autologous tissue. Ideal material properties and construct design parameters are thus both obvious and often times unachievable; additional considerations such as construct delivery and the underlying pathology necessitating new tissue yield additional design challenges with solutions that are not evident in nature. For the past nearly two decades, our laboratory and collaborators have aimed to develop both new biomaterials and a better understanding of the complex interplay between material and host tissue to facilitate bone and cartilage regeneration. Various approaches have ranged from mimicking native tissue material properties and architecture to developing systems for bioactive molecule delivery as soluble factors or bound directly to the biomaterial substrate. Such technologies have allowed others and us to design synthetic biomaterials incorporating increasing levels of complexity found in native tissues with promising advances made toward translational success. Recent work focuses on translation of these technologies in specific clinical situations through the use of adjunctive biomaterials designed to address existing pathologies or guide host-material integration.

  16. The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Pathway, Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein Inhibitors, and Their Roles in Bone Repair and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs are oxygen-dependent transcriptional activators that play crucial roles in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, energy metabolism, and cell fate decisions. The group of enzymes that can catalyse the hydroxylation reaction of HIF-1 is prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs. PHD inhibitors (PHIs activate the HIF pathway by preventing degradation of HIF-α via inhibiting PHDs. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are tightly coupled during bone repair and regeneration. Numerous studies suggest that HIFs and their target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, are critical regulators of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. In this brief perspective, we review current studies about the HIF pathway and its role in bone repair and regeneration, as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Additionally, we briefly discuss the therapeutic manipulation of HIFs and VEGF in bone repair and bone tumours. This review will expand our knowledge of biology of HIFs, PHDs, PHD inhibitors, and bone regeneration, and it may also aid the design of novel therapies for accelerating bone repair and regeneration or inhibiting bone tumours.

  17. Repair of rat cranial bone defect by using bone morphogenetic protein-2-related peptide combined with microspheres composed of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfeng; Jin, Lin; Wang, Mingbo; Zhu, Shaobo; Xu, Shuyun

    2015-07-08

    The effects of the transplanted bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) -related peptide P24 and rhBMP2 combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan (CS) microspheres were investigated in promoting the repair of rat cranial bone defect. Forty white rats were selected and equally divided into four groups (group A: 1 μg of rhBMP2/PLGA/CS composite; group B: 3 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group C: 0.5 μg of rhBMP2 + 1.5 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group D: blank PLGA/CS material), and rat cranial bone defect models with a diameter of 5 mm were established. The materials were transplanted to the cranial bone defects. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 6 and 12 post-operation. Radiographic examinations (x-ray imaging and 3D CT scanning) and histological evaluations were performed. The repaired areas of cranial bone defects were measured, and the osteogenetic abilities of various materials were compared. Cranial histology, imaging, and repaired area measurements showed that the osteogenetic effects at two time points (weeks 6 and 12) in group C were better than those in groups A and B. The effects in groups A and B were similar. Group D achieved the worst repair effect of cranial bone defects, where a large number of fibrous connective tissues were observed. The PLGA/CS composite microspheres loaded with rhBMP2 and P24 had optimal concrescence and could mutually increase their osteogenesis capability. rhBMP2 + P24/PLGA/CS composite is a novel material for bone defect repair with stable activity to induce bone formation.

  18. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with core decompression and bone grafting in the repair of osteonecrosis of femoral head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Wang Nan; Yang Li-feng; Ma Ji; Li Zhi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Core decompression alone for osteonecrosis of femoral head easily causes fovea of femoral head and colapse of inner microstructure. Therefore, autologous bone is needed for filing and supporting. Moreover, bone marrow stem cel transplantation can decrease the incidence of femoral head colapse. OBJECTIVE:To discuss the clinical effects of core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels for osteonecrosis of femoral head. METHODS: A total of 33 patients were treated by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels in the Fourth Department of Bone Surgery, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical Colege in China from December 2012 to May 2013. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After the treatment by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels, Harris hip function score increased and pain disappeared in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head. They could do various labors. Radiographs or CT examination displayed normal femoral head in 30 hips, accounting for 79%. Pain significantly reduced. Normal or slight limp walking was found in 15 hips, accounting for 40%. There were 35 hips in patients, whose walking distance was extended, accounting for 92%. 24 hips dysfunction was improved markedly, accounting for 63%. Al results suggested that core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels improved the local blood supply of femoral head, and played a positive role in promoting the necrotic bone absorption and bone repairing.

  19. Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP of hydroxyapatite (HA and tricalcium phosphate (TCP as bone substitutes: Importance of physicochemical characterizations in biomaterials studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP: Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research” [1]. This article provides in depth study of BCP bone substitutes as valuable option in the field of tissue engineering. However, there are discrepancies in the literature regarding the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP and the ideal balance between different phase compositions for enhanced bone tissue engineering (M. Ebrahimi, M.G. Botelho, S.V. Dorozhkin, 2016; M. Ebrahimi, P. Pripatnanont, S. Suttapreyasri, N. Monmaturapoj, 2014 [1,2]. This is found to be mainly because of improper characterization of BCP bioceramics in basic studies and lack of standard study protocols in in vitro and in vivo research. This data article along with original article provide the basic data required for ideal characterization of BCP and other bioceramics in an attempt to provide basic standardized protocols for future studies.

  20. Biomaterials for craniofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials for reconstruction of bony defects of the skull comprise of osteosynthetic materials applied after osteotomies or traumatic fractures and materials to fill bony defects which result from malformation, trauma or tumor resections. Other applications concern functional augmentations for dental implants or aesthetic augmentations in the facial region.For ostheosynthesis, mini- and microplates made from titanium alloys provide major advantages concerning biocompatibility, stability and individual fitting to the implant bed. The necessity of removing asymptomatic plates and screws after fracture healing is still a controversial issue. Risks and costs of secondary surgery for removal face a low rate of complications (due to corrosion products when the material remains in situ. Resorbable osteosynthesis systems have similar mechanical stability and are especially useful in the growing skull.The huge variety of biomaterials for the reconstruction of bony defects makes it difficult to decide which material is adequate for which indication and for which site. The optimal biomaterial that meets every requirement (e.g. biocompatibility, stability, intraoperative fitting, product safety, low costs etc. does not exist. The different material types are (autogenic bone and many alloplastics such as metals (mainly titanium, ceramics, plastics and composites. Future developments aim to improve physical and biological properties, especially regarding surface interactions. To date, tissue engineered bone is far from routine clinical application.

  1. Compatibility of embryonic stem cells with biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Berr, Karin; Depprich, Rita; Naujoks, Christian; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich; Ommerborn, Michelle; Lammers, Lydia

    2009-05-01

    Periodontal bone defects and atrophy of the jaws in an aging population are of special concern. Tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and biomaterials may offer new therapeutic options. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the compatibility of ESCs with biomaterials and the influence of biomaterials on the osteogenic gene expression profile.Therefore, ESCs are cultured with various biomaterials. The cytocompatibility of murine ESCs is measured regarding the proliferation of the cells on the materials by CyQUANT assay, the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and the influence on the gene expression by real time PCR.The results show that insoluble collagenous bone matrix, followed by beta-tricalciumphosphate, is most suitable for bone tissue engineering regarding cell proliferation, and phenotype. The gene expression analysis indicates that biomaterials do influence the gene expression of ESCs.Our results provide new insight into the cytocompatibility of ESCs on different scaffolds.

  2. Delivery Systems for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) for Repair of Battle Incurred Bone Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    infections, congenital malformations that fail to heal are eligible for BMP treatment. I (my child/my ward) will be one of 50 patients to be treated with...Fusions in Dogs 6. Craniotomy Defects in Sheep t0 7. Craniotomy Defects in Monkeys 10 8. BMP Delivery System of Bone Matrix Non Collagenous 11 Proteins...effects. The most important and indispensptle substitutes for experiments in human beings are adult mongrel dogs, monkeys, and sheep . Experimental .S

  3. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in mesenchymal stemcell stimulation of cartilage and bone repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix-associated bone morphogeneticproteins (BMPs) govern a plethora of biological processes.The BMPs are members of the transforming growthfactor-β protein superfamily, and they actively participateto kidney development, digit and limb formation,angiogenesis, tissue fibrosis and tumor development.Since their discovery, they have attracted attentionfor their fascinating perspectives in the regenerativemedicine and tissue engineering fields. BMPs havebeen employed in many preclinical and clinical studiesexploring their chondrogenic or osteoinductive potentialin several animal model defects and in human diseases.During years of research in particular two BMPs, BMP2and BMP7 have gained the podium for their use inthe treatment of various cartilage and bone defects.In particular they have been recently approved foremployment in non-union fractures as adjunct therapies.On the other hand, thanks to their potentialities inbiomedical applications, there is a growing interest instudying the biology of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC),the rules underneath their differentiation abilities, andto test their true abilities in tissue engineering. In fact,the specific differentiation of MSCs into targeted celltypelineages for transplantation is a primary goal of theregenerative medicine. This review provides an overviewon the current knowledge of BMP roles and signaling inMSC biology and differentiation capacities. In particularthe article focuses on the potential clinical use of BMPsand MSCs concomitantly, in cartilage and bone tissuerepair.

  4. The Effect of Local Delivery Doxycycline and Alendronate on Bone Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limirio, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Batista, Jonas Dantas; Guimarães-Henriques, João César; de Melo, Geraldo Batista; Dechichi, Paula

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the local effect of 10% doxycycline and 1% alendronate combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on bone repair. Thirty rats were divided into three groups, as follows: control group (CG), drug group (DG), and vehicle-PLGA group (VG). Bone defect was created in the right femur and filled with the following: blood clot (CG); PLGA gel, 10% doxycycline and 1% alendronate (DG); or vehicle-PLGA (VG). The animals were euthanized 7 or 15 days after surgery. Bone density, bone matrix and number of osteoclasts were quantified. At 7 days, the findings showed increased density in DG (177.75 ± 76.5) compared with CG (80.37 ± 27.4), but no difference compared with VG (147.1 ± 41.5); no statistical difference in bone neoformation CG (25.6 ± 4.8), VG (27.8 ± 4), and DG (18.9 ± 7.8); and decrease osteoclasts in DG (4.6 ± 1.9) compared with CG (26.7 ± 7.4) and VG (17.3 ± 2.7). At 15 days, DG (405.1 ± 63.1) presented higher density than CG (213.2 ± 60.9) and VG (283.4 ± 85.8); there was a significant increase in percentage of bone neoformation in DG (31.5 ± 4.2) compared with CG (23 ± 4), but no difference compared with VG (25.1 ± 2.9). There was a decreased number of osteoclasts in DG (20.7 ± 4.7) and VG (29.5 ± 5.4) compared with CG (40 ± 9.4). The results suggest that the association of 10% doxycycline and 1% alendronate with PLGA-accelerated bone repair.

  5. Biomechanical Stability of Dental Implants in Augmented Maxillary Sites: Results of a Randomized Clinical Study with Four Different Biomaterials and PRF and a Biological View on Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troedhan Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bone regenerates mainly by periosteal and endosteal humoral and cellular activity, which is given only little concern in surgical techniques and choice of bone grafts for guided bone regeneration. This study investigates on a clinical level the biomechanical stability of augmented sites in maxillary bone when a new class of moldable, self-hardening calcium-phosphate biomaterials (SHB is used with and without the addition of Platelet Rich Fibrin (aPRF in the Piezotome-enhanced subperiosteal tunnel-technique (PeSPTT. Material and Methods. 82 patients with horizontal atrophy of anterior maxillary crest were treated with PeSPTT and randomly assigned biphasic (60% HA/40% bTCP or monophasic (100% bTCP SHB without or with addition of aPRF. 109 implants were inserted into the augmented sites after 8.3 months and the insertion-torque-value (ITV measured as clinical expression of the (biomechanical stability of the augmented bone and compared to ITVs of a prior study in sinus lifting. Results. Significant better results of (biomechanical stability almost by two-fold, expressed by higher ITVs compared to native bone, were achieved with the used biomaterials and more constant results with the addition of aPRF. Conclusion. The use of SHB alone or combined with aPRF seems to be favourable to achieve a superior (biomechanical stable restored alveolar bone.

  6. Repair of segmental long bone defect in a rabbit radius nonunion model: comparison of cylindrical porous titanium and hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Guang-lin; Zhang, Hong-fang; Hu, Xu-dong; Shi, Xiao-yuan; Li, Sen; Lin, Wei

    2014-06-01

    A segmental long bone defect in a rabbit radius nonunion model was repaired using cylindrical porous titanium (Ti) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. Each scaffold was produced using the same method, namely, a slurry foaming method. Repairing ability was characterized using x-radiographic score 12 and 24 weeks postprocedure; failure load of the radius-ulna construct, under three-point bending, 12 weeks postprocedure; and the percentage of newly formed bone within the implant, 12 and 24 weeks after postprocedure. For each of these parameters, the difference in the results when porous Ti scaffold was used compared with when HA scaffolds were used was not significant; both porous scaffolds showed excellent repairing ability. Because the trabecular bone is a porous tissue, the interconnected porous scaffolds have the advantages of natural bone, and vasculature can grow into the porous structure to accelerate the osteoconduction and osteointegration between the implant and bone. The porous Ti scaffold not only enhanced the bone repair process, similar to porous HA scaffolds, but also has superior biomechanical properties. The present results suggest that porous Ti scaffolds may have promise for use in the clinical setting.

  7. Beta-nerve growth factor promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis during the repair of bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-hui Chen; Chuan-qing Mao; Li-li Zhuo; Joo L Ong

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the repair of bone defects is regulated by neural and vascular signals. In the present study, we examined the effect of topically appliedβ-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) on neurogenesis and angiogenesis in critical-sized bone defects iflled with collagen bone substi-tute. We created two symmetrical defects, 2.5 mm in diameter, on either side of the parietal bone of the skull, and filled them with bone substitute. Subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse 10 μgβ-NGF in PBS (β-NGF + PBS) into the right-hand side defect, and PBS into the left (control) defect, over the 7 days following surgery. Immunohistochemical staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining were carried out at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postoperatively. On day 7, expression of β III-tubulin was lower on theβ-NGF + PBS side than on the control side, and that of neuroiflament 160 was greater. On day 14,β III-tubulin and protein gene product 9.5 were greater on theβ-NGF + PBS side than on the control side. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was greater on the experimental side than the control side at 7 days, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression was elevated on days 14 and 21, but lower than control levels on day 28. However, no difference in the number of blood vessels was observed between sides. Our results indicate that topical application ofβ-NGF promoted neu-rogenesis, and may modulate angiogenesis by promoting nerve regeneration in collagen bone substitute-iflled defects.

  8. The use of the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone to repair craniofacial skeleton injuries in Macaca mulatta (Rhesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelo-Nunes José Mário

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone to repair craniofacial skeleton injuries in primates. METHODS: Ten Rhesus monkeys underwent surgery in two stages. In the first stage, four bone fragments were harvested from the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone and were transplanted two on the calvaria's frontal bone and the other two onto the maxillary bone, by onlay and inlay. Seven weeks thereafter, four fragments were extracted from the transplantated area. The animals were not sacrificed. RESULTS: Macroscopic examination reveals bone regeneration, the areas onto which the bone fragments were transplantated having consequently increased in volume. The results of optical and electron microscopy is being carried out.

  9. Repairing rabbit radial defects by combining bone marrow stroma stem cells with bone scaffold material comprising a core-cladding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Liu, G H; Wu, Q; Yu, B

    2015-10-05

    We prepared a bone scaffold material comprising a PLGA/β-TCP core and a Type I collagen cladding, and recombined it with bone marrow stroma stem cells (BMSCs) to evaluate its potential for use in bone tissue engineering by in vivo and in vitro experiments. PLGA/β-TCP without a cladding was used for comparison. The adherence rate of the BMSCs to the scaffold was determined by cell counting. Cell proliferation rate was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The osteogenic capability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity. The scaffold materials were recombined with the BMSCs and implanted into a large segmental rabbit radial defect model to evaluate defect repair. Osteogenesis was assessed in the scaffold materials by histological and double immunofluorescence labeling, etc. The adherence number, proliferation number, and alkaline phosphatase expression of the cells on the bone scaffold material with core-cladding structure were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold material (P cladding structure completely degraded at the bone defect site and bone formation was completed. The rabbit large sentimental radial defect was successfully repaired. The degradation and osteogenesis rates matched well. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure exhibited better osteogenic activity and capacity to repair a large segmental bone defect compared to the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure has excellent physical properties and biocompatibility. It is an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Effect of laser phototherapy on human alveolar bone repair: micro tomographic and histomorphometrical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Marcia M. A.; Marques, Márcia M.; Cortes, Arthur R. G.; Horliana, Anna C. R. T.; Moreira, Maria S.; Lascala, Cesar A.

    2015-06-01

    The immediate dental implant placement in the molars region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between the alveolar crest thickness and the dental implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair thus could accelerate the implant placement. Twenty patients were selected for the study. Ten patients were submitted to LPT with GaAlAs diode laser (808nm) during molar extraction, immediately after, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7 days. The irradiations were applied in contact and punctual mode (100mW, 0.04cm2, 0.75J/cm2, 30s per point, 3J per point). The control group (n=10) received the same treatment; however with the power of the laser off. Forty days later samples of the tissue formed inside the sockets were obtained for further microtomography (microCTs) and histomorphometry analyses. Data were compared by the Student t test, whereas those from the different microCT parameters were compared by the Pearson correlation test (pbone volume, as well as area was significantly higher (pbone repair. By the Pearson correlation test it was possible to infer that the lased group presented a more homogeneous trabecular configuration, which would allow earlier dental implant placement.

  11. Assessment of the influence of Laser phototherapy on the bone repair process of complete fractures in tibiae of rabbits stabilized with semi-rigid internal fixation treated with or without MTA graft: a histological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luiz G. P.; Silva, Aline C. P.; Silva, Anna Paula L. T.; Neves, Bruno Luiz R. C.; Santos, Nicole R. S.; dos Santos, Jean N.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2016-03-01

    Beside biomaterials, Laser phototherapy has shown positive effects as auxiliary therapy in bone repair process, especially when involving large bone losses. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate, by light microscopy, the influence of laser phototherapy on the repair of complete tibial fractures in rabbits treated or not with semi-rigid internal fixation and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate - MTA graft. Twelve Rabbits were randomly divided into four groups with three animals each. After general anesthesia, complete fractures were created in one tibia with a carborundum disk. All animals (groups I-IV) had the fracture stabilized with semi-rigid fixation (wire osteosynthesis - WO). Group I was routinely fixed with WO; groups II and IV fracture was filled by blood clot and MTA implant. In Groups III and IV fracture was filled by blood clot and further irradiated with laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW, CW, Φ = 0.04 cm2, 20.4 J/cm2, per session, t = 300s, 142.8 J/cm2 per treatment). The phototherapy protocol was applied immediately after the surgery and repeated each 48 hours during 15 days. Animal death occurred on the 30th postoperative day. After removal of the specimens, the samples were routinely processed, stained with HE and evaluated by light microscopy. Histologically, the group treated with MTA graft and irradiated with laser showed the fracture filled by a more organized and mature trabecular bone, when compared with all other groups. From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that the association of Laser phototherapy + MTA graft in fractures treated with WO improved bone repair when compared with fractures treated only with WO.

  12. Evaluation of the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of erythropoietin and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human erythropoietin scaffold on bone defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Xie, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhouyuan; Kang, Pengde

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) could promote the angiogenesis and may also play a role in bone regeneration. This study was conducted to evaluate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of EPO and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human EPO scaffold on bone defect repair. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to build goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with DBB/rhEPO scaffolds (group A), porous DBB scaffolds (group B), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group C), and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The grey value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects and the outcome revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group B (P 0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections and the results demonstrated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group B (P 0.05) at 4, 8, 12 weeks respectively. In addition, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical testing and real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P 0.05). Therefore, EPO has significant effects on bone formation and angiogenesis, and has capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. It is worthy of being recommended to further studies.

  13. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  14. Demineralized bone matrix combined bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-β3 gene promoted pig cartilage defect repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a combination of demineralized bone matrix (DBM and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs infected with adenovirus-mediated- bone morphogenetic protein (Ad-BMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β3 (Ad-TGF-β3 promotes the repair of the full-thickness cartilage lesions in pig model. METHODS: BMSCs isolated from pig were cultured and infected with Ad-BMP-2(B group, Ad-TGF-β3 (T group, Ad-BMP-2 + Ad-TGF-β3(BT group, cells infected with empty Ad served as a negative group(N group, the expression of the BMP-2 and TGF-β3 were confirmed by immunofluorescence, PCR, and ELISA, the expression of SOX-9, type II collagen(COL-2A, aggrecan (ACAN in each group were evaluated by real-time PCR at 1w, 2w, 3w, respectively. The chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was evaluated by type II collagen at 21d with immunohistochemical staining. The third-passage BMSCs infected with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 were suspended and cultured with DBM for 6 days to construct a new type of tissue engineering scaffold to repair full-thickness cartilage lesions in the femur condyles of pig knee, the regenerated tissue was evaluated at 1,2 and 3 months after surgery by gross appearance, H&E, safranin O staining and O'driscoll score. RESULTS: Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 (BT group infected cells acquired strong type II collagen staining compared with Ad-BMP-2 (B group and Ad-TGF-β3 (T group along. The Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 infected BMSCs adhered and propagated well in DBM and the new type of tissue engineering scaffold produced hyaline cartilage morphology containing a stronger type II collagen and safranin O staining, the O'driscoll score was higher than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The DBM compound with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 infected BMSCs scaffold has a good biocompatibility and could well induce cartilage regeneration to repair the defects of joint cartilage. This technology may be efficiently employed for cartilage lesions repair in vivo.

  15. Effect of freezing temperature in thermally induced phase separation method in hydroxyapatite/chitosan-based bone scaffold biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albab, Muh Fadhil; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Ramahdita, Ghiska

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan-based bone scaffold has been fabricated using Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) method under freezing temperature variation of -20, -30, -40 and -80 °C. The samples with weight percent ratio of 70% HA and 30% chitosan were homogeneously mixed and subsequently dissolved in 2% acetic acid. The synthesized samples were further characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), compressive test and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation results showed that low freezing temperature reduced the pore size and increased the compressive strength of the scaffold. In the freezing temperature of -20 °C, the pore size was 133.93 µm with the compressive strength of 5.9 KPa, while for -80 °C, the pore size declined to 60.55 µm with the compressive strength 29.8 KPa. Considering the obtained characteristics, HA/chitosan obtained in this work has potential to be applied as a bone scaffold.

  16. Transplantation of neurotrophin-3-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Dong; Libin Yang; Lin Yang; Hongxing Zhao; Chao Zhang; Dapeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been shown to be therapeutic in the repair of spinal cord injury. However, the low survival rate of transplanted bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells in vivo remains a problem. Neurotrophin-3 promotes motor neuron survival and it is hypothesized that its transfection can enhance the therapeutic effect. We show that in vitro transfection of neurotrophin-3 gene increases the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the region of spinal cord injury. These results indicate that neurotrophin-3 can promote the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into the region of spinal cord injury and potentially enhance the therapeutic effect in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  17. Enhancement of osteogenesis and biodegradation control by brushite coating on Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy for mandibular bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xingmin; Xiong, Meiping; Zeng, Feiyue; Xu, Bin; Yang, Lingdi; Guo, Han; Niu, Jialin; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chenxin; Pei, Jia; Huang, Hua; Yuan, Guangyin

    2014-12-10

    To diminish incongruity between bone regeneration and biodegradation of implant magnesium alloy applied for mandibular bone repair, a brushite coating was deposited on a matrix of a Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (hereafter, denoted as JDBM) alloy to control the degradation rate of the implant and enhance osteogenesis of the mandible bone. Both in vitro and in vivo evaluations were carried out in the present work. Viability and adhesion assays of rabbit bone marrow mesenchyal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) were applied to determine the biocompatibility of a brushite-coated JDBM alloy. Osteogenic gene expression was characterized by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Brushite-coated JDBM screws were implanted into mandible bones of rabbits for 1, 4, and 7 months, respectively, using 316L stainless steel screws as a control group. In vivo biodegradation rate was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography, and osteogenesis was observed and evaluated using Van Gieson's picric acid-fuchsin. Both the naked JDBM and brushite-coated JDBM samples revealed adequate biosafety and biocompatibility as bone repair substitutes. In vitro results showed that brushite-coated JDBM considerably induced osteogenic differentiation of rBM-MSCs. And in vivo experiments indicated that brushite-coated JDBM screws presented advantages in osteoconductivity and osteogenesis of mandible bone of rabbits. Degradation rate was suppressed at a lower level at the initial stage of implantation when new bone tissue formed. Brushite, which can enhance oeteogenesis and partly control the degradation rate of an implant, is an appropriate coating for JDBM alloys used for mandibular repair. The Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy with brushite coating possesses great potential for clinical applications for mandibular repair.

  18. [Experimental study on application recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2(rhBMP-2)/poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/fibrin sealant(FS) on repair of rabbit radial bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongkai; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Mingchao; Lu, Wei; Tang, Lei; Yao, Qi; Lu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the repair of rabbit radial bone defect by the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/poly-lactideco-glycolic acid microsphere with fibrin sealant (rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS). The radial bone defect models were prepared using New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups, experiment group which were injected with eMP-2/PLGA/FS at bone defect location, control group which were injected with FS at bone defect location, and blank control group without treatment. The ability of repairing bone defect was evaluated with X-ray radiograph. Bone mineral density in the defect regions was analysed using the level of ossification. The osteogenetic ability of repairing bone defect, the degradation of the material, the morphologic change and the bone formation were assessed by HE staining and Masson staining. The result showed that rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS had overwhelming superiority in the osteogenetic ability and quality of bone defect over the control group, and it could promote the repair of bone defect and could especially repair the radial bone defect of rabbit well. It may be a promising and efficient synthetic bone graft.

  19. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Zhang; Xijing He; Haopeng Li; Guoyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury.

  20. Diabetes mellitus impairs tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Asheesh; Fox, Alice J.S.; Harris, Paul E.; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Ying, Liang; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Studies have demonstrated a significant decrease in skeletal mass, bone mineral density, and impaired fracture healing in the diabetic population. However, the effect of sustained hyperglycemia on tendon-to-bone healing is unknown. Materials and methods Forty-eight male, Lewis rats underwent unilateral detachment of the supraspinatus tendon followed by immediate anatomic repair with transosseous fixation. In the experimental group (n = 24), diabetes was induced preoperatively via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg) and confirmed with both pre- and post-STZ injection intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT). Animals were sacrificed at 1 and 2 weeks post-operatively for biomechanical, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analysis. Serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured at 2 weeks postoperatively. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student t tests with significance set at P diabetic compared to control animals (P diabetic and control groups, respectively (P Diabetic animals demonstrated significantly less fibrocartilage and organized collagen, and increased AGE deposition at the tendon-bone interface (P diabetic animals demonstrated a significantly reduced ultimate load-to-failure (4.79 ± 1.33N vs 1.60 ± 1.67N and 13.63 ± 2.33N vs 6.0 ± 3.24N for control versus diabetic animals at 1 and 2 weeks, respectively) and stiffness compared to control animals (P diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. Level of Evidence Basic Science Study. PMID:20303293

  1. Cell and protein compatible 3D bioprinting of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawkins, M J; Mistry, P; Brown, B N; Shakesheff, K M; Bonassar, L J; Yang, J

    2015-07-02

    Rapid prototyping of bone tissue engineering constructs often utilizes elevated temperatures, organic solvents and/or UV light for materials processing. These harsh conditions may prevent the incorporation of cells and therapeutic proteins in the fabrication processes. Here we developed a method for using bioprinting to produce constructs from a thermoresponsive microparticulate material based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) at ambient conditions. These constructs could be engineered with yield stresses of up to 1.22 MPa and Young's moduli of up to 57.3 MPa which are within the range of properties of human cancellous bone. Further study showed that protein-releasing microspheres could be incorporated into the bioprinted constructs. The release of the model protein lysozyme from bioprinted constructs was sustainted for a period of 15 days and a high degree of protein activity could be measured up to day 9. This work suggests that bioprinting is a viable route to the production of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair under mild conditions which allow the inclusion of viable cells and active proteins.

  2. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Peres Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18 or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18, based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC and the bone volume (BV/TV. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05. Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants.

  3. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Rovaris, Karla; Haiter, Francisco; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18) or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18), based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT) examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the bone volume (BV/TV). Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05). Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants. PMID:27008256

  4. Biomaterials by freeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schecter, Matthew; Donius, Amalie E; Hunger, Philipp M

    2010-04-28

    The functional requirements for synthetic tissue substitutes appear deceptively simple: they should provide a porous matrix with interconnecting porosity and surface properties that promote rapid tissue ingrowth; at the same time, they should possess sufficient stiffness, strength and toughness to prevent crushing under physiological loads until full integration and healing are reached. Despite extensive efforts and first encouraging results, current biomaterials for tissue regeneration tend to suffer common limitations: insufficient tissue-material interaction and an inherent lack of strength and toughness associated with porosity. The challenge persists to synthesize materials that mimic both structure and mechanical performance of the natural tissue and permit strong tissue-implant interfaces to be formed. In the case of bone substitute materials, for example, the goal is to engineer high-performance composites with effective properties that, similar to natural mineralized tissue, exceed by orders of magnitude the properties of its constituents. It is still difficult with current technology to emulate in synthetic biomaterials multi-level hierarchical composite structures that are thought to be the origin of the observed mechanical property amplification in biological materials. Freeze casting permits to manufacture such complex, hybrid materials through excellent control of structural and mechanical properties. As a processing technique for the manufacture of biomaterials, freeze casting therefore has great promise.

  5. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai ZY

    2015-10-01

    the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after implanting n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials, and lamellar bone gradually formed at 12 weeks and 24 weeks after implantation. Routine blood and kidney function tests showed no significant changes at 2 weeks and 24 weeks after implantation of both biomaterials.Conclusion: n-CDHA/PAA composites showed good compatibility in in vivo model. In this study, n-CDHA/PAA were found to be safe, nontoxic, and biologically active in bone repair. Keywords: in vivo implantation, histological evaluation, n-CDHA/PAA, bioactive composite

  6. The rational use of animal models in the evaluation of novel bone regenerative therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Perić, Mihaela; DUMIĆ-ČULE, Ivo; Grčević, Danka; Matijašić, Mario; Verbanac, Donatella; Paul, Ruth; Grgurević, Lovorka; Trkulja, Vladimir; Bagi, Čedo M.; Vukičević, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Bone has a high potential for endogenous self-repair. However, due to population aging, human diseases with impaired bone regeneration are on the rise. Current strategies to facilitate bone healing include various biomolecules, cellular therapies, biomaterials and different combinations of these. Animal models for testing novel regenerative therapies remain the gold standard in pre-clinical phases of drug discovery and development. Despite improvements in animal experimentation, excessive poo...

  7. Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge biocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R d’Aquino

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used a biocomplex constructed from dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs and a collagen sponge scaffold for oro-maxillo-facial (OMF bone tissue repair in patients requiring extraction of their third molars. The experiments were carried out according to our Internal Ethical Committee Guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from the patients. The patients presented with bilateral bone reabsorption of the alveolar ridge distal to the second molar secondary to impaction of the third molar on the cortical alveolar lamina, producing a defect without walls, of at least 1.5 cm in height. This clinical condition does not permit spontaneous bone repair after extraction of the third molar, and eventually leads to loss also of the adjacent second molar. Maxillary third molars were extracted first for DPC isolation and expansion. The cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge scaffold and the obtained biocomplex was used to fill in the injury site left by extraction of the mandibular third molars. Three months after autologous DPC grafting, alveolar bone of patients had optimal vertical repair and complete restoration of periodontal tissue back to the second molars, as assessed by clinical probing and X-rays. Histological observations clearly demonstrated the complete regeneration of bone at the injury site. Optimal bone regeneration was evident one year after grafting. This clinical study demonstrates that a DPC/collagen sponge biocomplex can completely restore human mandible bone defects and indicates that this cell population could be used for the repair and/or regeneration of tissues and organs.

  8. Expression of various growth factors for cell proliferation and cytodifferentiation during fracture repair of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fukuda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined immunohistochemically the fracture repair process in rat tibial bone using antibodies to PCNA, BMP2, TGF-b 1,-2,-3, TGF-b R1,- R2, bFGF, bFGFR, PDGF, VEGF, and S-100. The peak level of cell proliferation as revealed by PCNA labelling appeared first in primitive mesenchymal cells and inflammatory cells at the fracture edges and neighboring periosteum at 2-days after fracture, followed by the peaks of periosteal primitive fibroblasts and chondroblasts, which appeared at fracture edges at 3- and 4-days after fracture, respectively. BMP2 was weakly positive in primitive mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts and chondroblasts. At 3-days post-fracture, periosteal osteoblasts produced osteoid tissue and callus with marrow spaces lined by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and all primitive mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts were positive for TGF-b 1,-2,-3, and TGF-b R1,-R2. They were also positive for vascular growth factors bFGF, FGFR and PDGF, but negative for VEGF, and the peak of PCNA labelling of vascular endothelial cells in the marrow space was delayed to 4-days after fracture. Chondroblasts at fracture edges produced hypertrophic chondrocytes at 5-days after fracture and they were positive for TGF-b 1,-2,-3, and TGF-b R1,-R2. Primitive chondroblasts were positive for vascular growth factors VEGF as well as bFGF, FGFR, and the peak of PCNA labelling of vascular endothelial cells in the cartilage was at 5-days after fracture. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were also positive for these growth factors but negative for bFGF and bFGFR. S-100 protein-induced calcification was only positive on chondroblasts and hypertrophic chondrocytes. At 7-days after fracture, bone began to be formed from the cartilage at fracture edges, by a process similar to bone formation in the growth plate. Enchondral ossification established a bridge between both fracture edges and periosteal membranous ossification encompassed the fracture site like a sheath at 14- day after

  9. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  10. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-yu; Cao, Jia-qing; Huang, Jing-huan; Zhang, Jie-yuan; Jia, Wei-tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-sheng; Li, Xiao-lin

    2017-01-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration. PMID:28230059

  11. Stem cells of the suture mesenchyme in craniofacial bone development, repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jeong, Jaeim; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Hsu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The suture mesenchyme serves as a growth centre for calvarial morphogenesis and has been postulated to act as the niche for skeletal stem cells. Aberrant gene regulation causes suture dysmorphogenesis resulting in craniosynostosis, one of the most common craniofacial deformities. Owing to various limitations, especially the lack of suture stem cell isolation, reconstruction of large craniofacial bone defects remains highly challenging. Here we provide the first evidence for an Axin2-expressing stem cell population with long-term self-renewing, clonal expanding and differentiating abilities during calvarial development and homeostastic maintenance. These cells, which reside in the suture midline, contribute directly to injury repair and skeletal regeneration in a cell autonomous fashion. Our findings demonstrate their true identity as skeletal stem cells with innate capacities to replace the damaged skeleton in cell-based therapy, and permit further elucidation of the stem cell-mediated craniofacial skeletogenesis, leading to revealing the complex nature of congenital disease and regenerative medicine.

  12. Tissue engineering technology and biomaterials for repair of sports articular cartilage injury%组织工程技术及生物材料修复运动性关节软骨损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金玉; 薛媛; 杨洪武

    2011-01-01

    January 1993 to October 2010 was performed for related articles, using "articular cartilage, tissue engineering technology, biomaterials" for the Chinese key words and "tissue engineering, articular cartilage, scaffold material" for the English key words, duplicated research or Meta analysis were eliminated. Twenty-three papers mainly discuss seed cells,scaffolds, cytokines and their properties in the repair of sports articular cartilage injury.RESULTS : Totally 104 studies were screened out by computer search, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies regarding the seed cells and bio-scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering, as well as cytokines for tissue engineering were summarized and analyzed. Seed cells are the primary factor restricting clinical application of tissue engineered cartilage, the common seed cells include cartilage cells, bone marrow stromal stem cells and embryonic stem cells; bio-scaffold materials includes natural materials and synthetic biodegradable polymers; the growth factors for cartilage tissue engineering include transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and so on.CONCLUSION: So far, there is no ideal materials for the seed cells and scaffold materials of engineered cartilage, as well as culture environment, the focus of future research is a kind of tissue engineered articular cartilage with good performance.However, many studies are still in the experimental stage, and some problems need to be solved, especially after tissue engineering scaffolds are implanted, whether the material degradation is synchronized with cell functioning, thus altering genetic materials, gene expression or gene mutation, their clinical application requires relevant scholars and experts to constantly practice and explore.

  13. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis of human alveolar bone repair induced by laser phototherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, M M A; Marques, M M; Cortes, A R G; Horliana, A C R T; Moreira, M S; Lascala, C A

    2015-12-01

    Immediate dental implant placement in the molar region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between alveolar crest thickness and the implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human alveolar bone repair 40 days after molar extraction in patients submitted to LPT. Twenty patients were selected for this randomized controlled clinical trial; 10 underwent LPT (laser group) with a GaAlAs diode laser (808 nm, 100 mW, 0.04 cm(2), 75 J/cm(2), 30s per point, 3 J per point, at five points). The control group patients (n=10) were not irradiated. Forty days later, the tissue formed inside the sockets was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Data from the two groups were compared with Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. The relative bone volume was significantly higher in the laser group (Palveolar bone repair after molar extraction, leading to a more homogeneous trabecular configuration represented by thin and close trabeculae.

  14. The RAPIDOS project—European and Chinese collaborative research on biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eglin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research project entitled “rapid prototyping of custom-made bone-forming tissue engineering constructs” (RAPIDOS is one of the three unique projects that are the result of the first coordinated call for research proposals in biomaterials launched by the European Union Commission and the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2013 for facilitating bilateral translational research. We formed the RAPIDOS European and Chinese consortium with the aim of applying technologies creating custom-made tissue engineered constructs made of resorbable polymer and calcium phosphate ceramic composites specifically designed by integrating the following: (1 imaging and information technologies, (2 biomaterials and process engineering, and (3 biological and biomedical engineering for novel and truly translational bone repair solutions. Advanced solid free form fabrication technologies, precise stereolithography, and low-temperature rapid prototyping provide the necessary control to create innovative high-resolution medical implants. The use of Chinese medicine extracts, such as the bone anabolic factor icaritin, which has been shown to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and enhance bone healing in vivo, is a safe and technologically relevant alternative to the intensely debated growth factors delivery strategies. This unique initiative driven by a global consortium is expected to accelerate scientific progress in the important field of biomaterials and to foster strong scientific cooperation between China and Europe.

  15. Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakwatanisa, Bosco; Enywaku, Alfred; Kiwanuka, Martin; Lamunu, Claire; Mbowa, Nicholas; Mukiibi, Denis; Namayega, Catherine; Ngabirano, Beryl; Ntambi, Henry; Reichert, William

    2016-01-01

    Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is emblematic of large public hospitals across East Africa. Information gathering was conducted through student interviews with Mulago physicians because there were no archival records. The students divided themselves into seven project groups covering biomaterials use in the areas of wound closure, dental and oral surgery, cardiology, burn care, bone repair, ophthalmology and total joint replacement. As in the developed world, the majority of biomaterials used in Mulago are basic wound closure materials, dental materials, and bone fixation materials, all of which are comparatively inexpensive, easy to store, and readily available from either the government or local suppliers; however, there were significant issues with the implant supply chain, affordability, and patient compliance and follow-up in cases where specialty expertise and expensive implants were employed.

  16. Bone-repair properties of biodegradable hydroxyapatite nano-rod superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elía, Noelia L.; Mathieu, Colleen; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Laiuppa, Juan A.; Santillán, Graciela E.; Messina, Paula V.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures for the in vitro conditions of bone-repair. Experiments are underway to investigate the effects of the material microstructure, surface roughness and hydrophilicity on their osseo-integration, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction abilities. Materials were tested in the presence of both, rat primary osteoblasts and rabbit mesenchymal stem cells. The following aspects are discussed: (i) cytotoxicity and material degradation; (ii) rat osteoblast spreading, proliferation and differentiation; and (iii) rabbit mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on nano-HAp and nano-HAp/collagen type I coatings. We effectively prepared a material based on biomimetic HAp nano-rods displaying the appropriate surface topography, hydrophilicity and degradation properties to induce the in vitro desired cellular responses for bone bonding and healing. Cells seeded on the selected material readily attached, proliferated and differentiated, as confirmed by cell viability, mitochondrial metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cytoskeletal integrity analysis by immunofluorescence localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein. These results highlight the influence of material's surface characteristics to determine their tissue regeneration potential and their future use in engineering osteogenic scaffolds for orthopedic implants.Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures

  17. Use of a graft of demineralized bone matrix along with TGF-β1 leads to an early bone repair in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin-Trujillo, Miguel Angel; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge Alberto; Garrido-Fariña, German; Flores-Gazca, Enrique; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises; Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2011-09-01

    Tibia fractures are common in small animal practice. Over the past decade, improvements to animal internal fracture fixation have been developed. TGF-β1 has been shown to be crucial in the development, induction and repair of bone. In present study, we investigate the effect of local application of a graft demineralized bone matrix (DBM) along with TGF-β1 in a model of open osteotomy induced experimentally in dogs. Tibia fracture was brought about by using an open osteotomy model in young male dogs. Fracture repair was evaluated by a histological and biochemical analysis. Collagen content, proteolytic activity and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression were analyzed at the end of the study. Radiographic analysis, alkaline phosphatase and hematological evaluation were performed weekly. At the fifth week, there was an improvement and restoration of bone architecture in animals treated with a graft containing TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) compared with the control and graft groups, as was evidenced by the presence of an early formation of wide callus and bone regeneration. In addition, local application of TGF-β1 led to an increase in collagen and proteolytic activity. More immunopositive osteoclast and mesenchymal cells were found in bone tissue from animals treated with TGF-β1 as compared with the control group. No changes in alkaline phosphatase, hematological and clinical parameters were observed. This study shows that the combined use of DBM along with TGF-β1 is able to improve and accelerate the bone repair.

  18. Expression of TGF-β in Region of Bone Defect Repaired by Collagen/Nano-beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Artificial Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌翔; 陈卫民; 刘胜洪; 王罡

    2003-01-01

    The distribution and function of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in the regionof bone defect repaired by collagen/nano-beta-tricalcium phosphate composite artificial bone (Co/N-TCP) and the ability of Co/N-TCP recruiting osteoblasts to precipitate the repair of bone defectwere investigated. Twenty-four domestic rabbits were operated on bilateral cranial bone to create anexperimental bone defect of 8.0 mm in diameter through the whole bone. On the left, Co/N-TCPwas implanted as experimental group, but on the right, Co/TCP was implanted as control group.At 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th week after operation, all animals were sacrificed and the implanted materi-als with surrounding bone were taken out. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for TGF-βassay by avidin-biotin complex method (SABC). Simultaneously, TGF-β was quantitatively ana-lyzed by HPIAS-1000 imaging analysis system. The inmmunohistochemical staining for TGFβ re-vealed that osteoblasts and immature osteocytes highly expressed TGF-β. Diffused TGF-β positivestaining particles appeared in the mesenchymal and fibrous-tissue. There was no significant differ-ence in the TGF-β positive staining between two groups in the medial region to original osseous bedsat different time points (P>0. 05). However, in distal original osseous bed of the defected region,the positive expression of TGF-β in the Co/N-TCP group was significantly stronger than in the con-trol group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The Co/N-TCP has good bioactivities and ability of stimulating andconducting TGF-β to aggregate and precipitate the healing of bone defect.

  19. PLGA/TCP composite scaffold incorporating bioactive phytomolecule icaritin for enhancement of bone defect repair in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-H; Lei, M; Xie, X-H; Zheng, L-Z; Yao, D; Wang, X-L; Li, W; Zhao, Z; Kong, A; Xiao, D-M; Wang, D-P; Pan, X-H; Wang, Y-X; Qin, L

    2013-05-01

    Bone defect repair is challenging in orthopaedic clinics. For treatment of large bone defects, bone grafting remains the method of choice for the majority of surgeons, as it fills spaces and provides support to enhance biological bone repair. As therapeutic agents are desirable for enhancing bone healing, this study was designed to develop such a bioactive composite scaffold (PLGA/TCP/ICT) made of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as a basic carrier, incorporating a phytomolecule icaritin (ICT), i.e., a novel osteogenic exogenous growth factor. PLGA/TCP/ICT scaffolds were fabricated as PLGA/TCP (control group) and PLGA/TCP in tandem with low/mid/high-dose ICT (LICT/MICT/HICT groups, respectively). To evaluate the in vivo osteogenic and angiogenic potentials of these bioactive scaffolds with slow release of osteogenic ICT, the authors established a 12 mm ulnar bone defect model in rabbits. X-ray and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography results at weeks 2, 4 and 8 post-surgery showed more newly formed bone within bone defects implanted with PLGA/TCP/ICT scaffolds, especially PLGA/TCP/MICT scaffold. Histological results at weeks 4 and 8 also demonstrated more newly mineralized bone in PLGA/TCP/ICT groups, especially in the PLGA/TCP/MICT group, with correspondingly more new vessel ingrowth. These findings may form a good foundation for potential clinical validation of this innovative bioactive scaffold incorporated with the proper amount of osteopromotive phytomolecule ICT as a ready product for clinical applications.

  20. Cartilage repair and subchondral bone migration using 3D printing osteochondral composites: a one-year-period study in rabbit trochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; He, Jiankang; Jin, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences show that subchondral bone may play a significant role in the repair or progression of cartilage damage in situ. However, the exact change of subchondral bone during osteochondral repair is still poorly understood. In this paper, biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technology using PEG hydrogel and β-TCP ceramic and then implanted in rabbit trochlea within a critical size defect model. Animals were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after implantation. Histological results showed that hyaline-like cartilage formed along with white smooth surface and invisible margin at 24 weeks postoperatively, typical tidemark formation at 52 weeks. The repaired subchondral bone formed from 16 to 52 weeks in a "flow like" manner from surrounding bone to the defect center gradually. Statistical analysis illustrated that both subchondral bone volume and migration area percentage were highly correlated with the gross appearance Wayne score of repaired cartilage. Therefore, subchondral bone migration is related to cartilage repair for critical size osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the subchondral bone remodeling proceeds in a "flow like" manner and repaired cartilage with tidemark implies that the biphasic PEG/β-TCP composites fabricated by 3D printing provides a feasible strategy for osteochondral tissue engineering application.

  1. Cartilage Repair and Subchondral Bone Migration Using 3D Printing Osteochondral Composites: A One-Year-Period Study in Rabbit Trochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidences show that subchondral bone may play a significant role in the repair or progression of cartilage damage in situ. However, the exact change of subchondral bone during osteochondral repair is still poorly understood. In this paper, biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technology using PEG hydrogel and β-TCP ceramic and then implanted in rabbit trochlea within a critical size defect model. Animals were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after implantation. Histological results showed that hyaline-like cartilage formed along with white smooth surface and invisible margin at 24 weeks postoperatively, typical tidemark formation at 52 weeks. The repaired subchondral bone formed from 16 to 52 weeks in a “flow like” manner from surrounding bone to the defect center gradually. Statistical analysis illustrated that both subchondral bone volume and migration area percentage were highly correlated with the gross appearance Wayne score of repaired cartilage. Therefore, subchondral bone migration is related to cartilage repair for critical size osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the subchondral bone remodeling proceeds in a “flow like” manner and repaired cartilage with tidemark implies that the biphasic PEG/β-TCP composites fabricated by 3D printing provides a feasible strategy for osteochondral tissue engineering application.

  2. Effect of Chitosan on Tissue Repair in Bone Tissue Engineering%壳聚糖对骨组织工程中组织修复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦延鹏; 李立华; 罗丙红; 周长忍

    2012-01-01

    Materials implanted in the body would inevitably lead to host response, promoting or inhibiting tissue heal- ing. The degradation products of biodegradable materials in the body will change with time, resulting in different host re- sponses and further affecting tissue healing. Therefore, the mechanism of promoting or inhibiting tissue healing becomes the theoretical basis for the design and preparation of novel biomedical polymer materials. Chitosan is one of the ideal med- ical polymer materials, but we still do not know the effect mechanism of chitosan degradation process on tissue repair in vi- vo. So it will not be able to design chitosan-based materials with excellent performance. This review does not lay out the progress of the chitosan-based biomaterials applied in bone tissue engineering, but focuses on the complexity of chitosan applications for bone tissue engineering, furthermore investigates the problems needed to be solved for chitosan used in bone tissue engineering.%材料植入体内必然引起宿主体的应答,促进或抑制组织愈合。由于降解材料在体内的降解产物会随时间而变,产生的宿主体应答就会不同,进而会影响组织的愈合。而促进或抑制组织愈合的机制就成为新型医用高分子材料设计和制备的理论基础。壳聚糖是理想的骨组织修复材料之一,但至今还不清楚壳聚糖体内不同降解过程对组织修复的影响机制,也就无法设计出性能优良的壳聚糖基新材料。文章没有罗列壳聚糖基生物材料在骨组织工程中应用所取得的进展,而是重点阐述了壳聚糖在骨组织工程中应用的复杂性和对组织修复的影响,探讨了壳聚糖进一步用于骨组织工程所需要解决的问题。

  3. Platelet-rich plasma-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells versus autologous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsuo Xia; Yajuan Li; Wen Cao; Zhaohua Yu

    2010-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard of peripheral nerve repair.We previously showed that autologous platelet-rich plasma(PRP)contains high concentrations of growth factors and can induce in vitro cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)to differentiate into Schwann cells.Here we used PRP-induced BMSCs combined with chemically extracted acellular nerves to repair sciatic nerve defects and compared the effect with autologous nerve grafting.The BMSCs and chemically extracted acellular nerve promoted target muscle wet weight restoration,motor nerve conduction velocity,and axonal and myelin sheath regeneration,with similar effectiveness to autologous nerve grafting.This finding suggests that PRP induced BMSCs can be used to repair peripheral nerve defects.

  4. An animal model study for bone repair with encapsulated differentiated osteoblasts from adipose-derived stem cells in alginate

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemibeni, Batool; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Sadeghi, Farzaneh; Heidary, Fariba; Roshankhah, Shiva; Mardani, Mohammad; Goharian, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be engineered to express bone specific markers. The aim of this study is to evaluate repairing tibia in animal model with differentiated osteoblasts from autologous ADSCs in alginate scaffold. Materials and Methods: In this study, 6 canine's ADSCs were encapsulated in alginate and differentiated into osteoblasts. Alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP) and RT-PCR method were applied to confirm the osteogenic induction. Then, encapsulated different...

  5. An animal model study for bone repair with encapsulated differentiated osteoblasts from adipose-derived stem cells in alginate

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Roshankhah; Mohammad Mardani; Vahid Goharian

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be engineered to express bone specific markers. The aim of this study is to evaluate repairing tibia in animal model with differentiated osteoblasts from autologous ADSCs in alginate scaffold. Materials and Methods: In this study, 6 canine’s ADSCs were encapsulated in alginate and differentiated into osteoblasts. Alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP) and RT-PCR method were applied to confirm the osteogenic induction. Then, encapsulated differ...

  6. Transfect bone marrow stromal cells with pcDNA3.1-VEGF to construct tissue engineered bone in defect repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Hai-peng; ZHANG Xi-hua; LU Zhi-hua; LIN Yong-liang; LI Jing-jing; YIN Qing-feng; ZHAO Dong-mei; WANG Shao-jin; LI Jian-min; WANG Hai-bin

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously showed that nano-hydroxyapatite/carboxymethyl chitosan (n-Ha/CMCS) displayed excellent mechanical properties,good degradation rates and exceptional biocompatibility,with negligible toxicity.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the same composite with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-transfected bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a rabbit radial defect model.Methods The nano-hydroxyapatite was produced through co-precipitation.The n-HA/CMCS scaffold was produced by particle filtration and lyophilization followed by genipin crosslinking.Total RNA from rabbit bone was reverse-transcribed to synthesize VEGF165-pcDNA3.1 that was transfected into the BMSCs.The composite was implanted into a rabbit radial defect model,and the osteogenic activity examined by gross morphology,X-ray examination and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining.Results The microstructure and mechanical property of the n-HNCMCS scaffold resembled natural cancellous bone.Compared with glutaric dialdehyde crosslinked scaffolds,the genipin crosslinked scaffold was less toxic,and displayed a higher capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation.Spontaneous fluorescence of the composite permitted visualization of the composite-bone interface and the adhesion behavior of cells on the scaffold under laser scanning confocal microscopy.The scaffold with VEGF-transfected BMSCs bridged the bony defect and promoted healing,with most of the implanted material being replaced by natural bone over time with little residual implant.Using X-ray,we noted obvious callus formation and recanalization of the bone marrow cavity.Furthermore,HE stained sections showed new cortical bone formation.Conclusions The n-HA/CMCS scaffold composite with VEGF-trasnfected BMSCs is biocompatible,nontoxic,promotes the infiltration and formation of the microcirculation,and stimulates bone defect repair.Furthermore,the degradation rate of the composite matched that of growing bone

  7. Preparation and Evaluations of Mangiferin-Loaded PLGA Scaffolds for Alveolar Bone Repair Treatment Under the Diabetic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liao, Hongbing; Bao, Chongyun; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a sustained-release mangiferin scaffold for improving alveolar bone defect repair in diabetes. Mangiferin-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying technique with ice particles as the porogen material. The produced scaffolds were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Drug content and drug release were detected using a spectrophotometer. Degradation behaviors were monitored as a measure of weight loss and examined using SEM. Then, the scaffolds were incubated with rat bone marrow stromal cells under the diabetic condition in vitro, and cell viability was assessed using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Afterward, the scaffolds were implanted into alveolar bone defects of diabetic rats, and bone repair was examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The fabricated scaffolds showed porous structures, with average pore size range from 111.35 to 169.45 μm. A higher PLGA concentration led to decreased average pore size. A lower PLGA concentration or a higher mangiferin concentration resulted in increased drug content. The prepared scaffolds released mangiferin in a sustained manner with relatively low initial burst during 10 weeks. Their degradation ratios gradually increased as degradation proceeded. The mangiferin-loaded scaffolds attenuated cell viability decrease under the diabetic condition in vitro. Moreover, they increased histological scorings of bone regeneration and improved delayed alveolar bone defect healing in diabetic rats. These results suggest that the produced mangiferin-loaded scaffolds may provide a potential approach in the treatment of impaired alveolar bone healing in diabetes.

  8. A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo testing of biomaterials for bone regeneration: results of a multicentre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsart-Billström, G; Dawson, J I; Hofmann, S; Müller, R; Stoddart, M J; Alini, M; Redl, H; El Haj, A; Brown, R; Salih, V; Hilborn, J; Larsson, S; Oreffo, R O

    2016-05-24

    New regenerative materials and approaches need to be assessed through reliable and comparable methods for rapid translation to the clinic. There is a considerable need for proven in vitro assays that are able to reduce the burden on animal testing, by allowing assessment of biomaterial utility predictive of the results currently obtained through in vivo studies. The purpose of this multicentre review was to investigate the correlation between existing in vitro results with in vivo outcomes observed for a range of biomaterials. Members from the European consortium BioDesign, comprising 8 universities in a European multicentre study, provided data from 36 in vivo studies and 47 in vitro assays testing 93 different biomaterials. The outcomes of the in vitro and in vivo experiments were scored according to commonly recognised measures of success relevant to each experiment. The correlation of in vitro with in vivo scores for each assay alone and in combination was assessed. A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo assessments of biomaterials was revealed indicating a clear need for further development of relevant in vitro assays. There was no significant overall correlation between in vitro and in vivo outcome. The mean in vitro scores revealed a trend of covariance to in vivo score with 58 %. The inadequacies of the current in vitro assessments highlighted here further stress the need for the development of novel approaches to in vitro biomaterial testing and validated pre-clinical pipelines.

  9. The structural characterization of some biomaterials, type AISI 310, used in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciuna, M. G.; Vizureanu, P.; Hanganu, C.; Achitei, D. C.; Popescu, D. C.; Focsaneanu, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    Orthopedics biomaterials are intended for implantation in the human body and substituted or help to repair of bones, cartilage or organ transplant, and tendons. At the end of the 20th century, the availability of materials for the manufacture implants used in medicine has been the same as for other industrial applications. The most used metals for manufacturing the orthopedics implants are: stainless steels, cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloys, titanium and his alloys. The structural researches which are made in this paper, offer a complete analysis of AISI310 stainless steels, using: optical spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy.

  10. The effect of deferoxamine on angiogenesis and bone repair in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of rabbit femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Fan, Lihong; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether local deferoxamine (DFO) administration can promote angiogenesis and bone repair in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Steroid-induced ONFH was induced in 65 mature male New Zealand white rabbits by methylprednisolone in combination with lipopolysaccharide. Six weeks later, the rabbits received no treatment (model group, N = 15), bilateral core decompression (CD group, N = 20) or CD in combination with local DFO administration (DFO group, N = 20). Six weeks after the surgery, vascularization in the femoral head was evaluated by ink artery infusion angiography and immunohistochemical staining for von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Bone repair was assessed by histologic analysis and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyze the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and osteocalcin (OCN). Ink artery infusion angiography and microvessel analysis by immuohistochemical staining for vWF showed more blood vessels in the DFO group than other groups. The expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, BMP-2, and OCN, indicated by immunohistochemical staining, was higher in the DFO group compared with other groups. Micro-CT scanning results indicated that the DFO group had larger volume of newly formed bone than the CD group. This work indicated that local DFO administration improved angiogenesis and bone repair of early stage ONFH in rabbit model, and it may offer an efficient, economic, and simple therapy for early stage ONFH.

  11. The effects of stress- relaxation plate on disorganization and repair of regional bone structure: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of stress-relaxation plate on disorganization and repair of the cortex beneath the plate. Methods: A washer made of viscoelastic polyethylene was placed between the screw and the screw hole of conventional stainless rigid plate (RP) to produce a stressrelaxation plate (SRP). Both SRP and RP were applied to osteotomized tibia in 48 New Zealand rabbits. Healing process of the fracture with either SRP or RP fixation (control) was comparatively studied with polarized light microscopy, in situ hybridization of collagen mRNA and immunohistochemical technique from 2 to 36 weeks postoperatively. Results: The study of plated bone remodeling showed that the degree of cortex osteoporosis beneath the plate was similar between the SRP and RP group within 12 weeks postoperatively. In comparison, the disorganization of bone structure in SRP group happened later and milder than that of RP group, and the repair process began at 12 weeks after implantation. As a consequence, the absorption cavities became smaller and the structure of collagen fibers became well oriented along with these changes by polarized light microscopy. In addition to these, the in situ hybridization analysis of collagen genes and the immunohistochemical study of type Ⅰ , Ⅲ collagen showed that the osteoblasts lying on the surface of absorption cavities expressed and synthesized type Ⅰ collagen at 8 to 12 weeks after implantation. From this time on, the changes above became more evident significantly before most of cavities were repaired by 36 weeks. In contrast to the changes in the SRP group, no expression and synthesis of any kind of collagen could be observed during 12 to 36 weeks after implantation in RP group. Conclusions: Without removal of the bone plate, the SRP fixation not only reduces the degree of plated bone osteoporosis, but also makes the disorganized bone structure restored to normal in terms of the expression and synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen mRNA of

  12. Bioactive behavior of silicon substituted calcium phosphate based bioceramics for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ather Farooq; Saleem, Muhammad; Afzal, Adeel; Ali, Asghar; Khan, Afsar; Khan, Abdur Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely used for bone regeneration and repair in defect sites resulting from aging, disease, trauma, or accident. With invariably increasing clinical demands, there is an urgent need to produce artificial materials, which are readily available and are capable of fast and guided skeletal repair. Calcium phosphate based bioactive ceramics are extensively utilized in bone regeneration and repair applications. Silicon is often utilized as a substituent or a dopant in these bioceramics, since it significantly enhances the ultimate properties of conventional biomaterials such as surface chemical structure, mechanical strength, bioactivity, biocompatibility, etc. This article presents an overview of the silicon substituted bioceramics, which have emerged as efficient bone replacement and bone regeneration materials. Thus, the role of silicon in enhancing the biological performance and bone forming capabilities of conventional calcium phosphate based bioceramics is identified and reviewed.

  13. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects grafted with bovine bone in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; da Costa Lino, Maíra Doria Martinez; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Cangussu, Maria Cristina; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there is a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder such as Diabetes Mellitus, a systemic disorder associated to impair of the repair of different tissues. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic rats treated or not with LLLT (λ780nm, 70mW, CW, o/˜0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) associated or not to the use of a biomaterial. Surgical tibial bone defects were created in 60 animals that were divided into 4 groups: Group B (non-diabetic + biomaterial); Group BL (non-diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT); Group BD (diabetic + biomaterial); Group BDL (diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT). The irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into 4 points around the defect, being the first irradiation carried out immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The specimens underwent a semi-quantitative analysis. The results showed inflammation more intense in the BD and BDL groups than in the B and BL groups in the period of 15 days (p = 0.02), however the cortical repair in the BDL group was below 25% in more than half of the specimens, while in the BD group, the repair was more than to 25% in all specimens. At 30 days, both osteoblastic activity and collagen deposition were significantly higher in the B group when compared to the BD group (p=0.04). Bone deposition was significantly higher in the BL group (p=0.023) than in BDL group. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect in the early stages of the healing process of bone defects grafted with biomaterial in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  14. Tissue-engineered bone repairs sheep alveolar bone defects%组织工程化骨修复羊牙槽骨缺损***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 杨川博; 何惠宇; 崔杰; 杨楠; 马文渊

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Fol owing physicochemical treatment and high-temperature calcinations, heterogeneous biological bone becomes a ceramic-like heterologous bone forming a similar structure to the human bone that is a natural network pore structure, which is conducive to seed cel adhesion and proliferation. OBJECTIVE:To observe the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered bone through combination of sintered bone and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s to repair alveolar defects. METHODS:Sheep bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s as seed cel s were combined with the high temperature sintered bone as scaffold materials to construct tissue-engineered bone. Under general anesthesia, sheep bilateral mandibular first premolars were removed in batches, the alveolar ridge space between the distal root and mesial root of the second premolar to form a bone defect area of 5 mm×5 mm×5 mm. Twelve experimental sheep were equal y randomized into tissue-engineered bone group and sintered bone group, which were implanted with tissue-engineered bone and sintered bone, respectively, at the left surgical area of the mandible. The right surgical area was considered as blank control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After high-temperature calcinations, the sintered bone was chalk in color, exhibiting a porous structure as the natural cancel ous bone. The porosity was (66.10±1.32)%, and the pore size was between 137.44μm and 538.72μm. After 24 hours of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s inoculated to the sintered bone, a large number of cel s are visible adherent to the scaffold;up to day 7, extracel ular matrix was secreted and there was no clear boundary between the cel s and the matrix. X-ray films showed that the tissue-engineered bone and pure sintered bone implants were embedded in the surgical area, and there was a low-density shadow at the edge of the sintered bone. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed bone trabecular formation at the experimental side, but no obvious bone formation at

  15. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H2O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H2O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H2O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  16. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  17. In vitro osteoinductive potential of porous monetite for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering–based bone grafts are emerging as a viable alternative treatment modality to repair and regenerate tissues damaged as a result of disease or injury. The choice of the biomaterial component is a critical determinant of the success of the graft or scaffold; essentially, it must induce and allow native tissue integration, and most importantly mimic the hierarchical structure of the native bone. Calcium ...

  18. Rapid bone repair in a patient with lung cancer metastases to the spine using a novel herbal medicine: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of lung carcinoma with metastasis to the bone, particularly to the spine, is poor. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are established treatments for metastatic bone disease, but their effectiveness is unsatisfactory and bone repair following their use is slow and difficult. Medicine prepared from herbal extracts may be an alternative treatment option. The present study discusses the case of a 59-year-old patient diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer (T2N3M1) in which first-line ch...

  19. Thoracic bone remodeling after minimally invasive repair for pectus excavatum in adults and its clinical efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-fu LIU

    2012-04-01

    manubrium exhibited forward displacement of 2.34mm, which did not exhibit any significant difference with the pre-operative values. The CT image showed the cardiac position returned to normal after operation. The thoracic appearances when two bars were used were better compared with that using one bar. Conclusions The strength of the reshaping bar is useful in thoracic bone remodeling after minimally invasive repair for PE in adult. Thoracic bone remodeling using one bar or two bars showed different change regularities and mechanisms of mechanics.

  20. Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Every day thousands of surgical procedures are performed to replace or repair tissue that has been damaged through disease or trauma. The developing field of tissue engineering (TE aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue. This article describes the functional requirements, and types, of materials used in developing state of the art of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, it describes the challenges and where future research and direction is required in this rapidly advancing field.

  1. The Experimental Research in Repairing the Bone Defect Around Dental Implant by a New Type Material%Gel-HA-M/PRP复合材料对种植体周围骨缺损修复的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚新华; 周健; 李全利; 孙传锋; 窦晓晨

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察明胶-羟基磷灰石-米诺环素(Gel-HA-M)纳米复合物与富血小板血浆(platelet-rich plasma,PRP)复合(GEL-HA-M/PRP)修复种植体周围骨缺损的效果,探讨其作为种植体周围骨缺损修复材料的可行性.方法:普通健康杂种犬6只,拔除双侧下颌第二、三、四前磨牙,3个月后每侧拔牙处植入3枚直径4 mm、长11 mm的种植体,并于钛钉周围制造宽约1.5mm、深4mm的环形骨缺损,分别植入自体骨、Gel-HA-M/PRP,最后为空白作为对照.种植术后4、8、12周各处死2只动物,进行大体、影像学及组织学观察.结果:实验组种植体周围骨缺损区较空白对照组新骨形成量多、外形好,并未见材料剩余;自体骨组可见成熟骨组织,较多新骨形成,同时有少量骨吸收存在;空白组主要为纤维性结合,有少量的骨组织再生.结论:提示Gel-HA-M纳米复合物的PRP复合凝胶能够促进种植体周围骨缺损的修复.%Objective: To investigate the feasibility of a hybrid biomaterial gelatin-apatite-minocycline nanocomposite combined with platelet-rich plasma (Gel-HA-M/PRP) to repair the bone defects around dental implants.Methods: 6 healthy mongrel dogs, their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th premolars were extracted from both sides of the mandible.Three months after extraction, 3 implants with the diameter of 4 mm and length of 11 mm were separately implanted in each side of the mandible.At the same time, a bone defect with the size of 1.5 mm in width and 4 mm in depth was created around the neck of each implant.The bone defects were grafted with autogenous bone, Gel-HA-M/PRP, and kept void as control respectively.Every 2 dogs were sacrificed at 4-, 8-, and 12-week respectively after the implantation.Specimen were examined by X-ray and histopathology sections.Results: In hybrid material grafted wounds, more new bone formation were observed, the Gel-HA-M nanocomposite was fully adsorbed.In autogenous bone grafted wounds, mature bone and a few

  2. Porous alumina, zirconia and alumina/zirconia for bone repair: fabrication, mechanical and in vitro biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Buyakov, Ales; Buyakova, Svetlana; Kulkov, Sergey; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-04-23

    Zirconia (ZrO2) and alumina (Al2O3) based ceramics are widely used for load-bearing applications in bone repair due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. They are often regarded as bioinert since no direct bone-material interface is created unless a porous structure intercedes, leading to better bone bonding. In this regard, investigating interactions between cells and porous ceramics is of great interest. In the present study, we report on the successful fabrication of sintered alumina A-61, zirconia Z-50 and zirconia/alumina composite ZA-60 ceramics with medium porosities of 61, 50 and 60%, respectively, indicating a bimodal pore size distribution and good interconnectivity. They exhibit elastic moduli of 3-10 GPa and compressive strength values of 60-240 MPa, similar to those of human cortical bone.We performed in vitro cell-material investigations comparing the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mouse pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 on the three porous materials. While all three ceramics demonstrate a strong cell attachment, better cell spreading is observed on zirconia-containing substrates. Significantly higher cell growth was quantified on the latter ceramics, revealing an increased alkaline phosphatase activity, higher collagen production and increased calcium biomineralization compared to A-61. Hence, these porous zirconia-containing ceramics elicit superior biological responses over porous alumina of similar porosity, promoting enhanced biological interaction, with potential use as non-degradable bone grafts or as implant coatings.

  3. The RANK/ RANKL/ OPG interaction in the repair of autogenous bone grafts in female rats with estrogen deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábata de Mello TERA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the resorption process during the repair of autogenous bone grafts with or without coverage by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE membrane in female rats with estrogen deficiency using the immunohistochemical technique. Eighty female rats were randomly divided into two groups (OVX and SHAM. The 40 female rats in the OVX group were subjected to ovariectomy, and the 40 female rats in the SHAM group were subjected to simulated ovariectomy. The two groups were further divided in subgroup E, which was subjected to surgery for placement of autogenous bone graft (ABG, and subgroup ME, in which the ABG was covered with an e-PTFE membrane. The animals were killed at 0, 7, 21, 45 and 60 days. The specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for the bone resorption markers RANK, RANK-L and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. A higher remodeling rate was observed at 7 and 21 days after the autogenous bone grafts, when the markers were more intensely expressed. At the final time point, the specimens presented similar characteristics to those observed at the initial time point. The expression of immunohistochemical markers was not altered by the estrogen deficiency. The presence of the e-PTFE membrane delayed the bone resorption process, influencing the immunohistochemical expression of markers.

  4. Adhesion and growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on precise-geometry 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffolds for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinikolaidou, Maria; Rekstyte, Sima; Danilevicius, Paulius; Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Papadaki, Helen; Farsari, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell-material combination in bone tissue engineering.

  5. A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo testing of biomaterials for bone regeneration:results of a multicentre analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    New regenerative materials and approaches need to be assessed through reliable and comparable methods for rapid translation to the clinic. There is a considerable need for proven in vitro assays that are able to reduce the burden on animal testing, by allowing assessment of biomaterial utility predictive of the results currently obtained through in vivo studies. The purpose of this multicentre review was to investigate the correlation between existing in vitro results with in vivo outcomes ob...

  6. Isolation and implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with fibrin micro beads to repair a critical-size bone defect in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Alon; Rivkin, Rachel; Frishman, Miryam; Gaberman, Elena; Levdansky, Lilia; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2009-09-01

    Fibrin microbeads (FMBs) made using thermal treatment of fibrin drops in oil can efficiently isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow (BM) and other similar sources and culture them continuously in suspension culture. The pure mesenchymal profile of MSCs isolated using FMBs and their differentiation potency to different mesenchymal lineages were previously described in detail. In the current study, MSCs were isolated from the BM of (GFP+) C57/bl mice using FMBs. Addition of pro-osteogenic medium with 10 mM of ss-glycerolphosphate, 50 microg/mL of ascorbic acid, and 10(-8) M of dexamethasone for 1 month resulted in ossified bone-like solid cellular structures, as seen using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such spontaneously formed structures were implanted in full-depth approximately 5-mm-diameter drilled defects in the skulls of wild-type c57/bl mice. Two months later, the excised upper parts of the skulls with the defects were viewed using fluorescence microscopy for green fluorescence protein of the cells in the defect and using SEM. They were also scanned using micro-computed tomography to visualize the formation of new hard tissue. Then the samples were processed and sectioned for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Implanted FMBs loaded with (GFP+) MSCs formed partially mature, dense bone-like tissue using a residual moderate inflammatory process containing remnants of FMBs and neo-angiogenesis. The filled defect with bone-like tissue had a Ca/P ratio similar to that of native bone. Limited merging of the implant with the skull indicated that the induced bone regeneration derived from the MSCs that were delivered with the implant. No repair was seen in the control animals without implants or where the defect was filled with FMBs only. Repair scoring (on a 0-5 scale) was found to be 3.38+/-0.35 in the experimental arm, relative to 0 in the controls (p < 0.001).

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics of Bone Substitutes Used in Oral Surgery in Comparison to Autogenous Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Berberi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes used in oral surgery include allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials that are frequently used to compensate bone loss or to reinforce repaired bone, but little is currently known about their physicochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate a number of physical and chemical properties in a variety of granulated mineral-based biomaterials used in dentistry and to compare them with those of autogenous bone. Autogenous bone and eight commercial biomaterials of human, bovine, and synthetic origins were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrometry, and laser diffraction to determine their chemical composition, calcium release concentration, crystallinity, and granulation size. The highest calcium release concentration was 24. 94 mg/g for Puros and the lowest one was 2.83 mg/g for Ingenios β-TCP compared to 20.15 mg/g for natural bone. The range of particles sizes, in terms of median size D50, varied between 1.32 μm for BioOss and 902.41 μm for OsteoSponge, compared to 282.1 μm for natural bone. All samples displayed a similar hexagonal shape as bone, except Ingenios β-TCP, Macrobone, and OsteoSponge, which showed rhomboid and triclinic shapes, respectively. Commercial bone substitutes significantly differ in terms of calcium concentration, particle size, and crystallinity, which may affect their in vivo performance.

  8. Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP): Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Botelho, Michael G; Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2017-02-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) bioceramics have become the materials of choice in various orthopedic and maxillofacial bone repair procedures. One of their main advantages is their biodegradation rate that can be modified by changing the proportional ratio of the composition phases. For enhanced bone tissue regeneration, the bioactivity of BCP should be increased by optimizing their physicochemical properties. To date, the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP for bone applications have not been defined. This is mostly related to lack of standard study protocols in biomaterial science especially with regards to their characterizations and clinical applications. In this paper we provided a review on BCP and their physicochemical properties relevant to clinical applications. In addition, we summarized the available literature on their use in animal models and evaluated the influences of different composition ratios on bone healing. Controversies in literature with regards to ideal composition ratio of BCP have also been discussed in detail. We illustrated the discrepancies in study protocols among researchers in animal studies and emphasized the need to develop and follow a set of generally accepted standardized guidelines. Finally; we provided general recommendations for future pre-clinical studies that allow better standardization of study protocols. This will allow better comparison and contrast of newly developed bone substitute biomaterials that help further progress in the field of biomaterial science.

  9. Deproteinized bone with VEGF gene transfer to facilitate the repair of early avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Kai; HUANG Wei; AN Hong; JIANG Dian-ming; SHU Yong; HAN Zhi-min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method for early avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVNFH) therapy.Methods: Sixty-nine AVNFH New Zealand adult rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with equal number. In Group A, deproteinized bone (DPB) that absorbed with recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-hVEGF165 was implanted into the drilled tunnel of necrotic femoral head. In Group B, only DPB was implanted. In Group C, only tunnel was drilled without DPB or plasmid implanted. Femoral head specimens were obtained at postoperative 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 weeks. The expression of VEGF165 and collagen I was detected by immunohistochemistry. Bone formation was detected generally by X-ray. Angiogenesis and the repair of the femoral head were observed histologically.Results: The expression of VEGF 165 could be detected 2 weeks after implantation in Group A, but it was not observed in other groups. The result of collagen I expression had a significantly difference 2, 4 and 8 weeks after operation in Group A from those in other groups (P<0.01).X-ray results indicated that there was more bone formation in Group A than in other groups. The regenerated capillary vessels staining result of necrotic femoral head in Group A was significantly different from those in other groups at postoperative 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.01).Conclusions: Transfection ofhVEGF165 gene enhances local angiogenesis and DPB-VEGF compound improves the repair of necrotic femoral head. Deproteinized bone grafting with VEGF gene transfer provides a potential method for the treatment of osteonecrosis.

  10. Cell-free scaffolds with different stiffness but same microstructure promote bone regeneration in rabbit large bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobao; Yang, Li; Lv, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    To promote bone healing, bone repair biomaterials are increasingly designed to incorporate growth factors. However, the impact of matrix mechanics of cell-free scaffold independent of microstructure on the osteogenic differentiation of endogenous osteoprogenitor cells orchestrating bone repair and regeneration remains not to be fully understood. In our recent study, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with different stiffness but same microstructure have been successfully fabricated by coating decellularized bone with collagen/hydroxyapatite (HA) mixture with different collagen rations. It has been demonstrated that the scaffold with optimal stiffness can induce the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and in the subcutaneous tissue. The present in vivo study further investigated the repair efficiency of these scaffolds in a rabbit radius with a critical-sized segmental defect model and its potential mechanism. Micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), X-ray and histological analysis were carried out to evaluate the repair capacity of these scaffolds. The results demonstrated that the cell-free scaffold with optimal stiffness incorporation of endogenous osteoprogenitor cells significantly promoted the repair and reconstruction quality of mass bone defect. One of the crucial mechanisms was that hypoxia and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) mediated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migration by which matrix mechanics exerted influence on bone fracture healing. These findings suggested that only modulating the matrix stiffness of cell-free scaffold can be one of the most attractive strategies for promoting the progression of bone healing.

  11. Compound soft regenerated skull material for repairing dog skull defects using bone morphogenetic protein as an inductor and nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhidong Shi; Mingwang Liu; Zhongzong Qin; Qinmei Wang; Ying Guo; Haiyong He; Zhonghe Yu

    2008-01-01

    broken ends of the fractured bone and grew towards the defect regions. Two months after surgery, many disordered bone islands had formed. Three months after surgery, mature bone, medullary cavities and a large number of new bones were detected in the defect regions. Six months after surgery, the left defect was mostly repaired, with a high bone density compared with the right side in Groups A and B. The right detect was mostly repaired in Group A, but only a small fraction of the right defects was repaired in Group B.CONCLUSION: A composite of calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, nanometer bone meal and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 can metabolize by itself, gradually ossify and form new bone.

  12. Replacement, refinement, and reduction: necessity of standardization and computational models for long bone fracture repair in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenrath, Janin; Angrisani, Nina; Lalk, Mareike; Besdo, Silke

    2014-08-01

    In the field of fracture healing it is essential to know the impacts of new materials. Fracture healing of long bones is studied in various animal models and extrapolated for use in humans, although there are differences between the micro- and macrostructure of human versus animal bone. Unfortunately, recommended standardized models for fracture repair studies do not exist. Many different study designs with various animal models are used. Concerning the general principles of replacement, refinement and reduction in animal experiments (three "Rs"), a standardization would be desirable to facilitate better comparisons between different studies. In addition, standardized methods allow better prediction of bone healing properties and implant requirements with computational models. In this review, the principles of bone fracture healing and differences between osteotomy and artificial fracture models as well as influences of fixation devices are summarized. Fundamental considerations regarding animal model choice are discussed, as it is very important to know the limitations of the chosen model. In addition, a compendium of common animal models is assembled with special focus on rats, rabbits, and sheep as most common fracture models. Fracture healing simulation is a basic tool in reducing the number of experimental animals, so its progress is also presented here. In particular, simulation of different animal models is presented. In conclusion, a standardized fracture model is of utmost importance for the best adaption of simulation to experimental setups and comparison between different studies. One of the basic goals should be to reach a consensus for standardized fracture models.

  13. Adhesion and growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on precise-geometry 3D organic–inorganic composite scaffolds for bone repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzinikolaidou, Maria, E-mail: mchatzin@materials.uoc.gr [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece); Rekstyte, Sima; Danilevicius, Paulius [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece); Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Papadaki, Helen [Hematology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Crete (Greece); Farsari, Maria [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece); Vamvakaki, Maria [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece)

    2015-03-01

    Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50 mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2 h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21 days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell–material combination in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy image depicting cell adhesion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into a pore of a hybrid Direct Laser Writing

  14. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects: biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell transplantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These findings confirm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  15. Analysis on Application Bottleneck of Repairing Bone Defects with Tissue Engineered Bone%组织工程骨修复骨缺损的应用瓶颈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯

    2012-01-01

    Bone defects caused by bone cancer treatment are common in clinical, however the only way to repair the defects is bone graft. According to sources, the bone graft material can be divided into autogenous bone, allograft bone ,xenograft bone and artificial bone substitute materials. The rise of bone tissue engineering brings new options for the treatment of bone defects. The use of artificial bone tissue engineering training not only fixes the large area of bone defect, but also can be prepared and shaped in large quantity according to need,which makes it an ideal bone repair material. Here is to make a review' on the application status of tissue engineered bone in the treatment of bone defects.%骨肿瘤的治疗导致骨缺损很常见,修复缺损的方法是采取骨移植.骨移植材料根据来源大致可分为自体骨、同种异体骨、异种骨和人工骨替代材料.骨组织工程的兴起为骨缺损的治疗带来新的选择.利用骨组织工程培养的人工骨不仅可以修复大面积骨缺损,而且可以按需塑形并大量制备,是一种理想的骨修复材料.现就组织工程骨在治疗骨缺损中的应用现状进行综述.

  16. Current concepts of regenerative biomaterials in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of any implant system is to achieve firm fixation to the bone and this could be influenced by biomechanical as well as biomaterial selection. An array of materials is used in the replacement of missing teeth through implantation. The appropriate selection of biomaterials directly influences the clinical success and longevity of implants. Thus the clinician needs to have adequate knowledge of the various biomaterials and their properties for their judicious selection and application in his/her clinical practice. The recent materials such as bioceramics and composite biomaterials that are under consideration and investigation have a promising future. For optimal performance, implant biomaterials should have suitable mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and structural biostability in the physiological environment. This article reviews the various implant biomaterials and their ease of use in implant dentistry.

  17. Voltammetry of Medical Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Markovski, Velo

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in the medicine, dentistry and pharmacy represents probably a major breakthrough in tackling many diseases or disabilities in the last 50 years. We refer to varios techniques that are used for the characterization of the structure and the composition of the biomaterials. Voltammetry is an electrochemical technique that helps mainly in understanding the redox properties of various biomaterials containing some suitable redox centers in their structure. We give in this le...

  18. Voltametry of Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Markovski, Velo

    2015-01-01

    Any substance that can be used as a replacement for some organ or tissue in the human body is defined as a biomaterial. The use of biomaterials in the medicine, dentistry and pharmacy represents probably a major breakthrough in tackling many diseases or disabilities in the last 50 years. Various techniques are used for the characterization of the structure and the composition of the biomaterials. Of them, the spectroscopic ones are mostly explored. Voltammetry is an electrochemical technique ...

  19. Biodegradation of Silk Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Bochu Wang; Yang Cao

    2009-01-01

    Silk fibroin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation, non-toxicity, adsorption properties, etc. As a kind of ideal biomaterial, silk fibroin has been widely used since it was first utilized for sutures a long time ago. The degradation behavior of silk biomaterials is obviously important for medical applications. This article will focus on silk-based biomaterials and review the degradation behaviors of silk materials.

  20. In vivo transformation of a calcium carbonate (aragonite) based implant's biomaterial to bone. A histological, chemical and FT-IR study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón González; Nelson Merino(Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso, Chile); Pedro Rodríguez; Victor M. Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Se estudió la respuesta del tejido óseo a implantes de carbonato de calcio aragonito (CCA). Se utilizaron implantes de Hidroxiapatita Coralina (HA) en la misma forma y proceder quirúrgico como biomaterial de control comparativo. Se investigó el efecto de la composición química sobre la capacidad de curación y la velocidad de reabsorción de ambos biomateriales implantados en el fémur de ratas. Los animales fueron sacrificados a los 3, 7, 15, 21 y 60 d y los implantes fueron recuperados para lo...

  1. An introduction to biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2011-01-01

    Consensus Definitions, Fundamental Concepts, and a Standardized Approach to Applied Biomaterials Sciences, J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Wound Healing BiologyCutaneous Wound Pathobiology: Raison d'etre for Tissue Engineering, L.K. Macri and R.A.F. ClarkOsseous Wound Healing, A. Nawab, M. Wong, D. Kwak, L. Schutte, A. Sharma, and J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Cellular MechanicsCell and Tissue Mechanobiology, W. Guo, P. Alvarez, and Y. WangBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Materials-Host InteractionsCell-Material In

  2. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor from bone marrow-derived cells promotes post-injury repair of peripheral nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Takemura

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF stimulates peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the origin of BNDF and its precise effect on nerve repair have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the role of BDNF from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs in post-injury nerve repair. Control and heterozygote BDNF knockout mice (BDNF+/- received a left sciatic nerve crush using a cerebral blood clip. Especially, for the evaluation of BDNF from BMDCs, studies with bone marrow transplantation (BMT were performed before the injury. We evaluated nerve function using a rotarod test, sciatic function index (SFI, and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV simultaneously with histological nerve analyses by immunohistochemistry before and after the nerve injury until 8 weeks. BDNF production was examined by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analyses. After the nerve crush, the controls showed severe nerve dysfunction evaluated at 1 week. However, nerve function was gradually restored and reached normal levels by 8 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, BDNF expression was very faint before injury, but was dramatically increased after injury at 1 week in the distal segment from the crush site. BDNF expression was mainly co-localized with CD45 in BMDCs, which was further confirmed by the appearance of GFP-positive cells in the BMT study. Variant analysis of BDNF mRNA also confirmed this finding. BDNF+/- mice showed a loss of function with delayed histological recovery and BDNF+/+→BDNF+/- BMT mice showed complete recovery both functionally and histologically. These results suggested that the attenuated recovery of the BDNF+/- mice was rescued by the transplantation of BMCs and that BDNF from BMDCs has an essential role in nerve repair.

  4. Nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen composited with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and titanium membrane in repairing peripheral bone defects of instant dental implants%胶原基纳米骨复合重组人骨形成蛋白2及钛膜修复即刻钛种植体周围骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 陈鹏; 王忠义; 柯杰; 李晓华; 汪正文

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Recently,with the rapid development of material science and bioscience,the technology of dental implant has made great progress,especially the immediate implant technology.But the size and shape of implant are usually not fit for tooth extraction wound,so it is an important factor that leads to failure when implant and tooth extraction wound can not form close tangency.Guided bone regeneration or bone grafting materials are usually used to solve this problem.OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/collogen (nHAC) with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2(rhBMP-2) and titanium (Ti) membrane on repairing peripheral bone defects of instant implant.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled animal study was performed at the Central Laboratory,the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2005 and January 2006.MATERIALS:Ti screw implants (diameter 2 mm,length 10 mm,and pitch 0.4 mm) without the part that went through gum were offered by Nonferrous Metal Academy in Baoji,China.The nonabsorbable Ti membranes (2 cm×2 cm) were offered by Zhongbang Biomaterial Limited Company in Xi'an,China.The nHAC materials were gifted by professor Cui Fu-zhai from Material Science and Engineering Department of Tsinghua University and fabricated into 0.5 mm×0.5 mm×0.5 mm small blocks.rhBMP-2 was offered by the Academy of Military Medical Sciences in Beijing,China.rhBMP-2 was dissolved with hydrochloric carbamidine and then nHAC was immersed in it.Vacuumization,freeze-drying,and Ekibon degermation were followed.Each gram of nHAC compounds required approximately 1 mg rhBMP-2.METHODS:Four healthy purebred male dogs were included in this study.According to the methods to repair bone defects rhBMP-2+Ti membrane,nHAC composited with rhBMP-2 was implanted,covering Ti membrane.Six defects were made on the mandible on each side.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:At 6 and 12 weeks after implantation,new bone formation and the correlation of new

  5. Neurotrophin-3 Induces BMP-2 and VEGF Activities and Promotes the Bony Repair of Injured Growth Plate Cartilage and Bone in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wen; Chung, Rosa; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Chim, Shek Man; Kuek, Vincent; Dwivedi, Prem P; Hassanshahi, Mohammadhossein; Chen, Ke-Ming; Xie, Yangli; Chen, Lin; Foster, Bruce K; Rosen, Vicki; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Xu, Jiake; Xian, Cory J

    2016-06-01

    Injured growth plate is often repaired by bony tissue causing bone growth defects, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. Because neurotrophins have been implicated in bone fracture repair, here we investigated their potential roles in growth plate bony repair in rats. After a drill-hole injury was made in the tibial growth plate and bone, increased injury site mRNA expression was observed for neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 and their Trk receptors. NT-3 and its receptor TrkC showed the highest induction. NT-3 was localized to repairing cells, whereas TrkC was observed in stromal cells, osteoblasts, and blood vessel cells at the injury site. Moreover, systemic NT-3 immunoneutralization reduced bone volume at injury sites and also reduced vascularization at the injured growth plate, whereas recombinant NT-3 treatment promoted bony repair with elevated levels of mRNA for osteogenic markers and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and increased vascularization and mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial cell marker CD31 at the injured growth plate. When examined in vitro, NT-3 promoted osteogenesis in rat bone marrow stromal cells, induced Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of BMPs (particularly BMP-2) and VEGF in the mineralizing cells. It also induced CD31 and VEGF mRNA in rat primary endothelial cell culture. BMP activity appears critical for NT-3 osteogenic effect in vitro because it can be almost completely abrogated by co-addition of the BMP inhibitor noggin. Consistent with its angiogenic effect in vivo, NT-3 promoted angiogenesis in metatarsal bone explants, an effect abolished by co-treatment with anti-VEGF. This study suggests that NT-3 may be an osteogenic and angiogenic factor upstream of BMP-2 and VEGF in bony repair, and further studies are required to investigate whether NT-3 may be a potential target for preventing growth plate faulty bony repair or for promoting bone fracture healing. © 2016

  6. Nanocrystalline spherical hydroxyapatite granules for bone repair: in vitro evaluation with osteoblast-like cells and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, A; Dittrich, R; Lode, A; Despang, F; Gelinsky, M

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally sintered hydroxyapatite-based materials for bone repair show poor resorbability due to the loss of nanocrystallinity. The present study describes a method to establish nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite granules. The material was prepared by ionotropic gelation of an alginate sol containing hydroxyapatite (HA) powder. Subsequent thermal elimination of alginate at 650 °C yielded non-sintered, but unexpectedly stable hydroxyapatite granules. By adding stearic acid as an organic filler to the alginate/HA suspension, the granules exhibited macropores after thermal treatment. A third type of material was achieved by additional coating of the granules with silica particles. Microstructure and specific surface area of the different materials were characterized in comparison to the already established granular calcium phosphate material Cerasorb M(®). Cytocompatibility and potential for bone regeneration of the materials was evaluated by in vitro examinations with osteosarcoma cells and osteoclasts. Osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells proliferated on all examined materials and showed the typical increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity during cultivation. Expression of bone-related genes coding for ALP, osteonectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein II on the materials was proven by RT-PCR. Human monocytes were seeded onto the different granules and osteoclastogenesis was examined by activity measurement of tartrate-specific acid phosphatase (TRAP). Gene expression analysis after 23 days of cultivation revealed an increased expression of osteoclast-related genes TRAP, vitronectin receptor and cathepsin K, which was on the same level for all examined materials. These results indicate, that the nanocrystalline granular materials are of clinical interest, especially for bone regeneration.

  7. Immunocytochemical and structural comparative study of committed versus multipotent stem cells cultured with different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Carla; Baldini, Andrea; Cavani, Francesco; Sena, Paola; Benincasa, Marta; Ferretti, Marzia; Zaffe, Davide

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was the comparison of the behavior of committed (human osteoblast cells - hOB - from bone biopsies) versus multipotent (human dental pulp stem cells - hDPSC - from extracted teeth) cells, cultured on shot-peened titanium surfaces, since the kind of cell model considered has been shown to be relevant in techniques widely used in studies on composition/morphology of biomaterial surfaces. The titanium surface morphology, with different roughness, and the behavior of cells were analyzed by confocal microscope (CM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The best results, in terms of hOB adhesion/distribution, were highlighted by both CM and SEM in cultured plates having 20-μm-depth cavities. On the contrary, CM and SEM results highlighted the hDPSC growth regardless the different surface morphology, arranged in overlapped layers due to their high proliferation rate, showing their unfitness in biomaterial surface test. Nevertheless, hDPSC cultured inside 3D-matrices reproduced an osteocyte-like three-dimensional network, potentially useful in the repair of critical size bone defects. The behavior of the two cell models suggests a different use in biomaterial cell cultures: committed osteoblast cells could be appropriate in selecting the best surfaces to improve osseointegration, while multipotent cells could be suitable to obtain in vitro osteocyte-like network for regenerative medicine. The originality of the present work consists in studying for the first time two different cell models (committed versus multipotent) compared in parallel different biomaterial cultures, thus suggesting distinct targets for each cellular model.

  8. Effect of different hydroxyapatite incorporation methods on the structural and biological properties of porous collagen scaffolds for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Gleeson, John P; Matsiko, Amos; Thompson, Emmet M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-12-01

    Scaffolds which aim to provide an optimised environment to regenerate bone tissue require a balance between mechanical properties and architecture known to be conducive to enable tissue regeneration, such as a high porosity and a suitable pore size. Using freeze-dried collagen-based scaffolds as an analogue of native ECM, we sought to improve the mechanical properties by incorporating hydroxyapatite (HA) in different ways while maintaining a pore architecture sufficient to allow cell infiltration, vascularisation and effective bone regeneration. Specifically we sought to elucidate the effect of different hydroxyapatite incorporation methods on the mechanical, morphological, and cellular response of the resultant collagen-HA scaffolds. The results demonstrated that incorporating either micron-sized (CHA scaffolds) or nano-sized HA particles (CnHA scaffolds) prior to freeze-drying resulted in moderate increases in stiffness (2.2-fold and 6.2-fold, respectively, vs. collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds, P collagen scaffolds with a hydroxyapatite precipitate after freeze-drying (CpHA scaffolds) has been shown to be a highly effective method to increase the compressive modulus (26-fold vs. CG controls, P collagen structure results in a lower cell attachment level (P temperature. It was found that the addition of HA prior to freeze-drying generally reduced the pore size and so the CpHA scaffold fabrication method offered increased control over the resulting scaffolds microstructure. These findings will help guide future design considerations for composite biomaterials and demonstrate that the method of HA incorporation can have profound effects on the resulting scaffold structural and biological response.

  9. Preparation and characterization of Sr-Ti-hardystonite (Sr-Ti-HT nanocomposite for bone repair application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hardystonite (HT is Zn-modified silicate bioceramics with promising results for bone tissue regeneration. However, HT possesses no obvious apatite formation. Thus, in this study we incorporated Sr and Ti into HT to prepare Sr-Ti-hardystonite (Sr-Ti-HT nanocomposite and evaluated its in vitro bioactivity with the purpose of developing a more bioactive bone substitute material. Materials and methods:The HT and Sr-Ti-HT were prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent heat treatment. Calcium oxide (CaO, zinc oxide (ZnO and silicon dioxide (SiO2 (all from Merck were mixed with molar ratio of 2:1:2. The mixture of powders mixture was then milled in a planetary ball mill for 20 h. In the milling run, the ball-to-powder weight ratio was 10:1 and the rotational speed was 200 rpm. After synthesis of HT, 3% nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa and 3% strontium carbonate (SrCO3, Merck were added to HT and then the mixture was ball milled and calcined at 1150°C for 6 h. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR performed to characterize the powders. Results:XRD and FT-IR confirmed the crystal phase and silicate structure of HT and TEM images demonstrated the nanostructure of powders. Further, Sr-Ti-HT induced apatite formation and showed a higher human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs adhesion and proliferation compared to HT. Conclusion:Our study revealed that Sr-Ti-HT with a nanostructured crystal structure of 50 nm, can be prepared by mechanical activation to use as biomaterials for orthopedic applications.

  10. Nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic fields as a noninvasive strategy in bone repair: the effect on human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Mario; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Marchese, Rodolfo; Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-02-01

    In vivo control of osteoblast differentiation is an important process needed to maintain the continuous supply of mature osteoblast cells for growth, repair, and remodeling of bones. The regulation of this process has also an important and significant impact on the clinical strategies and future applications of cell therapy. In this article, we studied the effect of nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic field radiation tuned at calcium-ion cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz exposure treatment for bone differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) alone or in synergy with dexamethasone, their canonical chemical differentiation agent. Five days of continuous exposure to calcium-ion cyclotron resonance affect hMSC proliferation, morphology, and cytoskeletal actin reorganization. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed an increase of osteoblast differentiation marker expression such as Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OPN) together with the osteoprotegerin mRNA modulation. Moreover, in these cells, the increase of the protein expression of OPN and ALP was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate bone commitment of hMSCs through a noninvasive and biocompatible differentiating physical agent treatment and highlight possible applications in new regenerative medicine protocols.

  11. Repair process of surgical defects filled with autogenous bone grafts in tibiae of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas Caldeira Esteves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available From a biological standpoint, the best material for reconstruction of bone defects is the autogenous bone graft. However, as tissue healing is affected under diabetic conditions, major changes might take place in the revascularization, incorporation, replacement and remodeling phases of the grafted area. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone healing process in surgical wounds prepared in tibiae of diabetic rats and filled with autogenous bone. Forty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection (penile vein of either citrate buffer solution (Group 1 - control; n=20 or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution (35 mg/kg to induce diabetes (Group 2 - diabetic; n=20. After determination of glycemia, the animals were anesthetized and the anterolateral regions of the tibiae of both limbs were shaved, antisepsis was performed and longitudinal incisions were made in each limb. The tibiae were exposed and two 2mm-diameter surgical cavities were prepared: one in the right limb, filled with particulate autogenous bone and the other in the left limb, filled with blood clot. The animals were euthanized at 10 and 30 postoperative days. The anatomic pieces were obtained, submitted to laboratory processing and sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's Trichrome for histomorphologic and histometric analyses. In both groups, the wounds filled with autogenous bone graft showed better results than those filled with blood clot. The control group showed higher new bone formation in wounds filled with autogenous bone graft at 30 days than the diabetic group, but without statistical significance. It may be concluded that, in general, the new bone formation occurred with autogenous graft was quantitatively similar between control and diabetic groups and qualitatively better in the control group.

  12. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  13. Biomaterial composite scaffolds in repair of sports-induced articular cartilage defects%生物材料复合支架与运动性关节软骨缺损的修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏亮; 韩东

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨复合支架的组织工程学特性及其修复关节软骨缺损的性能评价.方法:以"关节软骨、生物材料、工程软骨、复合材料、复合支架"为中文关键词,以" tissue enginneering,articular cartilage,scaffold material"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库、PubMed数据库(1993-01/2010-11)相关文章.纳入复合支架材料-细胞复合物修复关节软骨损伤相关的文章,排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.结果:共入选18篇文章进入结果分析.复合支架是当前软骨组织工程中应用较多的支架,它是将具有互补特征的生物相容性可降解支架,按一定比例和方式组合,设计出结构与性能优化的复合支架.较单一支架材料具有显著优越性,具有更好的生物相容性和一定强度的韧性,较好的孔隙和机械强度.复合支架的制备不仅包括同一类生物材料的复合,还包括不同类别生物材料之间的交叉复合.可分为纯天然支架材料、纯人工支架材料以及天然与人工支架材料的复合等3类.结论:复合支架使生物材料具有互补特性,一定程度上满足了理想生物支架材料应具有的综合特点,但目前很多研究仍处于实验阶段,还有一些问题有待于解决,如不同材料的复合比例、复合工艺等.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tissue engineering properties of the composite scaffold and its performance evaluation for the repair of articular cartilage defects.METHODS: Using "articular cartilage, biological materials, engineering cartilage, composite materials, composite scaffold" in Chinese and "tissue engineering, articular cartilage, scaffold material" in English as the key words, a computer-based online search of China Academic Journal Full-text database and PubMed database (1993-01/2010-11) was performed. Articles about the composite scaffold-cell compound in the repair of articular cartilage injury, duplicated research or Meta

  14. Estudio experimental sobre la regeneración ósea mandibular de la rata con diferentes biomateriales Experimental study in rats of mandibular bone regeneration with different biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Peral Cagigal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Los defectos óseos mandibulares resultantes de infecciones, traumatismos o resecciones oncológicas, van a producir severos problemas funcionales y/o estéticos, que van a precisar de un tratamiento complejo. Durante los últimos años, las aportaciones al terreno de la reconstrucción ósea se han debatido entre métodos tan dispares como la distracción ósea o la utilización de colgajos libres microvascularizados, pasando por un sin fin de biomateriales. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la formación de hueso nuevo tras la aplicación de una membrana reabsorbible y dos tipos de sustitutivos óseos. Material y método. Se utilizaron 24 ratas adultas macho tipo Wistar, en las que se crearon defectos circulares de 4 mm de diámetro en ambos lados de la mandíbula. Se formaron 4 grupos, un grupo control y 3 grupos experimentales. Los animales fueron sacrificados a las 3 y 6 semanas de la cirugía, realizándose un análisis radiológico e histológico. Resultados. Los defectos control no mostraron formación ósea, apareciendo una reparación por tejido fibroso. La membrana de hueso utilizada de forma aislada, actuó como una barrera eficaz excluyendo los tejidos no osteogénicos, pero no se produjo reparación total del defecto en ningún caso. El grupo de Colloss® y membrana, mostró una regeneración ósea completa del defecto a las 6 semanas. El grupo de NovaBone® y membrana, no mostró formación ósea, apareciendo las partículas del biomaterial ocupando el defecto. Conclusiones. La regeneración ósea fue significativamente mayor en los defectos rellenos con Colloss® y cubiertos con la membrana de Lambone®, comparado con los otros grupos experimentales.Objective. Mandibular bone defects can occur as a result of trauma, neoplasm, or infectious conditions. Such conditions often are associated with severe funtional and esthetic problems. Corrective treatment often is complicated by limitations in tissue adaptation. The

  15. Allogeneic versus autologous derived cell sources for use in engineered bone-ligament-bone grafts in sheep anterior cruciate ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Horine, Storm V; Olsen, Tyler J; Smietana, Michael J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    The use of autografts versus allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial. The current popular options for ACL reconstruction are patellar tendon or hamstring autografts, yet advances in allograft technologies have made allogeneic grafts a favorable option for repair tissue. Despite this, the mismatched biomechanical properties and risk of osteoarthritis resulting from the current graft technologies have prompted the investigation of new tissue sources for ACL reconstruction. Previous work by our lab has demonstrated that tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs generated from an allogeneic cell source develop structural and functional properties similar to those of native ACL and vascular and neural structures that exceed those of autologous patellar tendon grafts. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered ligament constructs fabricated from autologous versus allogeneic cell sources. Our preliminary results demonstrate that 6 months postimplantation, our tissue-engineered auto- and allogeneic BLB grafts show similar histological and mechanical outcomes indicating that the autologous grafts are a viable option for ACL reconstruction. These data indicate that our tissue-engineered autologous ligament graft could be used in clinical situations where immune rejection and disease transmission may preclude allograft use.

  16. Disruption of Runx1 and Runx3 Leads to Bone Marrow Failure and Leukemia Predisposition due to Transcriptional and DNA Repair Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsia Qiuxia Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The RUNX genes encode transcription factors involved in development and human disease. RUNX1 and RUNX3 are frequently associated with leukemias, yet the basis for their involvement in leukemogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that Runx1;Runx3 double-knockout (DKO mice exhibited lethal phenotypes due to bone marrow failure and myeloproliferative disorder. These contradictory clinical manifestations are reminiscent of human inherited bone marrow failure syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA, caused by defective DNA repair. Indeed, Runx1;Runx3 DKO cells showed mitomycin C hypersensitivity, due to impairment of monoubiquitinated-FANCD2 recruitment to DNA damage foci, although FANCD2 monoubiquitination in the FA pathway was unaffected. RUNX1 and RUNX3 interact with FANCD2 independently of CBFβ, suggesting a nontranscriptional role for RUNX in DNA repair. These findings suggest that RUNX dysfunction causes DNA repair defect, besides transcriptional misregulation, and promotes the development of leukemias and other cancers.

  17. Ultrasonography and Radiography Evaluation of the Cartilage Graft in Repair of Experimentally Induced Radial Bone Defect in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to thank to the Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences research council. Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Punak Tehran for approval and financial support to finish this project. Problems statement: The purpose of this research was to determine the biological effect of cartilage graft as a bone defect filler and osteogenetic stimulation to speed up bone healing too. Approach: Sixteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits having body weight ranged from 3.0-3.5 Kg. Under general anesthesia, a segmental full thickness bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft in all rabbits. They were divided into two groups of 6 rabbits each. Group I was considered as control and the fractured site was fixed using finger bone plate with 4 screws, whereas the ear cartilage of 1×1 cm graft was used to fill the gap after fracture fixation in Group II. Rabbits in two groups were subdivided into 2 subgroups of 1 and 2 months duration with 4 rabbits in each. Radiography and two dimensional and color Doppler sonography were done before and after creating defects and on 15, 30 and 60 days to evaluate local reaction as far as new blood vessels network and callus formation are concerned. Results: On the radiographs during the whole process, bone repair in Group I was not as perfect as those in Group II samples and trace of internal callus filled the gap incompletely in 60 days in Group I, whereas in Group II internal callus almost was formed on 30 days and in addition intercortical callus was seen supporting to cover and filled the gap completely in this group. Sonographic findings confirmed the protrusion of newly formed blood vascular network in 30 days in Group I and from 15 days in Group II and remarkably increased till end of observation period. Conclusion: Cartilage graft is suitable alternative bone filler and radiography and sonography are reliable techniques to trace local reaction at

  18. Extraction and clipping repair of a chicken bone penetrating the gastric wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Hiun-Suk Chae; Chang-Whan Kim; Byung-Wook Kim; Sok-Won Han; Kyu-Yong Choi

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric penetration caused by accidental ingestion of a chicken bone in a 42-year old woman with a partially wearing denture. Three days ago, she accidentally swallowed several lumps of poorly-chewed chicken. Physical examination disclosed mild tenderness in the periumbilical area. Abdominal Computed tomography (CT) showed a suspicious penetration or perforation of the stomach wall measuring about 3 cm, by a linear radiopaque material at the lesser curvature of the antrum. The end of a chicken bone was very close to but did not penetrate the liver. Endoscopic examination revealed a chicken bone that penetrated into the prepyloric antrum. The penetrating chicken bone was removed with grasping forceps. Five endoscopic clips were applied immediately at the removal site and the periumbilical pain resolved promptly. After removal of the chicken bone, the patient was treated with conservative care for three days, after which she was completely asymptomatic and discharged without complication. To treat gastric penetration by a foreign body, endoclipping can be a useful method in patients with no signs or symptoms of peritoneal irritation.

  19. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T 7-8 . Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunofluorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guidance. Our data confirm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic field guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively tracked in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  20. visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-ping Zhang; Cheng Xu; Yin Liu; Jian-ding Li; Jun Xie

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T7–8. Superparamagnet-ic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cordvia the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic ifeld was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunolfuorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guid-ance. Our data conifrm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic ifeld guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively trackedin vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  1. 颅颌面部骨缺损修复中的相关因子%Related factors of cranial and maxillofacial bone defect repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勇; 刘流; 何晓光; 王福科; 李玉晓; 钟玲

    2011-01-01

    背景:以组织工程骨为骨源修复颅颌部骨缺损不仅解决临床骨源缺乏的问题,还促进组织工程骨的培养及基因导入疗法修复骨缺损等方面的研究.目的:总结归纳有关颅颌面部骨缺损修复中的相关因子,介绍目前此类因子的研究进展与方向.为组织工程骨及基因治疗修复颅颌面部骨缺损提供依据及参考.方法:以"tissue engineering,bone defect,gene therapy,growth factor"为检索词,检索Pubmed数据库(2000-01/2011-01),以"组织工程学,骨缺损,基因治疗,生长因子"为检索词,检索CBM 数据库(2000-01/2011-01).文献检索语种为英文和中文.纳入颅颌面部骨缺损修复过程中有关因子的文献,排除重复文献.结果与结论:计算机初检得到670 篇文献,根据纳入排除标准,对其中33 篇文献进行分析.由于各种原因引起的颅颌部骨缺损在临床上逐渐增多,而骨源缺乏是制约颅颌部骨缺损的主要问题.体外构建组织工程骨是解决这一问题的主要途径.颅颌面骨形成和发生的过程涉及因子的选取,组织工程骨的构建等方面,多基因联合治疗是目前的发展趋势.%BACKGROUND: Repairing cranial and maxillofacial bone defect with tissue-engineered bone can solve the problem of lacking bone source and promote the culture of tissue-engineered bone and assist in repairing bone defects using gene therapy. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the related factors of cranial and maxillofacial bone defect repair and introduce the research progress in this type of factors, providing reference evidence for repairing cranial and maxillofacial bone defect using tissue-engineered METHODS: Taking "tissue engineering, bone defect, gene therapy, growth factor" as key words, a computer-based online retrieval was performed to search papers published between January 2000 and January 2011 in PubMed and CBM databases in English and Chinese. Papers regarding related factors of cranial and maxillofacial bone

  2. Comparative, osteochondral defect repair: Stem cells versus chondrocytes versus Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, solely or in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Reyes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Full-thickness articular cartilage damage does not resolve spontaneously. Studies with growth factors, implantation of autologous chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells have led to variable, to some extent inconsistent, results. This work compares osteochondral knee-defect repair in rabbits upon implantation of a previously described alginate/(poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA osteochondral scaffold in distinct conditions. Systems were either in vitro pre-cultured with a small number of allogeneic chondrocytes under fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 stimulation or the same amount of allogeneic, marrow derived, mesenchymal stem cells (without any pre-differentiation, or loaded with microsphere-encapsulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 within the alginate layer, or holding combinations of one or the other cell type with BMP-2. The experimental limit was 12 weeks, because a foregoing study with this release system had shown a maintained tissue response for at least 24 weeks post-operation. After only 6 weeks, histological analyses revealed newly formed cartilage-like tissue, which resembled the adjacent, normal cartilage in cell as well as BMP-2 treated defects, but cell therapy gave higher histological scores. This advantage evened out until 12 weeks. Combinations of cells and BMP-2 did not result in any additive or synergistic effect. Equally efficient osteochondral defect repair was achieved with chondrocyte, stem cell, and BMP-2 treatment. Expression of collagen X and collagen I, signs of ongoing ossification, were histologically undetectable, and the presence of aggrecan protein indicated cartilage-like tissue. In conclusion, further work should demonstrate whether spatiotemporally controlled, on-site BMP-2 release alone could become a feasible therapeutic approach to repair large osteochondral defects.

  3. Autologous bone marrow stem cell intralesional transplantation repairing bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cella Luigi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Bisphosphonate - related osteonecrosis of the JAW (BRONJ is a well known side effect of bisphosphonate therapies in oncologic and non oncologic patients. Since to date no definitive consensus has been reached on the treatment of BRONJ, novel strategies for the prevention, risk reduction and treatment need to be developed. We report a 75 year old woman with stage 3 BRONJ secondary to alendronate and pamidronate treatment of osteoporosis. The patient was unresponsive to recommended treatment of the disease, and her BRONJ was worsening. Since bone marrow stem cells are know as being multipotent and exhibit the potential for differentiation into different cells/tissue lineages, including cartilage, bone and other tissue, we performed autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation into the BRONJ lesion of the patient. Methods Under local anesthesia a volume of 75 ml of bone marrow were harvested from the posterior superior iliac crest by aspiration into heparinized siringes. The cell suspension was concentrated, using Ficoll - Hypaque® centrifugation procedures, in a final volume of 6 ml. Before the injection of stem cells into the osteonecrosis, the patient underwent surgical toilet, local anesthesia was done and spongostan was applied as a carrier of stem cells suspension in the bone cavity, then 4 ml of stem cells suspension and 1 ml of patient's activated platelet-rich plasma were injected in the lesion of BRONJ. Results A week later the residual spongostan was removed and two weeks later resolution of symptoms was obtained. Then the lesion improved with progressive superficialization of the mucosal layer and CT scan, performed 15 months later, shows improvement also of bone via concentric ossification: so complete healing of BRONJ (stage 0 was obtained in our patient, and 30 months later the patient is well and without signs of BRONJ. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first case of BRONJ successfully treated with

  4. New biomaterials for orthopedic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong KL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin L Ong, Brian Min Yun, Joshua B WhiteExponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: With the increasing use of orthopedic implants worldwide, there continues to be great interest in the development of novel technologies to further improve the effective clinical performance of contemporary treatment modalities and devices. Continuing research interest also exists in developing novel bulk biomaterials (eg, polycarbonate urethanes, silicon or novel formulations of existing but less widely used biomaterials (eg, polyaryletherketones, polyetheretherketone. There is also growing focus on customizing the material properties of bioabsorbables and composite materials with fillers such as bioactive ceramics. In terms of tissue engineering, more recent developments have focused on basic engineering and biological fundamentals to use cells, signaling factors, and the scaffold material itself to better restore tissue and organ structure and function. There has also been recent controversy with the use of injectables as a nonsurgical approach to treat joint disorders, but more attention is being directed toward the development of newer formulations with different molecular weights. The industry has also continuously sought to improve coatings to supplement the function of existing implants, with the goal of improving their osseointegrative qualities and incorporating antimicrobial properties. These include the use of bone morphogenetic protein, bisphosphonates, calcium phosphate, silicon nitride, and iodine. Due to the widespread use of bone graft materials, recent developments in synthetic graft materials have explored further development of bioactive glass, ceramic materials, and porous titanium particles. This review article provides an overview of ongoing efforts in the above research areas.Keywords: coatings, scaffolds, bioabsorbables, bone graft, injectables

  5. Adverse Biological Effect of TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Used in Bone Repair and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangxue Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adverse biological effect of nanoparticles is an unavoidable scientific problem because of their small size and high surface activity. In this review, we focus on nano-hydroxyapatite and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs to clarify the potential systemic toxicological effect and cytotoxic response of wear nanoparticles because they are attractive materials for bone implants and are widely investigated to promote the repair and reconstruction of bone. The wear nanoparticles would be prone to binding with proteins to form protein-particle complexes, to interacting with visible components in the blood including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and to being phagocytosed by macrophages or fibroblasts to deposit in the local tissue, leading to the formation of fibrous local pseudocapsules. These particles would also be translocated to and disseminated into the main organs such as the lung, liver and spleen via blood circulation. The inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and signaling pathway are elaborated to analyze the potential toxicological mechanism. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response and signaling transduction may be a new therapeutic strategy for wear debris–mediated osteolysis. Developing biomimetic materials with better biocompatibility is our goal for orthopedic implants.

  6. Monoclinic Hydroxyapatite Nanoplates Hybrid Composite with Improved Compressive Strength, and Porosity for Bone Defect Repair: Biomimetic Synthesis and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bo; Farghaly, Ahmed A; Guo, Zhenzhao; Zhao, Pengg; Li, Hong; Zhou, Changren; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been used for bone restoration despite its intrinsic fragile property. In order to enhance the CPC mechanical properties, biopolymers were introduced as filler to prepare CPC based cements. Chitosan/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) based cement for bone repair has been prepared in the study. Solidification of the prepared cement was carried out in a simulate body fluid at 37 degrees C. The introduction of chitosan improved the mechanical performance of the as-prepared CPC hybrid nanocomposite. FTIR, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and SAED were used to characterize the CPC nanocomposite. Data simulations have been performed to assist in determining the crystalline phase/s in the CPC hybrid nanocomposite. Based on the SAED, HRTEM measurements and data simulations, a monoclinic phase of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with a plate-like structure was obtained in the CPC system, which is believed to be responsible for the observed enhancement in CPC mechanical properties. The obtained composite has a biocompatibility comparable to that of commercial sample.

  7. Synergistic actions of olomoucine and bone morphogenetic protein-4 in axonal repair after acute spinal cord contusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Chen; Jianjun Li; Liang Wu; Mingliang Yang; Feng Gao; Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether olomoucine acts synergistically with bone morphogenetic protein-4 in the treatment of spinal cord injury, we established a rat model of acute spinal cord contusion by impacting the spinal cord at the T8 vertebra. We injected a suspension of astrocytes derived from glial-restricted precursor cells exposed to bone morphogenetic protein-4 (GDAsBMP) into the spinal cord around the site of the injury, and/or olomoucine intraperitoneally. Olomoucine effectively inhibited astrocyte proliferation and the formation of scar tissue at the injury site, but did not prevent proliferation of GDAsBMP or inhibit their effects in reducing the spinal cord lesion cavity. Furthermore, while GDAsBMP and olomoucine independently resulted in small improve-ments in locomotor function in injured rats, combined administration of both treatments had a signiifcantly greater effect on the restoration of motor function. These data indicate that the combined use of olomoucine and GDAsBMP creates a better environment for nerve regeneration than the use of either treatment alone, and contributes to spinal cord repair after injury.

  8. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  9. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  10. The mechanics of PLGA nanofiber scaffolds with biomimetic gradients in mineral for tendon-to-bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, J; Liu, W; Liu, Y; Boyle, J; Genin, G M; Xia, Y; Thomopoulos, S

    2014-12-01

    along the length of the scaffolds, and Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed that the mineral produced was hydroxylapatite. Mechanical testing showed that the stiffness gradient using the new method was significantly steeper. By analyzing the scaffolds using micromechanical modeling techniques and extrapolating from our experimental results, we present evidence that the new mineralization protocol has the potential to achieve levels of stiffness adequate to contribute to enhanced repair of tendon-to-bone attachments.

  11. Improvement of in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement for bone repair by dicalcium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chien-Wen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Nai-Shuo [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Ding, Shinn-Jyh, E-mail: sjding@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-05

    bone defect repair.

  12. Two Stage Repair of Composite Craniofacial Defects with Antibiotic Releasing Porous Poly(methyl methacrylate) Space Maintainers and Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Patrick

    Craniofacial defects resulting from trauma and resection present many challenges to reconstruction due to the complex structure, combinations of tissues, and environment, with exposure to the oral, skin and nasal mucosal pathogens. Tissue engineering seeks to regenerate the tissues lost in these defects; however, the composite nature and proximity to colonizing bacteria remain difficult to overcome. Additionally, many tissue engineering approaches have further hurdles to overcome in the regulatory process to clinical translation. As such these studies investigated a two stage strategy employing an antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainer fabricated with materials currently part of products approved or cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration, expediting the translation to the clinic. This porous space maintainer holds the bone defect open allowing soft tissue to heal around the defect. The space maintainer can then be removed and one regenerated in the defect. These studies investigated the individual components of this strategy. The porous space maintainer showed similar soft tissue healing and response to non-porous space maintainers in a rabbit composite tissue defect. The antibiotic-releasing space maintainers showed release of antibiotics from 1-5 weeks, which could be controlled by loading and fabrication parameters. In vivo, space maintainers releasing a high dose of antibiotics for an extended period of time increased soft tissue healing over burst release space maintainers in an infected composite tissue defect model in a rabbit mandible. Finally, stabilization of bone defects and regeneration could be improved through scaffold structures and delivery of a bone forming growth factor. These studies illustrate the possibility of the two stage strategy for repair of composite tissue defects of the craniofacial complex.

  13. Myocardial injection of apelin-overexpressing bone marrow cells improves cardiac repair via upregulation of Sirt3 after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Li

    Full Text Available Our previous study shows that treatment with apelin increases bone marrow cells (BMCs recruitment and promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI. The objective of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of apelin in BMCs improved cell therapy and accelerated cardiac repair and functional recovery in post-MI mice. Mouse myocardial infarction was achieved by coronary artery ligation and BMCs overexpressing apelin (apelin-BMCs or GFP (GFP-BMCs were injected into ischemic area immediately after surgery. In vitro, exposure of cultured BMCs to apelin led to a gradual increase in SDF-1á and CXCR4 expression. Intramyocardial delivery of apelin-BMCs in post-MI mice resulted in a significant increase number of APJ⁺/c-kit⁺/Sca1⁺ cells in the injected area compared to GFP-BMCs treated post-MI mice. Treatment with apelin-BMCs increased expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 in post-MI mice. Apelin-BMCs treatment also significantly increased angiogenesis and attenuated cardiac fibrosis formation in post-MI mice. Most importantly, treatment with apelin-BMCs significantly improved left ventricular (LV systolic function in post-MI mice. Mechanistically, Apelin-BMCs treatment led to a significant increase in Sirtuin3 (Sirt3 expression and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. Treatment of cultured BMCs with apelin also increased Notch3 expression and Akt phosphorylation. Apelin treatment further attenuated stress-induced apoptosis whereas knockout of Sirt3 abolished anti-apoptotic effect of apelin in cultured BMCs. Moreover, knockout of Sirt3 significantly attenuated apelin-BMCs-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis in post-MI mice. Knockout of Sirt3 further blunted apelin-BMCs-mediated improvement of cardiac repair and systolic functional recovery in post-MI mice. These data suggest that apelin improves BMCs therapy on cardiac repair and systolic function in post-MI mice. Upregulation of Sirt3 may contribute to the

  14. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Regeneration**

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Guobao; Ma, Peter X.

    2008-01-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, which aims to regenerate and replace lost/dysfunctional tissues or organs. Biomaterials (scaffolds) serve as temporary 3D substrates to guide neo tissue formation and organization. It is often beneficial for a scaffolding material to mimic the characteristics of extracellular matrix (ECM) at the nanometer scale and to induce certain natural developmental or/and wound healing processes for tissue regeneration applications. This article...

  15. Platelet-rich plasma diminishes calvarial bone repair associated with alterations in collagen matrix composition and elevated CD34+ cell prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; de Oliveira Filho, Marco Antonio; Göhringer, Isabella; Kuczera, Juliane; Zielak, João Cesar; de Andrade Urban, Cícero

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between platelets and both type I and III collagens plays an important role in modulating platelet adhesion and aggregation, also contributing to the chemotaxis of CD34+ cells. The interaction with type III collagen can maintain high levels of collagen and alter the biology of bone repair when the PRP is used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autograft on the presence of type III and type I collagens, the ratio between them, as well as the presence of CD34+ progenitor cells, while comparing these results by means of a histomorphometric analysis of the bone tissue. Four bone defects (8.0mm in diameter and 2.0mm in depth) were produced on the calvarium of 23 rabbits. The surgical defects were treated with either autogenous bone grafts, autogenous bone grafts with PRP and PRP alone. Animals were euthanized at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-surgery. Histological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to assess repair time, as well as the expression of type I and III collagens, and number of progenitor CD34+ cells. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha=5%). An enlarged granulation and medullary tissue areas in the PRP groups were observed. The use of PRP in this study hindered bone deposition, also enhanced type III to type I collagen ratio and the chemotaxis of CD34+ progenitor cells, similarly to a thrombogenic effect.

  16. Repair of defects and osteosynthesis of long bones in children with osteoclastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, D. V.; Gubina, E. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Senchenko, E. V.; Sadovoy, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is aimed at reporting a retrospective analysis covering the period from 2007 to 2015. The study involved 22 patients with benign osteoclastoma (OC), 14 male and 8 female children aged 9 to 19. All patients had monostotic lesions with the following location of pathological foci: humerus—11 patients, femoral bone—7, shin bone— 1, fibular bone—1, and ulnar bone—1. All 22 patients underwent surgery. Surgical treatment included resection of tumor focus within intact tissues (in cases of eccentric foci, bony bridge was preserved in the area of minimum damage, which was treated by electrocoagulation together with the cavity) together with bone grafting and intramedullary reinforcement of the affected bone (which provides stable osteosynthesis, early mobilization, and prevention of functional deficits in most patients). Consolidation was achieved in 100% of the operated patients.

  17. Bone repair with skeletal stem cells: rationale, progress to date and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elena A; Giannoudis, Peter V; Kouroupis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow (BM) contains stem cells for both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic lineages. Hematopoietic stem cells enable hematopoiesis to occur in a controlled manner in order to accurately compensate for the loss of short- as well as long-lived mature blood cells. The physiological role of nonhematopoietic BM stem cells, often referred to as multipotential stromal cells or skeletal stem cells (SSCs), is less understood. According to an authoritative current opinion, the main function of SSCs is to give rise to cartilage, bone, marrow fat and hematopoiesis-supportive stroma, in a specific sequence during embryonic and postnatal development. This review outlines recent advances in the understanding of origins and homeostatic functions of SSCs in vivo and highlights current and future SSC-based treatments for skeletal and joint disorders.

  18. Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Evans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

  19. Numerical Simulation of thePorous Structure of Biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHui-min; YANYu-hua; LIShi-pu

    2004-01-01

    Porous biomaterials are widely used as bone replacement materials because of thers high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity property. Understanding of their porous structure (i. e. geometrical and topological characteristic) and studying how to the body fluid flow through them are essential to investigate thed egradation behaviour at the surface-liquid interface. This research develops a numerical model to simulate the porous structure of biomaterials based on the stochastic approach in pore size distribution and interconnectivity.

  20. Metals and alloys in the function of biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan I. Tanikić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials are natural or synthetic materials, used for guidance, maintaining or replacing the function of the human body's live tissues. Metal biomaterials are mainly used for replacing broken or damaged hard tissues such as bones, because of their high strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. The most frequently used metals are stainless steels, cobalt based alloys as well as titanium and its alloys. A review of the metals and alloys mostly used in biomedicine are presented in this paper.

  1. Microscopic and radiographic analysis of the effect of particle size of demineralized bovine cancellous bone matrix on the repair of bone defects in femurs of rabbits Análise microscópica e radiográfica do efeito do tamanho das partículas de matriz de osso medular bovino desmineralizado na reparação de defeito ósseo em fêmures de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everdan Carneiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone tissue has a great regenerative potential, with ability to completely restore its structure and original functions. In some situations, though, bone defects cannot be self-repaired, thus requiring the use of grafts for a correct treatment and good prognosis. This work aimed at microscopically analyzing the effect of the particle size of demineralized bovine cancellous bone matrix in micro and macrogranular forms on the repair of bone defects in femurs of rabbits, with blood clot used as control. At 1, 3 and 6 months after implantation of the materials, the animals were killed and the anatomic specimens were removed. A foreign body-type granulomatous reaction containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in contact with the implanted particles was observed. These results suggest a failure in demineralization and/or interruption of the antigenic potential during production of the biomaterial. It is concluded that the size of the particles did not influence the evolution of the repair process of bone defects, acting only as bone-filler substances, and that the material implanted should be improved by quality control during production, since it may represent a good alternative for bone graft.O tecido ósseo possui grande potencial regenerativo com capacidade para restaurar completamente sua estrutura e função originais. Há situações em que os defeitos ósseos não conseguem por si só obter o reparo, casos em que se fazem necessários o uso de enxertos, para um correto tratamento e bom prognóstico. Este experimento teve o propósito de analisar microscopicamente o efeito do tamanho das partículas de matriz de osso medular bovino desmineralizado, nas formas micro e macrogranular, na reparação de defeito ósseo em fêmures de coelhos, tendo como controle o coágulo sanguíneo. Após 1,3 e 6 meses da implantação dos materiais, os animais foram mortos e as peças anatômicas removidas. Uma reação granulomatosa tipo corpo

  2. In vitro evaluation of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for canine mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Câmara Marques Pereira-Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of novel biomimetic PLLA/cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone repair applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, Samin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); El Sawi, Ihab; Bagheri, Zahra Shaghayegh [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Turcotte, Ginette [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Bougherara, Habiba, E-mail: habiba.bougherara@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and characterize a novel biomimetic nanocomposite that closely mimics the properties of real bone such as morphology, composition and mechanical characteristics. This novel porous nanocomposite is composed of cotton-sourced cellulose microcrystals, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and poly L-lactide acid. A unique combination of commonly used fabrication procedures has been developed including pre-treatment of particles using a coupling agent. The effect of various weight ratios of the reinforcing agents was evaluated to assess their influence on the chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and compression testing. Our results indicated the presence of molecular interactions between all components leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the polymer from 50% to 80%. Compression test results revealed that increasing the weight ratio of microcrystalline cellulose/poly L-lactide acid and hydroxyapatite/poly L-lactide acid from 0.1 to 0.5 enhanced the compressive yield stress from 0.127 to 2.2 MPa and The Young's modulus from 6.6 to 38 MPa, respectively. It was found that the fabricated nanocomposites are comparable with the trabecular bone from compositional, structural, and mechanical point of view. - Highlights: • Fabrication of PLLA/HA/cellulose composites that mimic the spongeous bone • Homogenous dispersion of the reinforcing agents in the PLLA matrix was attained. • More efficient interface between the PLLA and the reinforcing agents was achieved. • Preliminary in vitro biocompatibility test showed the nontoxicity of the composite. • The crystallinity, the compressive strength and modulus were investigated.

  4. Human bone marrow-derived adult stem cells for post-myocardial infarction cardiac repair: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H M; Wong, P; Hsu, L F; Shim, W

    2009-10-01

    Stem cell-based cell therapy has emerged as a potentially therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure. With the completion of a number of trials using bone marrow (BM)-derived adult stem cells, critical examination of the overall clinical benefits, limitations and potential side effects of this revolutionary treatment will pave the way for future clinical research. At present, clinical trials have been conducted almost exclusively using BM stem cells. The primary endpoints of these trials are mainly safety and feasibility, with secondary endpoints in the efficacy of post-myocardial infarction (MI) cardiac repair. Intervention with BM-derived cells was mainly carried out by endogenously-mobilised BM cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and more frequently, by intracoronary infusion or direct intramyocardial injection of autologous BM cells. While these studies have been proven safe and feasible without notable side effects, mixed outcomes in terms of clinical benefits have been reported. The major clinical benefits observed are improved cardiac contractile function and suppressed left ventricular negative remodelling, including reduced infarct size and improved cardiac perfusion of infarct zone. Moderate and transient clinical benefits have been mostly observed in studies with intracoronary infusion or direct intramyocardial injection of BM cells. These effects are widely considered to be indirect effects of implanted cells in association with paracrine factors, cell fusion, passive ventricular remodelling, or the responses of endogenous cardiac stem cells. In contrast, evidence of cardiac regeneration characterised by differentiation of implanted stem cells into cardiomyocytes and other cardiac cell lineages, is weak or lacking. To elucidate a clear risk-benefit of this exciting therapy, future studies on the mechanisms of cardiac cell therapy will need to focus on confirming the ideal cell types in relation

  5. Biomaterials in Relation to Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this

  6. Evaluation of a synthetic bone defect test model to aid in the selection of materials for use in vertebral body compression fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Lewis, Gladius; Xu, J; Moseley, Jon; Cole, Jantzen; Haggard, Warren

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic test model was developed to assist in screening injectable cements with a focus on mechanical strength for vertebral body compression fracture repair. The two-part defect model consisted of a polyurethane foam cube to simulate trabecular bone and a defect to which various injectable cements could be introduced. In addition, a finite element analysis model was developed and the results were compared to laboratory testing. Agreement was found between the finite element analysis and test results. Once the finite element analysis model was validated with experimental data, an additional finite element analysis was conducted to study various parameters affecting mechanical performance such as simulated bone and cement stiffness. Finite element analysis models were also created using orthotropic bone properties typical of healthy trabecular bone and were compared to various foam stiffnesses. The foam model was a good in vitro representation of actual trabecular bone found in vertebral bodies and is a valid model to evaluate the mechanical strength of injectable cements for percutaneous vertebral body fracture repair.

  7. Repair of 20-mm long rabbit radial bone defects using BMP-derived peptide combined with an alpha-tricalcium phosphate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Kitamura, Makoto; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Yoshihara, Yusuke; Masuda, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Tanihara, Masao

    2006-06-15

    In previous studies, we have reported that the BMP-2-derived peptide KIPKASSVPTELSAISTLYL, corresponding to BMP-2 residues 73-92, binds to a BMP-2-specific receptor, and elevates both alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin mRNA in the murine mesenchymal cell line, C3H10T1/2. This 73-92 peptide conjugated to a covalently crosslinked alginate gel induced ectopic bone formation in rat calf muscle, and activated osteoblasts to promote the repair of rat tibial bone defects. Here, we report repair of 20-mm long rabbit radial bone defects using the 73-92 peptide combined with a porous alpha-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold. In vitro, the 73-92 peptide was released from the porous alpha-TCP scaffold over more than one week. In vivo, radiomorphometric analysis showed that the 73-92 peptide combined with the porous alpha-TCP scaffold promoted calcification in the implanted area in a dose-dependent manner, and that 5 mg of the 73-92 peptide induced connection of 20-mm long defects, defects of critical size, 12 weeks after implantation. Histological examination revealed newly formed bone and a marrow cavity in the implanted area. The area of bone denser than 690 mg/cm(3) induced by the 73-92 peptide was nearly equal to that of the contralateral radius.

  8. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ru Zhang; Ka Ka; Ge-chen Zhang; Hui Zhang; Yan Shang; Guo-qiang Zhao; Wen-hua Huang

    2015-01-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic fac-tor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neuro-trophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve ifbers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when al-lografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cili-ary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury.

  9. Biological membrane for repair of different sizes of bone defects surrounding BLB implants%生物膜对不同范围BLB种植体周骨缺损修复的影像学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟维艳; 周延民; 储顺礼; 杨立明; 蔡青

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There is often space between implant and bone during immediate implantation.Whether biological membrane is needed to guide bone regeneration remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVE:To createdifferent sizes of space between femurand implantsindogs and to observe the effects of biological membrane on bone regeneration capacity of bone defects surrounding implants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A self-control animal experiment was performed at the Laboratory Animal Center,Norman Bethune College of Medicine,Jilin University and School of Stomatology,Jilin University between March and December 2005.MATERIALS:BLB hydroxyapatite-coated implant was provided by Beijing Leiden Biomaterial Co.,Ltd.,China;BME-10X collagen membrane was purchased from Fujian Better Biotechnology Co..Ltd.,China.METHODS:BLB implants were installed in the bilateral proximal femoral bone to create standard gradient bone defects with horizontal width 3 mm.vertical depth 5 mm,and horizontal lengths of 0,1,2,3,and 4 mm Bone defects on the left femur were sutured directly and those on the right femur were covered with biological membrane prior to suture.All animals were sacrificed at 3 months after surgery.Specimens containing implants were harvested to prepare tissue blocks for radiological observation.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The quantity,color,and texture of newly formed bone surrounding implants were observed from the surface and profile levels.The implant-bone integration and new bone formation were also examined by soft X-ray photography.RESULTS:Grossobservation results revealed that when the horizontal length of bone defect was 3 mm or less,there was no significant differenee in bone density between the newly formed bone and the host bone no matter whether biological membrane existed or not;when the horizontal length of bone defect was 4 mm the bone density was better when biological membranes were used than not.Soft X-ray photography results revealed that when the horizontal length ofbone defect

  10. Advanced biomaterials and biodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are the fastest-growing emerging field of  biodevices. Design and development of biomaterials play a significant role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Recently, a variety of scaffolds/carriers have been evaluated for tissue regeneration, drug delivery, sensing and imaging.  Liposomes and microspheres have been developed for sustained delivery. Several anti-cancer drugs have been successfully formulated using biomaterial. The targeting of drugs to certain physiological sites has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment with improved drug bioavailability and reduction of dosing frequency. Biodevices-based targeting of drugs may improve the therapeutic success by limiting the adverse drug effects and resulting in more patient compliance and attaining a higher adherence level. Advanced biodevices hold merit as a drug carrier with high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, high stability, as well as the feasibility...

  11. The photobiomodulation in the bone repair after radiotherapy: experimental study in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M. R. S.; Almeida, D.; Santos, J. N.; Sarmento, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    This research evaluated the effect of the GaAlAs lasertherapy at the healing of surgical wounds produced in Wistar rats femurs few days before the beginning of the radiotherapy. For this, an orifice was artificially produced in the femur bone of the rats and they had been submitted to an external radiotherapy with a radioactive source of cobalt in the dosage of 3000 cGys. The experimental group received additionally seven sessions of 780 nm, 40 mW, 100 J/cm2 or 5 J/cm2 in four points around the surgical wound, at each 48 h, initiated at the day of the surgery. These animals had been sacrificed in three and five weeks. The results show that the number of osteocites (p< 0,0001) and Harvers channels (p< 0,0001) were significantly larger in the groups that had been radiated with laser during the experiment.

  12. Enhanced Stability of Calcium Sulfate Scaffolds with 45S5 Bioglass for Bone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cijun Shuai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, as a promising tissue repair material, has been applied widely due to its outstanding bioabsorbability and osteoconduction. However, fast disintegration, insufficient mechanical strength and poor bioactivity have limited its further application. In the study, CaSO4 scaffolds fabricated by using selective laser sintering were improved by adding 45S5 bioglass. The 45S5 bioglass enhanced stability significantly due to the bond effect of glassy phase between the CaSO4 grains. After immersing for four days in simulated body fluid (SBF, the specimens with 45S5 bioglass could still retain its original shape compared as opposed to specimens without 45S5 bioglass who experienced disintegration. Meanwhile, its compressive strength and fracture toughness increased by 80% and 37%, respectively. Furthermore, the apatite layer was formed on the CaSO4 scaffolds with 45S5 bioglass in SBF, indicating good bioactivity of the scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds showed good ability to support the osteoblast-like cell adhesion and proliferation.

  13. Biomaterials and magnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bahadur; Jyotsnendu Giri

    2003-06-01

    Magnetism plays an important role in different applications of health care. Magnetite (Fe34) is biocompatible and therefore is one of the most extensively used biomaterials for different applications ranging from cell separation and drug delivery to hyperthermia. Other than this, a large number of magnetic materials in bulk as well as in the form of nano particles have been exploited for a variety of medical applications. In this review, we summarize the salient features of clinical applications, where magnetic biomaterials are used. Magnetic intracellular hyperthermia for cancer therapy is discussed in detail.

  14. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  15. Characterizing biomaterial complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Clifton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials research will always require a range of techniques to examine structure and function on a range of length scales and in a range of settings. Neutron scattering provides a unique way of disentangling the molecular and structural complexity of biomaterials through study of the constituent components. We examine how the technique has been used to study surface immobilized proteins and lipid films, floating lipid bilayers as mimics of in vitro planar membranes, and formation of fibres from solution by insects and spiders.

  16. Preparation, characterization, in vitro bioactivity, and cellular responses to a polyetheretherketone bioactive composite containing nanocalcium silicate for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Songchao; Tan, Honglue; Qian, Jun; Lin, Wentao; Wang, Yugang; Liu, Changsheng; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    2014-08-13

    In this study, a nanocalcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bioactive composite was prepared using a process of compounding and injection-molding. The mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells (attachment, proliferation, spreading, and differentiation) to the composite, were investigated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the composites were significantly improved by the addition of n-CS to PEEK. In addition, an apatite-layer formed on the composite surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. In cell culture tests, the results revealed that the n-CS/PEEK composite significantly promoted cell attachment, proliferation, and spreading compared with PEEK or ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Moreover, cells grown on the composite exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, more calcium nodule-formation, and higher expression levels of osteogenic differentiation-related genes than cells grown on PEEK or UHMWPE. These results indicated that the incorporation of n-CS to PEEK could greatly improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite. Thus, the n-CS/PEEK composite may be a promising bone repair material for use in orthopedic clinics.

  17. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic.

  18. Repair of Segmental Load-Bearing Bone Defect by Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Plasma-Derived Fibrin Impregnated Ceramic Block Results in Early Recovery of Limb Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hwei Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO. Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32, MIC (1.28 ± 0.24, and negative controls (0. Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1% compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5% and MIC (26% ± 5.2%. Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa. In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.

  19. 种植体周围骨缺损剩余骨壁对骨缺损修复的影响%Influence of the Peri Implant Bone Defect Residual Bone Wall on the Repair of Bone Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚军; 关敏

    2015-01-01

    aim of this study is to through animal experiment to observe and study the peri implant bone defect residual bone wall has no effect on repairing bone defect .Establishment of miniature pig farming immediate experimental animal model and on the basis of experimental design to determine residual bone wall thickness ,and the bone wall after a certain distance of implant ,the experimental group joined the artificial bone ,autogenous bone powder mixture and covered with collagen membrane ,blank group covers only collagen membrane ,to compare observation of bone defects around implants residual bone wall for repairing bone defect has no effect ,in order to provide theoretical and experimental basis for the clinical work .Methods Select 4 healthy pigs ,male and female ,minimally invasive removal of left ,right upper second ,3 ,4 premolar ,after stripping gingival flap operation ,fully exposed bone wall ,and vernier caliper with high -pressure steam steril-ization after the one one measurement of the buccal residual bone wall thickness ,split drill grinding buccal sur-face up to the cemento enamel junction to about 5 mm ,a“U” shaped bone defect ,and ensure the cheek bone wall thickness are respectively 0 .5 mm ,1 mm and 1 .5 mm respectively after implantation ,implant ,the implant and the buccal bone wall away from the 3 mm ,on the left side as experimental group ,including the artificial bone ,autogenous bone powder and mixture on a defect after covering ,collagen membrane ,membrane edge cov-erage beyond the bone defect around 2 mm ,crown Fang Ping Qi gingival ,gingival flap reposition ,right control , direct suture implant .After 8 weeks ,1 2 weeks were two animal ,the maxilla ,preparation of specimens ,naked eye observation ,measurement of bone mineral density and bone implant disk observation .Results (1 )naked eye observation ,good oral hygiene ,no wound infection ,dehiscence or implant failure phenomenon .Death animal had no occurrence of accidental death of

  20. FreeFibula(Skin)FlapinRepairingSegmentalBoneDefectofLimbs%游离腓骨(皮)瓣修复肢体长段骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金超; 李志安

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effects of repairing method and the large segmental bone defect of limbs. Methods From 2002 June to 2009 June, 18 cases of long bone defects of limbs (including 6 cases with skin defect of skin defect), 8cm×3cm to 20cm×7cm, bone defect of 6-14cm;with vascularized ifbular (skin) lfap transplantation with autologous bone grafting for the treatment of bone lfap, which cut area of 9cm×4cm to 23cm×8cm, the ifbular lfap length 8-18cm. Results 6 cases of bone lfap and 12 cases of bone lfap all survived;follow-up for 12-36 months, average 18 months, bone growth is good, all fractures healed, with satisfactory appearance and function, bone graft 12 months after thickening and recipient bone similar. Conclusion Free ifbula lfap (skin) is a good method to repair segmental bone defects of limbs with skin defect.%  目的探讨四肢大段骨缺损修复方法及疗效。方法自2002年6月至2009年6月对18例四肢长骨骨缺损(其中6例合并皮肤缺损),皮肤缺损8cm×3cm~20cm×7cm,骨缺损6~14cm;采用吻合血管的腓骨(皮)瓣移植加自体植骨治疗,其中切取骨皮瓣面积9cm×4cm~23cm×8cm,切取腓骨瓣长8~18cm。结果6例骨皮瓣及12例骨瓣全部成活;随访12~36个月,平均18个月,骨生长良好,骨折全部愈合,获得满意外形及功能,移植骨12个月后增粗与受区骨基本相似。结论游离腓骨(皮)瓣是修复四肢长段骨缺损伴皮肤缺损的较好方法。

  1. 自体红骨髓构建非细胞型组织工程化骨修复骨缺损%Repairing bone defects by non-cell based tissue engineered complex constructed by autologous red bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文良; 邓江; 贾东林; 阮世强; 苑成

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell based tissue engineered bone is successful in the repair of bone defects, but it is a complex operation,easy to be contaminated and takes a long time, and not conducive to clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of repairing large-segment bone defects by non-cell based tissue engineered complexconstructed by autologous red bone marrow.METHODS: Twenty-seven rabbits were used to prepare 2 cm unilateral radial large-segment bone defect models, and thenrandomly divided into group A, group B and group C. Group A was implanted with autologous red bone marrow to constructtissue engineered bone (autologous red bone marrow+recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1/coralline hydroxyapatite);group B was implanted with autologous red bone marrow/coralline hydroxyapatite artificial bone material; group C was implantedwith coralline hydroxyapatite/recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 artificial bone material.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Group A was superior to the other two group in terms of osteogenic potential and materialdegradation by comparison of degree of bone formation, bone trabecular number, the structure formation of mature bone andimplant degradation at 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). Non-cell based tissue engineered bone constructed byautologous red bone marrow has better osteogenic activity, and effective to repair large-segment bone defects.%背景:细胞型组织工程化骨修复骨缺损的效果良好,但存在操作复杂,容易污染及花费时间长等不足,不利于临床应用.目的:观察自体红骨髓构建的非细胞型组织工程化骨修复大段骨缺损的成骨效果.方法:在27只家兔一侧桡骨制作2 cm大段骨缺损模型后,随机分3组,分别植入自体红骨髓+重组人胰岛素样生长因子1/珊瑚羟基磷灰石非细胞型组织工程化骨、自体红骨髓/珊瑚羟基磷灰石复合人工骨材料、珊瑚羟基磷灰石/重组人胰岛素样生长因子1复

  2. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or s...

  3. Biomedical potential of chitosan/HA and chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA biomaterials as scaffolds for bone regeneration — A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przekora, Agata, E-mail: agata.przekora@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Palka, Krzysztof [Department of Materials Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare biomedical potential of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (chit/HA) and novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (chit/glu/HA) materials as scaffolds for bone regeneration via characterization of their biocompatibility, porosity, mechanical properties, and water uptake behaviour. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed in direct-contact with the materials using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line. Cytotoxicity and osteoblast proliferation rate were evaluated. Porosity was assessed using computed microtomography analysis and mechanical properties were determined by compression testing. Obtained results demonstrated that chit/HA scaffold possessed significantly better mechanical properties (compressive strength: 1.23 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.46 MPa) than chit/glu/HA material (compressive strength: 0.26 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.25 MPa). However, addition of bacterial β-1,3-glucan to the chit/HA scaffold improved its flexibility and porosity. Moreover, chit/glu/HA scaffold revealed significantly higher water uptake capability (52.6% after 24 h of soaking) compared to the chit/HA (30.7%) and thus can serve as a very good drug delivery carrier. Chit/glu/HA scaffold was also more favourable to osteoblast survival (near 100% viability after 24-h culture), proliferation, and spreading compared to the chit/HA (63% viability). The chit/glu/HA possesses better biomedical potential than chit/HA scaffold. Nevertheless, poor mechanical properties of the chit/glu/HA limit its application to non-load bearing implantation area. - Highlights: • Chitosan/HA and chit/β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffolds for bone regeneration were compared. • Chit/HA significantly reduced osteoblast viability to 63% compared to chit/glu/HA. • Unlike chit/HA, chit/glu/HA favoured cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. • Chit/HA had better compressive strength and Young's modulus than chit/glu/HA. • Chit/glu/HA revealed significantly higher

  4. Evaluation of bone repair after radiotherapy by photobiomodulation-an animal experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M. R. S.; Almeida, D.; Santos, J. N.; Sarmento, V. A.

    2011-05-01

    This research evaluated the effect of GaAlAs lasertherapy at the healing of surgical wounds produced in Wistar rat femurs a few days before the beginning of the radiotherapy. An orifice was artificially produced in the femur bone of the rats and they were submitted to an external radiotherapy with a radioactive source of cobalt in the dosage of 3000 cGys. The experimental group received additionally seven sessions of 780 nm, 40 mW, 100 or 5 J/cm2 in four points around the surgical wound, at each 48 h, initiated at the day of surgery. These animals were then sacrificed at three and five weeks. The results were based on the clinical and histological analyses. Clinically, even though the rats had gained body mass within the time of the experiment ( p < 0.05), those who has been submitted to the lasertherapy presented cutaneous inflammatory reactions. Regarding the histological findings, the number of osteocites ( p < 0.0001) and Harvers channels ( p < 0.0001) was significantly larger in the groups that had been radiated with laser during the experiment.

  5. Development of LiCl-containing calcium aluminate cement for bone repair and remodeling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Gutiérrez, I O; Escobedo-Bocardo, J C; Almanza-Robles, J M; Cortés-Hernández, D A; Saldívar-Ramírez, M M G; Reséndiz-Hernández, P J; Zugasti-Cruz, A

    2017-01-01

    The effect of LiCl additions on the in vitro bioactivity, hemolysis, cytotoxicity, compressive strength and setting time of calcium aluminate cements was studied. Calcium aluminate clinker (AC) was obtained via solid state reaction from reagent grade chemicals of CaCO3 and Al2O3. Calcium aluminate cements (CAC) were prepared by mixing the clinker with water or aqueous LiCl solutions (0.01, 0.0125 or 0.015M (M)) using a w/c ratio of 0.4. After 21days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological conditions of temperature and pH, a Ca-P rich layer, identified as hydroxyapatite (HA), was formed on the cement without LiCl and on the cement prepared with 0.01M of LiCl solution. This indicates the high bioactivity of these cements. The cements setting times were significantly reduced using LiCl. The measured hemolysis percentages, all of them lower than 5%, indicated that the cements were not hemolytic. The compressive strength of the cements was not negatively affected by the LiCl additions. The obtained cement when a solution of LiCl 0.010M was added, presented high compressive strength, appropriated bioactivity, no cytotoxicity and low setting time, making this material a potentially bone cement.

  6. Numerical simulation of fluid field and in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones in a rotating bioreactor and in vivo implantation for repairing segmental bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kedong; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Bowen; Lim, Mayasari; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Tianqing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional flow field simulation was conducted to determine shear stresses and velocity profiles for bone tissue engineering in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWVB). In addition, in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones was carried out in optimized bioreactor conditions, and in vivo implantation using fabricated bones was performed for segmental bone defects of Zelanian rabbits. The distribution of dynamic pressure, total pressure, shear stress, and velocity within the culture chamber was calculated for different scaffold locations. According to the simulation results, the dynamic pressure, velocity, and shear stress around the surface of cell-scaffold construction periodically changed at different locations of the RWVB, which could result in periodical stress stimulation for fabricated tissue constructs. However, overall shear stresses were relatively low, and the fluid velocities were uniform in the bioreactor. Our in vitro experiments showed that the number of cells cultured in the RWVB was five times higher than those cultured in a T-flask. The tissue-engineered bones grew very well in the RWVB. This study demonstrates that stress stimulation in an RWVB can be beneficial for cell/bio-derived bone constructs fabricated in an RWVB, with an application for repairing segmental bone defects.

  7. Synthesis of CAD/CAM, robotics and biomaterial implant fabrication: single-step reconstruction in computer-aided frontotemporal bone resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihe, S; Wehmöller, M; Schliephake, H; Hassfeld, S; Tschakaloff, A; Raczkowsky, J; Eufinger, H

    2000-10-01

    The preoperative manufacturing of individual skull implants, developed by an interdisciplinary research group at Ruhr-University Bochum, is based on the use of titanium as the most common material for implants at present. Using the existing technology for materials that can be milled or moulded, customized implants may be manufactured as well. The goal of the study was to examine biodegradable materials and to evaluate the practicability of intraoperative instrument navigation and robotics. Data acquisition of an adult sheep's head was performed with helical computer tomography (CT). The data were transferred onto a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system (CAD/CAM system), and two complex defects in the frontotemporal skull were designed. Standard individual titanium implants were milled for both of the defects. Additionally, for one of the defects a resection template, as well as a mould for the biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) implant, were fabricated by the CAD/CAM system. A surgeon carried out the first bone resection (#1) for the prefabricated titanium implant using the resection template and an oscillating saw. The robot system Stäubli RX90CR, modified for clinical use, carried out the other resection (#2). Both titanium implants and the PDLLA implant were inserted in their respective defects to compare the precision of their fit. A critical comparison of both implant materials and both resection types shows that fabrication of a PDLLA implant and robot resection are already possible. At present, the titanium implant and resection using a template are more convincing due to the higher precision and practicability.

  8. Biomaterials approaches to treating implant-associated osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A; Schwarz, Edward M; Kates, Stephen L; Awad, Hani A

    2016-03-01

    Orthopaedic devices are the most common surgical devices associated with implant-related infections and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common causative pathogen in chronic bone infections (osteomyelitis). Treatment of these chronic bone infections often involves combinations of antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site via a biomaterial spacer. The gold standard biomaterial for local antibiotic delivery against osteomyelitis, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, bears many limitations. Such shortcomings include limited antibiotic release, incompatibility with many antimicrobial agents, and the need for follow-up surgeries to remove the non-biodegradable cement before surgical reconstruction of the lost bone. Therefore, extensive research pursuits are targeting alternative, biodegradable materials to replace PMMA in osteomyelitis applications. Herein, we provide an overview of the primary clinical treatment strategies and emerging biodegradable materials that may be employed for management of implant-related osteomyelitis. We performed a systematic review of experimental biomaterials systems that have been evaluated for treating established S. aureus osteomyelitis in an animal model. Many experimental biomaterials were not decisively more efficacious for infection management than PMMA when delivering the same antibiotic. However, alternative biomaterials have reduced the number of follow-up surgeries, enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy by delivering agents that are incompatible with PMMA, and regenerated bone in an infected defect. Understanding the advantages, limitations, and potential for clinical translation of each biomaterial, along with the conditions under which it was evaluated (e.g. animal model), is critical for surgeons and researchers to navigate the plethora of options for local antibiotic delivery.

  9. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  10. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant from MRL/MpJ Super-Healer Mice Does Not Improve Articular Cartilage Repair in the C57Bl/6 Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Leonard

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has been the focus of multiple strategies to improve its regenerative/ repair capacity. The Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ "super-healer" mouse demonstrates an unusual enhanced regenerative capacity in many tissues and provides an opportunity to further study endogenous cartilage repair. The objective of this study was to test whether the super-healer phenotype could be transferred from MRL/MpJ to non-healer C57Bl/6 mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplant.The healing of 2mm ear punches and full thickness cartilage defects was measured 4 and 8 weeks after injury in control C57Bl/6 and MRL/MpJ "super-healer" mice, and in radiation chimeras reconstituted with bone marrow from the other mouse strain. Healing was assessed using ear hole diameter measurement, a 14 point histological scoring scale for the cartilage defect and an adapted version of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scale for assessment of osteoarthritis in mouse knee joints.Normal and chimeric MRL mice showed significantly better healing of articular cartilage and ear wounds along with less severe signs of osteoarthritis after cartilage injury than the control strain. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, bone marrow transplant from MRL mice did not confer improved healing on the C57Bl/6 chimeras, either in regards to ear wound healing or cartilage repair.The elusive cellular basis for the MRL regenerative phenotype still requires additional study and may possibly be dependent on additional cell types external to the bone marrow.

  11. Preparation of novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials and their corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Zhongxian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Lan; Yang, Na; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingdswu@163.com

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were prepared. • The biomaterials were prepared by anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. • The composite biomaterials were smooth and with low porosity. • The prepared biomaterials have good corrosion resistance in SBF. • The composite biomaterials can release zinc ion to promote bone formation. - Abstract: In this study, novel and functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)/zinc oxide) composite biomaterials for enhancing the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant was prepared by using anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. The surface morphology, microstructure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the composite biomaterials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), adhesion measurements, electrochemical tests and immersion tests respectively. In addition, the biocompatible properties of Mg (magnesium), Mg/PCL (magnesium/poly(ε-caprolactone)) and Mg/O/PCL (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)) samples were also investigated. The results show that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were with low porosity and with the ZnO powders dispersed in PCL uniformly. The adhesion tests suggested that Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had better adhesion strength than that of Mg/PCL composite biomaterials obviously. Besides, an in vitro test for corrosion demonstrated that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had good corrosion resistance and zinc ion was released obviously in SBF.

  12. Stimulation of bone repair with ultrasound: a review of the possible mechanic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Frédéric; Puts, Regina; Vico, Laurence; Raum, Kay

    2014-07-01

    dish walls and the formation of standing waves will greatly affect the local type and amplitude of the stimulus exerted on the cells. A future engineering challenge is therefore the design of dedicated experimental set-ups, in which the different mechanical phenomena induced by ultrasound can be controlled. This is a prerequisite to evaluate the biological effects of the different phenomena with respect to particular parameters, like intensity, frequency, or duty cycle. By relating the variations of these parameters to the induced physical effects and to the biological responses, it will become possible to derive an 'acoustic dose' and propose a quantification and cross-calibration of the different experimental systems. Improvements in bone healing management will probably also come from a combination of ultrasound with a 'biologic' components, e.g. growth factors, scaffolds, gene therapies, or drug delivery vehicles, the effects of which being potentiated by the ultrasound.

  13. Nanomanufacturing of biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Engel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present a few of the many important objectives in the area of biomedical engineering that could open new pathways for next-generation biomaterials. We also provide examples of how materials for these goals can be created in an economically viable means through recent advances in high throughput production. These strategies highlight the potential for nanomanufacturing in a variety of areas of importance for human health and safety.

  14. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  15. 伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损的临床修复分析%Clinical repair analysis on alveolar bone defect on labial side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损的临床修复方法与效果。方法选择伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损患者50例,采用诱导活性材料进行修复治疗。结果所有患者完成手术,成功率为100.0%。与术前比较,患者植骨材料充填牙槽突缺损的间隙无明显移位,对比差异明显(P<0.05)。结论采用骨诱导活性材料修复伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损能取得很好的临床效果,值得推广应用。%Object: To analysis the strategy and effect of clinical repair on alveolar bone defect on labial side. Methods: 50 cases with alveolar bone defect on labial side were given prosthodontic treatment using induction active material. Results: All the patients underwent the operation successfully and success rate was 100%. Compared with before operation, clearance of alveolar process defect was filled by bone substitute material without obvious displacement, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Using bone substitute material to repair alveolar bone defect on labial side obtained good clinical effect, and worthy of being widely applied in clinic.

  16. Demineralization–remineralization dynamics in teeth and bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Anas Aljabo,3 Adam Strange,3 Salwa Ibrahim,3 Melanie Coathup,4 Anne M Young,3 Laurent Bozec,3 Vivek Mudera4 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK; 4UCL Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, London, UK Abstract: Biomineralization is a dynamic, complex, lifelong process by which living organisms control precipitations of inorganic nanocrystals within organic matrices to form unique hybrid biological tissues, for example, enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. Understanding the process of mineral deposition is important for the development of treatments for mineralization-related diseases and also for the innovation and development of scaffolds. This review provides a thorough overview of the up-to-date information on the theories describing the possible mechanisms and the factors implicated as agonists and antagonists of mineralization. Then, the role of calcium and phosphate ions in the maintenance of teeth and bone health is described. Throughout the life, teeth and bone are at risk of demineralization, with particular emphasis on teeth, due to their anatomical arrangement and location. Teeth are exposed to food, drink, and the microbiota of the mouth; therefore, they have developed a high resistance to localized demineralization that is unmatched by bone. The mechanisms by which demineralization–remineralization process occurs in both teeth and bone and the new therapies/technologies that reverse demineralization or boost remineralization are also scrupulously discussed. Technologies discussed include composites with nano- and micron-sized inorganic minerals that can mimic mechanical properties

  17. Repair of rabbit cartilage defect based on the fusion of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells and Nano-HA/PLLA composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimin; Guo, Daiqi; Peng, Liangquan; Chen, Yun Fang; Cui, Jiaming; Xiong, Jianyi; Lu, Wei; Duan, Li; Chen, Kang; Zeng, Yanjun; Wang, Daping

    2017-02-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the fusion of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) and Nano-hydroxyapatite/poly (l-lactic acid) (Nano-HA/PLLA) in repairing the rabbit knee joint with full-thickness cartilage defect. Method The rBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the third generation of rBMSCs was co-cultured with the Nano-HA/PLLA to construct the tissue-engineered cartilage (TEC). Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and randomly divided into three groups, namely, TEC group, Nano-HA/PLLA group, and control group. A cartilage defect model with the diameter of 4.5 mm and depth of 5 mm was constructed on the articular surface of medial malleolus of rabbit femur. General observation, histological observation, and Wakitani's histological scoring were conducted in the 12th and 24th week postoperatively. Results The results of TEC group indicated that new cartilage tissue was formed on the defect site and subchondral bone achieved physiological integration basically. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses indicated the generation of massive extracellular matrix. In contrast, limited regeneration and reconstruction of cartilage was achieved in the Nano-HA/PLLA group and control group, with a significant difference from the TEC group (p Nano-HA/PLLA combined with BMSCs promoted the repair of weight-bearing bone of adult rabbit's knee joint with cartilage defect.

  18. Improving bone repair of femoral and radial defects in rabbit by incorporating PRP into PLGA/CPC composite scaffold with unidirectional pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fupo; Chen, Yan; Li, Jiyan; Lin, Bomiao; Ouyang, Yi; Yu, Bo; Xia, Yuanyou; Yu, Bo; Ye, Jiandong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a platelet-rich plasma poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PRP-PLGA)/calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composite scaffold was prepared by incorporating PRP into PLGA/CPC scaffold with unidirectional pore structure, which was fabricated by the unidirectional freeze casting of CPC slurry and the following infiltration of PLGA. The results from in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation in femoral defects manifested that incorporation of PRP into PLGA/CPC scaffold improved in vitro cell response (cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation), and markedly boosted bone formation, angiogenesis and material degradation. The incorporation of PRP into scaffold showed more outstanding improvement in osteogenesis as the scaffolds were used to repair the segmental radial defects, especially at the early stage. The new bone tissues grew along the unidirectional lamellar pores of scaffold. At 12 weeks postimplantation, the segmental radial defects treated with PRP-PLGA/CPC scaffold had almost recuperated, whereas treated with the scaffold without PRP was far from healed. Taken together, the PRP-PLGA/CPC scaffold with unidirectional pore structure is a promising candidate to repair bone defects at various sites.

  19. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  20. Biocompatibility and bone-repairing effects: comparison between porous poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Chen; Qian, Xiaodan; Tang, Zihua; Hu, Qinghong; Chen, Jiarong; Gao, Changyou; Tang, Ruikang; Tong, Xiangmin; Wang, Jinfu

    2014-06-01

    Copolymer composite scaffolds and bioceramic/polymer composite scaffolds are two representative forms of composite scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering. Studies to compare biocompatibility and bone-repairing effects between these two scaffolds are significant for selecting or improving the scaffold for clinical application. We prepared two porous scaffolds comprising poly-lactic-acid/poly-glycolic-acid (PLGA) and poly-lactic-acid/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP/PLA) respectively, and examined their biocompatibility with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through evaluating adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potentials of hMSCs in the scaffold. Then, the PLGA scaffold with hMSCs (PM construct) and the nHAP/PLA scaffold with hMSCs (HPM construct) were transplanted into the rat calvarial defect areas to compare their effects on the bone reconstruction. The results showed that the nHAP/PLA scaffold was in favor of adhesion, matrix deposition and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. For in vivo transplantation, both HPM and PM constructs led to mineralization and osteogenesis in the defect area of rat. However, the area grafted with PM construct showed a better formation of mature bone than that with HPM construct. In addition, the evaluation of in vitro and in vivo degradation indicated that the degradation rate of nHAP/PLA scaffold was much lower than that of PLGA scaffold. It is inferred that the lower degradation of nHAP/PLA scaffold should result in its inferior bone reconstruction in rat calvaria. Therefore, the preparation of an ideal composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering should be taken into account of the balance between its biocompatibility, degradation rate, osteoconductivity and mechanical property.

  1. 脱蛋白松质骨作为异种骨移植材料的修复作用%Repair effect of deproteinised cancellous bone as xenogeneic bone graft material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春阳; 姜宏春; 金春明

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unequal size, mutual communication, and open pore network structure can be seen in cancellous bone treated with deproteinization. Its inorganic component is hydroxyapatite, and the organic component is collagen, which has a good mechanical property and biocompatibility. It may be a new type of bone graft material.OBJECTIVE: To study the properties of xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone being carrier of bone tissue engineering in bone fusion.METHODS: Taking “xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone, bone fusion, carrier” in Chinese as search terms, the articles from January 1998 to December 2009 in VIP database, CNKI database, Pubmed database were retrieved by computer. The relevant literatures were included, the literature of irrelevant purpose and repetitive content were excluded, and 33 of them were involved for further analysis.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with synthetic bone material, animal bones have similar biomaterial structure, modeling, excellent cell attachment, and cell growth and proliferation environment. However, the compatibility of bone tissue is poor, because of the differences in species when xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone transplantation, and gravis immune rejection, the key question is implantation of immune problems. How to overcome immunogenicity, xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone is a good carrier of bone tissue engineering, which can provide a stable environment for revascularization and differentiation of osteoblasts.%背景:采用脱蛋白处理后的松质骨可见大小不等、相互交通、开放孔隙的网架结构,其无机成分为羟基磷灰石,有机成分为胶原,力学性能保存良好,有良好的细胞相容性,可能是一种新型骨移植材料.目的:介绍异种脱蛋白松质骨作为骨组织工程载体的性能,以及其用于骨融合的作用.方法:分别以"异种脱蛋白松质骨、骨融合、载体",为检索词,应用计算机检索重庆

  2. A influência da deficiência estrogênica no processo de remodelação e reparação óssea Effect of estrogen deficiency on bone turnover and bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ungaro Amadei

    2006-02-01

    cellular activity and several studies focus on the factors able to modulate the bone functions. The increase of bone research is, in part, due to the establishment of osteoporosis as a healthy problem common in elderly. Osteoporosis is one of the most important osteopathy, characterized by the bone mass reduction, resulted from disequilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. OBJECTIVE: Based on the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism, the aim of this study is present a review of literature about the principal aspects of bone turnover and bone repair associated to estrogen deficiency. Bone turnover: Bone tissue is in continuous turnover, however, changes in this process can result in some disorders, such as osteoporosis. Bone repair: Involves a sequence of biological events. It is affected by local and external factors and regulated by interaction of several mechanisms, like bone turnover. Estrogen deficiency and bone metabolism: The capacity to repair has been associated to changes in bone turnover and repair. DISCUSSION: It is not known which bone repair stage is modified: the bone formation, the mineralization or the resorption stage. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of bone changes caused by estrogen deficiency are not completely clear, so, new studies are still necessary.

  3. Mechanochemical synthesis evaluation of nanocrystalline bone-derived bioceramic powder using for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsalar Khandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone tissue engineering proposes a suitable way to regenerate lost bones. Different materials have been considered for use in bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA is a significant success of bioceramics as a bone tissue repairing biomaterial. Among different bioceramic materials, recent interest has been risen on fluorinated hydroxyapatites, (FHA, Ca 10 (PO 4 6 F x (OH 2−x . Fluorine ions can promote apatite formation and improve the stability of HA in the biological environments. Therefore, they have been developed for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize the FHA nanopowder via mechanochemical (MC methods. Materials and Methods: Natural hydroxyapatite (NHA 95.7 wt.% and calcium fluoride (CaF 2 powder 4.3 wt.% were used for synthesis of FHA. MC reaction was performed in the planetary milling balls using a porcelain cup and alumina balls. Ratio of balls to reactant materials was 15:1 at 400 rpm rotation speed. The structures of the powdered particles formed at different milling times were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: Fabrication of FHA from natural sources like bovine bone achieved after 8 h ball milling with pure nanopowder. Conclusion: F− ion enhances the crystallization and mechanical properties of HA in formation of bone. The produced FHA was in nano-scale, and its crystal size was about 80-90 nm with sphere distribution in shape and size. FHA powder is a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  4. 表面脱钙骨基质明胶修复大块骨缺损的成骨作用研究%Osteogenesis of surface-decalcified bone matrix gelation in the repair of segmental bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学鹏; 伊哲; 王英兰; 徐延

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repair of segmental bone defects is one of the difficult problems in orthopaedics. Although the therapeutic effect on bone autograft is the best, the source is limited and there is lack of suitable substitutive materials for autologous bone.OBJECTIVE: To probe into the therapeutic effects of surface-decalcified bone matrix gelation(SDBMG) and the substitutive possibility of autologous bone on repair of segmental bone defects.DESIGN: The research was designed as completely randomized controlled experiment. The clinical research was designed as pre- and post-controlled study on the basis of diagnosis.SEETING: Department of Orthopaedics, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Area Command.MATERLALS and PARTICIPANTS: The experiment was accomplished in Laboratory of Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Area Command, and Testing Center of Wuhan University of Technology. Thirty-two local healthy adult male rabbits were employed as the materials in the experiment, 2.5 kg in body mass, bought from Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences. The clinical subjects were 31 patients(male 25 and female 6, a meanage of 9 years old) with segmental bone defects hospitalized in the Department of Orthopaedics, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Area Command during January 1991 to May 2001.METHODS: The 32 rabbits were randomized into group A and group B. The bilateral radial bones were prepared into 1-cm bone defect in both groups. In both groups, SDBMG was grafted on the left side; in Group A, wholly-decalcffied bone matrix gelatin(WDBMG) was grafted on the right side;and in Group B, the autologous bone was grafted on the right side. Human SDBMG was provided to treat 31 cases of segmental bone defects.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Regular X-ray and histological examinations after operation in animals(Group A) and biomechanical deterruination (Group B ). ② Regular X-ray examinations after operation.RESULTS: SDBMG induced osteogenesis process "gradually" from

  5. Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Haikel, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    "Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering" features all aspects from fundamental principles to current technological advances in biomaterials at the macro/micro/nano/molecular scales suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The book is unique as it provides all important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, and applications of biomaterials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  6. Clinical Observation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin, Bio-Oss Bone in Bone Defect Repair%富血小板纤维蛋白、Bio-Oss骨粉修复颌骨缺损的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天宇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of platelet rich fibrin with oral Bio-Oss bone to repair bone defect .Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 46 patients with jaw defects in our hospital from June 2012 to December 2015. 22 patients who were treated with Bio-Oss bone to repair were taken as control group, and 24 cases of PRF combined with Bio-Oss bone to repair patients were taken as observation group. After surgery, bone mineral density at different times in different periods and complications within 6 months after operation were compared between two groups.Results Newborn bone density of patient in observation group were higher than those of the control group at the same time(1 month, 3 months, 6 months after surgery)newborn bone mineral density, the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05). In the observation group, there was 1 cases had postoperative infection. In the control group, there were 2 cases of postoperative infection and 1 case asymmetry. Compared complications cases betweentwo groups , the difference was not statisticaly significant(P=0.336 4).ConclusionCombined with PRF, Bio-Oss bone in bone defect repair has a good clinical value.%目的:观察应用富血小板纤维蛋白联合Bio-Oss骨粉修复颌骨骨缺损的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2012年6月~2015年12月我院收治的颌骨缺损患者46例,将22例单纯行Bio-Oss骨粉修复的患者纳入对照组,将24例PRF联合Bio-Oss骨粉修复患者纳入观察组。比较两组术后不同时期新生骨骨密度及术后6个月内并发症。结果观察组术后1个月、3个月、6个月新生骨骨密度均高于同期对照组新生骨骨密度,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组1例发生术后感染。对照组2例发生术后感染1例不对称畸形。两组并发症比较,差异无统计学意义(P=0.3364)。结论联合应用PRF、Bio-Oss骨粉修复手术后颌骨缺损具有较好的临床应用价值。

  7. 骨形成蛋白与肌瓣修复骨缺损的研究%Repair of Bone Defects of Tibia With Rotated Muscle Flap Reacted With Bovine Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕林祥; 陈燕; 李军; 林振福; 刘瑞萱

    1994-01-01

    The experiment was designed to simulate the clinical bone defects.All experiments were performed on twelve immature sheep.Biolateral bone defects were created in the upperdiaphyseal shaft of tibia.One lateral defect served as the experiment,the other as the control.The musclitibilis anterior rotational flap and 50mg of bBMP/iNCP consisted of No.5 ultra gelatin capsule were implanted into the experimental defects,the rotational muscle flap was implanted into the control one.Observations showed that the new bone was identified along the edge of the defects,as well as the central island' of new formed bone in two-week experimental defect after operation.Four weeks after surgery repair were complete in experimental bone defects.In controls,two weeks after operation,new bone was only identified along the edges of the defects and the quantity of new bone was lower than those in experiments.%采用羊胫骨缺损作为模型,分别植入肌瓣+骨形成蛋白和肌瓣.植入后第1,2,3,4周分批将羊处死,并进行X线摄片和病理组织学检查.结果表明:植入肌瓣+骨形成蛋白组术后第2周即在缺损边缘及中央出现大量新骨,于第4周基本由新骨充填;而单纯肌瓣植入组由缺损边缘少量新骨生长,术后第4周缺损由新骨部分充填.说明植入骨形成蛋白+肌瓣能够较快地修复骨缺损.

  8. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Yousof [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); González-Sánchez, M. Isabel [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Hawkins, Karl [Centre of Nanohealth, Institute of Life Sciences, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Rubio-Retama, Jorge [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valero, Edelmira [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); López-Cabarcos, Enrique, E-mail: cabarcos@farm.ucm.es [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and CaCl{sub 2}) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels.

  9. An Injectable Complex of β-tricalcium Phosphate Granules, Hyaluronate, and rhFGF-2 on Repair of Long-bone Fractures with Large Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Kumagae, Y; Chazono, M; Komaki, H; Kitasato, S; Kakuta, A; Marumo, K

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of an injectable complex of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, hyaluronate, and recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 (rhFGF-2) on repair of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients. Twenty-five patients (range, 76-91 years) having 31.A2 fractures (AO classification) were treated with injection of the complex followed by intramedullary nails. Bone regeneration and β-TCP resorption, unions of intertrochanteric fractures and displaced lesser trochanters to the shaft, and varus deformity of the femoral neck were assessed by X-ray and CT scans. Fracture union occurred in all cases and union of the displaced lesser trochanter to the shaft was obtained in 24 cases by 12 weeks. It is of interest that β-TCP granules were completely resorbed and marked new bone formation around the lesser trochanter was observed in all cases compared to cases not treated with the complex. Based on the results of intertrochanteric fractures, we applied this technique to two patients with subtrochanteric or humeral fractures in elderly patients, and obtained bone union. This complex is a paste-like material that is easy to handle, and it may be of considerable use in treatment of both unstable intertrochanteric fractures and other cortical bone defects with minimal surgical invasion.

  10. Effect of low-level mechanical vibration on osteogenesis and osseointegration of porous titanium implants in the repair of long bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Tong, Shichao; Zhai, Mingming; Li, Xiaokang; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Zhang, Xuhui; Xu, Qiaoling; Guo, Zheng; Luo, Erping

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence substantiates the potential of porous titanium alloy (pTi) as an ideal bone-graft substitute because of its excellent biocompatibility and structural properties. However, it remains a major clinical concern for promoting high-efficiency and high-quality osseointegration of pTi, which is beneficial for securing long-term implant stability. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the capacity of low-amplitude whole-body vibration (WBV) in preventing osteopenia, whereas the effects and mechanisms of WBV on osteogenesis and osseointegration of pTi remain unclear. Our present study shows that WBV enhanced cellular attachment and proliferation, and induced well-organized cytoskeleton of primary osteoblasts in pTi. WBV upregulated osteogenesis-associated gene and protein expression in primary osteoblasts, including OCN, Runx2, Wnt3a, Lrp6 and β-catenin. In vivo findings demonstrate that 6-week and 12-week WBV stimulated osseointegration, bone ingrowth and bone formation rate of pTi in rabbit femoral bone defects via μCT, histological and histomorphometric analyses. WBV induced higher ALP, OCN, Runx2, BMP2, Wnt3a, Lrp6 and β-catenin, and lower Sost and RANKL/OPG gene expression in rabbit femora. Our findings demonstrate that WBV promotes osteogenesis and osseointegration of pTi via its anabolic effect and potential anti-catabolic activity, and imply the promising potential of WBV for enhancing the repair efficiency and quality of pTi in osseous defects.

  11. Comparative histomorphometric analysis between α-Tcp cement and β-Tcp/Ha granules in the bone repair of rat calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Grandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of two bioceramics on the process of bone repair: α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP cement and β-tricalcium phosphate hydroxyapatite particles (β-TCP/HA. Calvarial defects were created in 50 rats, divided into two groups (α and β/HA. Software was used at 7, 21, 60, 90 and 120 days to assess bone formation. Mean new bone formation rates were as follows: α group, 1.6% at 7 days, 5.24% at 21 days, 24% at 60 days, 30.21% at 90 days and 50.59% at 120 days; β/HA group, 1.94% at 7 days, 2.53% at 21 days, 12.47% at 60 days, 26.84% at 90 days and 38.82% at 120 days; control group, 0.15% at 7 days, 10.12% at 21 days, 15.10% at 60 days, 18.94% at 90 days, 48.50% at 120 days. Both materials are osteoconductive and biocompatible. Perhaps the larger rate of new bone formation observed in the α-TCP group, it also occurs in the β-TCP/HA group within a longer time period.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote osteogenesis and osseointegration of porous titanium implants in bone defect repair through a Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Zhai, Mingming; Tong, Shichao; Xu, Fei; Cai, Jing; Shen, Guanghao; Wu, Yan; Li, Xiaokang; Xie, Kangning; Liu, Juan; Xu, Qiaoling; Luo, Erping

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of osseous defects remains a formidable clinical challenge. Porous titanium alloys (pTi) have been emerging as ideal endosseous implants due to the excellent biocompatibility and structural properties, whereas inadequate osseointegration poses risks for unreliable long-term implant stability. Substantial evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe noninvasive method, inhibit osteopenia/osteoporosis experimentally and clinically. We herein investigated the efficiency and potential mechanisms of PEMF on osteogenesis and osseointegration of pTi in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that PEMF enhanced cellular attachment and proliferation, and induced well-organized cytoskeleton for in vitro osteoblasts seeded in pTi. PEMF promoted gene expressions in Runx2, OSX, COL-1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PEMF-stimulated group exhibited higher Runx2, Wnt1, Lrp6 and β-catenin protein expressions. In vivo results via μCT and histomorphometry show that 6-week and 12-week PEMF promoted osteogenesis, bone ingrowth and bone formation rate of pTi in rabbit femoral bone defect. PEMF promoted femoral gene expressions of Runx2, BMP2, OCN and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Together, we demonstrate that PEMF improve osteogenesis and osseointegration of pTi by promoting skeletal anabolic activities through a Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism. PEMF might become a promising biophysical modality for enhancing the repair efficiency and quality of pTi in bone defect. PMID:27555216

  13. Profile of serum alkaline phosphatase after inoculation of mononuclear cells and bone morphogenetic protein in the repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in response to the repair of osteochondral defects in twenty-four New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided into three groups: a control (GC, those treated with bone marrow mononuclear cells (GCM and those that received mononuclear cells with autologous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP + GCM. After exposing the trochlear groove of the left stifle joint, a wedge-shaped segment was removed. Later, the defect was filled with an osteochondral autograft preserved in 98% glycerin. For the GC group, only the bone graft was performed. For the GCM, in addition to the graft, 2x106 seed mononuclear cells were implanted. For the GCM + BMP, the same number of cells, associated with 1μg of bone morphogenetic protein, were intraarticularly administered. The osteoblastic response was measured by analyzing the serum alkaline phosphatase on day 0 (preoperative 3, 15, 30, and 45 after surgery, and by radiographic examinations. Analysis of variance in randomized blocks, factorial and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05 were made. The overall mean GCM was superior to the other groups and the highest rates were among the 15th and 45th days postoperatively. The discrepancy in values between individuals of the same group casts doubts on the veracity of the test.

  14. Combination of calcium sulfate and simvastatin-controlled release microspheres enhances bone repair in critical-sized rat calvarial bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu YC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Chih Fu,1–4 Yan-Hsiung Wang,1,5 Chung-Hwan Chen,1,3,4 Chih-Kuang Wang,1,6 Gwo-Jaw Wang,1,3,4 Mei-Ling Ho1,3,7,8 1Orthopaedic Research Center, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, 3Department of Orthopaedics, 4Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, 5School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, 6Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, 7Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanAbstract: Most allogenic bone graft substitutes have only osteoconductive properties. Developing new strategies to improve the osteoinductive activity of bone graft substitutes is both critical and practical for clinical application. Previously, we developed novel simvastatin-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (SIM/PLGA that slowly release simvastatin and enhance fracture healing. In this study, we combined SIM/PLGA with a rapidly absorbable calcium sulfate (CS bone substitute and studied the effect on bone healing in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in a rat model. The cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of this combination was tested in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase leakage and a cell attachment assay, respectively. Combination treatment with SIM/PLGA and the CS bone substitute had no cytotoxic effect on bone marrow stem cells. Compared with the control, cell adhesion was substantially enhanced following combination treatment with SIM/PLGA and the CS bone substitute. In vivo, implantation of the combination bone substitute promoted healing of critical-sized calvarial bone defects in rats; furthermore, production of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and neovascularization were enhanced in the area of the defect. In summary, the combination of SIM/PLGA and a CS bone substitute has osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, indicating that it could be used for regeneration

  15. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects:biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jun Li; Bao-lin Zhao; Hao-ze Lv; Zhi-gang Qin; Min Luo

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell trans-plantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These ifndings conifrm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplanta-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  16. Ionic Colloidal Molding as a Biomimetic Scaffolding Strategy for Uniform Bone Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Jia, Jinpeng; Kim, Jimin P; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Meng; Bi, Wenzhi; Wang, Xing; Yang, Jian; Wu, Decheng

    2017-02-21

    Inspired by the highly ordered nanostructure of bone, nanodopant composite biomaterials are gaining special attention for their ability to guide bone tissue regeneration through structural and biological cues. However, bone malformation in orthopedic surgery is a lingering issue, partly due to the high surface energy of traditional nanoparticles contributing to aggregation and inhomogeneity. Recently, carboxyl-functionalized synthetic polymers have been shown to mimic the carboxyl-rich surface motifs of non-collagenous proteins in stabilizing hydroxyapatite and directing intrafibrillar mineralization in-vitro. Based on this biomimetic approach, it is herein demonstrated that carboxyl functionalization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) can achieve great material homogeneity in nanocomposites. This ionic colloidal molding method stabilizes hydroxyapatite precursors to confer even nanodopant packing, improving therapeutic outcomes in bone repair by remarkably improving mechanical properties of nanocomposites and optimizing controlled drug release, resulting in better cell in-growth and osteogenic differentiation. Lastly, better controlled biomaterial degradation significantly improved osteointegration, translating to highly regular bone formation with minimal fibrous tissue and increased bone density in rabbit radial defect models. Ionic colloidal molding is a simple yet effective approach of achieving materials homogeneity and modulating crystal nucleation, serving as an excellent biomimetic scaffolding strategy to rebuild natural bone integrity.

  17. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  18. HIF-1α transgenic bone marrow cells can promote tissue repair in cases of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ding

    Full Text Available Although corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is common, the treatment for it remains limited and largely ineffective. We examined whether implantation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α transgenic bone marrow cells (BMCs can promote the repair of the necrotic area of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. In this study, we confirmed that HIF-1α gene transfection could enhance mRNA expression of osteogenic genes in BMCs in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity assay and alizarin red-S staining indicated HIF-1α transgenic BMCs had enhanced osteogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Furthermore, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for VEGF revealed HIF-1α transgenic BMCs secreted more VEGF as compared to normal BMCs. An experimental rabbit model of early-stage corticosteroid-induced ONFH was established and used for an evaluation of cytotherapy. Transplantation of HIF-1α transgenic BMCs dramatically improved the bone regeneration of the necrotic area of the femoral head. The number and volume of blood vessel were significantly increased in the necrotic area of the femoral head compared to the control groups. These results support HIF-1α transgenic BMCs have enhanced osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of HIF-1α transgenic BMCs can potentially promote the repair of the necrotic area of corticosteroid-induced ONFH.

  19. 改进的组合腓骨移植修复负重长管骨缺损%Repair of long bone defect with transplantation of the improved combined fibula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范启申; 周祥吉; 张树明; 周建国; 田青业; 蒋纯志

    2001-01-01

    目的报道组合腓骨移植修复长管负重骨缺损的临床治疗效果。方法将组合腓骨移植方法改进如下:于吻合血管的双腓骨或双节段腓骨前内侧骨膜从中央纵形切开剥离至骨嵴,双腓骨或双节段腓骨前内侧相对,两断端固定,将相对缘游离骨膜纵形缝合,使其组合为一根粗骨修复骨缺损。结果临床应用28例,结果所有长管负重骨缺损均获得良好骨愈合,移植骨无折断。结论改进的组合腓骨移植是修复长管负重骨缺损的良好方法。%Objective To study the methods of using combined fibula to repair the defect of long bone. Methods The method of transplantation of combined fibula bones was improved. The anterolateral periosteum of two fibulas was stripped and sutured together. Two segments of fibula were fixed and combined to a thick bone for repairing long bone defect. Results After repaired with combined fibula bones ,all the long bones with defect healed well. No fracture happened to the grafting combined fibula bones. Conclusion Transplantaton of combined fibula bones that improved was an effective method of repairing long bone defect.

  20. [Development of biodegradable magnesium-based biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengfa; Xu, Li; Huang, Nan

    2009-04-01

    Magnesium is a macroelement which is indispensable to human bodies. As a lightweight metal with high specific strength and favorable biocompatibility, magnesium and its alloys have been introduced in the field of biomedical materials research and have a broad application prospect. It is possible to develop new type of biodegradable medical magnesium alloys by use of the poor corrosion resistance of magnesium. Bioabsorbable magnesium stents implanted in vivo could mechanically support the vessel in a short term, effectly prevent the acute coronary occlusion and in-stent restenosis, and then be gradully biodegraded and completely absorbed in a long term. Osteoconductive bioactivity in magnesium-based alloys could promote the apposition growth of bone tissue. This paper reviews the progress of magnesium and its alloys applied in bone tissue and cardiovascular stents, and the prospect of the future research of magnesium-based biomaterials is discussed.

  1. rAAV-mediated overexpression of sox9, TGF-β and IGF-I in minipig bone marrow aspirates to enhance the chondrogenic processes for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, J; Rey-Rico, A; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

    2016-03-01

    Administration of therapeutic gene sequences coding for chondrogenic and chondroreparative factors in bone marrow aspirates using the clinically adapted recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector may provide convenient, single-step approaches to improve cartilage repair. Here, we tested the ability of distinct rAAV constructs coding for the potent SOX9, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) candidate factors to modify marrow aspirates from minipigs to offer a preclinical large animal model system adapted for a translational evaluation of cartilage repair upon transplantation in sites of injury. Our results demonstrate that high, prolonged rAAV gene transfer efficiencies were achieved in the aspirates (up to 100% for at least 21 days) allowing to produce elevated amounts of the transcription factor SOX9 that led to increased levels of matrix synthesis and chondrogenic differentiation and of the growth factors TGF-β and IGF-I that both increased cell proliferation, matrix synthesis and chondrogenic differentiation (although to a lower level than SOX9) compared with control (lacZ) condition. Remarkably, application of the candidate SOX9 vector also led to reduced levels of hypertrophic differentiation in the aspirates, possibly by modulating the β-catenin, Indian hedgehog and PTHrP pathways. The present findings show the benefits of modifying minipig marrow concentrates via rAAV gene transfer as a future means to develop practical strategies to promote cartilage repair in a large animal model.

  2. Biomaterials for Pelvic Floor Reconstructive Surgery: How Can We Do Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliobianco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence (SUI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP are major health issues that detrimentally impact the quality of life of millions of women worldwide. Surgical repair is an effective and durable treatment for both conditions. Over the past two decades there has been a trend to enforce or reinforce repairs with synthetic and biological materials. The determinants of surgical outcome are many, encompassing the physical and mechanical properties of the material used, and individual immune responses, as well surgical and constitutional factors. Of the current biomaterials in use none represents an ideal. Biomaterials that induce limited inflammatory response followed by constructive remodelling appear to have more long term success than biomaterials that induce chronic inflammation, fibrosis and encapsulation. In this review we draw upon published animal and human studies to characterize the changes biomaterials undergo after implantation and the typical host responses, placing these in the context of clinical outcomes.

  3. Design, clinical translation and immunological response of biomaterials in regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Singh, Anirudha; Wolf, Matthew T.; Wang, Xiaokun; Pardoll, Drew M.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2016-07-01

    The field of regenerative medicine aims to replace tissues lost as a consequence of disease, trauma or congenital abnormalities. Biomaterials serve as scaffolds for regenerative medicine to deliver cells, provide biological signals and physical support, and mobilize endogenous cells to repair tissues. Sophisticated chemistries are used to synthesize materials that mimic and modulate native tissue microenvironments, to replace form and to elucidate structure-function relationships of cell-material interactions. The therapeutic relevance of these biomaterial properties can only be studied after clinical translation, whereby key parameters for efficacy can be defined and then used for future design. In this Review, we present the development and translation of biomaterials for two tissue engineering targets, cartilage and cornea, both of which lack the ability to self-repair. Finally, looking to the future, we discuss the role of the immune system in regeneration and the potential for biomaterial scaffolds to modulate immune signalling to create a pro-regenerative environment.

  4. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, J.W. Von den; Agren, M.S.; Coulomb, B.; Eming, S.A.; Lataillade, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns.

  5. Orthopaedic tissue engineering and bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Glenn; Buchanan, Fraser; Marsh, David; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Little, Uel; McCaigue, Mervyn

    2007-01-01

    Orthopaedic tissue engineering combines the application of scaffold materials, cells and the release of growth factors. It has been described as the science of persuading the body to reconstitute or repair tissues that have failed to regenerate or heal spontaneously. In the case of bone regeneration 3-D scaffolds are used as a framework to guide tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal cells obtained from the patient via biopsy are grown on biomaterials in vitro and then implanted at a desired site in the patient's body. Medical implants that encourage natural tissue regeneration are generally considered more desirable than metallic implants that may need to be removed by subsequent intervention. Numerous polymeric materials, from natural and artificial sources, are under investigation as substitutes for skeletal elements such as cartilage and bone. For bone regeneration, cells (obtained mainly from bone marrow aspirate or as primary cell outgrowths from bone biopsies) can be combined with biodegradable polymeric materials and/or ceramics and absorbed growth factors so that osteoinduction is facilitated together with osteoconduction; through the creation of bioactive rather than bioinert scaffold constructs. Relatively rapid biodegradation enables advantageous filling with natural tissue while loss of polymer strength before mass is disadvantageous. Innovative solutions are required to address this and other issues such as the biocompatibility of material surfaces and the use of appropriate scaffold topography and porosity to influence bone cell gene expression.

  6. Musculoskeletal Regenerative Engineering: Biomaterials, Structures, and Small Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan James; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal tissues are critical to the normal functioning of an individual and following damage or degeneration they show extremely limited endogenous regenerative capacity. The future of regenerative medicine is the combination of advanced biomaterials, structures, and cues to re-engineer/guide stem cells to yield the desired organ cells and tissues. Tissue engineering strategies were ideally suited to repair damaged tissues; however, the substitution and regeneration of large tissue vo...

  7. 脂肪干细胞和生物支架应用于牙槽骨修复%Adipose stem cells and biological scaffolds used in alveolar bone repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹娜; 裴路; 张微

    2014-01-01

      结果与结论:脂肪干细胞具有与骨髓基质干细胞相似的分化潜能,因其来源广、易采集、易培养低衰老,成骨分化好和风险小等特点被广泛关注,尤其和生物支架应用于骨修复表现出更好的成骨效果。随着有关各科学的发展牙槽骨缺损的修复有关问题都可以解决,脂肪干细胞和生物支架构建工程骨将是实现真正意义上牙槽骨再生的发展趋势且具有良好的发展前景。%BACKGROUND:Alveolar bone absorption and defect caused by various physiological or pathological factors is a common problem in oral clinical medicine, but the most commonly used methods to repair alveolar bone defects cannot ful y meet clinical needs. The emergence of bone tissue engineering for bone defect repair has become a research hotspot. OBJECTIVE:To review the source and application of adipose stem cells, the types and characteristics of biological scaffolds, the effect of biological scaffold on seed cells and the application of adipose stem cells composite scaffolds in animal experiment research. METHODS:A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed (1995-01/2013-04) was performed to retrieve the related articles about adipose stem cells, biological scaffold and bone repair. The keywords were“adipose stem cells, differentiation, proliferation and osteogenesis, biological scaffold, alveolar bone, bone tissue engineering”in Chinese and English, respectively. Articles published recently or in authorized journals were preferred. There were163 articles after the initial survey. Then, 40 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Adipose stem cells have a differentiating potential similar to bone marrow stromal stem cells. Adipose stem cells have been widely drawn by variety of sources, easy col ection, easy to cultivate and low aging, good osteogenetic differentiation and low risk. Especial y, adipose stem cells and biological scaffolds used in bone repair

  8. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von den Hoff, Johannes W; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Coulomb, Bernard;

    2014-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns.......The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns....

  9. Histological observation of a gelatin sponge transplant loaded with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet-rich plasma in repairing an annulus defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Hu, Jianzhong; Lu, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To research the histological characteristics of a gelatin sponge transplant loaded with goat BMSCs (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) combined with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) in repairing an annulus defect. Method BMSCs were separated from the iliac crest of goats, sub-cultured and identified after the third generation. Then, PRP was obtained using blood from the jugular vein of goats via two degrees of centrifugation. In the animal experiments, the goats were divided into the following three groups: a sham group, an injury group and a therapeutic group. In the sham group, we decompressed the lamina and exposed the annulus fibrosus. In the injury group, we exposed the annulus fibrosus after decompression of the lamina and created a 1 × 1 cm defect in the annulus using surgical instruments. In the therapeutic group, after decompression of the lamina, we exposed the annulus, created a 1 × 1 cm defect using surgical instruments, and placed a gelatin sponge combined with BMSCs and PRP into the defect for a combined method of repair. Three, six and twelve weeks after the surgery, the previously damaged or undamaged annulus tissue was removed from the three groups. Then, the above tissue was assayed using HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining, Masson trichrome staining, AB-PAS (Alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff) staining, and type II collagen staining and observed by microscopy. Results From the HE staining, we observed that the number of repair cells gradually increased. Compared to the injury group, the cell density and gross morphology of cells in the therapeutic group were closer to those of the sham group. As observed by Masson trichrome gelatin staining, many of the fibroblast cells or tissues were under repair, and as time progressed, the number of fibroblast cells and amount of tissue gradually increased. The results of the AB-PAS staining suggest that chondrocytes participated in the repair of the annulus. The level of type II collagen gradually

  10. Vacuum sealing drainage based on wound surface dressing biomaterials for repairing soft tissue defects of the foot and ankle%高分子泡沫材料负压封闭引流修复足踝部皮肤软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚辉; 卢华定; 徐义春; 赵慧清; 吕璐璐

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Preliminary studies have showed that vacuum sealing drainage based on wound surface dressing biomaterials is a good method to cover the wound as succedaneous peau when the soft tissuedefects along with open fracture cannot be completely repaired during the first operation. OBJECTIVE:To explore the efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage based on wound surface dressing biomaterials in repair of soft tissue defects of foot and ankle. METHODS:Fourteen patients with soft tissue defects of foot and ankle were treated using free skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage technique. Meanwhile, the traditional skin graft after wound dressing changes was applied in another 11 patients. The clinical outcomes were compared between two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The transplanted skin in 10 cases of the vacuum sealing drainage group survived. The total survival rate was 71%, and surgical dressing change was applied in the left four patients to finaly cover the wound. By comparison, the transplanted skin in four cases of the traditional group survived. The total survival rate was 54%. To finish the wound, three of the left patients were turned to surgical dressing change and two of them stil needed skin graft operation once more. The total survival rate between the two groups has no statistical significance(P > 0.05). The therapeutic procedure noted that the time waiting for the secondary surgical visit, times for dressing change before the second intervention and the time for final union between the two groups were statisticaly different (P 0.05)。负压封闭引流组等待二期手术时间、二期手术前换药次数及缺损完全修复时间均少于传统换药组(P <0.05)。提示高分子泡沫材料负压封闭引流技术可加快游离植皮修复足踝部皮肤软组织缺损创面愈合速度,缩短病程。

  11. Effect of novel curcumin-encapsulated chitosan-bioglass drug on bone and skin repair after gamma radiation: experimental study on a Wistar rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebahi, S; Saoudi, M; Farhat, L; Oudadesse, H; Rebai, T; Kabir, A; El Feki, A; Keskes, H

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy contributes to a significant increase in bone osteoporosis and skin loss. Various natural health products might be beneficial to reduce bone and skin alterations. Curcumin (CUR) medicines derived from natural plants have played an important role in health care. This study aims at synthesizing and evaluating the performance therapy of CUR-encapsulated bioglass-chitosan (CUR-BG-CH). In vitro, the antioxidant assay was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical (DPPH) scavenging and the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. The CUR-BG-CH antimicrobial effects were tested in liquid media. In vivo, after rat (60) Co γ-radiation, the tissue wound-healing process was studied by grafting CUR and CUR-BG-CH in femoral condyle and dorsal skin rat tissue. The antioxidant studies indicated that CUR-BG-CH quenches free radicals more efficiently than unmodified CUR and had effective DPPH (91%) and superoxide anion (51%) radical scavenging activities. The CUR-BG-CH biomaterial exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The histomorphometric parameters showed amelioration in CUR-BG-CH-treated rats. An improved mechanical property was noticed (33.16 ± 5.0 HV) when compared with that of unmodified CUR group (23.15 ± 4.9 HV). A significant decrease in tumour necrosis factor-α cytokine production was noted in the CUR-BG-CH rats (90 pg/ml) as compared with that of unmodified CUR group (240 pg/ml). The total amount of hydroxyproline was significantly enhanced (33.5%) in CUR-BG-CH group as compared with that of control. Our findings suggested that CUR-BG-CH might have promising potential applications for wound healing.

  12. Bone Regeneration Based on Tissue Engineering Conceptions-A 21st Century Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Henkel; Maria A. Woodruff; Devakara R. Epari; Roland Steck; Vaida Glatt; Ian C. Dickinson; Peter FM Choong; Michael A. Schuetz; Dietmar W. Hutmacher

    2013-01-01

    The role of Bone Tissue Engineering in the field of Regenerative Medicine has been the topic of substantial research over the past two decades. Technological advances have improved orthopaedic implants and surgical techniques for bone reconstruction. However, improvements in surgical techniques to reconstruct bone have been limited by the paucity of autologous materials available and donor site morbidity. Recent advances in the development of biomaterials have provided attractive alternatives to bone grafting expanding the surgical options for restoring the form and function of injured bone. Specifically, novel bioactive (second generation) biomaterials have been developed that are characterised by controlled action and reaction to the host tissue environment, whilst exhibiting controlled chemical breakdown and resorption with an ultimate replacement by regenerating tissue. Future generations of biomaterials (third generation) are designed to be not only osteo-conductive but also osteoinductive, i.e. to stimulate regeneration of host tissues by combining tissue engineer-ing and in situ tissue regeneration methods with a focus on novel applications. These techniques will lead to novel possibilities for tissue regeneration and repair. At present, tissue engineered constructs that may find future use as bone grafts for complex skeletal defects, whether from post-traumatic, degenerative, neoplastic or congenital/developmental“origin”require osseous reconstruction to ensure structural and functional integrity. Engineering functional bone using combinations of cells, scaffolds and bioactive factors is a promising strategy and a particular feature for future development in the area of hybrid materials which are able to exhibit suitable biomimetic and mechanical properties. This review will discuss the state of the art in this field and what we can expect from future generations of bone regeneration concepts.

  13. The rational use of animal models in the evaluation of novel bone regenerative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mihaela; Dumic-Cule, Ivo; Grcevic, Danka; Matijasic, Mario; Verbanac, Donatella; Paul, Ruth; Grgurevic, Lovorka; Trkulja, Vladimir; Bagi, Cedo M; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Bone has a high potential for endogenous self-repair. However, due to population aging, human diseases with impaired bone regeneration are on the rise. Current strategies to facilitate bone healing include various biomolecules, cellular therapies, biomaterials and different combinations of these. Animal models for testing novel regenerative therapies remain the gold standard in pre-clinical phases of drug discovery and development. Despite improvements in animal experimentation, excessive poorly designed animal studies with inappropriate endpoints and inaccurate conclusions are being conducted. In this review, we discuss animal models, procedures, methods and technologies used in bone repair studies with the aim to assist investigators in planning and performing scientifically sound experiments that respect the wellbeing of animals. In the process of designing an animal study for bone repair investigators should consider: skeletal characteristics of the selected animal species; a suitable animal model that mimics the intended clinical indication; an appropriate assessment plan with validated methods, markers, timing, endpoints and scoring systems; relevant dosing and statistically pre-justified sample sizes and evaluation methods; synchronization of the study with regulatory requirements and additional evaluations specific to cell-based approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem Cells and Bone".

  14. Rapid maxillary expansion in alveolar cleft repaired with a tissue-engineered bone in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Tian, Bo; Chu, Fengting; Yang, Chenjie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Xinquan; Qian, Yufen

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of orthodontic expansion on graft area of a tissue-engineered bone (TEB) BMSCs/β-TCP, and to find an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft. A unilateral alveolar cleft canine model was established and then treated with BMSCs/β-TCP under rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Sequential fluorescent labeling, radiography and helical computed tomography were used to evaluate new bone formation and mineralization in the graft area. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Van Gieson׳s picro fuchsin staining were performed for histological and histomorphometric observation. ALP activity, mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation related genes of BMSCs that grew on the β-TCP scaffold were promoted by their cultivation in osteogenic medium. Based on fact, TEB was constructed. After 8 weeks of treatment with BMSCs/β-TCP followed by RME, new bone formation and mineralization of the dogs were markedly accelerated, and bone resorption was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated dogs, or those only treated with autogenous iliac bone. The treatment with both TEB and RME evidently made the bone trabecula more abundant and the area of bone formation larger. What is more, there were no significant differences between BMSCs/β-TCP group and the group treated with autogenous bone and RME. This study further revealed that TEB was not only a feasible clinical approach for patients with alveolar cleft, but also a potential substituent of autogenous bone, and its combination with RME might be an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft.

  15. The Application of Autologous free Bone Plug Technology in Emergency Repair of Amputation Stump Bone Wound%应用自体游离骨塞技术急诊修复截肢残端骨创面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贝; 黄瑞良; 区广鹏; 肖军; 刘伟; 杨康胜; 艾合买提江·玉素甫

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Study the efficacy of free bone plug of discarded limbs after amputation in repairing stump bone wound .Meth-ods:From March 2010 to March 2012 , we emergency repaired 6 cases of amputation stump bone wound in autologous free bone plug tech-nology,5 males and 1 female,the age ranged from 21 to 53 years old, average 35 years old.Causes of injuries:5 cases of traffic accident injury, 1 cases of machine strangulation injury .1 case of upper limb amputation , and 4 cases of lower limb amputation .Special examina-tion:1 cases of distal forearm damage;2 cases of thigh supracondylar and intercondylar comminuted fracture , femoral artery nerve de-structive injury and part of the defect;2 cases of the lower leg tibia and fibula comminuted fractures and popliteal artery injury ;1 cases of knee remote defect .After determining the osteotomy plane , retained inner and outer periosteal flap , osteotomy to the bone surface bleed-ing by swing saws ,sanded the edges of the bones . According the debridement amputation bone surface to design the bone plug size , made class cone type bone plug after removing periosteum , the bone plugs bottom of the cortical bone , surrounded by cancellous bone .Its base is trimmed into a slightly curved bone pad according to the cross -section of the stump osteotomy , stuffed stump medullary cavity .used the periosteal flap closure stump marrow cavity after trim the bottom of the bone plug , Soft tissue flaps designed well in advance embedded stump in turn, placed film drainage in the subcutaneous , a large number of cotton pad dressing , plaster cast processing( hard bandage ) . Results:4 patients wounds first class healing and stitches discharged , 2 patients postoperative wound edge effusion whose wound healing after 20-25 days dressing , Followed up for 3-6 months, all stump without sinus formation .1 year after amputation , assembly prosthetic stump skin are good shape , no ulcers and pressure sores .Conclusion:The results were

  16. 骨缺损修复生物工程研究进展%Research progress of biological engineering on bone defect repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宜姣; 李文华

    2014-01-01

    临床上对于骨缺损的治疗从截肢,自体骨、异体骨移植,到目前的生物活性材料、骨组织工程、基因工程治疗,依然没有能够彻底进行骨缺损修复的方法,这也一直是医学界关注和研究的热点。究其原因一方面是因为各种方法的技术水平还不完善如手术时间和方法掌握,生物活性材料的制作等,另一方面是因为骨缺损的局部反应较复杂如骨髓损伤较重,血运较差,断端存在的硬化反应等以及传统治疗后的并发症较多如免疫排斥较重,成骨作用不良,骨折不愈合,神经损伤长期引发的疼痛等,这些原因都在不同程度的制约骨缺损研究的前进。只有从骨的修复与生长机制出发,联合应用多种方法,相互补其不足,从中找到突破点,才能完善骨缺损修复,缩短治疗时间,提高病人的生活质量。本文简要描述自体和异体骨移植在治疗骨缺损时的优缺点,着重叙述骨组织工程与基因工程近年来的研究热点,包括生物材料的更新换代、目的细胞的种类增加、生长因子与基因载体的研究进展等,这其中探讨了生物修复骨缺损工程中两种方法各自的利弊,阐述两种工程联合应用的优缺互补,最后提出骨缺损治疗研究方向上的新思路与新问题。%The treatment for bone defect in clinic varies from amputation, autogenous bone graft, and allograft.Up to now, the biological activity material, bone tissue engineering, and gene engineering treatment are still not able to completely repair the bone defect.It has been a hot spot in medical field.One of the reasons is the limitation of technology, such as the mastery of operation time and method and the manufacture of bioactive materials.On the other hand, the local reactions of bone defect are complicated, such as serous bone marrow damage, poor blood supply, the hardening reaction in the cutting ends, and more

  17. Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.

  18. A scintigraphic study of composited bone substitute in the repair of bone defect of femoral head%复合人工骨修复股骨头骨缺损的影像学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    同志勤; 徐小良; 王坤正; 宋厂义

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of bBMP-collagen-coral composited bone substitute in treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head(ONFH).Methods Canine bone defect of bilateral femoral head was established,They were devided into 4 groups:Ⅰ.composited bone substitute group(n=5),Ⅱ.muscle pedicle bone group (n=5),Ⅲ.simple coral group(n=4),Ⅳ.control group:contralateral hip(n=14).Roentgenography,Scintigraphy,MRI,CT were examined and studied at various time.Results ①Scintigraphic changes:In group Ⅰ,static bone image showed increased radionuclide uptake,but blood flow and blood-pool image didn't show in 6 and 12 week;②MRI:There was much more new bone formation in the bone defect of group Ⅰ;In group Ⅳ,there was fatty bone marrow which was surrounded with sclerotic bone;③Resules of roentgenographic and CT:In 14-16 weeks,in group Ⅰ,the coral was absorbed and most of the bone defects were closed completely;In the rest groups,part of each bone defect was remained except that in group Ⅳ,cystic sclerosis was formed.Conclusion The composited bone substitute possesses a superior osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity in the repair of bone defect of femoral head,but it can't improve the revascularization of ONFH.%目的研究用复合人工骨治疗股骨头坏死的效果。方法建立双侧股骨头内骨缺损模型,并分为4组:bBMP-胶原-珊瑚复合人工骨组(5侧)、肌骨瓣组(5侧)、单纯珊瑚组(4侧)、对照组(14侧,为以上各组的对侧)。造模及植入后定时行X线、核素骨显像、MRI及CT检查。结果①核素骨显像示:6周及12周,Ⅰ组股骨头核素摄取量静态相头/干比升高,但血流相及血池相不升高。②MRI:10周示Ⅰ组骨缺损内多量新生骨形成,Ⅳ组骨缺损内囊腔中为脂肪性信号,周围为低信号的硬化带。③拍片及CT示:14~16周,Ⅰ组骨缺损大多完全闭合,珊瑚已吸收,其余各组骨缺损部分残

  19. Design and Fabrication of 3D printed Scaffolds with a Mechanical Strength Comparable to Cortical Bone to Repair Large Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Newman, Peter; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-01-19

    A challenge in regenerating large bone defects under load is to create scaffolds with large and interconnected pores while providing a compressive strength comparable to cortical bone (100-150 MPa). Here we design a novel hexagonal architecture for a glass-ceramic scaffold to fabricate an anisotropic, highly porous three dimensional scaffolds with a compressive strength of 110 MPa. Scaffolds with hexagonal design demonstrated a high fatigue resistance (1,000,000 cycles at 1-10 MPa compressive cyclic load), failure reliability and flexural strength (30 MPa) compared with those for conventional architecture. The obtained strength is 150 times greater than values reported for polymeric and composite scaffolds and 5 times greater than reported values for ceramic and glass scaffolds at similar porosity. These scaffolds open avenues for treatment of load bearing bone defects in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications.

  20. Design and Fabrication of 3D printed Scaffolds with a Mechanical Strength Comparable to Cortical Bone to Repair Large Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Newman, Peter; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in regenerating large bone defects under load is to create scaffolds with large and interconnected pores while providing a compressive strength comparable to cortical bone (100–150 MPa). Here we design a novel hexagonal architecture for a glass-ceramic scaffold to fabricate an anisotropic, highly porous three dimensional scaffolds with a compressive strength of 110 MPa. Scaffolds with hexagonal design demonstrated a high fatigue resistance (1,000,000 cycles at 1–10 MPa compressive cyclic load), failure reliability and flexural strength (30 MPa) compared with those for conventional architecture. The obtained strength is 150 times greater than values reported for polymeric and composite scaffolds and 5 times greater than reported values for ceramic and glass scaffolds at similar porosity. These scaffolds open avenues for treatment of load bearing bone defects in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications.

  1. Biomaterials. The Behavior of Stainless Steel as a Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials belong to the broad range of biocompatible chemical substances (sometimes even an element, which can be used for a period of time to treat or replace a tissue, organ or function of the human body. These materials bring many advantages in the diagnosis, prevention and medical therapy, reducing downtime for patients, restoring their biological functions, improving hospital management. The market in Romania sells a wide range of biomaterials for dental, cardiovascular medicine, renal, etc. Scientific research contributes to the discovery of new biomaterials or testing known biomaterials, for finding new applications. The paper exemplifies this contribution by presenting the testing of passive stainless steel behaviour in albumin solution using technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was shown that passivation contribute to increased stability of stainless steel implants to corrosive body fluids.

  2. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Della Bona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different substrates, which has offered a great challenge to dental zirconia research and development. This study characterizes zirconia as a dental biomaterial, presenting the current consensus and challenges to its dental applications.

  3. Assessment of the effects of laser photobiomodulation on peri-implant bone repair through energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence: A study of dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R. F.; Araújo, N. C.; Carneiro, V. S. M.; Moreno, L. M.; Guerra, L. A. P.; Santos Neto, A. P.; Gerbi, M. E. M.

    2016-03-01

    Bone neoformation is essential in the osteointegration of implants and has been correlated with the repair capacity of tissues, the blood supply and the function of the cells involved. Laser therapy accelerates the mechanical imbrication of peri-implant tissue by increasing osteoblastic activity and inducing ATP, osteopontin and the expression of sialoproteins. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess peri-implant bone repair using the tibia of dogs that received dental implants and laser irradiation (AsGaAl 830nm - 40mW, CW, f~0.3mm) through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Methodology: Two groups were established: G1 (Control, n=20; two dental implants were made in the tibia of each animal; 10 animals); G2 (Experimental, n=20, two dental implants were made in the tibia each animal + Laser therapy; 10 animals). G2 was irradiated every 48 hours for two weeks, with a total of seven sessions. The first irradiation was conducted during the surgery, at which time a point in the surgical alveolus was irradiated prior to the placement of the implant and four new spatial positions were created to the North, South, East and West (NSEW) of the implant. The subsequent sessions involved irradiation at these four points and at one infra-implant point (in the direction of the implant apex). Each point received 4J/cm2 and a total dose of 20J/cm2 per session (treatment dose=140J/cm2). The specimens were removed 15 and 30 days after the operation for the EDXRF test. The Mann- Whitney statistical test was used to assess the results. Results: The increase in the calcium concentration in the periimplant region of the irradiated specimens (G2) was statistically significant (p < 0.05), when compared with the control group (G1). Conclusion: The results of the present study show that irradiation with the AsGaAl laser promoted an acceleration in bone repair in the peri-implant region.

  4. Biomaterials for repair and prevention of acute tendon injury and adhesion%人工生物材料修复肌腱急性损伤及预防粘连

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军红

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment measures for tendon injury experience a long process from traditional physical therapy, drug therapy to modern tissue engineering artificial ligament reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: To review the role of biological materials as artificial intervention in the treatment of tendon adhesion, and to explore the action mechanism. METHODS: VIP database, Wanfang database, and PubMed (1990-01/2011-04) were searched for articles related to tendon rehabilitation measures and biomaterials using the keywords of “tendon, treatment, materials, adhesive” in Chinese and English. Articles related to materials for tendon treatment were retrieved, and those published recently or in authorized journals were preferred. Totally 287 articles were checked, and according to inclusion criteria 21 articles were reviewed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Artificial ligament reconstruction and regeneration provides a chance and security for the treatment and rehabilitation of severe tendon injury. But the ideal artificial ligament material selection and development becomes the key. Synthetic materials can avoid the single material performance deficiencies, which provide a broad space for material development. At present, gene therapy technology development for tendon tissue engineering provides a new research direction. In addition, tendon adhesion often occurs during the treatment, and seriously affects the therapeutic effect. Tendon adhesion and healing has important relationship with the physiology and pathology of the tendon. Biomaterials as an adhesion prevention barrier have the vast developmental foreground.%背景:肌腱损伤后的治疗措施经历了传统物理疗法、药物疗法以及现代组织工程学人工韧带的重建等漫长过程.目的:综述人工生物材料干预治疗肌腱粘连的措施,并探讨肌腱治疗过程中粘连的发生机制.方法:应用计算机检索万方、维普数据库和PubMed数据库中1990-01/2011-04与肌腱康复措施及

  5. Effects of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration in a rodent model: a description of the bone repair by light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.; Aciole, Gilberth T. S.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; Correia, Neandder A.; N. dos Santos, Jean

    2011-03-01

    We carried out a histological analysis on surgical bone defects grafted or not with MTA, treated or not with LED, BMPs and GBR. We have used several models to assess the effects of laser on bone. Benefits of the isolated or combined use them on bone healing has been suggested. There is no previous report on their association with LED light. 90 rats were divided into 10 groups. On Groups II and I the defect were filled with the clot. On Group II, were further irradiated. On groups III-VI, defect was filled with MTA + Collagen gel (III); animals of group IV were further irradiated. On groups V and VI, the defects filled with the MTA were covered with a membrane. Animals of Group VI were further irradiated. On Groups VII and VIII a pool of BMPs was added to the MTA and was further irradiated. On groups IX and X, the MTA + BMP graft was covered with a membrane. On group X, the defect was further irradiated. LED (λ850 +/- 10nm, 150mW, A= 0.5cm2, 54s, 0.3W/cm2, 16 J/cm2) was applied at 48 h intervals during 15 days. Specimens were taken, processed, cut and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. The results showed that MTA seemed not being affected by LED light. However, its use positively affected healing around the graft. It is concluded that MTA is not affected by the LED light due to it characteristics, but beneficial results with LED usage was found.

  6. Special Issue "Biomaterials and Bioprinting".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia

    2016-09-14

    The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  7. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Della Bona; Pecho, Oscar E.; Rodrigo Alessandretti

    2015-01-01

    Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different subs...

  8. Preliminary report of wrapped impacted bone graft using titanium mesh for repair of large segmental bone defect%钛网包裹打压植骨修复大段骨缺损初步报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷渠东; 顾三军; 孙振中; 马运宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preliminary outcomes of wrapped impacted bone graft using titanium mesh for repair of large segmental bone defect. Methods From January 2009 to December 2012,6 cases of large segmental bone defect of lone bone after fractures were treated with wrapped impacted bone graft using titanium mesh to repair the defect. The location of fracture and defect:1 respective casein femur and humerus,2 respective cases in tibia and radius.The length of bone defect was from 5.2 cm to 9.0 cm with an average of 6.5cm.Fixation methods:intramedullary nail was used in 2 cases and plate in 4 cases.collateral injuries such as tendon or nerve injury could be foundin 2 cases. Cancellous bone with a volume two times than the defect bone was harvested from theposterior or/and anterior segments of the bilateral ilium etc. Titanium mesh was used and placed to wrap the defect, then the bone granules was impacted closely into the titanium mesh.The recovered length of bone defect was from 5.2 cm to 9.0 cm with an average of 6.3 cm. Results Incisions underwent primary healing. Following-up ranging from 12 to 46 months, with an average of 18 months,revealed that all fractures with bone defects healed; the clinical healing time ranged from 4.0 months to 6.5 months with an average of 5.1 months. no breakingor loosening of the fixator was noted.at the last follow-up,the function of the adjacent joints was excellent in 1 case, good in 4 cases and fair in 1 case. Conclusion Wrapped impacted bone graft using titanium mesh for repair of large segmental bone defect has advantages of bing simple, safe, fast in healing and excellent in efficacy.%目的:探讨钛网包裹打压植骨修复大段骨缺损的初步治疗效果。方法2009年1月~2012年12月,采用钛网包裹打压植骨修复6例长骨骨折后大段骨缺损。骨折骨缺损部位:股骨和肱骨各1例,胫骨、桡骨各2例。骨缺损长度5.2~9.0 cm,平均6.5 cm。固定方法:髓内钉2

  9. 自体牙本质片修复骨缺损的实验研究%Pilot study of autogenous tooth dentin graft to repair bone defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦旭; 石玮; 马博; 许译文; 陈卫民; 周彬

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the feasibility of autogenous dentin block to repair the bone defect. Method:Autogenous grafts from freshly extracted teeth were rigidly fixed to the mandibular defects in eighteen rabbits using titanium screws in order to achieve good primary stability. Every six rabbits were stochastically sacrificed at 1,3 and 6 months after implantation respectively. For all specimens,radiographical and histological measurements were performed. Result:The boundaries of the grafts were distinctly visible in the implanted area during the first and third month. However,the teeth grafts were fully covered by new bone after sixth month. The radiograph demonstrated the progressive change in the bone and grafted tooth interface from radiolucency to radiopacity. Histologically,vascularization led to a temporary fibrous-integration in the graft-bone interface and grafts were gradually resorbed and replaced by new bone. Conclusion:Rigid fixation of auto-genous tooth dentin could serve as a novel approach for bone regeneration and to repair of bone defect.%目的:探讨自体牙本质片修复骨缺损的临床效果。方法:选取18只2.5~3 kg新西兰兔,随机分为3组,拔取自体下切牙,制备成牙本质片,在同侧下颌骨下缘制备骨缺损,用钛钉坚固内固定牙本质片于缺损区。分别在术后1、3、6个月取材进行影像学和组织学检查。结果:术后1、3个月仍可见牙本质片与骨组织存在分界,但6个月时牙本质片完全被骨组织覆盖。放射学检查提示牙本质片与骨组织间的低密度投射影随着植入时间延长而逐渐消失,高密度影逐渐形成。组织学显示牙本质片与骨组织界面血管化,牙本质片逐渐被吸收,新骨形成。结论:坚固内固定的自体牙本质片能作为骨缺损修复材料恢复骨缺损。

  10. Comparative study of bone repair in mandibular body osteotomy between metallic and absorbable 2.0 mm internal fixation systems. Histological and histometric analysis in dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverzut, C E; Kato, R B; Rosa, A L; Trivellato, A E; Sverzut, A T; da Silveira, K M; de Oliveira, P T

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bone repair along a mandibular body osteotomy stabilized with 2.0 mm absorbable and metallic systems. 12 male, adult mongrel dogs were divided into two groups (metallic and absorbable) and subjected to unilateral osteotomy between the mandibular third and fourth premolars, which was stabilized by applying two 4-hole plates. At 2 and 18 weeks, three dogs from each group were killed and the osteotomy sites were removed and divided equally into three parts: the upper part was labelled the tension third (TT), the lower part the compression third (CT), and the part between the TT and CT the intermediary third (IT). Regardless of the treatment system, union between the fragments was observed at 18 weeks and the CT showed more advanced stages of bone repair than the TT. Histometric analysis did not reveal any significant differences among the 3 parts or systems in the distance between bone fragments at 2 weeks. Although at 18 weeks the proportions of newly formed bone did not differ among TT, IT and CT, significantly enhanced bone formation was observed in all sections for the metallic group. The patterns of repair were distinct between treatments.

  11. 人工骨加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损的临床研究%Clinical study of the artificial bone and autogenous bone in repairing traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects in the middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福琴; 朱菲; 张昊; 张丽军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胶原基纳米骨(nHAC)加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损的临床疗效.方法 选择23例中老年因外伤前牙牙槽骨缺损需植骨者,用nHAC加术区游离的自体骨修复缺损,采用固定正畸技术对松动牙进行固定.术后1、2、3、6、12个月复诊,术前术后均对病损部位进行临床及X线检查,观察缺损程度及新骨形成和骨密度改变.结果 nHAC加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损愈合成功率95.65%,脱位牙复位固定治疗成功率88.23%,所有患者无不良症状和体征,牙槽骨高度和宽度明显得到改善.X线片显示:胶原基纳米骨(nHAC)加自体骨植入区可见新生骨小梁,骨密度增强,骨质疏松有所改善,植入骨与宿主骨组织融为一体,牙槽骨缺损修复.结论 nHAC加自体骨修复外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损可以增强牙槽骨密度,恢复牙槽骨的丰满度,保留了更多的牙齿,也为义齿修复提供了良好的生理基础.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of the mixture of nano-hydroxyapative/collagen composite (nHAC)and autogenous bone on repairing traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects in the middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Twenty-three middle-aged and elderly patients,who had traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects and needed bone transplanting,were selected.They were treated with the mixture of nHAC and autogenous bone to repair the traumatic alveolar bone defects.Edgewise appliance was used for reduction and fixation in traumatic dislocated teeth.After1,2,3,6,and 12 months,all the patients needed subsequent visit.Clinical and X-ray examination of bone defects were performed to observe the degree of bone defects,new bone formation,and bone mineral density before and after the treatment.Results Among all the 23 patients,the therapeutic effective rate of using the mixture of nHAC and autogenous bone to repair traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects was 95.65

  12. Repair of calvarial bone defects in mice using electrospun polystyrene scaffolds combined with β-TCP or gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Lisa; Dragusin, Diana Maria; Mallet, Romain; Vasile, Eugeniu; Stancu, Izabela-Cristina; Behets, Catherine; Chappard, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Non-biodegradable porous polystyrene (PS) scaffolds, composed of microfibers, have been prepared by electrospinning for the reconstruction of large bone defects. PS microfibers were prepared by incorporating β-TCP grains inside the polymer or grafting gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid. Cytocompatibility of the three types of scaffolds (PS, β-TCP-PS and Au-PS) was studied by seeding human mesenchymal stem cells. Biocompatibility was evaluated by implanting β-TCP-PS and Au-PS scaffolds into a critical size (4mm) calvarial defect in mice. Calvaria were taken 6, 9, and 12 weeks after implantation; newly formed bone and cellular response was analyzed by microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histology. β-TCP-PS scaffolds showed a significantly higher cell proliferation in vitro than on PS or Au-PS alone; clearly, the presence of β-TCP grains improved cytocompatibility. Biocompatibility study in the mouse calvaria model showed that β-TCP-PS scaffolds were significantly associated with more newly-formed bone than Au-PS. Bone developed by osteoconduction from the defect margins to the center. A dense fibrous connective tissue containing blood vessels was identified histologically in both types of scaffolds. There was no inflammatory foci nor giant cell in these areas. AuNPs aggregates were identified histologically in the fibrosis and also incorporated in the newly-formed bone matrix. Although the different types of PS microfibers appeared cytocompatible during the in vitro experiment, they appeared biotolerated in vivo since they induced a fibrotic reaction associated with newly formed bone.

  13. Use of radiation in biomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roberto S.

    2002-05-01

    Radiation is widely used in the biomaterials science for surface modification, sterilization and to improve bulk properties. Radiation is also used to design of biochips, and in situ photopolymerizable of bioadhesives. The energy sources most commonly used in the irradiation of biomaterials are high-energy electrons, gamma radiation, ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Surface modification involves placement of selective chemical moieties on the surface of a material by chemical reactions to improve biointeraction for cell adhesion and proliferation, hemocompatibility and water absorption. The exposure of a polymer to radiation, especially ionizing radiation, can lead to chain scission or crosslinking with changes in bulk and surface properties. Sterilization by irradiation is designed to inactivate most pathogens from the surface of biomedical devices. An overview of the use of gamma and UV radiation to improve surface tissue compatibility, bulk properties and surface properties for wear resistance, formation of hydrogels and curing dental sealants and bone adhesives is presented. Gamma and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibit improvement in surface modulus and hardness. The surface modulus and hardness of UHMWPE showed a dependence on type of radiation, dosage and processing. VUV surface modified e-PTFE vascular grafts exhibit increases in hydrophilicity and improvement towards adhesion of fibrin glue.

  14. Carboxyl-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes improve bone tissue formation in vitro and repair in an in vivo rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos-Durán A

    2014-09-01

    combination of demineralized bone matrix or cartilage particles with SWCNTs were implanted into nude rats, and ectopic bone formation was analyzed. Histological analysis of both types of implants showed high permeability and pore connectivity of the carbon nanotube-soaked implants. Numerous vascularization channels appeared in the formed tissue, additional progenitor cells were recruited, and areas of de novo ossification were found 4 weeks post-implantation. Induction of the expression of bone-related genes and the presence of secreted osteopontin protein were also confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. In summary, these results are in line with prior contributions that highlight the suitability of SWCNTs as scaffolds with high bone-inducing capabilities both in vitro and in vivo, confirming them as alternatives to current bone-repair therapies. Keywords: human allografts, demineralized bone matrix, cartilage particles, bone regeneration

  15. Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, J R; Canham, L T; Anderson, S I

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, several studies revealed the requirement for silicon in bone development, while bioactive silicate glasses simultaneously pioneered the current era of bioactive materials. Considerable research has subsequently focused on the chemistry and biological function of silicon in bone, demonstrating that the element has at least two separate effects in the extracellular matrix: (i) interacting with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans during their synthesis, and (ii) forming ionic substitutions in the crystal lattice structure of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the dissolution products of bioactive glass (predominantly silicic acids) have significant effects on the molecular biology of osteoblasts in vitro, regulating the expression of several genes including key osteoblastic markers, cell cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. Researchers have sought to capitalize on these effects and have generated a diverse array of biomaterials, which include bioactive glasses, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites and pure, porosified silicon, but all these materials share similarities in the mechanisms that result in their bioactivity. This review discusses the current data obtained from original research in biochemistry and biomaterials science supporting the role of silicon in bone, comparing both the biological function of the element and analysing the evolution of silicon-containing biomaterials.

  16. Bone marrow stem cells delivered into the subarachnoid space via cisterna magna improve repair of injured rat spinal cord white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcol, Wiesław; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Koryciak-Komarska, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The influence of bone marrow stem cells on regeneration of spinal cord in rats was investigated. Young adult male Wistar rats were used (n=22). Focal injury of spinal cord white matter at Th10 level was produced using our original non-laminectomy method by means of high-pressured air stream. Cells from tibial and femoral bone marrow of 1-month old rats (n=3) were cultured, labeled with BrdU/Hoechst and injected into cisterna magna (experimental group) three times: immediately after spinal cord injury and 3 as well as 7 days later. Neurons in brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG) delivered caudally from the injury site a week before the end of experiment. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of MRI. Maximal distance of expansion of implanted cells in the spinal cord was measured and the number of FG-positive neurons in the brain was counted. Rats treated with stem cells presented significant improvement of locomotor performance and spinal cord morphology when compared to the control group. Distance covered by stem cells was 7 mm from the epicenter of the injury. Number of brain stem and motor cortex FG-positive neurons in experimental group was significantly higher than in control. Obtained data showed that bone marrow stem cells are able to induce the repair of injured spinal cord white matter. The route of cells application via cisterna magna appeared to be useful for their delivery in spinal cord injury therapy.

  17. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  18. Advanced bioimaging technologies in assessment of the quality of bone and scaffold materials. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Ling; Leung, Kwok Sui (eds.) [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology; Genant, H.K. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Griffith, J.F. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Radiology and Organ Imaging

    2007-07-01

    This book provides a perspective on the current status of bioimaging technologies developed to assess the quality of musculoskeletal tissue with an emphasis on bone and cartilage. It offers evaluations of scaffold biomaterials developed for enhancing the repair of musculoskeletal tissues. These bioimaging techniques include micro-CT, nano-CT, pQCT/QCT, MRI, and ultrasound, which provide not only 2-D and 3-D images of the related organs or tissues, but also quantifications of the relevant parameters. The advance bioimaging technologies developed for the above applications are also extended by incorporating imaging contrast-enhancement materials. Thus, this book will provide a unique platform for multidisciplinary collaborations in education and joint R and D among various professions, including biomedical engineering, biomaterials, and basic and clinical medicine. (orig.)

  19. Osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells on a composite scaffold in the repair of osteoporotic bone defects%脂肪干细胞成骨分化及与复合支架结合:在修复骨质疏松症骨缺损中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成龙; 肖金刚

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The traditional treatment methods for osteoporosis accompanied by bone defects, such as autogenous bone graft, al ograft, biomaterial implants, have significant limitations. The regenerative medicine approach using adipose-derived stem cells as seed cells offers a new way for the repair of bone defects fol owing osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE:To review the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and its impacts on the repair of bone defects, the signal pathway regulation of osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells, and the feasibility of adipose-derived stem cells for repairing osteoporotic bone defects. METHODS:A computer-based online search of CNKI database and PubMed database was performed to retrieve the relevant articles published from January 1998 to September 2014 with the key words of“adipose-derived stem cells, osteoporosis, bone defect, osteogenic differentiation, bone regeneration”in Chinese and English, respectively. Final y 77 articles were included for review after deleting unrelated and repetitive ones. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In recent years, adipose-derived stem cells have been widely used in regenerative medicine research. With the development of relevant disciplines such as regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, molecular biology, and material science, in-depth studies on regulatory mechanisms of osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells have been developed. Adipose-derived stem cells combined with biological scaffolds for construction of tissue-engineered bones provides a new way to repair osteoporotic bone defects.%背景:针对骨质疏松症伴发骨缺损疾病的传统治疗方法,诸如自体骨移植、异体骨移植、生物材料植入均有明显的局限性。以脂肪干细胞为种子细胞,采用再生医学的方法,为骨质疏松症骨缺损的修复提供了一种新的途径。  目的:就骨质疏松症的发病机制及其对骨缺损修复的影响、信号通路对脂肪干

  20. 组织工程修复肩袖损伤促进腱骨愈合的研究进展%Progress in tissue-engineering for tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 王蕾

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff injury, considered as a resource of pain, disability and dyssomnia to serious decline in the quality of life, is a common disorder of the shoulder joint. Basic principles of rotator cuff repair aim at achieving high initial ifxation strength, maintaining mechanical stability and restoring the anatomic healing of the cuff tendon. After the routine surgical procedure for rotator cuff repair, the biology and histology of the normal enthesis are not restored. Tendon-to-bone healing occurs with a ifbrovascular scar tissue interface that is mechanically inferior to the native insertion site, which may lead to high re-rupture rate. For these reasons, new approaches are required to improve structural healing. Tissue engineering strategies have been suggested to improve the biological environment around the bone-tendon interface and to promote regeneration of the native insertion site. Although experimental applications of growth factors and scaffolds on animal models demonstrate promising results, techniques which can be used in human rotator cuff repair are still very limited. Tissue engineering to improve tendon-to-bone healing has bright future and requires more research before its clinical applications. This review will outline therapies of growth factors, scaffolds and stem cells in tendon healing and rotator cuff repair.

  1. Biomaterial selection for tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J

    2011-10-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth.

  2. Elastin as a nonthrombogenic biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Anna; Wise, Steven G; Ng, Martin K C; Weiss, Anthony S

    2011-04-01

    Surface-induced thrombosis is a significant issue for artificial blood-contacting materials used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The development of biomaterials and tissue-engineered constructs that mimic the vasculature represents a way to overcome this problem. Elastin is an extracellular matrix macromolecule that imparts arterial elasticity where it comprises up to 50% of the nonhydrated mass of the vessel. In addition to its critical role in maintaining vessel integrity and elastic properties under pulsatile flow, elastin plays an important role in signaling and regulating luminal endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall. Despite its well-established significance in the vasculature and its growing use as a biomaterial in tissue engineering, the hemocompatibility of elastin is often overlooked. Past studies pointing to the potential of arterial elastin and decellularized elastin as nonthrombogenic materials have begun to be realized, with elastin scaffolds and coatings displaying increased hemocomptibility. This review explores the mechanisms of elastin's nonthrombogenicity and highlights the current problems limiting its wider application as a biomaterial. We discuss the benefits of constructing biomaterials encompassing the relevant mechanical and biological features of elastin to provide enhanced hemocompatibility to biomaterials.

  3. In vitro and in vivo study of additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for repairing bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoyuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Wenbo; Wu, Xianbo; Kong, Xiangdong; Dai, Kerong; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7. This group also had higher ALP activity at day 7 in osteogenic differentiation experiment. The scaffold with pore size of 300 to 400 μm was implanted into a 30-mm segmental defect of goat metatarsus. In vivo evaluations indicated that the depth of bone ingrowth increased over time and no implant dislocation occurred during the experiment. Based on its better cytocompatibility and favorable bone ingrowth, the present data showed the capability of the additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with an intended pore size of 300 to 400 μm for large segmental bone defects. PMID:27667204

  4. Icariin Promotes Tendon-Bone Healing during Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Biomechanical and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chenyi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shengdong; Jiang, Shuai; Yu, Yuanbin; Chen, Erman; Xue, Deting; Chen, Jianzhong; He, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the systematic administration of icariin (ICA) promotes tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff reconstruction in vivo, a total of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were used in a rotator cuff injury model and underwent rotator cuff reconstruction (bone tunnel suture fixation). Rats from the ICA group (n = 32) were gavage-fed daily with ICA at 0.125 mg/g, while rats in the control group (n = 32) received saline only. Micro-computed tomography, biomechanical tests, serum ELISA (calcium; Ca, alkaline phosphatase; AP, osteocalcin; OCN) and histological examinations (Safranin O and Fast Green staining, type I, II and III collagen (Col1, Col2, and Col3), CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were analyzed two and four weeks after surgery. In the ICA group, the serum levels of AP and OCN were higher than in the control group. More Col1-, Col2-, CD31-, and VEGF-positive cells, together with a greater degree of osteogenesis, were detected in the ICA group compared with the control group. During mechanical testing, the ICA group showed a significantly higher ultimate failure load than the control group at both two and four weeks. Our results indicate that the systematic administration of ICA could promote angiogenesis and tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff reconstruction, with superior mechanical strength compared with the controls. Treatment for rotator cuff injury using systematically-administered ICA could be a promising strategy. PMID:27792147

  5. Reparación ósea mediante aloimplantes sometidos a diferentesmétodos de conservación en conejos Allogeneic bone grafts treated with different conservation methodsfor bone repair in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dasso

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a las limitantes de los implantes de hueso de origen autogénico y a la ineficiencia de los implantes de hueso fresco de origen alogénico ha sido necesario incursionar en el área de los implantes de hueso alogénico procesados. Con este objetivo se utilizaron 27 conejos raza blanco neozelandés de 3 a 5 meses de edad, quienes recibieron los diferentes tipos de aloimplantes de hueso esponjoso (desproteinizados, congelados o hervidos para evaluar el grado de reparación de una lesión previamente realizada en la tibia. Los animales fueron sacrificados a las dos, cuatro y ocho semanas postcirugía y la evaluación se realizó a través de cortes histológicos. Determinándose que a las dos semanas post-cirugía no hubo mayor diferencia entre los distintos grupos analizados, pero sí lo hubo a las cuatro y ocho semanas post-cirugía, donde se observó claramente una mayor eficiencia de los implantes desproteinizados. Esto se debe a que el hipoclorito de sodio destruye los elementos antigénicos presentes en el implante, lo que disminuye las probabilidades de rechazo por parte del huésped y facilita la llegada de células indiferenciadas que se diferencian a osteoblastos formando así hueso neoformado, por lo tanto, esto se refleja en un mayor grado de reparación en comparación con los implantes tratados por congelación y más aún si lo comparamos con los aloimplantes tratados por ebullición. Esta información puede ser de gran utilidad para la implementación de un banco de huesos destinado a corregir lesiones del sistema esqueléticoDue to limitations in the availability of autogeneic bone and to the inefficiency of the fresh allogeneic bone grafts, it has been necessary to evaluate the use of allogeneic processed bone. Therefore, the ability of three procedures -freezing, boiling and desproteinization of allogeneic bone- to repair experimentally created defects in rabbit tibia was tested. Tibia, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery were

  6. 四环素骨诱导活性材料整复牙槽缺损的实验研究%Experimental study on repairing the defect in alveolar bone with tetracycline activated materials for bone guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘牧菲

    2000-01-01

    目的:将盐酸四环素处理的人离体非功能牙块用于诱导骨再生技术中,观察和比较其对牙槽骨再生修复的影响。方法:拔除大鼠第一磨牙近中根做人工牙槽缺损。置入盐酸四环素处理的离体人牙块,以盐酸处理的离体人牙块为阳性对照,未做任何处理的离体人牙块为阴性对照。不同时期取材做组织观察和评价。结果:四环素处理组炎症反应小,早期成骨明显。中晚期成骨量明显高于对照组。结论:盐酸四环素处理的人离体非功能牙块有抑制骨吸收,诱导、促进牙槽骨再生等作用。%Objective:The effect on alveolar bone regeneration and repair was observed and compared with guide bone regeneration technique -isolated human dentin blocks treated with tetracycline-HCL.Methods:The first molar mesial roots of rats were extracted as defects in alveolar bone and the isolated human dentin blocks treated with tetracycline-HCL as positive control and and untreated with anything as negative control were implanted the defect sites for histologic observation and evaluation at the different periods.Results:There is less inflammatory (in tetracycline treatment groups than control at early stages and they showed marked osteaogenesis),but the osteogenic quantity is larger than control groups at middle and late stages. Conclusion:The isolated teeth blocks treated with tetracycline HCL have actions on inhibiting bone resorption, and promoting alveolar bone generation.

  7. The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials in implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng; Lu, Hong; Li, Wei; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2012-03-01

    Since calcium phosphates (CaPs) were first proposed, a wide variety of formulations have been developed and continuously optimized, some of which (e.g. calcium phosphate cements, CPCs) have been successfully commercialized for clinical applications. These CaP-based biomaterials have been shown to be very attractive bone substitutes and efficient drug delivery vehicles across diverse biomedical applications. In this article, CaP biomaterials, principally CPCs, are addressed as alternatives/complements to autogenous bone for grafting in implant dentistry and as coating materials for enhancing the osteoinductivity of titanium implants, highlighting their performance benefits simultaneously as carriers for growth factors and as scaffolds for cell proliferation, differentiation and penetration. Different strategies for employing CaP biomaterials in dental implantology aim to ultimately reach the same goal, namely to enhance the osseointegration process for dental implants in the context of immediate loading and to augment the formation of surrounding bone to guarantee long-term success.

  8. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  9. [The possibilities and perspectives of using scaffold technology for bone regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the one of the topical problem of tissue engineering--the design and implementation of biomaterials that could replace and repair bone defects. This review presents the recent studies of the potential of scaffold technology in bone tissue regeneration. This article contains information about the basic parameters and properties of modern scaffold systems. The results of experimental in vitro and in vivo studies on the use of matrices made of various materials are shown. Advantages and disadvantages of various materials used for the production of scaffolds are discussed. Attention is paid to the advantages combinations of different materials to achieve the desired structural and functional properties. Particular attention is paid to technologies and systems of targeted delivery and controlled release of factors that stimulate bone tissue regeneration. Different strategies for modulating tissue reactions and immune responses that take place during scaffold implantation are presented.

  10. Radiographic and histological study of perennial bone defect repair in rat calvaria after treatment with blocks of porous bovine organic graft material Estudo radiográfico e histológico do reparo de defeito ósseo perene em calvária de rato após o tratamento com material de enxerto orgânico bovino poroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucele Vieira Marins

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, various bone graft materials of bovine origin to be used in oromaxillofacial surgeries have entered the market. In the present study, we determined the capacity of a block organic bone graft material (Gen-ox, Baumer SA, Brazil prepared from bovine cancellous bone to promote the repair of critical size bone injuries in rat calvaria. A transosseous defect measuring approximately 8mm in diameter was performed with a surgical trephine in the parietal bone of 25 rats. In 15 animals, the defects were filled with a block of graft material measuring 8mm in diameter and soaked in the animal's own blood, and in the other 10 animals the defects were only filled with blood clots. The calvariae of rats receiving the material were collected 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery, and those of animals receiving the blood clots were collected immediately and 6 months after surgery. During surgery, the graft material was found to be of easy handling and to adapt perfectly to the receptor bed after soaking in blood. The results showed that, in most animals treated, the material was slowly resorbed and served as a space filling and maintenance material, favoring angiogenesis, cell migration and adhesion, and bone neoformation from the borders of the lesion. However, a foreign body-type granulomatous reaction, with the presence of numerous giant cells preventing local bone neoformation, was observed in two animals of the 1-month subgroup and in one animal of the 3-month subgroup. These cases were interpreted as resulting from the absence of demineralization and the lack of removal of potential antigen factors during production of the biomaterial. We conclude that, with improvement in the quality control of the material production, block organic bone matrix will become a good alternative for bone defect repair in the oromaxillofacial region due to its high osteoconductive capacity.Nos últimos anos, vários materiais de origem bovina para enxerto

  11. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Regeneration and Bone Formation in Mice: Implications in Fracture Repair and Wound Healing in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    control mice and subcongenic lines are indicated by *Pɘ.05. Trab. Vol., represents trabecular volume. Trab. Cnt , represents trabecular content. Tot...4-8), the type I collagen α1 gene (9,10), the type I collagen α2 gene (11), the estrogen receptor (4,9,11-13), insulin-like growth factor-I (14,15...receptor alpha and collagen IA1 genes on bone mineral density in Caucasian women. Calcif Tissue Int 72:643-50. 10. Mezquita-Raya P, Munoz-Torres M

  13. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  14. Biomaterials A Tantalus Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Helsen, Jozef A

    2010-01-01

    Replacement of a failing hip joint or other defective organs in the human body by artificial ‘spare parts’ has significantly improved our quality of life. These spare parts have to meet a wide spectrum of mechanical, chemical and design requirements.  In this book, the properties and selection of materials for such `spare parts’ are deduced from case studies at the start of each chapter. Hard tissue replacements (joints, long bones, dental), soft tissue (heart valves) and tissue engineering are included. The chapters also detail the three generic classes of materials: alloys (including shape memory alloys), ceramics & glasses and polymers. Separate chapters are devoted to the toxicity of implants, the metals zirconium(-zirconium oxide), tantalum, niobium and metallic glasses, soluble metals and Rapid Prototyping techniques for the fabrication of custom made prostheses.  The book concludes by a chapter on water as water is always ‘there’ and conditions the interaction between body and implant. ...

  15. Repair and reconstruction of segmental long bone defect:Theory and application advances%长骨节段性缺损修复重建的理论及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 陈国奋; 王健; 史占军; Shaikh Atik Badshah; 郑少伟

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Various methods have been reported for the repair and reconstruction of long bone segmental defect, but al of them have different advantages and disadvantages which limit their wide application. And this stil presents as a huge problem for many orthopaedics. OBJECTIVE:To review the latest research on reconstruction and repair of long bone segmental defects at national and international level. METHODS:A computer-based retrieval was conducted in PubMed database, CNKI database and VIP database by the first author for the articles published from January 1990 to December 2012, on the repair and reconstruction of long bone segmental defect with the key words of“bone defect, long bone reconstruction, tissue engineering of bone, scaffolds, bone reconstruction, bone graft, bone tumor, tumor resection, musculoskeletal tumors, regeneration, autografts”in English and“large segment, bone defects, bone tumors, soft tissue tumors, tumor resection, tissue engineering, bone graft”in Chinese. A total of 104 articles were screened out, and final y, 52 articles were included for further research. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Traditional method for the repair of long bone segmental defect includes autologous or al ogeneic bone graft, bone lengthening and artificial prosthesis replacement. The development of prosthesis that was suitable for child limb salvage and consistent with the child growth characteristics has become the chal enge to child limb salvage. In order to solve the problem, we designed the prosthesis that can continuously extent, and applied for the limb salvage reconstruction of tumor. With the development of medical technology, al kinds of artificial bone, especial y bone tissue engineering and gene treatment are being gradual y used to repair bone defect, which wil further enhance the clinical evaluation of bone defect repair, and that is the direction of further research.%背景:长骨节段性骨缺损修复重建方法众多,各有优缺点,限

  16. 深低温保存的同种异体骨膜与胎骨联合移植的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BONE REPAIR INDUCED BY CRYOPRESERVED ALLOGRAFT PERIOSTEUM AND FETAL BONE COMPOSITION IN BONE DEFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永涛; 顾洁夫; 尚平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the repairing effect of transplantation of allogeneic fetal bone in combination with a covering cryopreserved periosteal allograft to bone defect. Methods Twenty Long-eared white male rabbits were chosen as experimental model of bilateral 12 mm combined bony and periosteal radial defect. Cryopreserved allograft periosteum with allogeneic fetal bone were implanted in the left defect as experimental side and fetal bone was simply transplanted in the right defect as control side. Bone repair process in the two groups were compared by macroscopy, microscopy, roentgenograms and the contents of calcium and phosphate in the defect area at 2、4、8 and 12 weeks after transplantation. Results There was significant statistic difference in the contents of calcium and phosphate between the experimental and control sides at 4、8 and 12 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05). With time passing by, the contents of calcium and phosphate have the increasing trends. In the experimental group, lamella bone was seen and medullary canal recanalized at 8 weeks postoperatively. The histological section showed the bone lacuna and lamella bone were formed. Conclusion It suggests that allogeneic fetal bone in combination with a covering cryopreserved periosteal allograft can promote bone repair, and allogeneic fetal bone is excellent bone substitute.%目的探讨有生物活性的移植材料对骨缺损修复能力的影响。方法实验采用兔桡骨缺损模型,经深低温保存的同种异体骨膜加胎兔骨移植为实验侧,胎兔骨移植为对照侧,分别在术后2、4、8及12周对实验侧和对照侧骨缺损模型进行大体观察、组织学检查、X线片及钙、磷含量检查。观察异体骨膜加胎骨复合体修复骨缺损的可行性及移植后骨膜、胎骨的动态变化。结果实验侧术后4、8及12周钙、磷含量明显高于对照侧(P<0.05),随着时间的推移,钙、磷含量

  17. Macrophages, Foreign Body Giant Cells and Their Response to Implantable Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All biomaterials, when implanted in vivo, elicit cellular and tissue responses. These responses include the inflammatory and wound healing responses, foreign body reactions, and fibrous encapsulation of the implanted materials. Macrophages are myeloid immune cells that are tactically situated throughout the tissues, where they ingest and degrade dead cells and foreign materials in addition to orchestrating inflammatory processes. Macrophages and their fused morphologic variants, the multinucleated giant cells, which include the foreign body giant cells (FBGCs are the dominant early responders to biomaterial implantation and remain at biomaterial-tissue interfaces for the lifetime of the device. An essential aspect of macrophage function in the body is to mediate degradation of bio-resorbable materials including bone through extracellular degradation and phagocytosis. Biomaterial surface properties play a crucial role in modulating the foreign body reaction in the first couple of weeks following implantation. The foreign body reaction may impact biocompatibility of implantation devices and may considerably impact short- and long-term success in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, necessitating a clear understanding of the foreign body reaction to different implantation materials. The focus of this review article is on the interactions of macrophages and foreign body giant cells with biomaterial surfaces, and the physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of biomaterial surfaces that play a role in regulating the foreign body response. Events in the foreign body response include protein adsorption, adhesion of monocytes/macrophages, fusion to form FBGCs, and the consequent modification of the biomaterial surface. The effect of physico-chemical cues on macrophages is not well known and there is a complex interplay between biomaterial properties and those that result from interactions with the local environment. By having a

  18. Preparation of core-shell poly(L-lactic) acid-nanocrystalline apatite hollow microspheres for bone repairing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafisco, Michele; Palazzo, Barbara; Ito, Tomoko; Otsuka, Makoto; Senna, Mamoru; Delgado-Lopez, Josè Manuel; Gomez-Morales, Jaime; Tampieri, Anna; Prat, Maria; Rimondini, Lia

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, hybrid inorganic-organic core-shell hollow microspheres, made of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and biomimetic nano apatites (HA), were prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible substances, suitable for bone tissue applications. Preparation is started from Pickering emulsification, i.e., solid particle-stabilized emulsions in the absence of any molecular surfactant, where solid particles adsorbed to an oil-water interface. Stable oil-in-water emulsions were produced using biomimetic 20 nm sized HA nanocrystals as particulate emulsifier and a dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) solution of PLLA as oil phase. Hybrid hollow PLLA microspheres at three different HA nanocrystals surface coverage, ranging from 10 to 50 μm, were produced. The resulting materials were completely characterized with spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic techniques and the cytocompatibility was established by indirect contact tests with both fibroblasts and osteoblasts and direct contact with these latter. They displayed a high level of cytocompatibility and thus represent promising materials for drug delivery systems, cell carriers and scaffolds for regeneration of bone useful in the treatment of orthopaedic, maxillofacial and dental fields.

  19. Multi-compartmental biomaterial scaffolds for patterning neural tissue organoids in models of neurodevelopment and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials are becoming an essential tool in the study and application of stem cell research. Various types of biomaterials enable three-dimensional culture of stem cells, and, more recently, also enable high-resolution patterning and organization of multicellular architectures. Biomaterials also hold potential to provide many additional advantages over cell transplants alone in regenerative medicine. This article describes novel designs for functionalized biomaterial constructs that guide tissue development to targeted regional identities and structures. Such designs comprise compartmentalized regions in the biomaterial structure that are functionalized with molecular factors that form concentration gradients through the construct and guide stem cell development, axis patterning, and tissue architecture, including rostral/caudal, ventral/dorsal, or medial/lateral identities of the central nervous system. The ability to recapitulate innate developmental processes in a three-dimensional environment and under specific controlled conditions has vital application to advanced models of neurodevelopment and for repair of specific sites of damaged or diseased neural tissue.

  20. Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells overexpressing human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 enhances tissue repair in a rat model of radiation-induced injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Liao Tian'an; Wang Hong; Deng Wei; Yu Dahai

    2014-01-01

    Background The multilineage differentiation potential ability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) showed great potential in tissue engineering,while vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) promotes vasculogenesis and further promotes tissue regeneration.This study aimed to assess the ability of rat BMSCs expressing human VEGFA165 (hVEGF165) to promote tissue repair in rat model of radiation-induced injury.Methods Rat BMSCs were isolated from the tibia.Plasmid DNA expressing hVEGF165 was stably transfected into BMSCs using liposomes.The right hindlimb muscle of 40 rats was irradiated using a 60Co y source (total dose 30 Gy).The animals were divided into four groups (n=10):not injected with BMSCs (control; group 1) or intramuscularly injected two times (once in 2 weeks) with pcDNATM3.1-transfected BMSCs (group 2),untransfected BMSCs (group 3),or hVEGF165-transfected BMSCs (group 4).Angiography was performed 1 week after the last injection of BMSCs; samples of the hindlimb muscle were subjected to transmission electron microscopy,ultrastructural analysis,reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR),Western blotting,and immunohistochemistry.Results Rat BMSCs with multipotent differentiation capacity were isolated,hVEGF165-transfected BMSCs overexpressed hVEGF165 mRNA and protein.Injection of BMSCs (groups 2-4) increased the average vessel number,density,diameter,and cross-sectional area; mRNA expression of the myogenic markers including myoblast determination protein,myogenin,and α-smooth muscle actin; and CD31 protein expression; and promoted the repair of blood vessels and myofibers after radiation-induced injury compared to group 1; each of these parameters and hVEGF165 mRNA or protein expression were markedly improved in rats injected with hVEGF165-transfected BMSCs compared to groups 2 and 3.Conclusions BMSCs expressing hVEGF165 enhanced the repair of radiation-induced tissue injury by promoting vasculogenesis and muscle fiber regeneration.BMSCs expressing h

  1. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Tang

    Full Text Available Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS, which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  2. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  3. Predoctoral Curriculum Guidelines for Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' predoctoral guidelines for biomaterials curricula includes notes on interrelationships between this and other fields, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives for each content area, and information on sequencing, faculty and…

  4. Bone marrow aspiration concentrate and platelet rich plasma for osteochondral repair in a porcine osteochondral defect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Betsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC may possess a high potency for cartilage and osseous defect healing because it contains stem cells and multiple growth factors. Alternatively, platelet rich plasma (PRP, which contains a cocktail of multiple growth factors released from enriched activated thrombocytes may potentially stimulate the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in bone marrow to proliferate and differentiate. METHODS: A critical size osteochondral defect (10×6 mm in both medial femoral condyles was created in 14 Goettinger mini-pigs. All animals were randomized into the following four groups: biphasic scaffold alone (TRUFIT BGS, Smith & Nephew, USA, scaffold with PRP, scaffold with BMAC and scaffold in combination with BMAC and PRP. After 26 weeks all animals were euthanized and histological slides were cut, stained and evaluated using a histological score and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The thrombocyte number was significantly increased (p = 0.049 in PRP compared to whole blood. In addition the concentration of the measured growth factors in PRP such as BMP-2, BMP-7, VEGF, TGF-β1 and PDGF were significantly increased when compared to whole blood (p<0.05. In the defects of the therapy groups areas of chondrogenic tissue were present, which stained blue with toluidine blue and positively for collagen type II. Adding BMAC or PRP in a biphasic scaffold led to a significant improvement of the histological score compared to the control group, but the combination of BMAC and PRP did not further enhance the histological score. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical application of BMAC or PRP in osteochondral defect healing is attractive because of their autologous origin and cost-effectiveness. Adding either PRP or BMAC to a biphasic scaffold led to a significantly better healing of osteochondral defects compared with the control group. However, the combination of both therapies did not further enhance healing.

  5. Stem cell-mediated osteogenesis: therapeutic potential for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neman J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Josh Neman1, Amanda Hambrecht2, Cherie Cadry3, Rahul Jandial11Department of Neurosurgery, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Cancer Center, Duarte, 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California, USAAbstract: Intervertebral disc degeneration often requires bony spinal fusion for long-term relief. Current arthrodesis procedures use bone grafts from autogenous bone, allogenic backed bone, or synthetic materials. Autogenous bone grafts can result in donor site morbidity and pain at the donor site, while allogenic backed bone and synthetic materials have variable effectiveness. Given these limitations, researchers have focused on new treatments that will allow for safe and successful bone repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells have received attention for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, cells that synthesize new bone. With the recent advances in scaffold and biomaterial technology as well as stem cell manipulation and transplantation, stem cells and their scaffolds are uniquely positioned to bring about significant improvements in the treatment and outcomes of spinal fusion and other injuries.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, osteogenesis, scaffolds, bone morphogenetic protein, Wnt, autograft, osteoblast

  6. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  7. Effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (rhBMP-2/PLGA) with core decompression on repair of rabbit femoral head necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Xun Pan; Hong-Xin Zhang; Ye-Xin Wang; Long-Di Zhai; Wei Du

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (rhBMP-2/PLGA) with core decompression on repair of rabbit femoral head necrosis. Methods: Bilateral femoral head necrosis models of rabbit were established by steroid injection. A total of 48 rabbits (96 femoral head necrosis) were randomly divided into 4 groups: Group A, control group with12 rabbits, 24 femoral head necrosis;Group B, treated with rhBMP-2/PLGA implantation after core depression, with 12 rabbits, 24 femoral head necrosis;Group C, treated with rhBMP-2 implantation after core depression, with 12 rabbits, 24 femoral head necrosis;Group D treated with core depression group without implantation, with 12 rabbits, 24 femoral head necrosis. All animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The ability of repairing bone defect was evaluated by X-ray radiograph. Bone mineral density analysis of the defect regions were used to evaluate the level of ossification. The morphologic change and bone formation was assessed by HE staining. The angiogenesis was evaluated by VEGF immunohistochemistry. Results: The osteogenetic ability and quality of femoral head necrosis in group B were better than those of other groups after 12 weeks by X-ray radiograph and morphologic investigation. And the angiogenesis in group B was better than other groups. Group C had similar osteogenetic quality of femoral head necrosis and angiogenesis with group D. Conclusions:The treatment of rhBMP-2/PLGA implantation after core depression can promote the repair of rabbit femoral head necrosis. It is a promising and efficient synthetic bone material to treat the femoral head necrosis.

  8. Polymer biomaterial constructs for regenerative medicine and functional biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghui

    The use of collagen as a biomaterial is currently undergoing a renaissance in the tissue engineering field. The excellent biocompatibility and safety due to its biological characteristics, such as biodegradability and weak antigenicity, make collagen a primary material resource in medical applications. Described herein is work towards the development of novel collagen-based matrices, with additional multi-functionality imparted through a novel in-situ crosslinking approach. The process of electrospinning has become a widely used technique for the creation of fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications due to its ability to rapidly create structures composed of nano-scale polymer fibers closely resembling the architecture of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collagen-PCL sheath-core bicomponent fibrous scaffolds were fabricated using a novel variation on traditional electrospinning, known as co-axial electrospinning. The results showed that the addition of a synthetic polymer core into collagen nanofibers remarkably increased the mechanical strength of collagen matrices spun from the benign solvent system. A novel single-step, in-situ collagen crosslink approach was developed in order to solve the problems dominating traditional collagen crosslinking methods, such as dimensional shrinking and loss of porous morphology, and to simplify the crosslinking procedure for electrospun collagen scaffolds. The excess amount of NHS present in the crosslinking mixture was found to delay the EDC/collagen coupling reaction in a controlled fashion. Fundamental investigations into the development and characterization of in-situ crosslinked collagen matrices such as fibrous scaffolds, gels and sponges, as well as their biomedical applications including cell culture substrates, wound dressings, drug delivery matrices and bone regeneration substitutes, were performed. The preliminary mice studies indicated that the in-situ crosslinked collagen matrices could be good candidates

  9. In vivo transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells accelerates repair of injured gastric mucosa in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Qing; YAN Li; WANG Chang-zheng; ZHANG Wen-hui; HU Ya-zhuo; WU Ben-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells provide a promising alternative for the treatment of injured tissues.We aimed to investigate the effect of in vivo transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on injured gastric mucosa in rats.Methods The gastric ulcer in rats was induced by indomethacin.BMMSCs from male rats,labeled with the fluorescent cell linker 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA SE),were transplanted into the female rats via tail vein injection.The healing process of gastric ulcers was monitored by HE staining.The protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the injured gastric mucosa were determined by immunohistochemistry.Results At 48 and 72 hours after BMMSCs transplantation,the CFDA SE labeled cells were found scattered in the injured gastric mucosa,but not in the gastric mucosa of control rats.At 72 hours after BMMSCs transplantation,the mean ulcer index was 12.67±2.16 in the BMMSCs transplanted group and 17.33±1.97 in vehicle-treated controls (P <0.01).Both VEGF and EGFR protein expression levels were significantly higher in the gastric section from the rats that received BMMSCs transplantation as compared to rats without BMMSCs transplantation.Conclusion Autologous BMMSCs transplantation can accelerate gastric ulcer healing in injured gastric mucosa in a rodent model.

  10. Biomaterials based strategies for skeletal muscle tissue engineering: existing technologies and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a robust capacity to regenerate, but under compromised conditions, such as severe trauma, the loss of muscle functionality is inevitable. Research carried out in the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering has elucidated multiple intrinsic mechanisms of skeletal muscle repair, and has thus sought to identify various types of cells and bioactive factors which play an important role during regeneration. In order to maximize the potential therapeutic effects of cells and growth factors, several biomaterial based strategies have been developed and successfully implemented in animal muscle injury models. A suitable biomaterial can be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization, as a matrix that provides optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells, as a delivery vehicle to carry bioactive factors which can be released in a controlled manner, and as local niches to orchestrate in situ tissue regeneration. A myriad of biomaterials, varying in geometrical structure, physical form, chemical properties, and biofunctionality have been investigated for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. In the current review, we present a detailed summary of studies where the use of biomaterials favorably influenced muscle repair. Biomaterials in the form of porous three-dimensional scaffolds, hydrogels, fibrous meshes, and patterned substrates with defined topographies, have each displayed unique benefits, and are discussed herein. Additionally, several biomaterial based approaches aimed specifically at stimulating vascularization, innervation, and inducing contractility in regenerating muscle tissues are also discussed. Finally, we outline promising future trends in the field of muscle regeneration involving a deeper understanding of the endogenous healing cascades and utilization of this knowledge for the development of multifunctional, hybrid, biomaterials which support and enable muscle regeneration under compromised conditions.

  11. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  12. 骨损伤修复用硫酸钙及其无机复合材料的研究进展%Progress of Calcium Sulfate and Inorganic Composites for Bone Defect Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国敬; 林勉; 张雷; 苟中入

    2013-01-01

    Treatments of bone defects caused by trauma,tumor and arthroplasty are challenging research area which has aroused great interests among biomaterial researchers to design and fabricate ideal artificial implants.Calcium sulfate has been used as biomedical bone cement for over a century,but its too fast bioresorption limits the applications in some clinical conditions.In this paper,its physicochemical properties,crystal polymorph and synthetic techniques are summarized.Furthermore,the recent research progress on calcium sulfate-based inorganic composite with hydroxyapatite,bioactive glasses,calcium phosphate cements and calcium silicate cements are reviewed.In addition,the development perspective on overcoming the shortcomings of calcium sulfate-base biomaterials is also discussed.%创伤、骨肿瘤、关节置换术等引起骨缺损的修复是目前临床治疗的难点和研究热点领域,寻找理想的骨修复材料已经成为该领域的重点研究方向.硫酸钙骨水泥作为骨修复材料已有百余年历史,有着显著的优势.但其降解过快的缺点影响了治疗效果,限制了应用范围.本文对硫酸钙的理化特性、晶粒形貌与晶型控制、合成方法等进行了系统介绍,总结了硫酸钙与羟基磷灰石、生物玻璃、磷酸钙和硅酸钙复合材料及其性能研究的新成果,并提出了克服硫酸钙作为骨修复材料的缺点的若干方法.

  13. Opportunities and challenges for the development of polymer-based biomaterials and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinghua; Luan, Shifang

    2016-06-01

    Biomaterials and medical devices are broadly used in the diagnosis, treatment, repair, replacement or enhancing functions of human tissues or organs. Although the living conditions of human beings have been steadily improved in most parts of the world, the incidence of major human's diseases is still rapidly growing mainly because of the growth and aging of population. The compound annual growth rate of biomaterials and medical devices is projected to maintain around 10% in the next 10 years; and the global market sale of biomaterials and medical devices is estimated to reach $400 billion in 2020. In particular, the annual consumption of polymeric biomaterials is tremendous, more than 8000 kilotons. The compound annual growth rate of polymeric biomaterials and medical devices will be up to 15-30%. As a result, it is critical to address some widespread concerns that are associated with the biosafety of the polymer-based biomaterials and medical devices. Our group has been actively worked in this direction for the past two decades. In this review, some key research results will be highlighted.

  14. Interaction of stem cells with nano hydroxyapatite-fucoidan bionanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae Young, Ahn; Kang, Jeong Han; Kang, Dong Jun; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Chang, Hee Kyung; Bhatnagar, Ira; Chang, Kwan-Young; Hwang, Jae-Ho; Salameh, Ziad; Kim, Se-Kwon; Kim, Hui Taek; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2016-12-01

    The combination of bioceramics with biopolymers are playing major role in the construction of artificial bone. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been extensively studied as a material in bone repair and replacement in last two decades. In the present study, we have prepared the hydroxyapatite-fucoidan (HA-Fucoidan) nanocomposites by in situ chemical method and biologically characterized them for bone graft substitute. Biological results inferred that mineralization effect of HA-F nanocomposites shows significant enhancement compared to HA in adipose derived stem cell (ADSC). It may be due to the addition of fucoidan in the nanocomposites. The important gene expression such as osteocalcin, osteopontin, collagen and runx-2 were checked using ADSC with HA and HA-fucoidan nanocomposites and the results show that the enhancements were found at 7th day. Furthermore, we have performed in vivo study of HA-fucoidan nanocomposites with rabbit model and a slight amount of bone formation was observed in HA-fucoidan nanocomposites. Herewith, we suggest that HA-fucoidan nanocomposites will be good biomaterials for bone repair/replacement in future.

  15. [Intra-articular reinforcement of a partially torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using newly developed UHMWPE biomaterial in combination with Hexalon ACL/PCL screws: ex-vivo mechanical testing of an animal knee model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorová, P; Srnec, R; Pěnčík, J; Dvořák, M; Krbec, M; Nečas, A

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Recent trends in the experimental surgical management of a partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in animals show repair of an ACL lesion using novel biomaterials both for biomechanical reinforcement of a partially unstable knee and as suitable scaffolds for bone marrow stem cell therapy in a partial ACL tear. The study deals with mechanical testing of the newly developed ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) biomaterial anchored to bone with Hexalon biodegradable ACL/PCL screws, as a new possibility of intra-articular reinforcement of a partial ACL tear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two groups of ex vivo pig knee models were prepared and tested as follows: the model of an ACL tear stabilised with UHMWPE biomaterial using a Hexalon ACL/PCL screw (group 1; n = 10) and the model of an ACL tear stabilised with the traditional, and in veterinary medicine used, extracapsular technique involving a monofilament nylon fibre, a clamp and a Securos bone anchor (group 2; n = 11). The models were loaded at a standing angle of 100° and the maximum load (N) and shift (mm) values were recorded. RESULTS In group 1 the average maximal peak force was 167.6 ± 21.7 N and the shift was on average 19.0 ± 4.0 mm. In all 10 specimens, the maximum load made the UHMWPE implant break close to its fixation to the femur but the construct/fixation never failed at the site where the material was anchored to the bone. In group 2, the average maximal peak force was 207.3 ± 49.2 N and the shift was on average 24.1 ± 9.5 mm. The Securos stabilisation failed by pullout of the anchor from the femoral bone in nine out of 11 cases; the monofilament fibre ruptured in two cases. CONCLUSIONS It can be concluded that a UHMWPE substitute used in ex-vivo pig knee models has mechanical properties comparable with clinically used extracapsular Securos stabilisation and, because of its potential to carry stem cells and bioactive substances, it can meet the requirements for

  16. 骨诱导无机材料BAM修复牙种植体周围骨缺损的实验研究%Experimental Study about BAM Osteoinduction Calcium Phosphate Ceramic in Repairing the Bone Defect around Dental Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新风; 王鹏来; 刘超; 刘宗响; 程庆涛; 袁晟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of BAM osteoinductrve calcium phosphate ceramic (BAMOICPC) with absorbable collagen membrane (BME-10X medical collagen membrane) in repairing the bone defect around dental implant. Methods: BLB implants coated by hydroxyapatite (HA) were implanted in femur of rabbit Standard opening bone defect on one side of implant (4mm in height, 3mm in width,2mm in thickness)was made. In the control group, the side wall bone defect was open. In the experimental group A, the side wall bone defect was covered simply by BME-10X collagen membrane. In the experimental group B, BAMOICPC were implanted on the bone defects. In the experimental group C, BAMOICPC were implanted on the bone defects and covered with BME-10X collagen membrane. On the 6th postoperative month, animals were killed and sampled. The bone with the implant segment were analyzed by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In the control group, the surface of implants in the area of bone defect were wrapped by fibers. In group A, a little bone covered the border of bone defect. The experimental bone defects in group B were partially covered by new bone.In group C, the bone defects were completely covered by new bone. Compared with group B, the new bone in group C was high hardness, and combined with the implant more tightly by SEM observation.The mature haversian canals system were observed both in B and C experimental groups by histology methods. Conclusion: BAM osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics (BAMOICPC) is an ideal bone substitute material. Combined with collagen membrane, BAMOICPC repaired the bone defect around dental implants more excellently.%目的:评价骨诱导磷酸钙生物陶瓷( BAMOICPC)与可吸收胶原膜(BME-10X医用胶原膜)在牙种植体周围骨缺损中的修复能力.方法:在兔股骨上植入羟基磷灰石涂层BLB种植体,然后在其侧壁制造高4mm、宽3mm、深2mm的骨缺损.对照组为单纯侧壁骨缺损,

  17. 以带蒂筋膜瓣为膜引导骨再生屏障膜包裹接种自体骨髓间充质干细胞的非细胞型组织工程促进骨缺损修复的研究%Feasibility and effectiveness of using pedical fascial flap packing noncelluar tissue engineered bone with autologous red bone marrow and membrance guided bone regeneration technique in the process of bone defect repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振顺; 杨新明; 王耀一; 孟宪勇; 张瑛; 阴彦林

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究带蒂筋膜瓣为膜引导骨再生(MGBR)屏障膜的可行性及其在促进超临界骨缺损(ECSD)修复方面的实验疗效.方法:50只大白兔,尺骨造ECSD模型,A组单纯植入化骨(NTEB)(对照组),B组制备带蒂筋膜瓣包裹NTEB(实验组),术后对实验动物行一般情况观察、修复区X射线检查、大体观察和组织学检查、骨形态计量分析及生物力学测定分析.结果:各检查结果均显示B组优于A组.结论:以带蒂筋膜瓣为屏障膜具有MGBR作用,其包裹NTEB应用MGBR技术对促进ECSD修复疗效显著.%Objective To study the feasibility and effectiveness of using pedical fascial flap packing noncelluar tissue engineered bone with autologous red bone marrow and membrance guided bone regeneration (MGBR) technique in the process of bone defect repair. Methods 50 rabbits were used to make the experimental model of bilateral defect of the long bone and the periosteum in the ulna. Noncelluar tissue engineered bone (NTEB) was implanted in the bone defect area, one with nothing serving as the control group (group A). While the other wrapped by pedical fascial flap as the experimental group (group B). After the operation, X-ray exam, light density measurement, gross morphology and histological inspection, bone shape measurement analysis in the junctional zone and the biomechanics determination were conducted. Results X-ray films, gross morphology and histological inspection, bone shape measurement analysis , biomechanics determination:the group B was superior to the group A. Conclusions The pedical fascial flap can be used in the MGBR technique. And it has obvious effect on promoting the process of the exceed critical size defect repair.

  18. Bioceramics: from bone regeneration to cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet-Regí, María; Ruiz-Hernández, Eduardo

    2011-11-23

    Research on biomaterials has been growing in the last few years due to the clinical needs in organs and tissues replacement and regeneration. In addition, cancer nanomedicine has recently appeared as an effective means to combine nanotechnology developments towards a clinical application. Ceramic materials are suitable candidates to be used in the manufacturing of bone-like scaffolds. Bioceramic materials may also be designed to deliver biologically active substances aimed at repairing, maintaining, restoring or improving the function of organs and tissues in the organism. Several materials such as calcium phosphates, glasses and glass ceramics able to load and subsequently release in a controlled fashion drugs, hormones, growth factors, peptides or nucleic acids have been developed. In particular, to prevent post surgical infections bioceramics may be surface modified and loaded with certain antibiotics, thus preventing the formation of bacterial biofilms. Remarkably, mesoporous bioactive glasses have shown excellent characteristics as drug carrying bone regeneration materials. These bioceramics are not only osteoconductive and osteoproductive, but also osteoinductive, and have therefore been proposed as ideal components for the fabrication of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. A recent promising development of bioceramic materials is related to the design of magnetic mediators against tumors. Magnetic composites are suitable thermoseeds for cancer treatment by hyperthermia. Moreover, magnetic nanomaterials offer a wide range of possibilities for diagnosis and therapy. These nanoparticles may be conjugated with therapeutic agents and heat the surrounding tissue under the action of alternating magnetic fields, enabling hyperthermia of cancer as an effective adjunct to chemotherapy regimens.

  19. Integrin-specific hydrogels functionalized with VEGF for vascularization and bone regeneration of critical-size bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José R; Clark, Amy Y; García, Andrés J

    2016-04-01

    Vascularization of bone defects is considered a crucial component to the successful regeneration of large bone defects. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been delivered to critical-size bone defect models to augment blood vessel infiltration into the defect area, its potential to increase bone repair remains ambiguous. In this study, we investigated whether integrin-specific biomaterials modulate the effects of VEGF on bone regeneration. We engineered protease-degradable, VEGF-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels functionalized with either a triple-helical, α2 β1 integrin-specific peptide GGYGGGP(GPP)5 GFOGER(GPP)5 GPC (GFOGER) or an αv β3 integrin-targeting peptide GRGDSPC (RGD). Covalent incorporation of VEGF into the PEG hydrogel allowed for protease degradation-dependent release of the protein while maintaining VEGF bioactivity. When applied to critical-size segmental defects in the murine radius, GFOGER-functionalized VEGF-free hydrogels exhibited significantly increased vascular volume and density and resulted in a larger number of thicker blood vessels compared to RGD-functionalized VEGF-free hydrogels. VEGF-loaded RGD hydrogels increased vascularization compared to VEGF-free RGD hydrogels, but the levels of vascularization for these VEGF-containing RGD hydrogels were similar to those of VEGF-free GFOGER hydrogels. VEGF transiently increased bone regeneration in RGD hydrogels but had no effect at later time points. In GFOGER hydrogels, VEGF did not show an effect on bone regeneration. However, VEGF-free GFOGER hydrogels resulted in increased bone regeneration compared to VEGF-free RGD hydrogels. These findings demonstrate the importance of integrin-specificity in engineering constructs for vascularization and associated bone regeneration.

  20. Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration: a review of ceramics and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect.

  1. Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of a Biomaterial Based on Deproteinized Hydroxyapatite and Endodentine Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupeks Lauris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite is used for bone reconstruction, in order to improve its mechanical properties different substances can be added. In our study new biomaterial is created from deproteinised hydroxyaptite and endodentic cement, its mechanical properties were tested. Material was implanted subcutaneous in rats, then histological and biocompatability tests were performed. Results indicate that stuff has good mechanical properties, short setting time and gradual resorption creating porosity and ability to integrate in bone.

  2. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells repaired but did not prevent gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury through paracrine effects in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A Reis

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs or their conditioned medium (CM on the repair and prevention of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI induced by gentamicin (G. Animals received daily injections of G up to 20 days. On the 10(th day, injections of BMSCs, CM, CM+trypsin, CM+RNase or exosome-like microvesicles extracted from the CM were administered. In the prevention groups, the animals received the BMSCs 24 h before or on the 5(th day of G treatment. Creatinine (Cr, urea (U, FENa and cytokines were quantified. The kidneys were evaluated using hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohystochemistry. The levels of Cr, U and FENa increased during all the periods of G treatment. The BMSC transplantation, its CM or exosome injections inhibited the increase in Cr, U, FENa, necrosis, apoptosis and also increased cell proliferation. The pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokines increased compared to G. When the CM or its exosomes were incubated with RNase (but not trypsin, these effects were blunted. The Y chromosome was not observed in the 24-h prevention group, but it persisted in the kidney for all of the periods analyzed, suggesting that the injury is necessary for the docking and maintenance of BMSCs in the kidney. In conclusion, the BMSCs and CM minimized the G-induced renal damage through paracrine effects, most likely through the RNA carried by the exosome-like microvesicles. The use of the CM from BMSCs can be a potential therapeutic tool for this type of nephrotoxicity, allowing for the avoidance of cell transplantations.

  3. Biomaterials recycling: bioglasses obtained from reuse of hydroxyapatite (HA) bovine bone with term exceeded validity; Reciclagem de biomateriais: biovidros obtidos a partir do reaproveitamento de hidroxiapatita (HA) ossea bovina com prazo de validade excedido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C.; Santos, S.C.; Braga, F.J.C., E-mail: dasilva.ac@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aparecida, A.H. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) is a reference bioceramic for bone replacement and regeneration medical practice, becoming one of the most produced and researched bone graft material. Since it is a material for biomedical application, the manufacture and storage of this bioceramic must comply with severe conservation criteria, and its validity date is the lawful major factor for disposal. Materials with the exceeded expiration date are usually discarded and incinerated, resulting in ash, environmental contamination and energy expenditure. This study evaluates the possibility of reuse of bovine HA collected after its validity date as raw material to obtain bioglass, aiming to natural resources saving and environmental emissions mitigation. 45S5 similar compositions were obtained by melting the materials at 1500 ° C, followed by rapid cooling and annealing thermal treatment (500 ° C for 2h), analytical grade chemical reagents were used to set the final composition. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and hydrolysis resistance techniques. The results of comparative chemical resistance (Hydrolytic) tests indicate the potential use of the materials developed for bone replacement applications. (author)

  4. Implants of polyanionic collagen matrix in bone defects of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues; Santos, Arnaldo Rodrigues; Goissis, Gilberto; Genari, Selma C

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in the development of biomaterials that could be used in the repair of bone defects. Collagen matrix (CM) has the advantage that it can be modified chemically to improve its mechanical properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three-dimensional membranes of native or anionic (submitted to alkaline treatment for 48 or 96 h) collagen matrix on the consolidation of osteoporosis bone fractures resulting from the gonadal hormone alterations caused by ovariectomy in rats subjected to hormone replacement therapy. The animals received the implants 4 months after ovariectomy and were sacrificed 8 weeks after implantation of the membranes into 4-mm wide bone defects created in the distal third of the femur with a surgical bur. Macroscopic analysis revealed the absence of pathological alterations in the implanted areas, suggesting that the material was biocompatible. Microscopic analysis showed a lower amount of bone ingrowth in the areas receiving the native membrane compared to the bone defects filled with the anionic membranes. In ovariectomized animals receiving anionic membranes, a delay in bone regeneration was observed mainly in animals not subjected to hormone replacement therapy. We conclude that anionic membranes treated with alkaline solution for 48 and 96 h presented better results in terms of bone ingrowth.

  5. Evaluation of Biomaterials Using Micro-Computerized Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torris, A. T. Arun; Columbus, K. C. Soumya; Saaj, U. S.; Nair, Manitha B.; Krishnan, Kalliyana V.

    2008-09-01

    Micro-computed tomography or Micro-CT is a high resolution, non-invasive, x-ray scanning technique that allows precise three-dimensional imaging and quantification of micro-architectural and structural parameters of objects. Tomographic reconstruction is based on a cone-beam convolution-back-projection algorithm. Micro-architectural and structural parameters such as porosity, surface area to volume ratio, interconnectivity, pore size, wall thickness, anisotropy and cross-section area of biomaterials and bio-specimens such as trabecular bone, polymer scaffold, bio-ceramics and dental restorative were evaluated through imaging and computer aided manipulation of the object scan data sets.

  6. A New Method for Xenogeneic Bone Graft Deproteinization: Comparative Study of Radius Defects in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lei

    Full Text Available Deproteinization is an indispensable process for the elimination of antigenicity in xenograft bones. However, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 deproteinized xenograft, which is commonly used to repair bone defect, exhibits limited osteoinduction activity. The present study was designed to develop a new method for deproteinization and compare the osteogenic capacities of new pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones with those of conventional H2O2 deproteinized ones.Bones were deproteinized in H2O2 or pepsin for 8 hours. The morphologies were compared by HE staining. The content of protein and collagen I were measured by the Kjeldahl method and HPLC-MS, respectively. The physical properties were evaluated by SEM and mechanical tests. For in vivo study, X-ray, micro-CT and HE staining were employed to monitor the healing processes of radius defects in rabbit models transplanted with different graft materials.Compared with H2O2 deproteinized bones, no distinct morphological and physical changes were observed. However, pepsin deproteinized bones showed a lower protein content, and a higher collagen content were preserved. In vivo studies showed that pepsin deproteinized bones exhibited better osteogenic performance than H2O2 deproteinized bones, moreover, the quantity and quality of the newly formed bones were improved as indicated by micro-CT analysis. From the results of histological examination, the newly formed bones in the pepsin group were mature bones.Pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones show advantages over conventional H2O2 deproteinized bones with respect to osteogenic capacity; this new method may hold potential clinical value in the development of new biomaterials for bone grafting.

  7. Biomaterials in Canada: the first four decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brash, John L

    2005-12-01

    Biomaterials research in Canada began in the 1960s. Over the past four decades significant contributions have been made across a broad spectrum covering dental, orthopaedic, cardiovascular, neuro, and ocular biomaterials. Canadians have also been active in the derivative area of tissue engineering. Biomaterials laboratories are now established in universities and research institutes from coast to coast, supported mainly by funding from the Federal and Provincial Governments. The Canadian Biomaterials Society was formed in 1971 and has played an important role in the development of the field. The Society played host to the 5th World Biomaterials Congress in Toronto in 1996. The work of Canadian researchers over the past four decades is summarized briefly. It is concluded that biomaterials and tissue engineering is a mature, strong area of research in Canada and appears set to continue as such into the future.

  8. CT-guided bone cement injection combined with artificial tiger bone meal to repair osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures:callus growth and bone healing%CT引导下骨水泥注入辅助人工虎骨粉修复骨质疏松性脊椎压缩性骨折:骨痂生长及骨愈合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵朋; 张燕萍; 曹洪

    2015-01-01

      结果与结论:观察组术后骨痂生长良好,多为Ⅲ级与Ⅳ级患者;显著优于对照组(P OBJECTIVE:To observe calus formation and fracture healing in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures repaired by CT-guided minimaly invasive surgery with bone cement injection and artificial tiger bone meal. METHODS:A total of 85 cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were selected. Patients were randomly divided into observation group (n=43) and control group (n=42). Patients in the observation and control groups respectively received CT-guided minimaly invasive percutaneous vertebroplasty, matching w