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Sample records for bone plates

  1. RELATION OF PLATE STRAIN AND DISTANCE BETWEEN PLATE AND BONE

    OpenAIRE

    Boonthum Wongchai

    2013-01-01

    The Limited Contact Dynamics Compression Plate (LC-DCP) is normally used in bone fractured with the locking screws. The released distance between the LC-DCP and the bone could bring about the convenience of periosteal blood transportation. However the exceeding distance may cause the plate strain reach yield point and make the LC-DCP deform into plastic zone. This research proposes a study of the effect of the distance between the LC-DCP and the bone on the strain in the LC-DCP. The strains a...

  2. Optimisation of composite bone plates for ulnar transverse fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakladar, N D; Harper, L T; Parsons, A J

    2016-04-01

    Metallic bone plates are commonly used for arm bone fractures where conservative treatment (casts) cannot provide adequate support and compression at the fracture site. These plates, made of stainless steel or titanium alloys, tend to shield stress transfer at the fracture site and delay the bone healing rate. This study investigates the feasibility of adopting advanced composite materials to overcome stress shielding effects by optimising the geometry and mechanical properties of the plate to match more closely to the bone. An ulnar transverse fracture is characterised and finite element techniques are employed to investigate the feasibility of a composite-plated fractured bone construct over a stainless steel equivalent. Numerical models of intact and fractured bones are analysed and the mechanical behaviour is found to agree with experimental data. The mechanical properties are tailored to produce an optimised composite plate, offering a 25% reduction in length and a 70% reduction in mass. The optimised design may help to reduce stress shielding and increase bone healing rates. PMID:26875147

  3. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges

  4. Dog Bone Triplet Metamaterial Wave Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Imran; Ng, Ming Wah; Haynes, Vic; Maffei, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially made sub-wavelength structures arranged in periodic arrays. They can be designed to interact with electromagnetic radiation in many different and interesting ways such as allowing radiation to experience a negative refractive index (NRI). We have used this technique to design and build a quasi-optical Half Wave Plate (HWP) that exhibits a large birefringence by virtue of having a positive refractive index in one axis and a NRI in the other. Previous implementations of such NRI-HWP have been narrow band ($\\sim$1-3%) due to the inherent reliance on needing a resonance to create the NRI region. We manufacture a W-band prototype of a novel HWP that uses the Pancharatnam method to extend the bandwidth (up to more than twice) of a usual NRI-HWP. Our simulated and experimentally obtained results despite their differences show that a broadening of a flat region of the phase difference is possible even with the initially steep gradient for a single plate.

  5. Bone resorption around pedicle screws after pedicle screw plate fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency, level, distribution, onset, and pattern of progression of bone resorption that occurring around pedicle screws after pedicle screw plate fixation. Bone resorption around 902 pedicle screws was analyzed in post-operative, and follow-up radiographs obtained from 156 patients who underwent pedicle screw plate fixation. To determine the resorption degree, categorized arbitrarily as grade 1 (less than 1 mm), grade 2 (1mm or more, but less than 2 mm), or grade 3 (2mm or more), the width of radiolucent zones was measured. In 39 patients in whom resorption was graded 1, 2 or 3, the pattern of progression of 78 screws was evaluated. Resorption occurred around 78 (8.6%) screws in 39 (25%) patients, 26 of whom had more than on lesion. For 99% of screws, there was evidance of resorption within 12 weeks of pedicle screw plate fixation. During follow-up, 61.5% of screws (48/78) remained stable, while 38.5% (30 screws) showed progression to higher grades. The possibility of progression to a higher grade is less when the initial grade is lower. An understanding of the radiographic patterns of bone resorption is useful for monitoring a patient after pedicle screw plate fixation

  6. Biomechanics of bone-fracture fixation by stiffness-graded plates in comparison with stainless-steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghista Dhanjoo N

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the internal fixation of fractured bone by means of bone-plates fastened to the bone on its tensile surface, an on-going concern has been the excessive stress-shielding of the bone by the excessively-stiff stainless-steel plate. The compressive stress-shielding at the fracture-interface immediately after fracture-fixation delays callus formation and bone healing. Likewise, the tensile stress-shielding of the layer of the bone underneath the plate can cause osteoporosis and decrease in tensile strength of this layer. Method In order to address this problem, we propose to use stiffness-graded plates. Accordingly, we have computed (by finite-element analysis the stress distribution in the fractured bone fixed by composite plates, whose stiffness is graded both longitudinally and transversely. Results It can be seen that the stiffness-graded composite-plates cause less stress-shielding (as an example: at 50% of the healing stage, stress at the fracture interface is compressive in nature i.e. 0.002 GPa for stainless steel plate whereas stiffness graded plates provides tensile stress of 0.002 GPa. This means that stiffness graded plate is allowing the 50% healed bone to participate in loadings. Stiffness-graded plates are more flexible, and hence permit more bending of the fractured bone. This results in higher compressive stresses induced at the fractured faces accelerate bone-healing. On the other hand, away from the fracture interface the reduced stiffness and elastic modulus of the plate causes the neutral axis of the composite structure to be lowered into the bone resulting in the higher tensile stress in the bone-layer underneath the plate, wherein is conducive to the bone preserving its tensile strength. Conclusion Stiffness graded plates (with in-built variable stiffness are deemed to offer less stress-shielding to the bone, providing higher compressive stress at the fractured interface (to induce accelerated healing as

  7. Fragment reconstruction and bone plate fixation versus bridging plate fixation for treating highly comminuted femoral fractures in dogs: 35 cases (1987-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare fragment reconstruction and bone plate fixation versus bridging plate fixation for treating highly comminuted (> 4 fragments) femoral fractures in dogs. Retrospective study. 35 dogs with highly comminuted fractures of the femur. Medical records of all dogs included in this study were reviewed. Dogs had been treated with fragment reconstruction and bone plate application (n = 20) or major fragment alignment and bridging plate fixation (15). Postoperative and follow-up radiographs were evaluated. Operating and hospitalization times, bone alignment, bone healing, and complications were considered. There were no differences in hospitalization times, limb alignment, and complications between dogs with fractures treated with fragment reconstruction and dogs with fractures treated with bridging plate fixation. Dogs with fractures treated with bridging plate fixation had shorter operative times and faster times to radiographic evidence of bone healing. Bridging plate fixation is quicker to perform and results in faster healing than fragment reconstruction and bone plate fixation when used to treat comminuted femoral fractures

  8. The turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage into bone may be regulated by osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lieke G E; van Rietbergen, B; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2011-06-01

    During endochondral ossification, growth plate cartilage is replaced with bone. Mineralized cartilage matrix is resorbed by osteoclasts, and new bone tissue is formed by osteoblasts. As mineralized cartilage does not contain any cells, it is unclear how this process is regulated. We hypothesize that, in analogy with bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast activity are regulated by osteocytes, in response to mechanical loading. Since the cartilage does not contain osteocytes, this means that cartilage turnover during endochondral ossification would be regulated by the adjacent bone tissue. We investigated this hypothesis with an established computational bone adaptation model. In this model, osteocytes stimulate osteoblastic bone formation in response to the mechanical bone tissue loading. Osteoclasts resorb bone near randomly occurring microcracks that are assumed to block osteocyte signals. We used finite element modeling to evaluate our hypothesis in a 2D-domain representing part of the growth plate and adjacent bone. Cartilage was added at a constant physiological rate to simulate growth. Simulations showed that osteocyte signals from neighboring bone were sufficient for successful cartilage turnover, since equilibrium between cartilage remodeling and growth was obtained. Furthermore, there was good agreement between simulated bone structures and rat tibia histology, and the development of the trabecular architecture resembled that of infant long bones. Additionally, prohibiting osteoclast invasion resulted in thickened mineralized cartilage, similar to observations in a knock-out mouse model. We therefore conclude that it is well possible that osteocytes regulate the turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage. PMID:21546025

  9. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  10. Combination of bone cement filling and plate internal fixation with limb salvage is used for metastatic malignant bone tumors☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jun; Yu Bin; Guo Xin-hui; Yang Peng; Zhang Kai-rui; Zhang Sheng; Cai Wei-bin; Ku Jian-bin; Tian Ling-yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, limb salvage therapy has become the standard treatment of malignant bone tumors way, but improper treatments wil result in tumor recurrence, secondary infection, internal fixation or prosthesis loosening. OBJECTIVE:Based on the traditional surgical principle for metastatic bone tumors of the limbs, this study designed a user-friendly, individualized, simplistic pal iative treatment regimen from the actual conditions of patients to observe the reasonability, clinical efficacy and prognosis of bone cement fil ing combined with internal fixation in the treatment of metastatic malignant bone tumors. METHODS:Thirty-one patients with metastatic malignant bone tumors who required salvage treatment were screened from the Department of Orthopedics, the 421 Hospital of Chinese PLA, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Al the 31 patients were divided into two groups:tumor removal+internal fixation group (non-chemoradiotherapy group, n=11) treated with bone cement fil ing plus plate internal fixation (pal iative treatment);tumor removal+internal fixation+chemoradiotherapy group (chemoradiotherapy group, n=20), treated with radiotherapy before internal fixation plus plate internal fixation with limb salvage. The fol ow-up period was 4-38 months, averagely 18 months. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The fol ow-up results showed that in the non-chemoradiotherapy group, al the 11 patients survived, who could live independently and have good motor functions;in the chemoradiotherapy group, 17 of the 20 patients survived and the rest three patients died of tumor metastasis, their poor conditions and complications at 9 and 13 months after internal fixation. In patients undergoing tumor removal+plate internal fixation with limb salvage, the integrated scores for nerve and motor functions were increased by more than level 1. These findings confirm that a simple pal iative therapy of bone cement fil ing and internal fixation without chemoradiotherapy is

  11. Trabecular Plate Loss and Deteriorating Elastic Modulus of Femoral Trabecular Bone in Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Bin Zhou; Ian Parkinson; C. David L. Thomas; John G. Clement; Nick Fazzalari; X. Edward Guo

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic hip fracture is associated with significant trabecular bone loss, which is typically characterized as low bone density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and altered microstructure by micro-computed tomography (µCT). Emerging morphological analysis techniques, e.g. individual trabecula segmentation (ITS), can provide additional insights into changes in plate-like and rod-like trabeculae, two major micro-structural types serving different roles in determining bone strength. Using ITS, we evaluated trabecular microstructure of intertrochanteric bone cores obtained from 23 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery for intertrochanteric fracture and 22 cadaveric controls. Micro-finite element (µFE) analyses were performed to further understand how the abnormalities seen by ITS might translate into effects on bone strength. ITS analyses revealed that, near fracture site, plate-like trabeculae were seriously depleted in fracture patients, but trabecular rod volume was maintained. Besides, decreased plate area and rod length were observed in fracture patients. Fracture patients also showed decreased elastic moduli and shear moduli of trabecular bone. These results provided evidence that in intertrochanteric hip fracture, preferential loss of plate-like trabeculae led to more rod-like microstructure and deteriorated mechanical competence adjacent to the fracture site, which increased our understanding of the biomechanical pathogenesis of hip fracture in osteoporosis.

  12. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1Δchon cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone

  13. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, Yoshiki [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Fukui Hospital, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakai, Yasuo [Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Bellland General Hospital, 500-3 Higashiyama Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8247 (Japan); Yahara, Yasuhito [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Akiyama, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagito, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hosokawa, Ko [Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsumaki, Noriyuki, E-mail: ntsumaki@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1{sup Δchon} cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.

  14. Experimental study and clinical observation of minimum-contact plate in long bone fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-jian; FEI Jun; WANG Zheng-guo; YU Hong-jun; SUN Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To sutdy the mechanical properties and the clinical results of minimum-contact plate in the treatment of fractures. Methods: Four-point bending and torsion tests were conducted to compare the new minimum contact plate (MCP) with dynamic compression plate (DCP) and limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP). The fracture healing time and growth of bony callus were observed in 29 cases of long bone fracture fixed with MCP to evaluate the advantages of this kind of plate. Results: The 29 patients who underwent MCP were followed up from 6 to 14 months. The average healing time for femoral, tibial and humeral fractures was 12, 13 and 10 weeks, respectively. All fractures were healed. No displacement of fracture, screw pullout, deformation or break of the plate were found. Conclusions: The bending stiffness of MCP is significantly greater than that of DCP and LC-DCP (P<0.05). MCP can protect the periosteal blood supply against avascular osseous necrosis and accelerate bone healing. It is a kind of reliable and effective plate in treatment of fractures.

  15. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of biodegradable bone plates in the treatment of mandibular body fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Kamal Elhalawany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many different systems are available for the treatment of fractures ranging from the heavy compression plates for mandibular reconstruction to low profile plates for mid-facial fixation, and are made either from stainless steel, titanium or vitallium. Recently, biodegradable, self-reinforced polylactide plates and screws have been used for the internal fixation of fractures of the mandible with good results. Aim of this study: This study evaluated clinically the biodegradable bone plates for treatment of mandibular body fracture and to evaluate bone healing during the follow-up period using digital radiography. Materials and Methods : Eight patients had been suffered from mandibular body fractures were treated using Inion CPS TM bioresorbable fixation system and the healing process were followed up using digitised panoramic radiography at first week and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Results: Clinical examination of fractured segments revealed stable fixation across the fracture sites while visual and quantitative assessment of radiograph showed healing process was comparable with results previously reported by titanium bone plates. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures using bioresorbable fixation system with a brief period of inter-maxillary fixation have evolved to the point where the physical properties are sufficient to withstand the post-operative loads required for fracture repair of mandibular body fractures. The foreign body reaction is a major material-related problem which requires further studies.

  16. Degradation behaviour of LAE442-based plate-screw-systems in an in vitro bone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Leonie; Besdo, Silke; Angrisani, Nina; Wriggers, Peter; Hering, Britta; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Reifenrath, Janin

    2015-04-01

    The use of absorbable implant materials for fixation after bone fracture helps to avoid a second surgery for implant removal and the risks and costs involved. Magnesium (Mg) is well known as a potential metallic material for degradable implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate if degradable LAE442-based magnesium plate-screw-systems are suitable candidates for osteosynthesis implants in load-bearing bones. The corrosion behaviour was tested concerning the influence of different surface treatments, coatings and screw torques. Steel plates and screws of the same size served as control. Plates without special treatment screwed on up to a specified torque of 15cNm or 7cNm, NaOH treated plates (15cNm), magnesium fluoride coated plates (15cNm) and steel plates as control (15cNm) were examined in pH-buffered, temperature-controlled SBF solution for two weeks. The experimental results indicate that the LAE442 plates and screws coated with magnesium fluoride revealed a lower hydrogen evolution in SBF solution as well as a lower weight loss and volume decrease in μ-computed tomography (μCT). The nanoindentation and SEM/EDX measurements at several plate areas showed no significant differences. Summarized, the different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour differently. Also the NaOH treatment seemed to have no essential influence on the degradation kinetics. The plates coated with magnesium fluoride showed a decreased corrosion rate. Hence, it is recommended to consider this coating for the next in vivo study. PMID:25686954

  17. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  18. A new bone-ligament-bone autograft from the plantar plates of the toes and its potential use in scapholunate reconstruction: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Miriam; Reik, Milena; Sauerbier, Michael; Germann, Günter

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to investigate a new bone-ligament-bone autograft from the plantar plate of the toes. The anatomic properties of the plantar ligaments and the technical feasibility to harvest a bone-ligament-bone graft were examined to evaluate the potential use of this graft for a suitable reconstruction of the scapholunate (SL) interosseous ligament. The plantar plate of the metatarsophalangeal joints of the second to fifth toe and the proximal interphalangeal joints of the second to fourth toe were examined in 20 cadaver feet (15 fresh and 5 embalmed cadavers) and measurements such as length, thickness, and width were taken. The average length of the plantar ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal joint was 0.63 cm (D3) and 0.62 cm (D4). The length of the plantar plates of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the third and fourth toe was found to be similar to that of the SL ligament. In addition to the measurements, a bone-ligament-bone autograft of the plantar plates of the metatarsophalangeal joint was designed as an SL-ligament substitute and successfully transplanted into cadaveric wrists. This new autograft is intercalated between the scaphoid and lunate and, contrary to all previous methods, not simply superimposed upon them. Length of the plantar plates was considered by the authors as the main criteria for selection of the new bone-ligament-bone graft. The plantar plate of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the third and fourth toe showed a similar length compared with the SL ligament. Therefore, it can be concluded from the data that this bone-ligament-bone graft can be a suitable replacement for the SL ligament. PMID:18812722

  19. Outcome of diaphyseal forearm fracture-nonunions treated by autologous bone grafting and compression plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertoni Walter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of forearm fracture-nonunions continues to represent a therapeutic challenge, and reported outcomes are moderate at best. Limiting aspects of this particular anatomic location include the relation between restoration of shaft length with the anatomy and long-term functional outcome of adjacent joints, as well as the risk of elbow and wrist stiffness related to prolonged immobilization. The present study was designed to assess the outcome of autologous bone grafting with compression plating and early functional rehabilitation in patients with forearm fracture non-unions. Methods Prospective follow-up study in 31 consecutive patients presenting with non-unions of the forearm diaphysis (radius, n = 11; ulna, n = 9; both bones, n = 11. Surgical revision was performed by restoring anatomic forearm length by autologous bone grafting of the resected non-union from the iliac crest and compression plating using a 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate (DCP or limited-contact DCP (LC-DCP. The main outcome parameters consisted of radiographic bony union and functional outcome, as determined by the criteria defined by Harald Tscherne in 1978. Patients were routinely followed on a short term between 6 weeks to 6 months, with an average long-term follow-up of 3.6 years (range 2 to 6 years. Results Radiographically, a bony union was achieved in 30/31 patients within a mean time of 3.5 months of revision surgery (range 2 to 5 months. Clinically, 29/31 patients showed a good functional outcome, according to the Tscherne criteria, and 26/31 patients were able to resume their previous work. Two postoperative infections occurred, and one patient developed a persistent infected nonunion. No case of postoperative failure of fixation was seen in the entire cohort. Conclusion Revision osteosynthesis of forearm nonunions by autologous iliac crest bone grafting and compression plating represents a safe and efficacious modality for the

  20. Use of a bone plate for treatment of middle phalangeal fractures in horses: seven cases (1979-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four adult horses and 3 foals with middle phalangeal fractures were treated by arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, using a bone plate. Six of the 7 horses survived greater than 2 years; 2 of the 6 horses had intermittent lameness after hard work, and 4 horses didn't have evidence of lameness. The use of a bone plate for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint was a successful treatment alternative for middle phalangeal fractures in horses

  1. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Li, Jidong; Zhu, Qingmao; Guo, Shuquan; Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Weichao; Wu, Jun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF) composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery. PMID:24669191

  2. Biomechanical analysis of a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy bone fracture plate shows less stress shielding compared to a standard clinical metal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Bougherara, Habiba; Aziz, Mina S R; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Femur fracture at the tip of a total hip replacement (THR), commonly known as Vancouver B1 fracture, is mainly treated using rigid metallic bone plates which may result in "stress shielding" leading to bone resorption and implant loosening. To minimize stress shielding, a new carbon fiber (CF)/Flax/Epoxy composite plate has been developed and biomechanically compared to a standard clinical metal plate. For fatigue tests, experiments were done using six artificial femurs cyclically loaded through the femoral head in axial compression for four stages: Stage 1 (intact), stage 2 (after THR insertion), stage 3 (after plate fixation of a simulated Vancouver B1 femoral midshaft fracture gap), and stage 4 (after fracture gap healing). For fracture fixation, one group was fitted with the new CF/Flax/Epoxy plate (n = 3), whereas another group was repaired with a standard clinical metal plate (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) (n = 3). In addition to axial stiffness measurements, infrared thermography technique was used to capture the femur and plate surface stresses during the testing. Moreover, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the composite plate's axial stiffness and surface stress field. Experimental results showed that the CF/Flax/Epoxy plated femur had comparable axial stiffness (fractured = 645 ± 67 N/mm; healed = 1731 ± 109 N/mm) to the metal-plated femur (fractured = 658 ± 69 N/mm; healed = 1751 ± 39 N/mm) (p = 1.00). However, the bone beneath the CF/Flax/Epoxy plate was the only area that had a significantly higher average surface stress (fractured = 2.10 ± 0.66 MPa; healed = 1.89 ± 0.39 MPa) compared to bone beneath the metal plate (fractured = 1.18 ± 0.93 MPa; healed = 0.71 ± 0.24 MPa) (p FEA bone surface stresses yielded peak of 13 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 1), 16 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 2), 85 MPa for composite and 129 MPa for metal-plated

  3. EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF BRIDGE PLATING IN COMMINUT ED FRACTURES OF LONG BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kr.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Osteosynthesis with open reduction technique in comm inuted fracture has several disadvantages like increase ra te of non-union, soft tissue problem, infection and implant failure. These problems may be overcome b y percutaneous bridge plating technique which preserve the vascularity and soft ti ssue attachment of fracture fragments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients were involve in this study . Al l of twenty- five patients with closed comminuted diaphyseal fract ures of femur (n-10 and tibia (n-15 were operated on using the principle indirect reductio n and biological fixation with bridge plate under image intensifier. Partial and full weight be aring were allowed according to clinical and radiological union. RESULTS: Most regained excellent range of motion of knee and ankle. Mean time of radiological union was 20.12 weeks. Two pati ents had superficial skin problem which healed with local wound care. One patient had non un ion which was healed by bone grafting. In this study excellent result was seen in 18 cases, g ood in five and fair in two patients. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that minimally invasive bridge plating is an effective alternative for treatment of comminuted diaphyseal f racture of long bones. These complex fractures give complete recovery of normal limb func tion at an ear ly stage with less complication.

  4. The effects of stress- relaxation plate on disorganization and repair of regional bone structure: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of stress-relaxation plate on disorganization and repair of the cortex beneath the plate. Methods: A washer made of viscoelastic polyethylene was placed between the screw and the screw hole of conventional stainless rigid plate (RP) to produce a stressrelaxation plate (SRP). Both SRP and RP were applied to osteotomized tibia in 48 New Zealand rabbits. Healing process of the fracture with either SRP or RP fixation (control) was comparatively studied with polarized light microscopy, in situ hybridization of collagen mRNA and immunohistochemical technique from 2 to 36 weeks postoperatively. Results: The study of plated bone remodeling showed that the degree of cortex osteoporosis beneath the plate was similar between the SRP and RP group within 12 weeks postoperatively. In comparison, the disorganization of bone structure in SRP group happened later and milder than that of RP group, and the repair process began at 12 weeks after implantation. As a consequence, the absorption cavities became smaller and the structure of collagen fibers became well oriented along with these changes by polarized light microscopy. In addition to these, the in situ hybridization analysis of collagen genes and the immunohistochemical study of type Ⅰ , Ⅲ collagen showed that the osteoblasts lying on the surface of absorption cavities expressed and synthesized type Ⅰ collagen at 8 to 12 weeks after implantation. From this time on, the changes above became more evident significantly before most of cavities were repaired by 36 weeks. In contrast to the changes in the SRP group, no expression and synthesis of any kind of collagen could be observed during 12 to 36 weeks after implantation in RP group. Conclusions: Without removal of the bone plate, the SRP fixation not only reduces the degree of plated bone osteoporosis, but also makes the disorganized bone structure restored to normal in terms of the expression and synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen mRNA of

  5. Dose variation at bone/titanium interfaces using titanium hollow screw osseointegrating reconstruction plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate dose variations at bone/titanium interfaces in an experimental model designed to simulate postoperative radiotherapy in patients with mandibular reconstructions using a titanium hollow-screw osseointegrating reconstruction plate (THORP) system. Materials and Methods: The model consisted of a 25 x 25 x 10 mm3 block of fresh bovine femoral diaphysis, to the surface of which a segment of THORP system reconstruction plate was fixed by means of a solid titanium screw 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. Using specially designed thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) 2 mm in diameter and 0.13 mm in thickness, dose measurements were carried out at four distances from the screw axis (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 1 mm). 60Co and 6-MV photon beams were used at incidences both perpendicular and parallel ('axial') to the screw axis. Results: For 6-MV X-ray beams incident perpendicular to the screw axis, the maximum dose enhancement (due to backscatter) and the maximum dose reduction (due to attenuation) at the bone/titanium interface were 5% (± 2%) and 6% (± 2%), respectively. The corresponding values for 60Co beams were 6% (± 5%) and 10% (± 5%). For the axial incidences, a maximum dose enhancement of 5-7% was noted for both 6-MV X-rays and 60Co for beams incident on the surface containing the THORP plate segment, whereas beams incident on the opposite surface induced only a very small dose enhancement (2-3%). Conclusion: Using a new experimental model, TLD measurements showed only marginally significant dose variations at bone/titanium interfaces around THORP screws, all measured values being very close to the uncertainty limits (± 5%) associated with the method. For both 60Co and 6-MV beams, dose variations appeared smaller for axial than for perpendicular incidences. Because photon beams used in head and neck cancer treatment are most often directed parallel to the screw axes, these results suggest that failures of prosthetic osseointegration are unlikely to be

  6. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bo Qiao,1 Jidong Li,2 Qingmao Zhu,1 Shuquan Guo,1 Xiaotong Qi,1 Weichao Li,1 Jun Wu,1 Yang Liu,3 Dianming Jiang1 1Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery. Keywords: nano

  7. Volumetric topological analysis: a novel method for trabecular bone characterization on the continuum between plates and rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Punam K.; Xu, Yan; Liang, Guoyuan; Duan, Hong

    2009-02-01

    Trabecular bone (TB) is a complex quasi-random network of interconnected struts and plates. TB constantly remodels to adapt dynamically to the stresses to which it is subjected (Wolff's Law). In osteoporosis, this dynamic equilibrium between bone formation and resorption is perturbed, leading to bone loss and structural deterioration, both increasing fracture risk. Bone's mechanical competence can only be partly explained by variations in bone mineral density, which led to the notion of bone structural quality. Previously, we developed digital topological analysis or DTA which classifies plates, rods, profiles, edges and junctions in a TB skeletal representation. Although the method has become quite popular, a major limitation is that DTA produces hard classifications only, failing to distinguish between narrow and wide plates. Here, we present a new method called volumetric topological analysis or VTA for quantification of regional topology in complex quasi-random TB networks. At each TB voxel, the method uniquely classifies the topology on the continuum between perfect plates and rods. Therefore, the method is capable of detecting early alterations of trabeculae from plates to rods according to the known etiology of osteoporotic bone loss. Here, novel ideas of geodesic distance transform, geodesic scale and feature propagation have been introduced and combined with DTA and fuzzy distance transform methods conceiving the new VTA technology. The method has been applied to MDCT and μCT images of a cadaveric distal tibia specimen and the results have been quantitatively evaluated. Specifically, intra- and inter-modality reproducibility of the method has been examined and the results are found very promising.

  8. Magnetic Resonance-Guided Growth Plate Bone Bridge Resection at 0.23 Tesla: Report of a Novel Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Sequeiros, R.; Vaehaesarja, V.; Ojala, R. (Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Div., and Dept. of Pediatrics, Pediatric Surgery Division, Oulu Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    Background: Growth plate or physeal cartilage trauma may result in delayed or immediate failure of growth due to bone bridge formation at the insult site. With computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the role of imaging has expanded from diagnosis to treatment planning and therapy guidance. Purpose: To describe a technique for MR-guided growth plate bone bridge resection and to evaluate feasibility of the procedure. Material and Methods: Three consecutive patients with growth plate bone bridges were treated surgically under MR guidance. All bridges were detected with prior MRI and radiographs. All patients were referred to procedure due to growth plate bridge associated growth anomaly and pertaining clinical symptoms. The effect of the treatment was evaluated after 48 months with a clinical follow-up. Results: All bridges were successfully detected, marked, and removed under MRI guidance. All patients had relief from their symptoms. Two patients had lasting results from the operation with no further operative treatment needed or scheduled at 48 months from primary treatment. There was one clinical failure, with the patient requiring repeated osteotomies. Conclusion: We have successfully implemented a novel therapy for growth plate bridge resection

  9. The effect of supplementation of a glutamine precursor on the growth plate, articular cartilage and cancellous bone in fundectomy-induced osteopenic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Prost, Łukasz; Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Muszyński, Siemowit; Blicharski, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) supplementation (a precursor of glutamine and hydroxyproline, the most abundant amino acid of collagen) on cartilage and bone in pigs after fundectomy. Pigs at the age of forty days were subjected to fundectomy and divided into two groups depending on 2-Ox supplementation (at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg of body weight). Other pigs were sham operated. Pigs were euthanized at the age of eight months. An analysis of the morphometry of trabeculae, growth plate and articular cartilage in fundectomy-induced osteopenic bone was performed. Moreover, the levels of expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteoprotegerin in trabecular bone and osteocalcin in articular cartilage were evaluated. Articular cartilage was thinnest in fundectomized pigs and thickest in 2-Ox-supplemented animals after fundectomy. Moreover, 2-Ox supplementation after fundectomy enhanced the total thickness of the growth plate and trabeculae in fundectomized pigs. The most evident signal for osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin in trabecular bone was in sham-operated and 2-Ox-supplemented pigs; a low reaction was observed in the fundectomized group. Additionally, as a long-term postoperative consequence, a change was observed in the expression of osteocalcin in articular cartilage. It seems that 2-Ox is suitable for use in preventing the negative effects of fundectomy on cancellous bone and cartilage. PMID:26725871

  10. Comparing the In Vitro Stiffness of Straight-DCP, Wave-DCP, and LCP Bone Plates for Femoral Osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariolani, José Ricardo Lenzi; Belangero, William Dias

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) with the more cost-effective straight-dynamic compression plate (DCP) and wave-DCPs by testing in vitro the effects of plate stiffness on different types of diaphyseal femur fractures (A, B, and C, according to AO classification). The bending structural stiffness of each plate was obtained from four-point bending tests according to ASTM F382-99(2008). The plate systems were tested by applying compression/bending in different osteosynthesis simulation models using wooden rods to simulate the fractured bone fragments. Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference in the bending structural stiffness between the three plate models. Rank-transformed two-way ANOVA showed significant influence of plate type, fracture type, and interaction plate versus fracture on the stiffness of the montages. The straight-DCP produced the most stable model for types B and C fractures, which makes its use advantageous for complex nonosteoporotic fractures that require minimizing focal mobility, whereas no difference was found for type A fracture. Our results indicated that DCPs, in straight or wave form, can provide adequate biomechanical properties for fixing diaphyseal femoral fractures in cases where more modern osteosynthesis systems are cost restrictive. PMID:24959354

  11. How do changes to plate thickness, length, and face-connectivity affect femoral cancellous bone's density and surface area? An investigation using regular cellular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I A; Carman, J B

    2000-03-01

    Models of regular cellular-solids representing femoral head 'medial group' bone were used to (1) compare thickness data for plate-like and beam-like structures at realistic surface areas and densities; (2) test the validity of a standard formula for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th); and (3) study how systematic changes in cancellous bone thicknesses, spacing, and face-connectivity affect relative density and surface area. Models of different face-connectivities, produced by plate removal from the unit cell, were fitted to bone density and surface area data. The medial group bone was anisotropic: the supero-inferior (SI) direction was the principal direction for bone plate alignment and the plane normal to this had the largest number of bone/void intersections per unit line length (P(I)). A comparison of boundary perimeter per unit area data, in planes normal to SI, with surface area data placed the medial group bone between prismatic structures in which walls are parallel to one principal direction and isotropic structures. Selective removal of plates from a closed-cell model produced a similar result. For the same relative density and surface-area, plate-like models had significantly thinner cross-sections than beam-like models. The formula for Tb.Th produced overestimates of model plate thickness by up to 20% at realistic femoral cancellous densities. Trends in data on surface area to volume ratio and density observed on sampled medial group bone could be simulated by plate thickness changes on models of intermediate face-connectivity (approximately 1.5) or by plate removal from models with relatively thick and short (low aspect-ratio) plates. The latter mechanism is unrealistic for it resulted in beam-like structures at low 'medial group' densities, an architecture unlike the predominantly plate-like bone in the sample. PMID:10673116

  12. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao B; Li JD; Zhu QM; Guo SQ; Qi XT; Li WC; Wu J; Liu Y; Jiang DM

    2014-01-01

    Bo Qiao,1 Jidong Li,2 Qingmao Zhu,1 Shuquan Guo,1 Xiaotong Qi,1 Weichao Li,1 Jun Wu,1 Yang Liu,3 Dianming Jiang1 1Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: An ideal bone plate for interna...

  13. Exchanging reamed nailing versus augmentative compression plating with autogenous bone grafting for aseptic femoral shaft nonunion: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-ying, Ru; Yun-fei, Niu; Yu, Cong; Wen-bo, Kang; Hai-bin, Cang; Jian-ning, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of exchanging reamed nailing (ERN) and augmentative compression plating (ACP) with autogenous bone grafting (BG) for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to the treatment of intramedullary nailing (IMN).Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed for 178 patients (180 cases) of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to first treatment of IMN. All cases were fixed with either ERN (n=87) or ACP ...

  14. Biomechanical optimization of a custom-made positioning and fixing bone plate for Le Fort I osteotomy by finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Fu; Lo, Lun-Jou; Lin, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates image-processing, finite element (FE) analysis, optimization and CAM techniques to develop a bone plate that can provide precise positioning and fixation for the Le Fort I osteotomy. Two FE 3D models using commercial mini-plate and continuous bone plates were generated by integrating computed tomography images and CAD system for simulations under the worst load condition. The goal driven optimization method was used to examine the system performance using certain minimum output values for relative micro-movement between the two maxillary bone segments and stress for the bone plate to seek maximum reduction volume in a continuous plate. The simulation results indicated that the maximum stress/relative micro-movement was 1269.20MPa/133.66μm and 418.37MPa/92.37μm for the commercial straight mini-plate and continuous fixation types, respectively. The optimal design plate found the volume reduction rate reach 24.3% compared to the continuous bone plate and the decreased variations in stress/relative micro-movement were 65.14% (442.36MPa) and 29.36% (96.53μm) when compared to values obtained from the commercial mini-plate plate. The optimal bone plate can be manufactured using a 5-axes milling machine and fixed onto the freed separate maxillary segments of a rapid prototyping model to provide precise positioning/fixation and present adequate strength/stability in the Le Fort I osteotomy. PMID:26609803

  15. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature of......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through the...

  16. Deterioration of trabecular plate-rod and cortical microarchitecture and reduced bone stiffness at distal radius and tibia in postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhou, Bin; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Yu, Y Eric; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2016-07-01

    Postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures have abnormal bone microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT, independent of areal BMD. However, whether trabecular plate and rod microarchitecture is altered in women with vertebral fractures is unknown. This study aims to characterize the abnormalities of trabecular plate and rod microarchitecture, cortex, and bone stiffness in postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures. HR-pQCT images of distal radius and tibia were acquired from 45 women with vertebral fractures and 45 control subjects without fractures. Trabecular and cortical compartments were separated by an automatic segmentation algorithm and subjected to individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis for measuring trabecular plate and rod morphology and cortical bone evaluation for measuring cortical thickness and porosity, respectively. Whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness were estimated by finite element analysis. Fracture and control subjects did not differ according to age, race, body mass index, osteoporosis risk factors, or medication use. Women with vertebral fractures had thinner cortices, and larger trabecular area compared to the control group. By ITS analysis, fracture subjects had fewer trabecular plates, less axially aligned trabeculae and less trabecular connectivity at both the radius and the tibia. Fewer trabecular rods were observed at the radius. Whole bone stiffness and trabecular bone stiffness were 18% and 22% lower in women with vertebral fractures at the radius, and 19% and 16% lower at the tibia, compared with controls. The estimated failure load of the radius and tibia were also reduced in the fracture subjects by 13% and 14%, respectively. In summary, postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures had both trabecular and cortical microstructural deterioration at the peripheral skeleton, with a preferential loss of trabecular plates and cortical thinning. These microstructural deficits translated into lower

  17. Expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Growth Plate Cartilage and the Impact of Its Local Modulation on Longitudinal Bone Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Cedervall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although dioxin has been reported to impair bone growth in both humans and animals, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. We conducted this study to rule out if dioxin may directly target the growth plate, via local modulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. Initial studies in rare tissue samples of the human growth plate confirmed that the AhR protein is widely expressed in growth plate cartilage. To explore the local role of the AhR, mechanistic studies were performed in a well-established model of cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones. The longitudinal growth of these bones was monitored while being exposed to AhR modulators. The AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, did not affect bone growth at any concentrations tested (1 pM–10 nM. In contrast, the AhR antagonist, alpha-naphthoflavone, suppressed bone growth and increased chondrocyte apoptosis, although only at a high, potentially cytotoxic concentration (50 µM. We conclude that although the AhR is widely expressed in the growth plate, bone growth is not modulated when locally activated, and therefore, dioxin-induced growth failure is likely mediated through systemic rather than local actions.

  18. Comparison of circummandibular wiring with resorbable bone plates in pediatric mandibular fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Saikrishna, D.; Gupta, Nimish

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric patients present a unique challenge to maxillofacial surgeons in terms of their treatment planning as well as in their functional and nutritional needs which are different from that of adult patients. Early literature has advocated conservative closed management of pediatric fractures to prevent complications. However recent advances in maxillofacial surgery has enabled us to use biodegradable plates and screws, which overcomes the limitations of metallic plates. We present a compar...

  19. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 ∼ 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic

  20. Autologous grafts of double-strut fibular cortical bone plate to treat the fractures and defects of distal femur: a case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xu; LI Jian-jun; KONG Zhan; YANG Dong-xiang; YUAN Xiang-nan

    2011-01-01

    We reported a 23-year-old man who was involved in a high-speed motorcycle accident. He sustained a closed fracture at the right distal femur. The primary fracture happened on February 2008. He underwent open reduction and internal fixation with cloverleaf plate. And one hundred days after the surgery, the proximal screws were pulled-out, but the bone union was not achieved. Treat ment consisted of exchanging the cloverleaf plate with a locking compression plate and using an auto-iliac bone graft to fill the nonunion gap. In July 2009, the patient had a sharp pain in the right lower limb. The X-ray revealed that the plate implanted last year was broken, causing a nonunion at the fracture site. Immediately the plate and screws were removed and an intramedullary nail was inserted reversely from the distal femur as well as a 7 cm long bone from the right fibula was extracted and longitudinally split into two pieces to construct cortical bone plates. Then we placed them laterally and medially to fracture site, drilled two holes respectively, and fastened them with suture. We carried on auto-iliac bone grafting with the nonunion bone grafts. The follow-up at 15 months after operation showed that the treatment was successful, X-ray confirmed that there was no rotation and no angular or short deformity. We briefly reviewed the literature regarding such an unusual presentation and discussed in details the possible etiology and the advantages of autologous double-strut fibular grafts to cope with such an intractable situation.

  1. BOHLER'S ANGLE: CORRELATION WITH OUTCOME IN DISPLACED INTRA-ARTICULAR CALCANEAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE FIXATION WITH AND WITHOUT BONE GRAFTING

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak P; Eknath D; Vijayanand; Satish

    2014-01-01

    BOHLER'S ANGLE: correlation with outcome in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures Treated with locking compression Plate Fixation with and without bone grafting. AIMS: The aim is an accurate reduction of the fracture with reconstruction of Bohler’s angle, length and axis and sub talar joint surface. To determine whether autologous bone graft supplementation is beneficial in achieving and maintaining restoration of Calcaneal height and anatomic reduction. SETTINGS AND ...

  2. Analysis of elements in the soft tissue covering titanium plates and screws for internal bone fixation by the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We made a comparative study of the elements in the periosteum on titanium plates and screws for internal bone fixation, normal periosteum, and oral mucosa by the PIXE method. We studied 11 patients, 4 men and 7 women, with mandibular fracture or facial deformity. The implanted time length of the materials in the body was 5 to 16 months. The analyzed samples were 11 periostea on the materials, 11 normal periostea and 4 oral mucosae. The results were as follows. Twenty- four essential and 11 contaminated elements were detected in the periostea on the materials as well as in the normal periostea and the oral mucosae. In the mean values of titanium and aluminum, there were significantly higher values in the periostea on the materials than in the normal periostea. The mean concentration values of the other elements did not differ significantly between that in the periostea on the materials and that in the normal periostea. The concentration of titanium in the periostea on the materials was not correlated with sex, age of the patients, or the implanted time length. However, there was a significantly higher titanium concentration value in tile periostea on the plates than on the screws. Our results could indicate that the existence of a titanium element in the periostea on the materials was caused by its dissolution from the materials. (author)

  3. The treatment of femoral bone loss by axial external fixation and susbequent locking plate application: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Emanuele; Mogollo, Maria del Amparo Paredes

    2015-12-01

    A 20-year-old man was admitted to our hospital having sustianed bilateral high-energy femoral fractures. The right femoral fracture was an open grade 3B with OTA grade 3 bone loss. The patient had also a brain contusion with a subdural haematoma and a closed fracture of the left clavicle. Initial management included temporarily stabilisation of the femoral fractures wth external fixators and prompt transfer to the intensive care unit. Three weeks later the external fixator of the right femur was converted to an hybrid system, and the fixator of the left side was removed and a reamed intramedullary locking nail was applied. Two months after the accident the patient underwent bone transport (11 cm long) of the right femur with an monolateral external fixation. When the final length was achieved there were knee stiffness (ROM 0° to 30°) and non-union of the docking site. Therefore, the patient underwent a Judet's procedure to treat the knee stiffness and stabilisation of the non united femur with a locking plate (LISS). After the operation the patient started progressive weight bearing. A year after trauma and following union of the femur, the patient underwent soft tissue reconstruction of the anterior side of the thigh with a free vascularised flap. At final follow upo the patient had a good functional recovery with return to his previous occupation. PMID:26738458

  4. Comparison of porous titanium-surfaced and standard smooth-surfaced bone plates and screws in an unstable fracture model in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral mid shaft femoral osteotomies were fixed with a 3-mm fracture gap in 6 dogs. In each dog, one femur was fixed with a porous titanium-surfaced bone plate and screws, whereas the opposite femur was fixed with a standard smooth-surfaced bone plate and screws. The mean removal torque for porous titanium-surfaced screws (32.3 kg X cm) was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than the mean removal torque for standard screws (4.4 kg X cm). Osseous tissue ingrowth into the surface of porous titanium-surfaced screws was verified by histologic examination of the bone-screw interface. Radiographic and histologic examinations of the osteotomy gaps showed accelerated primary gap healing in osteotomies fixed with porous titanium-coated implants, compared with slower callus healing seen in osteotomies fixed with standard smooth-surfaced implants

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRA OSSEOUS WIRING, MINIPLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS AND RECONSTRUCTION PLATE WITH BONE GRAFT IN THE METHOD OF TREATMENT FOR MANDIBULAR FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asok Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mandible or lower jaw is one of the most commonly encountered maxillo facial fractures in our clinical practice. Un - displaced, single and closed fractures are usually managed by closed method with maxillo - mandibular fixation (MMF. Displaced open and multiple fractures are treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF. Displaced, open and multiple fractures are treated by ORIF by various methods like intraosseus wiring, miniplate osteosynthesis an d reconstruction plate with bone graft. Present study is done to evaluate these three methods of ORIF and their post - operative outcome. Our study material comprises 72 cases of isolated mandibular fracture of adult patient. All these patients are treated b y ORIF by either of the three above methods. These patients are divided into three groups. Group A includes 18 cases treated by intra osseous wiring and post - operative maxillo mandibular immobilization for 4 weeks. Group B includes 38 cases treated with si ngle or double miniplate and no post - operative immobilization. Group C includes 11 cases treated by reconstruction plate with bone graft along with miniplate in patients having bone loss or gap fractures. The surgical outcome based on parameters such as ma locclusion, intra oral exposure of plate, wound dehiscence, delayed union, plate fracture, non - union and sensory deficit are compared at 4 - 6 weeks after operation among the three groups and patients are followed up every three months interval. The results are statistically analysed and it is concluded that the use of miniplate gives better result in comparison to intra osseous wiring. In cases of bone loss or gap fracture reconstruction plate and bone graft along with miniplate are effective

  6. Osteosynthesis with plate of under contact (LC DCP) in long bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 98 patients were evaluated to who are carried out osteosynthesis with plates of under contact in the hospital military of Bogota, between January of 1996 and January of the 2002, with diagnostic of open fractures, fracture closed and pseudoarthrosis that committed the humerus, the cube and the radius, the metacarpal, the femur and the tibia. Of the total, 67,3% corresponded to open fractures and 32,7% they were closed fractures; as for its origin, 54,1% was hurt by firearm, 28,6% for accident rail car and 17,3% for direct trauma. The segment more affected it was the forearm with 43 cases. In the open fractures the cultivation was positive in 11,2%. The average of surgical washed was of 3,2. 110 plates were placed in 98 patients. In 58% one carries out boarding of the fracture focus, and in 41,8% limited boarding. The pursuit average was of 28,2 months. It was not any difference statistically significant between the boarding type and the time of consolidation. It doesn't present osteomyelitis neither septic loosening in the patient's treaties

  7. BOHLER'S ANGLE: CORRELATION WITH OUTCOME IN DISPLACED INTRA-ARTICULAR CALCANEAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE FIXATION WITH AND WITHOUT BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BOHLER'S ANGLE: correlation with outcome in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures Treated with locking compression Plate Fixation with and without bone grafting. AIMS: The aim is an accurate reduction of the fracture with reconstruction of Bohler’s angle, length and axis and sub talar joint surface. To determine whether autologous bone graft supplementation is beneficial in achieving and maintaining restoration of Calcaneal height and anatomic reduction. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Level 1 trauma center, Prospective, randomized. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Consecutive 46 patients who had fracture calcaneum were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by locking plate with and without bone graft during the period from November 2009 to April 2012. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: AOFAS-Ankle-Hind foot Scale, t Test. RESULTS: Fewer complications and statistically significant better results related to treatment with locking plates with bone grafting confirmed in comparison to without bone grafting ones were noted for intra-articular calcaneal fractures. In Group A the mean time for union was 10.39wks. The results were good and excellent in 86.95%, 8.69 % had fair result and 4.34% had poor results. In Group B the mean time for union was 11.95 wks. The overall results were good and excellent in 73.91%, 13.04 % had fair result and 13.04 % had poor results. CONCLUSIONS: The operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures could restore Böhler's angle better and the patient could return to full weight bearing earlier. We confirmed that autologous bone graft supplementation is beneficial in achieving and maintaining restoration of calcaneal height and anatomic reduction.

  8. Computational modelling of long bone fractures fixed with locking plates - How can the risk of implant failure be reduced?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassiri, M

    2013-03-01

    The Locking Compression Plate (LCP) is part of a new plate generation requiring an adapted surgical technique and new thinking about commonly used concepts of internal fixation using plates. Knowledge of the fixation stability provided by these new plates is very limited and clarification is still necessary to determine how the mechanical stability and the risk of implant failure can best be controlled.

  9. The use of a resorbable augmentation device to secure plating of osteoporotic bones : An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    P Mainil-Varlet; Cordey, J.; Landolt, M.; Gogolewski, S

    1997-01-01

    Osteotomies in porotic human cadaveric humeri were fixed with metallic plates and screws in 3 experimental groups. In group I, osteotomies of the 3 arbitrarily chosen humeri were plated without reinforcement. The osteotomies of the contralateral 3 humeri were plated after reinforcement with a poly(L-lactide) augmentation device. In group II, osteotomies on one side were plated without reinforcement, but those of the contralateral humeri were plated after reinforcement ...

  10. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  11. Difference in canal encroachment by the fusion mass between anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with bone autograft and anterior plating, and stand-alone cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Eon; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Chi Heon

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized study comparing stand-alone cage and bone autograft and plate implants in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01011569). Our interim analysis showed autologous bone graft with plating was superior to a stand-alone cage for segmental lordosis. During this analysis, we noted a difference in canal encroachment by the fusion mass between the two fusion groups. A narrow cervical spinal canal is an important factor in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, therefore this unexpected potential risk of spinal cord compression necessitated another interim analysis to investigate whether there was a difference in canal encroachment by the fusion mass between the two groups. Patients had a minimum 1year of follow-up. The Neck Disability Index, neck and arm pain Visual Analog Scales and lateral radiographs, including bone fusion patterns, were evaluated. Twenty-seven (16 males, 11 females, mean age 54.8years) and 31 (24 males, seven females, mean age 54.5years) patients were in the cage and plate group, respectively. Both groups improved after surgery. Fusion began at 2.6months and 1.3months and finished at 6.7months and 4.0months in 24 (88.9%) and 28 (90.3%) patients in the cage and plate group, respectively. Encroachment into the spinal canal by the fusion mass was significantly different between the fusion types, occuring in 21 (77.8%) patients in the cage group versus six (19.4%) in the plate group (p=0.003). There was a high incidence of spinal canal encroachment by the fusion mass in the stand-alone cage group, possibly limiting use in narrow spinal canals. PMID:27234609

  12. Accuracy of fibular sectioning and insertion into a rapid-prototyped bone plate, for mandibular reconstruction using CAD-CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Marchetti, Claudio; Mazzoni, Simona; Baldissara, Paolo; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Cipriani, Riccardo; Scotti, Roberto; Tarsitano, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Modern techniques of mandibular reconstruction, such as CAD-CAM technology and rapid prototyping, offer new means by which reconstructive surgery can be planned to optimise aesthetic outcomes and prosthetic rehabilitation. The high degree of accuracy afforded by these approaches is principally attributable to high-precision fibular sectioning and insertion of the bone into a customised bone plate. CAD-CAM mandibular reconstruction procedures using vascularised bone free-flap transfers were performed on 10 patients with benign or malignant neoplasms. Five were not treated with the aid of CAD-CAM technology, and served as the control group. Five were scheduled for maxillofacial surgery using surgical cutting guides and customised bone plates. A generalised linear model for linear measures was used to compare the accuracy of reconstruction between the two groups. A difference, even though not significant, in the lateral shift of the mesial and distal positions of the fibular units was evident between groups. CAD-CAM-generated fibular surgical guides afford improved accuracy when used to restore native anatomy, especially in the context of mandibular arch restoration, and both operating room time and related costs are reduced during fibular sectioning. PMID:25434288

  13. Comparing the In Vitro Stiffness of Straight-DCP, Wave-DCP, and LCP Bone Plates for Femoral Osteosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Lenzi Mariolani; William Dias Belangero

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) with the more cost-effective straight-dynamic compression plate (DCP) and wave-DCPs by testing in vitro the effects of plate stiffness on different types of diaphyseal femur fractures (A, B, and C, according to AO classification). The bending structural stiffness of each plate was obtained from four-point bending tests according to ASTM F382-99(2008). The plate systems were tested by applying compression/bending in...

  14. Inherent Strength of the osteo-WEDGE(™) Bone Plate Locking System for Arthrodesis of the First Metatarsocuneiform Joint: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael E; Chikka, Avanthi; Goel, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    First metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodesis with a locking bone plate and screw system has been effectively used to correct metatarsus primus varus and instability of the first ray. The goal of the present cadaveric biomechanical study was to quantify and compare the inherent strength of the first metatarsocuneiform joint and surrounding bones fixated with the osteo-WEDGE(™) bone plate locking system (OW) with that of intact specimens. Fourteen fresh-frozen adult human cadaveric foot specimens consisting of the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform bones with intact joint capsules and ligaments were used. The OW was implanted in 7 of these specimens at the first metatarsal cuneiform joint (MCJ), and the remaining 7 specimens were left intact. Each of the specimens was then subjected to axial force to simulate dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal using a cantilever bending test setup. Load was applied on the plantar aspect of the first metatarsal head until failure of the construct. The mean load and bending moment on the first MCJ at failure for the implanted specimens were 119.98 ± 56.76 N and 5.57 ± 2.71 Nm, respectively. For the intact specimens, the mean load and bending moment on the first MCJ at failure were 107.93 ± 60.90 N and 6.07 ± 3.18 Nm, respectively. None of the specimens showed catastrophic failure within the physiologic loading limits. These results imply that the mechanical strength of the OW is comparable to that of intact specimens. Thus, the first MCJ and surrounding bones fixated with an OW should be able to effectively withstand the vertical ground reaction forces the same as intact specimens. PMID:26884262

  15. Effect of nicotine and preventive role of camellia sinensis on the histomorphology of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea) on the developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Army medical college, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2012 to May 2012. Material and Method: Freshly laid fertilized eggs of Fayoumi breed chick eggs were selected at zero hour of incubation. Four groups were made, group G1 was control group treated with normal saline. Experimental group G2 was treated with camellia sinensis extract (green tea), group G3 was given nicotine whereas group G4 was injected with working solution nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea), in 0.1 ml quantity. Double exposure one at 48 hour of incubation and other at 48 hours after hatching of chicks. SPSS version 15 was used to analyze the data. Results: It was observed that the weight of chick at one month of age and weight of femur of chicks of nicotine treated groups G3 and group G4 were reduced in comparison to control group G1. Mean number of cells in hypertrophy zone of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone were reduced of nicotine treated groups in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Camellia sinensis (green tea) helped to reduce the harmful effects of nicotine treated group but cannot reverse the oxidative injury. (author)

  16. Correção de falhas ósseas diafisárias: trasnporte ósseo fixado com placa Corretive procedure in diaphyseal bone gaps: bone trasnpot fixated with plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Hermínio Ferraz Picado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever um novo sistema de transporte ósseo que dispensa o uso de fios transfixantes. O sistema, constituído por uma placa, um carro móvel e por um dispositivo tracionador, foi instalado na tíbia direita de 17 ovelhas para preencher um defeito ósseo de 1 cm. O transporte ósseo foi iniciado 7 dias após a cirurgia numa taxa de 0,8 mm/dia, dividido em 0,2 mm a cada 6 horas. Radiografias em ântero-posterior e perfil foram realizadas imediatamente após a cirurgia e semanalmente até o término do transporte. Em todos os 12 animais que completaram o estudo, o defeito ósseo foi preenchido com formação do regenerado e consolidação do foco alvo. O estudo demonstra que o sistema aqui apresentado realiza o transporte ósseo de maneira efetiva, eliminando o uso de fios ou pinos transfixantes.The objective of this study is to describe a new bone transport system not requiring the use of transfixating wires. The system, which is constituted by a plate, a movable conveyor and a hauling device, was set up on the right tibia of 17 sheep intending to fill a 1-cm bone gap. Bone transport started 7 days after surgery on a rate of 0.8 mm/day, divided into 0.2 mm at each 6 hours. X-ray images of anteroposterior and lateral planes were taken immediately after surgery and on a weekly basis until transport was finished. In all 12 animals completing the study, the bone gap was filled with regenerated formation and target focus consolidation. The study shows that the system presented here effectively performs bone transport, eliminating the use of transfixating wires or pins.

  17. IGF-I Signaling in Osterix-Expressing Cells Regulates Secondary Ossification Center Formation, Growth Plate Maturation, and Metaphyseal Formation During Postnatal Bone Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmei; Menendez, Alicia; Fong, Chak; ElAlieh, Hashem Z; Kubota, Takuo; Long, Roger; Bikle, Daniel D

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the role of IGF-I signaling in osterix (OSX)-expressing cells in the skeleton, we generated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) knockout mice ((OSX)IGF-IRKO) (floxed-IGF-IR mice × OSX promoter-driven GFP-labeled cre-recombinase [(OSX)GFPcre]), and monitored postnatal bone development. At day 2 after birth (P2), (OSX)GFP-cre was highly expressed in the osteoblasts in the bone surface of the metaphysis and in the prehypertrophic chondrocytes (PHCs) and inner layer of perichondral cells (IPCs). From P7, (OSX)GFP-cre was highly expressed in PHCs, IPCs, cartilage canals (CCs), and osteoblasts (OBs) in the epiphyseal secondary ossification center (SOC), but was only slightly expressed in the OBs in the metaphysis. Compared with the control mice, the IPC proliferation was decreased in the (OSX)IGF-IRKOs. In these mice, fewer IPCs invaded into the cartilage, resulting in delayed formation of the CC and SOC. Immunohistochemistry indicated a reduction of vessel number and lower expression of VEGF and ephrin B2 in the IPCs and SOC of (OSX)IGF-IRKOs. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of the matrix degradation markers, MMP-9, 13 and 14, were decreased in the (OSX)IGF-IRKOs compared with the controls. The (OSX)IGF-IRKO also showed irregular morphology of the growth plate and less trabecular bone in the tibia and femur from P7 to 7 weeks, accompanied by decreased chondrocyte proliferation, altered chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased osteoblast differentiation. Our data indicate that during postnatal bone development, IGF-I signaling in OSX-expressing IPCs promotes IPC proliferation and cartilage matrix degradation and increases ephrin B2 production to stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and vascularization. These processes are required for normal CC formation in the establishment of the SOC. Moreover, IGF-I signaling in the OSX-expressing PHC is required for growth plate maturation and osteoblast differentiation in

  18. In vitro experiment of the modular orthopedic plate based on Nitinol, used for human radius bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Hacman, L; Copiluş, C; Berceanu, C

    2010-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) and in particular Ni-Ti alloys are commonly used in bioengineering applications as they join important qualities as resistance to corrosion, biocompatibility, fatigue resistance, MR compatibility, kink resistance with two unique thermo-mechanical behaviors: the shape memory effect and the pseudoelastic effect. They allow Ni-Ti devices to undergo large mechanically induced deformations and then to recover the original shape by thermal loading or simply by mechanical unloading. Diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna present specific problems not encountered in the treatment of fractures of the shafts of other long bones. The adaptive modular implants based on smart materials represent a superior solution in the osteosynthesis of the fractured bones over the conventional implants known so far. To realize the model of the implant module we used SolidWorks software. The small sizes of the modules enable the surgeon to make small incisions, using surgical techniques minimally invasive, having the following advantages: reduction of soft tissues destruction; eliminating intra-operator infections; reduction of blood losses; the reduction of infection risk; the reduction of the healing time. Numerical simulations of the virtual modular implant are realized using Visual Nastran software. The stress diagrams, the displacements diagram and the strain diagram are obtained. An in vitro experiment is made, simulating the osteosynthesis of a transverse diaphyseal fracture of human radius bone. The kinematical parameters diagrams of the staple are obtained, using SIMI Motion video capture system. The experimental diagram force-displacement is obtained. PMID:20495750

  19. Influence of screw holes and gamma sterilization on properties of phosphate glass fiber-reinforced composite bone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Harper, Lee; Scotchford, Colin A; Scammell, Brigitte E; Rudd, Chris D

    2013-05-01

    Polymers prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) have found a multitude of uses as medical devices. For a material that degrades, the main advantage is that an implant would not necessitate a second surgical event for removal. In this study, fibers produced from a quaternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) in the system 50P2O5-40CaO-5Na2O-5Fe2O3 were used to reinforce PLA polymer. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of screw holes in a range of PBG-reinforced PLA composites with varying fiber layup and volume fraction. The flexural properties obtained showed that the strength and modulus values increased with increasing fiber volume fraction; from 96 MPa to 320 MPa for strength and between 4 GPa and 24 GPa for modulus. Furthermore, utilizing a larger number of thinner unidirectional (UD) fiber prepreg layers provided a significant increase in mechanical properties, which was attributed to enhanced wet out and thus better fiber dispersion during production. The effect of gamma sterilization via flexural tests showed no statistically significant difference between the sterilized and nonsterilized samples, with the exception of the modulus values for samples with screw holes. Degradation profiles revealed that samples with screw holes degraded faster than those without screw holes due to an increased surface area for the plates with screw holes in PBS up to 30 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed fiber pullout before and after degradation. Compared with various fiber impregnation samples, with 25% volume fraction, 8 thinner unidirectional prepreg stacked samples had the shortest fiber pull-out lengths in comparison to the other samples investigated. PMID:22207606

  20. Development of a Titanium Plate for Mandibular Angle Fractures with a Bone Defect in the Lower Border: Finite Element Analysis and Mechanical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rangel Goulart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop a plate to treat mandibular angle fractures using the finite element method and mechanical testing. Material and Methods: A three-dimensional model of a fractured mandible was generated using Rhinoceros 4.0 software. The models were exported to ANSYS®, in which a static application of displacement (3 mm was performed in the first molar region. Three groups were assessed according to the method of internal fixation (2 mm system: two non-locking plates; two locking plates and a new design locking plate. The computational model was transferred to an in vitro experiment with polyurethane mandibles. Each group contained five samples and was subjected to a linear loading test in a universal testing machine. Results: A balanced distribution of stress was associated with the new plate design. This plate modified the mechanical behavior of the fractured region, with less displacement between the fractured segments. In the mechanical test, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater resistance to the 3 mm displacement, with a statistically significant difference when compared with the new plate group (ANOVA, P = 0.016. Conclusions: The new plate exhibited a more balanced distribution of stress. However, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater mechanical resistance.

  1. A laboratory investigation to assess the influence of cement augmentation of screw and plate fixation in a simulation of distal femoral fracture of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, D; Lange, J H; Schulze, M; Gehweiler, D; Kösters, C; Raschke, M J

    2013-10-01

    The augmentation of fixation with bone cement is increasingly being used in the treatment of severe osteoporotic fractures. We investigated the influence of bone quality on the mechanics of augmentation of plate fixation in a distal femoral fracture model (AO 33 A3 type). Eight osteoporotic and eight non-osteoporotic femoral models were randomly assigned to either an augmented or a non-augmented group. Fixation was performed using a locking compression plate. In the augmented group additionally 1 ml of bone cement was injected into the screw hole before insertion of the screw. Biomechanical testing was performed in axial sinusoidal loading. Augmentation significantly reduced the cut-out distance in the osteoporotic models by about 67% (non-augmented mean 0.30 mm (sd 0.08) vs augmented 0.13 mm (sd 0.06); p = 0.017). There was no statistical reduction in this distance following augmentation in the non-osteoporotic models (non-augmented mean 0.15 mm (sd 0.02) vs augmented 0.15 mm (sd 0.07); p = 0.915). In the osteoporotic models, augmentation significantly increased stability (p = 0.017). PMID:24078541

  2. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or muscular imbalance are prone to growth plate fractures, especially at the ankle and knee. Children who are born with insensitivity to pain ... arm bone) near the elbow. Type V: Compression Fracture Through Growth ... to occur at the knee or ankle. Prognosis is poor, since premature stunting ...

  3. 急性骨损伤金属钢板置入的生物力学分析%Biomechanical analysis of metal plate implantation for acute bone injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永强

    2012-01-01

    背景:体育运动及日常生活中骨受暴力损伤较为常见,金属材料在对受损骨进行固定和重建中得到了普遍运用,而金属钢板的生物力学性能对骨的稳定性和血供等产生较大影响,进而影响康复效果.目的:对骨金属材料的材料学性质和种类以及临床应用情况进行概述,着重以骨金属钢板材料的生物力学特征为视角,对其临床治疗效果进行阐述与分析.方法:应用计算机检索PubMed、维普和万方数据库中1980-01/2011-09关于骨损伤治疗及其金属材料学方面的文章,在标题和摘要中以"骨,医用,金属,材料"或"bone,medical,metal,materials"为检索词进行检索.选择文章内容与骨治疗措施及金属材料学相关,同一领域文献则选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志文章.初检得到276篇文献,根据纳入标准选择24篇文章进行综述.结果与结论:经过长期的研究和临床筛选,在临床治疗中得到广泛应用的生物医学金属材料主要有医用不锈钢、医用钴基合金、医用钛和钛合金、医用形状记忆合金和医用磁性合金等.文章从材料学性质对植入体的力学影响,螺钉数量对骨钢板的力学影响,骨锁定钢板与普通钢板的力学性能,材料的植入方式对钢板力学的影响,材料的形状对钢板力学的影响等方面进行了分析.金属材料自身的性质、锻造工艺以及临床植入方式等方面的因素,对其临床生物力学性能和治疗效果起到较大的影响.%BACKGROUND: Bone injury caused by violence is common in daily life and sports, metal materials have been widely utilized in the fixation and reconstruction of the damaged bone, while the biomechanical properties of metal plate greatly affect the on the bone stability and blood supply, thereby affecting the recovery.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the properties, type and clinical applicati ons of bone metal materials, to summarize and analyze clinical effects with

  4. The effect of intrauterine exposure to tetracycline on the population of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate of long bones in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypertrophic chondrocytes is one factor that determines the size of growth plates. Tetracycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic is known to result in limb shortening following prenatal exposure in mice. The effects of 12mg/kg body weight of tetracycline on the size and number of hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate of mice was investigated in the study. Oral tetracycline at 12mg/kg body weight was administered to pregnant mice between 11th and 15th day of gestation. The foetuses were harvested on the 20th day of gestation. The humeri of the foetuses were fixed in formal saline and histological slides were made using Toluidine blue as the stain. Measurements were made with the use of a micrometer. No gross anomaly or significant growth retardation was revealed. However, a significant reduction of humeral length was observed (T-cal=7.359, P>0.05) with associated significant cell depletion, particularly in the distal growth plate. There is however, no significant difference in the cell population in the proximal growth plate and the cellular density of both proximal and distal plates. At the aforementioned dose, tetracycline does not appear to cause any significant growth retardation or foetal anomaly. However, it causes a cell-depleting effect particularly on the distal growth plate. This shows that the cell depleting effect of tetracycline is anatomical site dependent. (author)

  5. Anterior cervical locking plate combined with bone graft for cervical vertebral fractures%颈前路带锁钢板联合植骨手术治疗颈椎骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家明

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨和评价颈前路带锁钢板联合钛网植骨治疗颈椎损伤的应用价值。方法自2003年6月至2009年5月经住院手术的13例颈椎骨折的患者行颈椎前路椎体次全切除术减压,同时带锁钢板内固定联合钛网植骨或自体髂骨植骨融合。结果全部病例得到随访,平均18个月,内固定牢靠无松脱,植骨融合,椎体高度无丢失。结论颈前路带锁钢板联合钛网植骨可即刻恢复节段高度,重建节段稳定性,手术操作简单,并发症少,解决了颈椎损伤重建的难题。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical locking plate combined with bone graft for cervical vertebral fractures. Methods Totally 13 patients with cervical vertebral fracture hospitalized from June 2003 to May 2009 were treated with internal fixation of steel plate combined with fusion of titanium mesh or iliac bone autograft after the resection of anterior cervical vertebra. Results All cases were followed up for an average of 18 months. The internal fixation was stable, the bone graft fusion was well and the height of vertebra body was close to normal. Conclusion The operation can be used to recover the height and stability of vertebra body. It is an easy operation with few complications and it is conducive to the reconstruction of injured cervical vertebra.

  6. The effect of permanent grafting materials on the preservation of the buccal bone plate after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the dog.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bashara, Haitham

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bone substitute system (Natix(®)), consisting of porous titanium granules (PTG) and a bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss(®)), on hard tissue remodelling following their placement into fresh extraction sockets in dogs.

  7. ANTI-SYNCHRONIZATION OF PAN AND LIU CHAOTIC SYSTEMS BY ACTIVE NONLINEAR CONTROLNATURAL FIBER BONE PLATES-A WORLDWIDE PATENT SEARCH REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. D. CHANDRAMOHAN,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This invention concentrates on the biomaterials progress in the field of orthopaedics. An effort to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on bio epoxy resin and natural fibers such as Agave sisalana; Musa sepientum; Hibiscus sabdariffa and its application in bone grafting substitutes.

  8. ANTI-SYNCHRONIZATION OF PAN AND LIU CHAOTIC SYSTEMS BY ACTIVE NONLINEAR CONTROLNATURAL FIBER BONE PLATES-A WORLDWIDE PATENT SEARCH REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    D.CHANDRAMOHAN,; Dr.K.MARIMUTHU

    2011-01-01

    This invention concentrates on the biomaterials progress in the field of orthopaedics. An effort to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on bio epoxy resin and natural fibers such as Agave sisalana; Musa sepientum; Hibiscus sabdariffa and its application in bone grafting substitutes.

  9. Linear signal hyperintensity adjacent to the subchondral bone plate at the knee on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences: imaging aspects and association with structural lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Balaj, Clemence [CHU Hopital Central, Service D' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Universite de Lorraine, IADI, UMR S 947, Nancy (France); Marie, Beatrice [CHU Hopital Central, Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Nancy (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Blum, Alain [CHU Hopital Central, Service D' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Braun, Marc [CHU Hopital Central, Service de Neuroradiologie, Nancy (France)

    2014-11-15

    To describe the association between linear T2 signal abnormalities in the subchondral bone and structural knee lesions. MR studies of patients referred for the evaluation of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated and 133 of these patients presented bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) (study group) and while 61 did not (control group). The presence of linear anomalies of the subchondral bone on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences was evaluated. The findings were correlated to the presence of structural knee lesions and to the duration of the patient's symptoms. Histologic analysis of a cadaveric specimen was used for anatomic correlation. Linear T2 hyperintensities at the subchondral bone were present in 41 % of patients with BMEP. None of the patients in the control group presented this sign. When a subchondral linear hyperintensity was present, the prevalence of radial or root tears was high and that of horizontal tears was low (71.4 and 4.8 %, respectively). Sixty-nine percent of the patients with a subchondral insufficiency fracture presented a subchondral linear hyperintensity. It was significantly more prevalent in patients with acute or sub-acute symptoms (p < 0.0001). The studied linear T2 hyperintensity is located at the subchondral spongiosa and can be secondary to local or distant joint injuries. Its presence should evoke acute and sub-acute knee injuries. This sign is closely related to subchondral insufficiency fractures and meniscal tears with a compromise in meniscal function. (orig.)

  10. Linear signal hyperintensity adjacent to the subchondral bone plate at the knee on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences: imaging aspects and association with structural lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the association between linear T2 signal abnormalities in the subchondral bone and structural knee lesions. MR studies of patients referred for the evaluation of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated and 133 of these patients presented bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) (study group) and while 61 did not (control group). The presence of linear anomalies of the subchondral bone on T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences was evaluated. The findings were correlated to the presence of structural knee lesions and to the duration of the patient's symptoms. Histologic analysis of a cadaveric specimen was used for anatomic correlation. Linear T2 hyperintensities at the subchondral bone were present in 41 % of patients with BMEP. None of the patients in the control group presented this sign. When a subchondral linear hyperintensity was present, the prevalence of radial or root tears was high and that of horizontal tears was low (71.4 and 4.8 %, respectively). Sixty-nine percent of the patients with a subchondral insufficiency fracture presented a subchondral linear hyperintensity. It was significantly more prevalent in patients with acute or sub-acute symptoms (p < 0.0001). The studied linear T2 hyperintensity is located at the subchondral spongiosa and can be secondary to local or distant joint injuries. Its presence should evoke acute and sub-acute knee injuries. This sign is closely related to subchondral insufficiency fractures and meniscal tears with a compromise in meniscal function. (orig.)

  11. 应用肱骨近端锁定钢板治疗肱骨外科颈骨折%Locking proximal humerus bone plate application for treatment of the proximal humeral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 洪云飞; 康智; 杜志军; 廖宏伟; 王续鹏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative effects of locking proximal humerus bone plate (LPHP) in the treatment of proximal humerrus fractures. Methods Fifteen cases of the proximal humeral fractures were treated with the LPHP. According to Neer elassification, 3 cases were with 2-part fracture, 9 with 3-part fracture, 3 with 4-part fracture. Results All patients were followed up from 7 months to 11 months after operation. By using the Neer score to evaluate the function, the clinical result was excellent in 4 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 5 eases. Conclusions Locking proximal humerus bone plate application for treatment of the proximal humeral factures is good internal fixation way, it is absolutely reliable and the functional rehabilitation are satisfied.%目的 探讨肱骨近端锁定钢板治疗肱骨外科颈骨折的效果.方法 应用肱骨近端锁定钢板治疗肱骨外科颈骨折15例,其中Neer分类二部分骨折3例,三部分骨折9例,四部分骨折3例.结果 术后所有患者随访7~15个月,以Neer评分评估其功能,优4例,良9例,可2例.结论 肱骨近端锁定钢板治疗肱骨外科颈骨折疗效可靠,功能恢复好,是治疗肱骨外科颈移位骨折的一种较好的内固定方法.

  12. Histomorphometric study of diazinon on growth plate of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiye Bazmi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Diazinon leads to reduction in the Epiphyseal growth plate width of immature male rats. Therefore it could be a factor in the impairment of bone longitudinal growth and premature closure of the growth plate.

  13. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  14. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  15. Comparison of interface contact profiles of a new minimum contact locking compression plate and the limited contact dynamic compression plate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yan; Zhao, Yu Feng; Xing, Shu Xing; Du, Quan Yin; Sun, Hong Zhen; Wang, Zi Ming; Wu, Si Yu; Wang, Ai Min

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether or not a new minimum contact locking compression plate (MC-LCP) can provide advantages over the limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) in the context of interface contact area and force. Six matched pairs of cadaveric bones were used for each of three bone types of the humerus, radius and ulna. For each bone type, one of two bone plates was fixed to either of two matched cadaveric bones at the middle of the diaphysis. The interface contact ar...

  16. Building of the animal model of bone bridge resection in rabbits after making the center epiphyseal plate defects%兔中心型骺板缺损后骨桥切除的动物模型建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余黎; 余国荣; 张克勇; 张桃根; 陶圣祥

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立兔的股骨远端中心型骺板缺损后骨桥切除的动物模型,并对骨桥切除后的效果进行评价.方法 选用日本大耳白兔10只,观察β-TCP与骨组织相容性及对骨桥生长影响.另取30只日本大耳白兔,分为A组(β -TCP标记+骨桥切除+脂肪填塞)、B组(β-TCP标记+骨桥切除)、C组(单纯缺损),每组10只,评价β -TCP标记,导针引导的方法切除骨桥的手术效果.结果 β-TCP置入后组织相容性良好,对骺板缺损后股骨畸形的程度没有影响(P>0.05);标记侧股骨长度(85.29 ±4.73) mm,外翻角度(12.35 ±2.53)°;未标记侧分别为(84.34 ±2.76) mm,(12.52±3.26)°.通过β-TCP标记,导针引导的方法可完整切除骨桥.运用脂肪筋膜瓣填塞骨桥切除后的缺损,可减轻股骨畸形的程度(P<0.01).A、B、C组的股骨短缩程度分别为(4.20±1.36)、(10.26±3.31)、(6.52±1.62) mm;外翻角的差异分别为(12.00±2.11)°、(23.47±4.06)°、(18.38±10.65)°.结论 通过β-TCP标记,导针引导的方法可建立兔股骨远端中心型骺板缺损后骨桥切除的标准动物模型.%Objective To build the animal model of bone bridge resection in rabbits after making the center epiphyseal plate defects of distal femur and to evaluate the effectiveness of bone bridge resection.Methods The histocompatibility of β3-TCP and its impact on the growth of bone bridge were observed in 10 Japanese white rabbits.The other 30 Japanese white rabbits were divided into three groups ( n =10 for each):Group A ( β-TCP marker,bone bridge resection and fat filling),Group B ( β-TCP marker and bone bridge resection) and Group C (simple defect).The effect of bone bridge resection by the marker of β-TCP and the guidance of guide pin was evaluated.Results β-TCP had good biocompatibility after implantation and did not affect the degree of femoral deformity (P > 0.05).The average length of marked side' s femur was ( 85.29 ± 4.73 ) mm and the average valgus

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Arthritis X- ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  19. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Mandibular Bone Regenerated By Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Zapata, Uriel; Zakhary, Ibrahim; Nagy, William W; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structure and material properties of native mandibular bone and those of early regenerate bone, produced by bone transport distraction osteogenesis. Ten adult foxhounds were divided into two groups of five animals each. In all animals, a 3- to 4-cm defect was created on one side of the mandible. A bone transport reconstruction plate, consisting of a reconstruction plate with an attached intraoral transport unit, was utilized to stabilize the mandi...

  20. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  1. Comparative study of safety and efficacy of electrocautery blade with cold scalpel blade for skin opening during fixation of fracture of forearm bone with plate and screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Madhukar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The art of performing surgeries have improved in recent years with the development of various electrosurgical devices assisting surgeons in performing safer surgeries with better outcomes. Skin incision has traditionally been made with a standard scalpel blade with good primary healing end results of the wound. The electrocautery has been used safely in performing deeper dissections. Use of electrocautery in skin incision has been discouraged in the past for the fear of cutaneous scarring, wound dehiscence, and infections particularly in orthopedic surgeries using internal implants. A review of the literature shows not many studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of electrocautery in skin incisions during orthopedic surgeries using internal implants. Aim: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital with the aim to determine whether an electrocautery blade can be used safely for skin incisions. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patients with single-bone fracture of the forearm undergoing open reduction and internal fixation received one-half of the incision with a standard scalpel blade and another half with electrocautery in pure cutting mode randomly. Analysis: Wounds were compared on operating day for any physical changes and on days 3, 5, and 12, and again on 3 rd and 6 weeks follow-up to know any difference in skin healing between the incised wounds of the two halves. Results: No evidence of any difference in healing of the two halves of skin incision was noted. There was also no increased risk of wound scarring, dehiscence, or infection with electrocautery incision when compared with standard scalpel incision. The time taken for skin incision with electrocautery was significantly less when compared with cold scalpel incision. Conclusion: We propose that electrocautery can be safely used for performing skin incision, with comparable results to that of a standard scalpel skin incision.

  2. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    and ocean floor lie. The plates are in continuous motion at a speed of few centimeters per year over the asthenosphere, which is highly viscous, easily deformable layer between upper and lower mantle. The relative motion between the plates produces new... the newly generated magma, the solidified part of the older magma moves away from the ridge axes. This process is known as seafloor spreading. At subduction zones the old oceanic lithosphere is consumed in the asthenosphere to accommodate the newly...

  3. Effect observation of application with vertebral spinous process bone plate in PLF operation for thoracic and lumbar spine bone fractures%患椎棘突骨板在胸腰椎脊柱骨折PLF手术中应用的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉龙; 洪建明; 吴军; 刘敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to compare the clinical curative effect of different source of bone graft in posterior pedicle screw fixation and posterolateral fusion (PLF) surgery for thoracic and lumbar spine bone fractures. Methods Sixty-five cases of patients with thoracic and lumbar spine bone fracture were randomly divided into 3 groups, and all were treated with PLF surgery. Group A ( n = 20 ) used routine iliac bone graft, group B( n = 21 )used allogeneic bone graft, group C( n = 24 ) suffered from vertebral spinous process bone plate graft. Results The operation time: group A ( 128±25 ) min, group B ( 95±7 )min,group C ( 92±5 ) min; surgery bleeding: group A( 563 ± 135 ) mL, group B ( 351±60 ) mL, group C ( 336±57 ) mL; compared with that in group A, the differences in surgery time and bleeding in group B and group C were significant. Post-operative incisions had primary healing in group A and group C, there were 4 cases of rejection, 2 cases of healing after allogeneic debridement, 2 cases of long-term dressing healing in group B. No death, neurological damage increase and loosening of internal fixation fracture was found in all the groups. There were 7 cases of postoperative pain ( 35% ) in group A, 4 cases of wound pain, effusion ( 19% )in group B, and no side complication was found in group C. The thoracic vertebrae spinous process fusion rate was 95% in both group A and group C, and that of group B was 84%. After 3 months, 6 months, 12 months , the differences in neurological injury by ASIA standard score among the three groups was not significant ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion Vertebral spinous process bone plate graft for thoracic and lumbar spine vertebral spinous process fracture can ensure postoperative bone fusion rate and restore the long-term stability of the spine, it is simple, safe and economic with less injury and complications compared with allograft bone graft and routine iliac bone graft, is an idea worthy of clinical practice of bone

  4. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  5. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  6. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  7. Anterior plate internal fixation and autologous iliac bone graft fusion in the repair of thoracic spinal tuberculosis:bone healing%前路钢板置入内固定与自体髂骨植骨融合修复胸椎结核的骨愈合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 李小峰; 杨渊

    2014-01-01

    focus and achieve a good internal fixation, but this treatment needs to cut the rid. The surgeon discovered in years of clinical practice that distraction of intercostal space without cutting off the ribs could completely remove the focus and achieve fixation and fusion. OBJECTIVE:To explore the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages of anterior plate fixation and autologous bone graft fusion in the repair of thoracic spinal tuberculosis. METHODA total of 30 cases of thoracic spinal tuberculosis were enrol ed. On the base of traditional thoracic spinal anterior surgical approach, the rib was reserved. Anterior distraction device was used to open the ribs for clearance and to move the focus of thoracic spinal tuberculosis. Autologous ilium was obtained and subjected to fusion and anterior plate fixation. Visual Analog Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Frankel grade and Bridwel bone healing rating were used before and after treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A total of 30 patients were fol owed up for 3-60 months. The bone healing (class A) was seen, but no fistula formation was visible. Nerve compression symptoms were improved, without aggravating cases. Postoperatively, the average Cobb angle correction was 10.32°. After 6 months, imaging revealed bone fusion of affected vertebral body. After 18 months, the vertebral height was not lost obviously, no recurrence of vertebral tuberculosis. These results indicated that anterior intercostal space without cutting ribs exposed clearly, showing a large space, where can meet the requirement of first-stage debridement fixation and fusion in the repair of thoracic tuberculosis. The pathological changes were visibly clear;the focus was thoroughly removed, and the ribs were reserved. The outcomes are identical to rib resection. Simultaneously, autogenous iliac trilateral cortex has good supporting effects. Loose cancellous bone mesh has good osteogenesis and is helpful to bone healing.

  8. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  9. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  10. MINIMALLY INVASIVE PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS (MIPO) IN HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES – BIOMECHANICS – DESIGN – CLINICAL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeevaiah; Praneeth

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Complex periarticular fractures of the long bones are difficult to treat. Classic intramedullary osteosynthesis do not provide a stable fixation , while open reduction and rigid fixation by classic plates ( R ecommended in the 60s - 70s) is requiring large incisions with important deperiostation By the development of new plates (bridging plates, Limited Contact - Dynamic Compression Plate / LC - DCP, Point - Contact fixato...

  11. Ultrasonic propagation in cortical bone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the velocity and attenuation characteristics of ultrasonic waves in cortical bone and bone mimics is important for studies of osteoporosis and fractures. Three complementary approaches have been used to help understand the ultrasound propagation in cortical bone and bone mimics immersed in water, which is used to simulate the surrounding tissue in vivo. The approaches used were Lamb wave propagation analysis, experimental measurement and two-dimensional (2D) finite difference modelling. First, the water loading effects on the free plate Lamb modes in acrylic and human cortical bone plates were examined. This theoretical study revealed that both the S0 and S1 mode velocity curves are significantly changed in acrylic: mode jumping occurs between the S0 and S1 dispersion curves. However, in human cortical bone plates, only the S1 mode curve is significantly altered by water loading, with the S0 mode exhibiting a small deviation from the unloaded curve. The Lamb wave theory predictions for velocity and attenuation were then tested experimentally on acrylic plates using an axial transmission technique. Finally, 2D finite difference numerical simulations of the experimental measurements were performed. The predictions from Lamb wave theory do not correspond to the measured and simulated first arrival signal (FAS) velocity and attenuation results for acrylic and human cortical bone plates obtained using the axial transmission technique, except in very thin plates

  12. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  14. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  15. Design and application of 3D printing guide plate in bone tumor surgery%数字化结合3D打印个体化导板的设计加工及其在骨肿瘤手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付军; 王臻; 郭征; 李靖; 范宏斌; 栗向东; 裴延军; 裴国献

    2015-01-01

    目的 设计数字化结合3D打印个体化导板并应用于骨肿瘤切除重建手术,探讨导板及其设计对手术操作的影响. 方法 选取2012年9月至2014年8月期间适合使用手术导板的35例骨肿瘤患者,男21岁,女14岁;年龄6 ~ 67岁,平均22.7岁.恶性肿瘤14例,良性肿瘤21例.通过计算机完成个体化的手术和导板设计,同时采用3D打印技术进行打印.加工使用的3D打印设备分别包括:熔融沉积造型、光固化立体造型、三维印刷工艺以及选择性激光烧结,材料包括:ABS树脂、光敏树脂、石膏、铝合金.术前完成导板的加工、清洗、低温消毒后,按术前计划应用于术中,术后摄患处X线片或CT扫描验证肿瘤切除及重建情况. 结果 35例患者均顺利完成术前个体化设计和3D打印手术操作.其中采用光敏树脂17例,ABS树脂10例,石膏5例,铝合金3例;导板经骨面31例,经皮肤4例.除3例术中导板断裂患者使用常规方式手术外,其余患者均按术前设计完成肿瘤切除及重建手术,术后X线片或CT均显示肿瘤完整切除,重建位置良好. 结论 数字化结合3D打印个体化导板能够适应骨肿瘤手术的个体化需求,在手术中能够准确还原术前设计;不同3D打印技术加工的导板各具特点,需要在术前设计阶段根据术式、加工方式等不同调整导板设计方案.%Objective To report design and application of a guide plate manufactured by digital and 3D printing technology for excision and reconstruction of bone tumor.Methods From 2012 September to 2014 August,35 patients with bone tumor were chosen to use guide plate in bone tumor surgery at our department.They were 21 males and 14 females,aged from 6 to 67 years old (average,22.7 years).The tumor was malignant in 14 cases and benign in 21 cases.Before operation,all patients underwent thin layer CT scanning in addition to conventional imaging.The data were collected for design of individualized

  16. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  17. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  18. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ...

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of submitted plates! * ... Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can ...

  1. CLINICAL OUTCOMES OF LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE FIXATION THROUGH MINIMALLY INVASIVE PERCUTANEOUS PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS IN THE TREATMENT OF DISTAL TIBIAL FRACTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao; Venkatasesha Reddy; Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distal diametaphyseal tibia fracture though requires operative treatment is difficult to manage. Conventional osteosynthesis is not suitable because distal tibia is subcutaneous bone with poor vascularity. Closed reduction and minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthes is with locking compression plate (LCP) has emerged as an alternative treatment option because it respects biology of distal tibia and fracture hematoma and also provides biomechan...

  2. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  3. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing

  4. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Sonderegger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate. 

  5. Treatment of middle-third clavicle fractures using anterior plating with a dynamic compression plate (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Padmanabhan; Joshi, Meera; Shilston, Sophie; Wallace, Donald; Pearce, Oliver J

    2013-03-01

    Significantly displaced midshaft clavicle fractures can be managed operatively to restore anatomy and allow early mobilization. Several techniques have described using precontoured anatomically designed plates placed on the superior surface of the bone or reconstruction plates contoured by the surgeon placed either superiorly or anteriorly. We describe the use of the dynamic compression plate placed anteriorly on the clavicle in treating these fractures and discuss the relative advantages of this technique. We have a case series of 8 patients over a 2-year period, who were followed up and all went on to successful fracture union. PMID:23423233

  6. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  7. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  8. Mandibular reconstruction using a titanium plate: the impact of radiation therapy on plate preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the soft tissue and bone tolerance of radiation therapy (RT) in patients undergoing radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1994, 47 patients with primary or recurrent oral cavity or oropharyngeal carcinomas were treated with radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Eleven patients received no RT (no RT), 10 patients received RT greater than 10 months from the time of surgery (remote RT), and 26 patients received RT within 12 weeks of surgery (perioperative RT). The radiation dose to the reconstructed mandible ranged from 45 to 75 Gy (median 63 Gy). The effect of the titanium plate on the radiation dose was measured using film dosimetry and soft tissue and bone-equivalent materials. The median follow-up was 17 months (range: 3-50 months). Results: Late complications included four patients with osteomyelitis or necrosis, two plate exposures requiring flap revision, one chronic infection, two cases of chronic pain, two fistulae, and one case of trismus and malocclusion. The crude incidence of late complications by treatment was: (a) no RT: 3 of 11 patients (27%); (b) remote RT: 2 of 10 patients (20%); and (c) perioperative RT: 9 of 26 patients (35%). One patient in the no-RT group lost the plate due to chronic pain. Five patients in the perioperative RT group also had plate loss, four due to osteomyelitis and/or necrosis, and one due to pain related to a recurrent tumor. No patients in the remote RT group had plate loss. The actuarial prosthesis preservation rate at 2 years was 88% for the no RT, 100% for the remote RT, and 57% for the perioperative RT groups (p = 0.05). Phantom dose measurements showed that for parallel opposed 6 MV photon beams, there was no significant increase in the dose proximal or distal to the plate in either a soft tissue- or

  9. Padronização de um método para mensuração das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual dos maxilares na Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico (Cone Beam Methodology standardization for measuring buccal and lingual alveolar bone plates using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cezar Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a espessura das tábuas ósseas que recobrem os dentes por vestibular e lingual constitui um dos fatores limitantes da movimentação dentária. O avanço tecnológico em Imaginologia permitiu avaliar detalhadamente essas regiões anatômicas por meio da utilização da tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC. OBJETIVO: descrever e padronizar, pormenorizadamente, um método para mensuração das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual dos maxilares nas imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. METODOLOGIA: a padronização digital da posição da imagem da face deve constituir o primeiro passo antes da seleção dos cortes de TCFC. Dois cortes axiais de cada maxilar foram empregados para a mensuração da espessura do osso alveolar vestibular e lingual. Utilizou-se como referência a junção cemento-esmalte dos primeiros molares permanentes, tanto na arcada superior quanto na inferior. RESULTADOS: cortes axiais paralelos ao plano palatino foram indicados para avaliação quantitativa do osso alveolar na maxila. Na arcada inferior, os cortes axiais devem ser paralelos ao plano oclusal funcional. CONCLUSÃO: o método descrito apresenta reprodutibilidade para utilização em pesquisas, assim como para a avaliação clínica das repercussões periodontais da movimentação dentária, ao permitir a comparação de imagens pré e pós-tratamento.INTRODUCTION: The thickness of the buccal and lingual bone plates constitutes one of the limiting factors of the orthodontic movement. The imaging technology has permitted the evaluation of this anatomical region, by means of cone beam computed tomography. PURPOSE: To describe and standardize, in details, a method for measuring the buccal and lingual bone plate thickness in CBCT images. METHODOLOGY: Digital standardization of face image should constitute the first step before the selection of CBCT slices. Two axial sections of each jaw were used for measuring the thickness

  10. Single cortical locking plate combined intramedullary nail and bone grafting in the treatment of femoral nonunion with clinical analysis%单皮质锁定钢板联合髓内钉加植骨治疗股骨骨不连临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米宁

    2012-01-01

      目的:观察单皮质锁定板联合髓内钉加植骨治疗股骨骨不连临床疗效并对影响因素加以分析.方法:2008年5月至2012年5月对使用单皮质锁定板联合髓内钉固定加植骨治疗的股骨骨不连患者34例进行回顾性分析.抽取同期单纯使用带锁髓内钉加植骨治疗股骨骨不连29例进行对比分析并进行疗效评定,HSS评分检验膝关节功能恢复情况.结果:所有患者均在4~8个月内获得性骨愈合,两组优良率分别为88.23%和86.02%.术后对患者膝关节功能进行HSS评分两组患者平均(85.14±5.14)和(82.4±4.52).结论:单皮质锁定板联合髓内钉加植骨治疗股骨骨不连效果较好,有利于肢体早期功能恢复,可作为股骨骨不连治疗的一种有效方法.%  Objective:Observation of single cortical locking plate combined with intramedullary nail and bone grafting in the treatment of femoral nonunion with clinical efficacy and influence factors analysis. Methods:2008 May to 2012 May on the use of single cortical locking plate combined with intramedullary nail fixation and bone grafting for the treatment of nonunions of the femur in 34 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Extraction compared with use of interlocking intramedullary nail and bone grafting for the treatment of femoral nonunion in 29 cases were analyzed and the curative effect was studied, HSS score test knee joint function recovery. Results:All patients were in the 4 to 8 months of acquired bone healing, two groups of the excellent and good rate respectively is 88.23% and 86.02%. On postoperative patients with knee joint function of two groups of patients the mean HSS score ( 85.14± 5.14 ) and ( 82.4 ±4.52). Conclusion:Single cortical locking plate combined with intramedullary nail and bone grafting in the treatment of femoral nonunion with good effect, is beneficial to early limbs function recovery of femoral nonunion, can be used as an effective method to treat.

  11. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated microarchitectural, mechanical, collagen and mineral properties of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult and aging cancellous bone, to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth. Twenty-three human...... proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence (9 to 17years, n=6), young adult (18 to 24years, n=9), and adult (25 to 30years, n=8). Twelve cubic cancellous bone samples with dimensions of 8×8×8mm(3) were produced from each tibia, 6 from each medial and......, the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of...

  12. Limb lengthening over plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Yourself Fundraising & Local Events Matching Gift Fundraising Events Donate Stocks Give by ... Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ... with a donation in their name. Give to support a cure. Give Today We Can Help - we- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ... Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: October ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seven simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share ... filled with non-starchy vegetables and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the ...

  2. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  3. Vibration of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraverty, Snehashish

    2008-01-01

    Plates are integral parts of most engineering structures and their vibration analysis is required for safe design. This work provides a comprehensive introduction to vibration theory and analysis of two-dimensional plates. It offers information on vibration problems along with a discussion of various plate geometries and boundary conditions.

  4. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... lives. What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ...

  5. Clinical Observation on Anterior Cervical Decompression and Bone Graft Fusion with Locking Plate Internal Fixation in Treatment of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury without Fracture and Dislocation%颈前路减压植骨融合带锁钛板内固定治疗无骨折脱位型颈脊髓损伤的临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海中

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of anterior cervical decompression and bone graft fusion with locking plate inter-nal fixation in treatment of cervical spinal cord injury without fracture and dislocation (SCIWORA). Methods 60 cases of patients with SCIWORA treated in our hospital from March 2011 to March 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group were given anterior cervical decompression and bone graft treatment, and the observation group were given anterior cervical decompression and bone graft fusion with locking plate internal fixa-tion treatment, both groups were scored by Japan department of orthopedics association (JOA)before and after operation, and the improvement rates of clinical symptoms after operation and the intervertebral fusion rates after half a year of the two groups were evaluated. Results Six months later after operation, the intervertebral fusion rate in the observation group was obviously higher than that in the control group (96.67%vs 80.0%), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), the JOA scores after three months of operation and six months of operation in the observation group were respectively (12.38± 1.69)points and (15.96±2.33)points, which were obviously higher than those in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of anterior cervical decompression and bone graft fusion with locking plate internal fixation in treatment of SCIWORA is definite.%目的 探讨颈前路减压植骨融合带锁钛板内固定治疗无骨折脱位型颈脊髓损伤(SCIWORA)的效果. 方法 整群选取该院2011年3月—2014年3月收治的无骨折脱位型颈脊髓损伤(SCIWORA)患者60例作为研究对象,采用数字随机对照表将患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组行颈前路减压植骨融合术治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加锁钛板内固定治疗,手术前后均行日本骨科协

  6. Clinical Observation on Anterior Cervical Decompression and Bone Graft Fusion with Locking Plate Internal Fixation in Treatment of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury without Fracture and Dislocation%颈前路减压植骨融合带锁钛板内固定治疗无骨折脱位型颈脊髓损伤的临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海中

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨颈前路减压植骨融合带锁钛板内固定治疗无骨折脱位型颈脊髓损伤(SCIWORA)的效果. 方法 整群选取该院2011年3月—2014年3月收治的无骨折脱位型颈脊髓损伤(SCIWORA)患者60例作为研究对象,采用数字随机对照表将患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组行颈前路减压植骨融合术治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加锁钛板内固定治疗,手术前后均行日本骨科协会(JOA)评分,评估两组术后临床症状好转率及半年后植骨融合率.结果 观察组术后半年后植骨融合率为96.67%显著高于对照组80.0%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组术后3、6个月JOA评分分别为(12.38±1.69)分、(15.96±2.33)分均显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 颈前路减压植骨融合带锁钛板内固定治疗SCIWORA疗效确切.%Objective To discuss the effect of anterior cervical decompression and bone graft fusion with locking plate inter-nal fixation in treatment of cervical spinal cord injury without fracture and dislocation (SCIWORA). Methods 60 cases of patients with SCIWORA treated in our hospital from March 2011 to March 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group were given anterior cervical decompression and bone graft treatment, and the observation group were given anterior cervical decompression and bone graft fusion with locking plate internal fixa-tion treatment, both groups were scored by Japan department of orthopedics association (JOA)before and after operation, and the improvement rates of clinical symptoms after operation and the intervertebral fusion rates after half a year of the two groups were evaluated. Results Six months later after operation, the intervertebral fusion rate in the observation group was obviously higher than that in the control group (96.67%vs 80.0%), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), the JOA scores after three

  7. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  8. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  9. Locking compression plate combined with Osteoset bone graft substitute in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture:A follow-up of 22 cases%肱骨近端锁定钢板置入结合Osteoset人工骨治疗肱骨近端骨折随访:22例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 袁同洲; 许诺; 何斌; 范磊; 黄野; 王云华

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screw, Kirschner's tension-band wire, intrameduilary nail and clover plate are Ineffective In the treatment ofproximal humeral fractures and often lead to loosening, rotator cuff injury, blood supply destruction to affect humeral head bloodsupply and shoulder abduction.OBJECTIVE: To observe the curative effect of locking compression plate combined with Osteoset bone graft substitute in ihetreatment of proximal humeral fracture.METHODS: Twenty-two cases of proximal humeral fracture were treated with locking compression plate combined with Osteosetbone graft substitute and the curative effect was evaluated.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Ail cases were followed up for 12-24 months. According to Near evaluation system, 13 caseswere excellent. 7 cases were good, 2 cases were fine, 0 case was poor, and the fineness rate was 91%. After treatment. X-rayshowed that proximal humeral fracture and shoulder dislocation received a satisfactory reduction. It is indicated that the curativeeffect of locking compression plate combined with Osteoset tone graft substitute in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture isaffirmative.%背景:螺钉、克氏针张力带钢丝、髓内钉、三叶草钢板等置入内固定肱骨近端骨折的疗效欠佳,常出现螺钉固定不牢或松动等现象,影响肱骨头血运与肩关节外展功能.目的:观察肱骨近端锁定钢板置入内固定结合Osteoset人工骨植入治疗肱骨近端骨折的临床效果.方法:应用肱骨近端锁定钢板置入内固定结合Osteoset人工骨植入治疗22例肱骨近端骨折病例.结果与结论:所有病例随访12~24个月均骨性愈合,根据Neer疗效评分标准,优13例,良7例,可2例,差0例,优良率为91%;治疗后X射线显示所有肱骨近端骨折及肩关节脱位均获得了满意复位.说明肱骨近端锁定钢板置入内固定结合Osteoset人工骨植入治疗肱骨近端骨折疗效肯定.

  10. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  11. Age Related Normal Variants of Growth Plates at Distal Femur and Proximal Tibia: Scintigraphic Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skeleton is a dynamic structure that changes during the normal physiological processes of growth and remodeling as well as in response to pathological insult. In infants and children, it is well recognized that bone-seeking tracer accumulates in greater amounts in the growth plates of immature skeleton. Scintigraphic appearance of the normal growth plate changes with age. Full investigation of age-related patterns of growth plate's uptake on bone scintigraphy has not been reported. The objective of this study is to evaluate age related pattern of distal femur and proximal tibia growth plates in children on bone scintigraphy. A retrospective analysis of bone scans for pediatric age group. Anterior and posterior views of the whole-body scan were visually reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians to establish characteristics of the growth plates in the distal femur and proximal tibia. Of particular interest was the shape of the plate, segmental pattern of radiotracer uptake through the plate. Quantitative assessment was done to support visual assessment findings. Eighty-nine patients were found during the specified period. Various patterns of growth plate's uptake were recognized in different age groups. In the infant and children below age of five, the plate appears oval shaped with uniform uptake. Later it becomes linear with specific pattern of nonuniform uptake till the age of ten. In adolescence, additionally the majority of cases show a specific pattern of biconcave and nonuniform uptake. After the age of fifteen, the plates show progressive fading of activity with gender difference. Excellent agreement was obtained between visual and quantitative assessment regarding the segmental uptake of the plate. Conclusion: Age-related patterns of growth plate's uptake on bone scintigraphy have been identified. Awareness of these appearances is important since lack of knowledge of these normal variants may lead to misinterpretation of growth plate abnormalities

  12. Spectroscopic and ultrastructural analysis of fluorhydroxyapatite-coated titanium plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, D.; Ottani, V.; Ruggeri, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Anatomiche e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore; Raspanti, M. [Insubria Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche; Monti, P.; Taddei, P.; Tinti, A.; Fragnano, C. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biochimica ' G. Moruzzi'

    2001-07-01

    This study aimed to describe the chemical, physical and morphological features of the surface of titanium plates coated with porous titanium and fluorhydroxyapatite for surgical implantation. Although the plasma flame spray coating process partially altered the original chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings, the surface morphology of the coated plates seems very favourable for bone integration of the implant. Immersion in simulated body fluid for ten weeks failed to disclose signs of implant dissolution or impaired surface composition. (orig.)

  13. Mechanism of Shortened Bones in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

    OpenAIRE

    Jason A. Metcalf; Zhang, Yanming(Institute of Theoretical Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, China); Matthew J. Hilton; Long, Fanxin; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease in which deficiency in β-glucuronidase results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation in and around cells, causing shortened long bones through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. We demonstrate here that MPS VII mice accumulate massive amounts of the GAG chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) in their growth plates, the cartilaginous region near the ends of long bones responsible for growth. MPS VII mice also have only 60% of the n...

  14. Neonatal osteomyelitis examined by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three infants less than six weeks of age and suspected of having osteomyelitis were examined by bone scintigraphy. Each of the 25 sites of proved osteomyelitis in 15 individuals demonstrated abnormal radionuclide localization. Ten additional scintigraphically positive but radiographically normal sites were detected. Optimal quality scintigrams of the growth plate complex and osteomyelitis in neonates appeared similar to those in older children. All neonates suspected of having osteomyelitis should be studied with bone scintigraphy following initial radiographs

  15. Automatic Licenses Plate Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ronak P Patel; Narendra M Patel; Keyur Brahmbhatt

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollboothfor automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automatedsystem could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges ortunnels, etc. This paper contains new algorithm for recognition number plate using Morphological operation,Thresholding operation, Edge detection, Bounding box analysis for number plate extract...

  16. Abnormal bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Earl R.; Moran, Erica

    1998-01-01

    Osteopenia is responsible for substantial comorbidity in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and is an important factor in the surgical management of joint disease. In animal models of bone loss stimulated by inflammatory arthritis, increased bone remodelling and altered microstructure of bone have been documented. The subchondral bone plate near the joint surface is narrow and perforated by vascular inflammatory invasion, and in the shaft the thin cortices are weakened by giant resorption defects. Biomechanical tests and a mathematical model of bone strength suggest that cortical defects, much larger than those found in normal osteonal remodelling, are principally responsible for the experimentally observed loss of strength. Similarly, these defects may explain the increased femoral fracture risk in rheumatoid arthritis. The osteoclast, the cell resorbing bone, is demonstrated in increased number and activity in rheumatoid arthritis and in animal models. Bisphosphonates, drugs that inhibit osteoclast function, have been shown experimentally to reduce both focal and generalized osteopenia and to prevent loss of bone strength. Bisphosphonates also protect articular cartilage from damage characteristic of inflammatory arthritis. The mechanism of chondroprotection may be prevention of subchondral bone resorption by the osteoclast and also an altered distribution of bone marrow cells. Thus, bisphosphonates, currently in clinical use for other bone metabolic diseases, appear to have potential as prophylaxis and treatment for osteopenia and joint damage in inflammatory arthritis. PMID:9711159

  17. Fractal Plate Tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Sornette, D.; V. F. Pisarenko

    2002-01-01

    We analyze in details the statistical significance of the claim by Bird [2002] of a power law distribution of plate areas covering the Earth and confirm that the power law with exponent 0.25 +- 0.05 is the most robust and parsimonious model for all plates, including the very largest plates, when taking into account the constraint that the plates areas must sum up to 4 pi steradians. We propose a general class of fragmentation models that rationalize this observation and discuss the implicatio...

  18. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  19. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  20. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with ... plates! Snap a photo and share it to social media with #CreateYourPlate . See the full gallery of ...

  5. Biomechanical characteristics of regenerated cortical bone in the canine mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Uriel; Opperman, Lynne A.; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    To test the mechanical properties of regenerate cortical bone created using Mandibular Bone Transport (MBT) distraction, five adult male American foxhound dogs underwent unilateral distraction of the mandible with a novel MBT device placed to linearly repair a 30-35 mm bone defect. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the beginning of the consolidation period. Fourteen cylindrical specimens were taken from the inner (lingual) and outer (buccal) plates of the reconstructed mandible and 2...

  6. Lengthening over nails using the double plate system ONAS-DPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolič, Vane

    2016-01-01

    Stable insertion of large Schanz screws behind an intramedullary (IM) nail when lengthening over nails (LON) may be difficult due to the limited bone stock. Additionally, the highly probable contact between the screws and IM nail (which is difficult to avoid) increases the likelihood of infection spreading from the skin via Schanz screws directly to the IM nail. A new device for LON has been developed. Instead of inserting Schanz screws from the external fixator beside the IM nail (as in standard LON), a system of two overlaying plates was constructed. Schanz screws can be fixed to the plates without entering the bone. The plates are fixed to the bone using four angle stability screws. The holes in the plates offer stabile fixation for a chosen angle under which the screw is positioned through the cortical bone. Using the new system there is no need to place Schanz screws behind the IM nail. Instead, Schanz screws pass to the plate and not through the bone. The new system for elongation over IM nail is called "Over Nail Angle Stability-Double Plate System" (ONAS-DPS) [Antolič V (2013) Modular side device with an intramedullary nail for guiding a bone during its lengthening. World Intellectual Property Organization. International Publication number: WO 2013/176632 A1]. PMID:27163094

  7. Lengthening over nails using the double plate system ONAS-DPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolič Vane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable insertion of large Schanz screws behind an intramedullary (IM nail when lengthening over nails (LON may be difficult due to the limited bone stock. Additionally, the highly probable contact between the screws and IM nail (which is difficult to avoid increases the likelihood of infection spreading from the skin via Schanz screws directly to the IM nail. A new device for LON has been developed. Instead of inserting Schanz screws from the external fixator beside the IM nail (as in standard LON, a system of two overlaying plates was constructed. Schanz screws can be fixed to the plates without entering the bone. The plates are fixed to the bone using four angle stability screws. The holes in the plates offer stabile fixation for a chosen angle under which the screw is positioned through the cortical bone. Using the new system there is no need to place Schanz screws behind the IM nail. Instead, Schanz screws pass to the plate and not through the bone. The new system for elongation over IM nail is called “Over Nail Angle Stability-Double Plate System” (ONAS-DPS [Antolič V (2013 Modular side device with an intramedullary nail for guiding a bone during its lengthening. World Intellectual Property Organization. International Publication number: WO 2013/176632 A1].

  8. Contact between the acetabulum and dome of a Kerboull-type plate influences the stress on the plate and screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Katsutoshi; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    We used a three-dimensional finite element method to investigate the conditions behind the Kerboull-type (KT) dome. The KT plate dome was divided into five areas, and 14 models were created to examine different conditions of dome contact with the acetabulum. The maximum stress on the KT plate and screws was estimated for each model. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of the contact area with the acetabulum on the KT plate, a multiple regression analysis was conducted using the analysis results. The dome-acetabulum contact area affected the maximum equivalent stress on the KT plate; good contact with two specific areas of the vertical and horizontal beams (Areas 3 and 5) reduced the maximum equivalent stress. The maximum equivalent stress on the hook increased when the hardness of the bone representing the acetabulum varied. Thus, we confirmed the technical importance of providing a plate with a broad area of appropriate support from the bone and cement in the posterior portion of the dome and also proved the importance of supporting the area of the plate in the direction of the load at the center of the cross-plate and near the hook. PMID:25749753

  9. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  10. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  11. Plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a plate heat exchanger required to handle corrosive, toxic or radioactive fluids, wherein each plate has a peripheral recess or like formation adapted for receiving an elastomeric gasket, the plates are welded together in pairs by the method comprising the steps of inserting into the gasket recess of a first plate of said pair a metal packing piece and welding the second place (e.g. by a laser or electron beam weld running along the base of the recess) superimposing a second plate on to the first in contact with the packing piece and welding the second plate to the packing piece (e.g. by a laser or electron beam weld). The packing piece may be of hollow or solid cross section and is preferably of the same material (e.g. titanium or stainless steel) as the plates. In use a service fluid in heat exchange with the said corrosive etc. fluid is confined by peripheral and normally elastomeric gaskets. (author)

  12. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  13. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  14. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  15. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  16. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  17. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  18. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  19. Biomechanical Comparison of 2 Different Locking Plate Fixation Methods in Vancouver B1 Periprosthetic Femur Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Pletka, Joshua D.; Marsland, Daniel; Belkoff, Stephen M.; Mears, Simon C.; Kates, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Locking plates are commonly used to treat fractures around a well-fixed femoral component. The optimal construct should provide sufficient fixation while minimizing soft-tissue dissection. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether plate length, working length, or bone mineral density affects survival of locking plate fixation for Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic hip fractures. A transverse osteotomy was created just distal to cemented femoral prostheses in 9 pairs of cadaveric...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  2. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seven simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share it ...

  6. Plate tectonics: Metamorphic myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clear evidence for subduction-induced metamorphism, and thus the operation of plate tectonics on the ancient Earth has been lacking. Theoretical calculations indicate that we may have been looking for something that cannot exist.

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... million battle diabetes and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year ... Month celebrations , the American Diabetes Association launched this new Create Your Plate interactive tool to help Latinos/ ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to ... simple steps . We want to see your real-life healthy plates! Snap a photo and share it ...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  15. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  16. Regional alterations in long bone produced by internal fixation devices. Part I. 85Sr clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of rigid plate application on the radiostrontium clearance of the intact canine femur at 6 months. We examined each of the component surgical steps. We calculated the clearance both for the whole bone and for each of the five transverse sections of the whole bone. Screw application, but not drilling, increased the clearance in the segment about the screw holes. Plate application produced an increase in the segment beneath the plate as well as around the screws and in the whole bone. These changes are accomplished not only by an absolute increase in clearance to the middle three segments, but by a relative diminution in clearance by the most proximal and distal segments. The histomorphometric changes in long bones following rigid plating may be accompanied by regional increases in bone blood flow

  17. Trabecular bone as a hierarchical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiuk, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Trabecular bone is studied as a hierarchical material. The analysis includes the experimental characterization of bone's structure, the measurement of its mechanical properties, and the mechanics modeling at several different length scales: nanoscale (under 1 micron, crystal/fiber level), sub-microscale (1-10 microns, single lamella level), microscale (10-500 microns, single trabecula level), and mesoscale (1 mm - 10 cm, trabecular structure, random network of struts or plates). Experiments include the characterization of bone's ultrastructure using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) at nano and sub-microscale levels. In addition, we use the x-ray microtomography, a nondestructive technique, which can provide the three-dimensional details of bone at mesostructural level. Measurements of mechanical properties are done using the MTS machine and nanoindentation apparatus. We use the MTS testing machine to determine constitutive relations of bone at mesoscale and the nanoindentation technique to determine the properties at lower scales. The experimental observations of bone's hierarchical structure are used in the theoretical analysis of bone's mechanical properties. The calculated results are compared with the experimentally measured ones. The material properties are determined at each scale both analytically (using micromechanics theories) and numerically (using a finite element method, a spring network, and beam network approaches). The computational challenges include a complex irregular, random structure at each level, spatial heterogeneity of bone's structure, applicability of separation of scales law, size of the representative volume element, and in general the dependence of properties on specimen size and boundary conditions.

  18. Brazing with plated alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of braze alloy preforms on complex geometry components is at times a very difficult task requiring extensive handling of the parts or even tack welding of the preform to ensure that it is held in place. One method of overcoming these difficulties is the use of plated braze alloys (i.e., filler metals) applied directly to the braze region. Plating helps to avoid the potential for contamination resulting from handling and also ensures that the braze alloy is located properly. Examples are discussed in which an electroplated silver-copper alloy is used as an alternative to the BAg8 preforms and electroless nickel is used as a replacement for an amorphous Ni-P braze alloy foil. A toroidal cooling plate with helical flow channels was fabricated from oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) and brazed using the electroplated silver-copper alloy. The silver-copper braze alloy was applied to the copper substrate in a laminated fashion of alternating layers of silver and copper, which in combination approximated the eutectic composition (72% Ag-28% Cu by weight). Examination of the brazed assemblies indicated that in both cases the advantages of using plated braze alloys are numerous. These advantages include decreased labor, improved cleanliness and exactness of braze alloy placement. The primary disadvantage was an increased tendency for solidification defects presumably resulting from contaminants in the plating baths. This last observation is presently being examined in greater detail. The end results is that the assemblies brazed with the plated alloys were acceptable for the intended application and that the use of plating facilitated the successful assembly of these components

  19. The Evaluation of Epiphyseal Plate Histological Changes in Osteopetrotic op/op Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aligholi Sobhani

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed for evaluation of epiphyseal plate histological changes of femur bones in osteopetrotic op/op mice.In this study 5 osteopetrotic op/op mice which were purchased from the commercial source were used.The animals were killed by overdose of chloroform and their femur bones were extracted. The bones were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and decalcified by HCl (0.6N, and routine histological processing were performed. The sections were stained by H&E methods and studied by conventional light microscopy. The results showed that, proliferative zone (PZ and especially hypertrophic zone (HZ were much thickened. In the ossification zone, trabecular bones were irregular and atypical osteoblast cells were observed. The osteoclast cells were not attached to trabecular bones. The bone marrow cavity was restricted and bone marrow cells were poor and scattered. Findings of the present investigation are similar to those reported about epiphyseal plate in osteosclerotic (OC mice in which epiphyseal plate especially hypertrophic zone was thickened and chondrocytes were not substituted for osteoblasts in calcified cartilage area. Also, osteoclast cells had been inactive or absent in OC mice. For prevention of other complication due to the epiphyseal plate changes in new borne, suitable and punctually treatment protocols such as prescription of Macrophage Colony Stimulating-Factor (MCS-F could be useful.

  20. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time,...

  1. Partial rescue of postnatal growth plate abnormalities in Ihh mutants by expression of a constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Yukiko; Schipani, Ernestina; Densmore, Michael J.; Lanske, Beate

    2009-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is essential for chondrocyte proliferation/differentiation and osteoblast differentiation during prenatal endochondral bone formation. Ihh expression in postnatal chondrocytes has a non-redundant role in maintaining a growth plate and sustaining trabecular bone after birth. Loss of Ihh in postnatal chondrocytes results in fusion of the growth plate and a decrease in trabecular bone. In order to normalize this abnormal chondrocyte phenotype and to investigate whether a pu...

  2. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    2014-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  3. 带蒂颊脂垫结合预制钛板治疗上颌骨肿瘤根治术后面部畸形%Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad Combined with Precast Titanium Plate for Upper Jaw Bone Tumor after Radical Operation with Facial Deformity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建龙

    2014-01-01

    To explore the clinical value of pedicled buccal fat pad combined with precast titanium plate for upper jaw bone tumor after radical operation with facial deformity.Methods:53 cases were divided into two groups,the control group were received conventional prosthesis,the observation group were treated with prefabricated titanium plate combined with pedicle buccal fat pad,then operation,postoperative complications and 3 year survival rate were compared in the two groups.Results:The operation time in the observation group was shorter than control group (P<0.05),the intraoperative bleeding was less than control group (P<0.05),and the opening time was earlier than control group (P<0.05),the observation group with occurred postoperative infection,ratio of articulation disorders,facial deformity and dysphagia were lower than control group (P<0.05),3 year survival rate was 66.7%in observation group,the control group of 3 year survival rate was 65.4%.Conclusion:The operation effect of pedicled buccal fat pad with prefabricated titanium plate in the treatment of maxillary tumor postoperative facial deformity is good and it has less complication and it does not affect the postoperative observation and subsequent radiotherapy,so it is worthy of attention.%目的:探讨带蒂颊脂垫结合预制钛板治疗上颌骨肿瘤根治术后面部畸形的临床价值。方法:选择53例患者,分为两组,其中对照组实施常规的赝复体修复,观察组则使用带蒂颊脂垫结合预制钛板治疗,比较两组患者手术相关情况,术后并发症及3年生存率。结果:观察组手术时间短于对照组(P<0.05),术中出血少于对照组(P<0.05),且术后张口时间显著早于对照组(P<0.05),观察组发生术后感染、发音障碍、面部畸形及吞咽困难的比率均显著低于对照组(P<0.05),观察组3年生存率为66.7%,对照组3年生存率为65.4%。结论:带蒂颊脂垫结合预制钛板治疗上颌骨肿

  4. The Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO Technique with a Locking Compression Plate for Femoral Lengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsunaga,Tomonori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique using a locking compression plate (LCP has been used widely in trauma cases. Its advantages are that the MIPO technique does not interfere with the fracture site and thus provides improved biological healing, and that the LCP has excellent angular stability. Its use in bone lengthening, however, has not been established. In such cases, it is desirable to shorten the external skeletal fixation period as much as possible. Here, the MIPO technique using an LCP was applied to femoral distraction osteogenesis in an attempt to shorten the external skeletal fixation period. For femoral lengthening, the MIPO technique was performed in 2 stages. Orthofix external fixators (Orthofix, England were used to insert screws from the anterolateral side rather than from the lateral side of the femur for bone lengthening. When sufficient callus formation was detected postoperatively at the site of bone lengthening, and the absence of infection was ensured, limb draping was performed, including a whole external fixator, and then the MIPO technique was applied with an LCP. In 3 cases (5 limbs, the average duration of external skeletal fixation was 134days, the average external-fixation index was 24days/cm, and the average consolidation index was 22days/cm. The MIPO technique using an LCP made it possible to shorten the external skeletal fixation-wearing period in femoral lengthening.

  5. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  6. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  7. Bipolar battery plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-impermeable plate (10) having through-plate conductivity with essentially zero resistance comprises an insulator sheet (12) having a series of spaced perforations (14) each of which contains a metal element (16) sealingly received into the perforation (14). A low-cost plate can readily be manufactured by punching a thermoplastic sheet (40) such as polypropylene with a punching tool (52), filling the apertures with led spheres (63) having a diameter smaller than the holes (50) but larger than the thickness of the sheet, sweeping excess spheres (62) off the sheet with a doctor blade (60) and then pressing a heated platen (74) onto the sheet to swage the spheres into a cylindrical shape and melt the surrounding resin to form a liquid-impermeable collar (4) sealing the metal into the sheet.

  8. Plates with Incompatible Prestrain

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Lewicka, Marta; Schäffner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    We study effective elastic behavior of the incompatibly prestrained thin plates, where the prestrain is independent of thickness and uniform through the plate’s thickness h. We model such plates as three-dimensional elastic bodies with a prescribed pointwise stress-free state characterized by a Riemannian metric G, and seek the limiting behavior as h→0. We first establish that when the energy per volume scales as the second power of h, the resulting Γ-limit is a Kirchhoff-type bending theory....

  9. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 7000C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  10. Influence of cortical endplates on ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Kang Il [Dept. of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The present study investigated the influence of thick cortical endplates on the ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone in a femur with a high fracture risk. Twelve trabecular bone samples were prepared from bovine femurs, and acrylic plates with thicknesses of 1.25, 1.80, and 2.75 mm were manufactured to simulate the cortical endplates using acrylic with a density and a sound speed similar to cortical bone. Although the thickness of the acrylic plates attached to the two sides of the trabecular bone increased, high correlations were observed between the speed of sound and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.80-0.86. High correlations were also observed between the attenuation coefficient at 0.5 mm and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.84-0.91. These results suggest that the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient at a specific frequency measured in a femur with relatively thick cortical endplates compared to the calcaneus could be used as indices for predicting the bone mineral density of the femur.

  11. Influence of cortical endplates on ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the influence of thick cortical endplates on the ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone in a femur with a high fracture risk. Twelve trabecular bone samples were prepared from bovine femurs, and acrylic plates with thicknesses of 1.25, 1.80, and 2.75 mm were manufactured to simulate the cortical endplates using acrylic with a density and a sound speed similar to cortical bone. Although the thickness of the acrylic plates attached to the two sides of the trabecular bone increased, high correlations were observed between the speed of sound and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.80-0.86. High correlations were also observed between the attenuation coefficient at 0.5 mm and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.84-0.91. These results suggest that the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient at a specific frequency measured in a femur with relatively thick cortical endplates compared to the calcaneus could be used as indices for predicting the bone mineral density of the femur.

  12. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  13. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  15. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5x3cm2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... October 8, 2015 Last Edited: October 19, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate interactive tool to help Latinos/Hispanics balance the meals they love to better manage their ... your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate ... Donate Today Diabetes touches everyone, and finding a cure is personal ...

  1. Nasal Bone Osteotomies with Nonpowered Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Garza, Rebecca M; Cho, Gerald J

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the shape of the nasal bones has long been a frustrating problem. Conventional osteotomies are associated with bleeding, loss of reduction, inability to achieve the desired alignment, improperly placed osteotomy sites, and spicule formation. A nonpowered osteotomy method empirically provided the safest and most controlled technique to achieve the desired anatomic result. The nasal bones should be thought of as 2 thin nasal plates that can be released from their medial and lateral attachments to become mobile units that can affect the dorsal width and bony base independently. There is a learning curve to osteotomies. PMID:26616696

  2. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  3. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  5. 椎间打压植骨联合棘突椎板复合体回植内固定治疗退变性腰椎不稳症%LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION IMPACTED BONE GRAFTS COMBINED WITH REGRAFTING IN SITU WITH SPINOUS PROCESS AND VERTEBRAL PLATE COMPLEX AND PEDICLE SCREW FIXATION FOR LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE INSTABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超远; 孟祥翔; 秦晓彬; 付玉娟; 付鹏军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar interbody fusion impacted bone grafts combined with regrafting in situ with spinous process and vertebral plate complex and pedicle screw fixation for lumbar degenerative instability. Methods Between January 1998 and October 2010, 48 patients with lumbar degenerative instability were treated by posterior decompression, lumbar interbody fusion impacted bone grafts combined with regrafting in situ with spinous process and vertebral plate complex and pedicle screw fixation. There were 26 males and 22 females, aged 52-76 years (mean, 62.4 years). The disease duration was 7 months to 25 years (mean, 6.5 years). One segmental instability was located at L3,4 in 1 case, at L4,5 in 10 cases, and at L5, S1 in 11 cases; multi-segmental instability was located at L3,4, L4,5, and L5, S1 in 5 cases, at L2,3 and L3,4 in 2 cases, at L3,4 and L4,5 in 10 cases, and at L4,5 and L5, S1 in 9 cases. Of 48 patients, 32 complicated by lumbar disc herniation, 46 by lumbar spinal stenosis, and 16 by degenerative scoliosis. The clinical results were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, disc height, and lumbar lordosis angles. Results The incisions obtained healing by first intention after operation. No nerve injury, rod or screw breakage, and infection occurred during and after operation. All 48 patients were followed up 1 to 6 years. The fusion time was 12-18 weeks (mean, 16.2 weeks). Vertebra slipping or degenerative scoliosis was corrected, and spinal column series became normal. At preoperation, 6 months after operation, and last follow-up, the disc heights were (5.2 ± 2.3), (11.9 ± 2.0), and (11.6 + 2.1) mm, respectively; the JOA scores were 3.2 + 2.1, 12.8 ± 1.6, and 13.6 + 1.2, respectively; and the lumbar lordosis angles were (-20.5 ± 10.5), (30.5 ± 8.5), and (31.2 + 5.6)°, respectively. The JOA scores, disc heights, and lumbar lordosis angles were significantly improved at 6 months after

  6. Technique to assess the alveolar bone width for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Chandraker

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This technique will help the surgeon understand the thickness of labial plate especially the apical region without reflecting the flap, also aid in selection of proper dimension of dental implant, and if bone graft is needed.

  7. Methotrexate Toxicity in Growing Long Bones of Young Rats: A Model for Studying Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Growth Defects in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaming Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement and intensive use of chemotherapy in treating childhood cancers has led to a growing population of young cancer survivors who face increased bone health risks. However, the underlying mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced skeletal defects remain largely unclear. Methotrexate (MTX, the most commonly used antimetabolite in paediatric cancer treatment, is known to cause bone growth defects in children undergoing chemotherapy. Animal studies not only have confirmed the clinical observations but also have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced skeletal damage. These models revealed that high-dose MTX can cause growth plate dysfunction, damage osteoprogenitor cells, suppress bone formation, and increase bone resorption and marrow adipogenesis, resulting in overall bone loss. While recent rat studies have shown that antidote folinic acid can reduce MTX damage in the growth plate and bone, future studies should investigate potential adjuvant treatments to reduce chemotherapy-induced skeletal toxicities.

  8. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. PMID:25087723

  9. Bone strength: more than just bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The following bone density measurements have limited utility in determining bone strength because they do not include bone quality: microarchitecture, mineralization, ability to repair damage, collagen structure, crystal size, or marrow composition. Patients with kidney disease have poor bone quality. Newman et al. now describe beneficial effects with raloxifene in an animal model of progressive kidney disease. These biomechanical measurements will be important in the development of medications to decrease fractures in patients. PMID:26759040

  10. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  11. Custom-made locked plating for acetabular fracture: a pilot study in 24 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Zhang, Li-Hai; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Li-Cheng; He, Chun-Qing; Wang, Yan; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Clinical implementation of site-specific locking plates for acetabular fracture remains untested. Custom-made locking plates were manufactured using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture techniques for acetabular fractures to test this procedure. The 3-dimensional images constructed from computed tomography data of pelvises in patients with acetabular fractures were used for preoperative planning and to design the plates. Data for each plate were input into software for programming, and the generated code was transferred into a computerized numerical control digital milling machine for manufacturing. These plates were clinically implemented, and the implementation parameters, reduction quality, and Postel Merle d'Aubigné score were evaluated. Forty-nine custom-made locking plates were manufactured for 24 unilateral acetabular fractures. The manufacturing process for the plates averaged 6.9±2.2 days. Processing the plates delayed operations by 2.6±1.3 days in one-third of the cases. Plate contouring was avoided in 48 plates. The plates had anatomical shapes, excellently matching reduced bone surface. The screws locked with the obtained plates avoided intra-articular penetration and provided secure fixation that allowed early out-of-bed rehabilitation. No indications of implant failures or observations of screw back-outs were observed during follow-up. The clinical application of such plates is associated with the avoidance of plate contouring, low risk of intra-articular penetration, early out-of-bed rehabilitation, and a low rate of implant failure. Implementing such plates in clinical practice is worthy of further investigation, with a focus on selecting patient population and minimizing the time required for and cost of plate manufacturing. PMID:24992064

  12. Morphologic and radiologic data of isolated vertebral end-plates under particular consideration of radiodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intention was to find examination techniques for macroscopico-morphological diagnosis, for quantification of the concavity and methods for roentgenologico-densitometric analysis of vertebral end-plates. The following factors were used for macromorphologic diagnosis: osteophytes, ridge constitution, ridge transition, cribriform plate and concavity. The radiodensitometric analysis comprised investigation of bone density, anisotropy and ridge mineralisation. The specimen were radiographed on a mammograph together with calcium chloride solutions of increasing concentration. Statistically significant differences in the behaviour of basal and upper plates were not observed. With reference to the factors osteophytes and ridge constitution the basal plates seem to be morphologically more variable than the upper plates. It resulted that the features absolute concavity and concavity quotient are highly appropriate factors to document the constitution of the isolated vertebral end-plates. Also the features density, anisotropy and ridge mineralisation were found to be useful for documentation. The result of data correlation was that high concavity quotients are accompanied by macroscopically medium- to small-sized pores. Density and anisotropy of the overall profiles do not show correlation, but voluminous cribriform laminae tend to develop more inhomogenic structures. As to be expected, bone density increases with macroscopic fine porosity. The higher the concavity quotient is, the smaller are the values for density, ridge mineralisation and anisotropy. Thus a high degree of vertebral end-plate concavity indicates reduced bone density and lower mineral content. (orig./MG)

  13. ELAF failed fuel plate examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel plate examination was conducted in the hot cell and canal to determine the possible failure modes for three plates leaking fission products. The plates were irradiated in the Extended Life Aluminide Fuel (ELAF) program in support of university research reactor goals to increase the limits presently allowed. The examination indicated pitting corrosion to be the failure mode. Other failure modes such as: (a) nonbonded swelling, (b) excessive fuel swelling, and (c) overheating of the plates were not observed

  14. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  15. High voltage pickup plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the 'electron gun' of the NIKHEF electron accelerator a High Voltage Pickup Plate (HVPP) has been constructed with belonging electronics, in order to iinvestigate the stability of the voltage of the electron gun. With the HVPP it is possible to measure the absolute quantities of the instabilities, as result of the rectifying and the pulsed load, of the ICT. (author). 28 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Plates with Incompatible Prestrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Lewicka, Marta; Schäffner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    We study effective elastic behavior of the incompatibly prestrained thin plates, where the prestrain is independent of thickness and uniform through the plate's thickness h. We model such plates as three-dimensional elastic bodies with a prescribed pointwise stress-free state characterized by a Riemannian metric G, and seek the limiting behavior as {h to 0}. We first establish that when the energy per volume scales as the second power of h, the resulting {Γ} -limit is a Kirchhoff-type bending theory. We then show the somewhat surprising result that there exist non-immersible metrics G for whom the infimum energy (per volume) scales smaller than h 2. This implies that the minimizing sequence of deformations carries nontrivial residual three-dimensional energy but it has zero bending energy as seen from the limit Kirchhoff theory perspective. Another implication is that other asymptotic scenarios are valid in appropriate smaller scaling regimes of energy. We characterize the metrics G with the above property, showing that the zero bending energy in the Kirchhoff limit occurs if and only if the Riemann curvatures R 1213, R 1223 and R 1212 of G vanish identically. We illustrate our findings with examples; of particular interest is an example where {G_{2 × 2}}, the two-dimensional restriction of G, is flat but the plate still exhibits the energy scaling of the Föppl-von Kármán type. Finally, we apply these results to a model of nematic glass, including a characterization of the condition when the metric is immersible, for {G = Id3 + γ n ⊗ n} given in terms of the inhomogeneous unit director field distribution { n in R^3}.

  17. Bone properties of the humeral head and resistance to screw cutout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, L. H.; Jensen, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of fractures involving the proximal humeral head is hampered by complications. Screw cutout is the major pitfall seen in connection with rigid plating. We have exploited a bony explanation for this phenomenon. Materials and Methods: We examined the convex surface of the humeral...... anisotropy was also found. We found in particular a lower bone strength and density in the posterior and inferior regions of the humeral head. A rapid decline in bone strength within a few mm below a relatively thin subchondral plate was also reported. Clinical Relevance: We have in this paper explored some...... of the most important factors connected with screw stability at the cancellous bone level. We discovered large variations in bone density and bone strength across the joint surface rendering certain areas of the humeral head less suitable for screw placement. The use of rigid plate constructs with...

  18. New plates for different types of plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carla S.; Dias, Ricardo P.; João M. Maia

    2008-01-01

    The first patent for a plate heat exchanger was granted in 1878 to Albretch Dracke, a German inventor. The commercial embodiment of these equipments has become available in 1923. However, the plate heat exchanger development race began in the 1930’s and these gasketed plate and frame heat exchangers were mainly used as pasteurizers (e.g. for milk and beer). Industrial plate heat exchangers were introduced in the 1950’s and initially they were converted dairy models. Brazed plate heat exchange...

  19. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  20. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which deve...

  1. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which dev...

  2. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... Updated: Jul 22, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS ...

  3. Reducing Postoperative Fracture Displacement After Locked Plating of Proximal Humerus Fractures: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jared; Kahn, Mani; Gruson, Konrad I

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly has been rising. Concomitantly, operative fixation with use of locking plates has been increasing. Postoperative complications of locking plate fixation, particularly in the setting of osteoporotic bone, include screw penetration of the articular surface, progressive fracture displacement, and avascular necrosis. Intraoperative techniques to enhance the fixation construct and reduce complications include use of rotator cuff sutures, bone void fillers (fibular strut allograft, cancellous allograft, autograft, bone cement), appropriate placement of divergent and shorter locking screws, and medial calcar reduction and support. More recent clinical and biomechanical studies suggest that use of these strategies may reduce complications after locked plating of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:26161759

  4. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  5. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  6. Vehicle License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  7. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  8. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  9. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Bouleftour

    Full Text Available Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/- display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice

  10. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  11. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  12. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  13. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  14. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  15. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  16. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  17. Using the gradient of human cortical bone properties to determine age-related bone changes via ultrasonic guided waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Bone fragility depends not only on bone mass but also on bone quality (structure and material). To accurately evaluate fracture risk or propose therapeutic treatment, clinicians need a criterion, which reflects the determinants of bone strength: geometry, structure and material. In human long bone, the changes due to aging, accentuated by osteoporosis are often revealed through the trabecularization of cortical bone, i.e., increased porosity of endosteal bone inducing a thinning of the cortex. Consequently, the intracortical porosity gradient corresponding to the spatial variation in porosity across the cortical thickness is representative of loss of mass, changes in geometry (thinning) and variations in structure (porosity). This article examines the gradient of material properties and its age-related evolution as a relevant parameter to assess bone geometry, structure and material. By applying a homogenization process, cortical bone can be considered as an anisotropic functionally graded material with variations in material properties. A semi-analytical method based on the sextic Stroh formalism is proposed to solve the wave equation in an anisotropic functionally graded waveguide for two geometries, a plate and a tube, without using a multilayered model to represent the structure. This method provides an analytical solution called the matricant and explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Our findings indicate that ultrasonic guided waves are sensitive to the age-related evolution of realistic gradients in human bone properties across the cortical thickness and have their place in a multimodal clinical protocol. PMID:22502890

  18. Theoretical Investigation Of Plate Fixation And Intramedullary Nailing Methods On Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Kovacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While forearm fractures are often treated with plate-screw osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing gained importance recently. For this aim, radius bone model was obtained using CT images, a fracture was introduced to the model and the callus, which is a structure forms during healing, was added to the model. Plate and intramedullary nail models were implemented to radius model. Structural behaviors of obtained models and callus on treatments with various implants were investigated under axial loading. In the light of these analyses, stresses on bone-implant structure and callus movement were investigated from the angle of application and treatment, depending on implant selection.

  19. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  20. Ultrafast microchannel plate photomultipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, H; Koyama, K; Nakatsugawa, K; Suzuki, S; Fatlowitz, D

    1988-03-15

    Performance characteristics of several new types of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with microchannel plates (MCP) are presented in this paper. They are the MCP-PMT with 6-microm diam channels, MCP-PMT with an S-l photocathode, and MCP-PMT with multi (discrete) anode and gatable MCP-PMT. Important requirements of an optical detector for picosecond lasers, fluorescence measurements, and material analysis are low light detectability, ultrafast time response, and versatile operation including modulation. The basic configuration, characteristics, and practical results of these detectors are described. PMID:20531532

  1. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  2. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue–bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue–bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue–bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone. (paper)

  3. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  5. Locking plates in distal humerus fractures: study of 43 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakesh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The treatment of multi-fragmentary, intraarticular fractures of the distal humerus is difficult, even in young patients with bone of good quality. Small distal fragment, diminished bone mineral quality and increased trauma-associated joint destruction make stable joint reconstruction more problematic. The anatomically preshaped locking plates allow angular stable fixation for these complex fractures. We evaluated functional results of patients treated with open reduction and internal fixation with distal humerus locking plates for complex distal hu-merus fractures. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients with ar-ticular fractures of the distal humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with AO distal humerus plate system and locking reconstruction plates. Forty patients were available for the final outcome analysis. According to AO/ASIF classification, there were 2 cases of type A2, 4 cases of type A3, 1 case of type B1, 1 case of type B2, 14 cases of type C1, 7 cases of type C2 and 11 cases of type C3. Open reduction with triceps splitting technique was used in all patients. The clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed and outcome measures included pain assessment, range of motion, and Mayo elbow performance score. Results: Forty patients were available for the final outcome analysis. There were 29 males and 11 females with an average age of 38.4 years (18-73 years. Clinical and ra-diological consolidation of the fracture was observed in all cases at an average of 11.6 weeks (9-14 weeks. The average follow-up was 12 months (10-18 months. Using the Mayo elbow performance score the results obtained were graded as excellent or good results in 33 patients (82.5%. One pa-tient had superficial infection, and 4 had myositis ossificans. There were no cases of primary malposition or secondary displacement, implant failure or ulnar neuropathy. Conclusion: Anatomically preshaped distal humerus locking

  6. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  7. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  8. Mechanical Quantification of Local Bone Quality in the Humeral Head: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scola, Alexander; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Dehner, Christoph; Schwyn, Ronald; Fliri, Ladina; Röderer, Götz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures can be challenging due to osteoporosis. The weak bone stock makes stable implant anchorage difficult, which can result in low primary stability. Accordingly, significant failure rates, even with modern locking plates, are reported in the literature. Intraoperative knowledge of local bone quality could be helpful in improving results. This study evaluates the feasibility of local bone quality quantification using breakaway torque mea...

  9. Efficacy of PRP in the Reconstruction of Mandibular Segmental Defects Using Iliac Bone Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Magesh, D. P. Uma; Kumaravelu, C.; Maheshwari, G. Uma

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects using iliac bone grafts. Thirteen patients underwent reconstruction of post-resection segmental defects of the mandible using titanium reconstruction plates, cortico cancellous iliac bone graft. The patients were randomly separated into two groups. One group of the patients received a PRP graft in addition to the iliac bone graft. Post-operative dimen...

  10. Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, J D; Zioupos, P; Davies, P; Casino, A

    2001-01-01

    We compared the mechanical properties of 'ordinary' bovine bone, the highly mineralized bone of the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris, and mother of pearl (nacre) of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. The rostrum and the nacre are similar in having very little organic material. However, the rostral bone is much weaker and more brittle than nacre, which in these properties is close to ordinary bone. The ability of nacre to outperform rostral bone is the result of its extremely well-ordered microstructure, with organic material forming a nearly continuous jacket round all the tiny aragonite plates, a design well adapted to produce toughness. In contrast, in the rostrum the organic material, mainly collagen, is poorly organized and discontinuous, allowing the mineral to join up to form, in effect, a brittle stony material. PMID:12123292

  11. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  12. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  13. Surface polishing positively influences ease of plate and screw removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Hayes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties removing temporary fracture fixation devices due to excessive bony on-growth results in extended surgical time leading to excessive blood loss, debris contamination and potentially refracture. Commercially available locking plates and screws are manufactured for clinics with a micro-rough surface, which contributes to the excessive bony on-growth reported. We have applied polishing technology to commercially pure titanium locking compression plates (LCP and titanium-6%aluminium-7%niobium (TAN plates and screws to assess if it can alleviate problems with strong bony overgrowth. Samples were implanted for 6, 12 and 18 months in a bilateral sheep tibia non fracture model and assessed for screw removal torque, percentage of bone contact and tissue-material response. Both electropolishing (p=0.001 and paste polishing (p=0.010 of TAN screws significantly reduced the mean torque required for removal compared to their micro-rough counterparts. This was accompanied by a trend for a lower percentage of bone contact for polished screws. This difference in bone contact was significant for paste polished TAN screws (p<0.001 but not electropolished TAN screws (p=0.066. Ex vivo, soft tissue removal was much easier (~five minutes for polished constructs, which was difficult and at least four times longer for standard micro-rough constructs. We suggest that polishing of locked plate/screw systems will improve ease of removal and reduce implant related removal complications encountered due to excessive strong bony on-growth while maintaining biocompatibility and implant stability. Future studies aim to assess the potential of this technology in the next level of complication, a fracture model.

  14. Dissolution of HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process was developed for the dissolution of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) control plates. These plates consist of aluminum metal, intensely radioactive europium oxide, and a small amount of tantalum metal. The radioactive solution will be diluted, mixed with grout, and disposed of by shale fracture. The plates are dissolved in nitric acid using a mercury catalyst. Conditions were determined that would produce a reaction rate compatible with existing equipment. 3 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  15. Wear and Mechanical Behaviour of Various Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balko, J.; Ballóková, B.; Jakubéczyová, D.; Hvizdoš, P.; Hloch, Sergej; Kloc, J.; Monka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 34-43. ISSN 1335-8987 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cements * mixing * pin-on-plate * porosity * nano-hardness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.imr.saske.sk/pmp/issue/1-2013/PMP_Vol13_No1_p_034-043.pdf

  16. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Laura; Forrester, Alison; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Svelto, Maria; Venditti, Rossella; Montefusco, Sandro; Polishchuk, Elena; Nusco, Edoardo; Rossi, Antonio; Medina, Diego L; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Settembre, Carmine

    2015-12-10

    Skeletal growth relies on both biosynthetic and catabolic processes. While the role of the former is clearly established, how the latter contributes to growth-promoting pathways is less understood. Macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that plays a fundamental part in tissue homeostasis. We investigated the role of autophagy during bone growth, which is mediated by chondrocyte rate of proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in growth plates. Here we show that autophagy is induced in growth-plate chondrocytes during post-natal development and regulates the secretion of type II collagen (Col2), the major component of cartilage ECM. Mice lacking the autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) in chondrocytes experience endoplasmic reticulum storage of type II procollagen (PC2) and defective formation of the Col2 fibrillary network in the ECM. Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1. Autophagy is completely suppressed in growth plates from Fgf18(-/-) embryos, while Fgf18(+/-) heterozygous and Fgfr4(-/-) mice fail to induce autophagy during post-natal development and show decreased Col2 levels in the growth plate. Strikingly, the Fgf18(+/-) and Fgfr4(-/-) phenotypes can be rescued in vivo by pharmacological activation of autophagy, pointing to autophagy as a novel effector of FGF signalling in bone. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a developmentally regulated process necessary for bone growth, and identify FGF signalling as a crucial regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes. PMID:26595272

  17. Biomechanical comparison of conventional and anatomical calcaneal plates for the treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures - a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Lin, Kang-Ping; Lin, Kun-Jhih; Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Wei, Hung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Initial stability is essential for open reduction internal fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Geometrical feature of a calcaneal plate is influential to its endurance under physiological load. It is unclear if conventional and pre-contoured anatomical calcaneal plates may exhibit differently in biomechanical perspective. A Sanders' Type II-B intraarticular calcaneal fracture model was reconstructed to evaluate the effectiveness of calcaneal plates using finite element methods. Incremental vertical joint loads up to 450 N were exerted on the subtalar joint to evaluate the stability and safety of the calcaneal plates and bony structure. Results revealed that the anatomical calcaneal plate model had greater average structural stiffness (585.7 N/mm) and lower von Mises stress on the plate (774.5 MPa) compared to those observed in the conventional calcaneal plate model (stiffness: 430.9 N/mm; stress on plate: 867.1 MPa). Although both maximal compressive and maximal tensile stress and strain were lower in the anatomical calcaneal plate group, greater loads on fixation screws were found (average 172.7 MPa compared to 82.18 MPa in the conventional calcaneal plate). It was noted that high magnitude stress concentrations would occur where the bone plate bridges the fracture line on the lateral side of the calcaneus bone. Sufficient fixation strength at the posterolateral calcaneus bone is important for maintaining subtalar joint load after reduction and fixation of a Sanders' Type II-B calcaneal fracture. In addition, geometrical design of a calcaneal plate should worth considering for the mechanical safety in practical usage. PMID:26813403

  18. Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.)

  19. Plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plate exchanger described includes a series of individual modules joined together, communicating in pairs to delimit two flow circuits separated by two fluids mutually exchanging calories. Each module includes at least one flat frame around a central cavity, at least two apertures made in the frame respectively for the inlet and oulet of the fluids crossing the cavity and at least one opening in the frame for the fluids to pass to a neighbouring module. The frames of the modules form a stack plane upon plane and are isolated by a thin leak-tight sheet parallel to the plane of the frames and separating the fluid substances in two superimposed frames. The heat transfer between these fluids occurs through this thin sheet from one module to the next in the stack

  20. Decreased bone formation and increased osteoclastogenesis cause bone loss in mucolipidosis II

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmann, Katrin; Pestka, Jan Malte; Kühn, Sonja Christin; Schöne, Elisabeth; Schweizer, Michaela; Karkmann, Kathrin; Otomo, Takanobu; Catala-Lehnen, Philip; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Marshall, Robert Percy; Krause, Matthias; Santer, Rene; Amling, Michael; Braulke, Thomas; Schinke, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (MLII) is a severe multi-systemic genetic disorder caused by missorting of lysosomal proteins and the subsequent lysosomal storage of undegraded macromolecules. Although affected children develop disabling skeletal abnormalities, their pathogenesis is not understood. Here we report that MLII knock-in mice, recapitulating the human storage disease, are runted with accompanying growth plate widening, low trabecular bone mass and cortical porosity. Intralysosomal deficiency...

  1. Role of locking plates in treatment of difficult ununited fractures: a clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Kumar; Himanshu Gupta; Chandra Shekhar Yadav; Shah Alam Khan; Shishir Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To present our experience in treatment of difficult ununited long bone fractures with locking plate.Methods:Retrospective evaluation of locking plate fixation in 10 difficult nonunions of long bone fractures was done.Fixation was done with locking plate for femoral shaft fracture (3 patients),supracondylar fracture of femur (gap nonunion),fracture of clavicle,fracture of both forearm bones (radius and ulna) fracture of ulna,fracture of shaft of humerus,fracture of tibial diaphysis and supracondylar fracture of humerus (one patient each).Five fractures had more than one previous failed internal fixation.One patient had infected nonunion which was managed by debridement with cast immobilization followed by fixation with locking plate at six weeks.Seven fractures were atrophic,two were oligotrophic,and one was hypertrophic.Fibular autograft was used in 2 cases and iliac crest cancellous bone graft used in all the patients.Results:Minimum follow-up was 6 months (range,6 months to 2.5 years).Average rime for union was 3.4 months (range 2.5 to 6 months).None of the patients had platerelated complications or postoperative wound infections.Conclusion:Along with achieving stability with locking compression plate,meticulous soft tissue dissection,acceptable reduction,good fixation technique and bone grafting can help achieve union in difficult nonunion cases.Though locking plate does not by itself ensure bony union,we have found it to be another useful addition to our armamentarium for treating difficult fracture nonunions.

  2. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  3. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  4. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates. PMID:24717430

  5. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  6. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  7. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  8. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  9. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  10. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  11. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  12. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for enchondral bone growth and its disorders. I. Normal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to discuss and illustrate the common effects on normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' is proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the non-physeal ends of small tubular bones. The last layer of development of both physes and acrophysis is the cartilaginous zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). The enchondral bone abutting the ZPC shares similar properties at physes and acrophyses, including the relatively lucent metaphyseal bands of many normal infants at several weeks of age. The bone-in-bone pattern of the normal vertebral bodies and bands of demineralization of the tarsal bones just under the ZPC are the equivalent of those bands. The growth arrest/recovery lines of metaphyses similarly have equivalent lines in growth centers and other acrophyseal sites. Nearly the same effects can also be anticipated from the relatively similar growth plate at the cartilaginous cap of benign exostoses (''paraphysis''). The companion article will explore abnormalities at acrophyseal sites, including metabolic bone disease and dysplasias. (orig.)

  13. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  14. Eating disorders and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  15. Bone densitometry and osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to provide a perspective on the current status of bone densitometry and its relevance to osteoporosis diagnosis and management. Therefore, this book will give the reader an introduction to the nature of osteoporosis, its pathophysiology and epidemiology, and the clinical consequences of performing bone densitometry. Aside from standard bone densitometry, newer technologies such as quantitative ultrasound techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and bone structure analysis are discussed in the context of diagnosing osteoporosis. (orig.)

  16. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  17. Stepped conical zone plate antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, James C.

    2001-07-01

    The Fresnel zone plate lens was invented and developed for optical frequencies. However, fabrication difficulties at the short optical wavelengths have prevented obtain good efficiencies. At longer microwave or millimeter-wavelengths fabrication is easier and phase correcting zone plate antennas have been used to obtain good efficiencies. This paper describes a new type of phase correcting zone plate having even better efficiency, namely a diffraction efficiency of 99 percent compared to a true lens, and an overall efficiency much better than a true lens. For the usual zone plate antenna employed at microwave or millimeter wavelengths, path length adjustment is accomplished by cutting different depths in a dielectric plate or by using two or more dielectrics having different dielectric constants. The new design uses a tilted cut in a dielectric plate, which more accurately matches the shape of a true lens and produces much lower phase error. The construction is still near and can be made for example, by a milling machine with a tilted bit. For a circular zone plate, the lens is a stepped conical or tapered shape. Because the phase steps are small, the far-field antenna pattern is excellent and sidelobe-levels are very low. Analysis of typical configurations will be given, showing that phase errors are small, lower than those for an eighth-wave corrected phase zone plate.

  18. Fresnel zone plate coded imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduced the principle of the Fresnel-zone-plate coded imaging, and design a Fresnel zone plate coded image camera with high spatial resolution. A experimental simulation with two-aperture visible light source is made. The result shows that this coded image camera can reveal the source distribution truly

  19. ChooseMyPlate.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... cup, or in your bowl. All about the Fruit Group Nutrients and health benefits Tips to making wise choices VIEW FOOD ...

  20. Micro-channel plate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  1. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES FOR BONE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakkath Abdul Rub Sajid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a malady leading to bone fracture and results from imbalance in the rate of osteoblastic bone formation with respect to osteoclastic bone degradation.6 Nanotechnology raises exciting possibilities for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis.6 We use silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles endowed with natural bone-targeting capabilities and express potent pro-osteoblastogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic activation in vitro and show the ability to increase bone mineral density invivo. Here, we initially synthesize mesoporous silica nanoparticles by coating with octadecyl trimethoxy silane. The silica nanoparticles thus prepared is chosen as control. Two different samples of silica nanocomposites are prepared ; first binding silica nanoparticles with fluorescent dye i.e tetracycline (SiO2-Tet, the second sample prepared by combining (SiO2-Tet with magnetic nanoparticles (cobalt-ferrite solution to form (SiO2-Tet-MNP. All these synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR, E-DAX analysis. Post—characterization work plan involves incorporation of silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles into human bones (or in rat bones in case human bones is not at all available. This includes Micro CT-Scanning , Injecting (SiO2-Tet-MNP into bone tissues, Quantitating Bone Mineral Density. Finally results are obtained through test outcome which includes estimations of cell mineralization assays, detection of osteoclast formation, nanoparticle association with Bone surface (Incubation with (SiO2-Tet /(SiO2-Tet-MNP for 2 hours in well-plates, statistical analyses and figures obtained from characterization methods and thereby expressing the property of silica-based fluorescent nanoparticles to increase bone mineral density and combating osteoporosis.

  3. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  4. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  5. Biological plating of comminuted fractures of femur and tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javdan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of comminuted fractures in long bones has continued to be a problem in orthopedic surgery. Recently, fixation without exploration of the fracture site, known as "biologic fixation”, has been introduced. This study was performed to assess the results and complications of this method for the treatment of comminuted fractures of the tibia and femur.
    METHODS: The study included 41 patients with comminuted fractures of the tibia and femur treated with biologic plating from 2003 to 2006 (25 femur fractures and 16 tibial fractures. After biological fixation joint motion was started but weight bearing was avoided until radiographic evidence of union was shown.
    RESULTS: The mean time of union in the tibial fractures was 19 ± 2 weeks and 17 ± 2 weeks for the femur fractures. All patients had fracture union without any infection, non-union or implant failure. In one patient with a femur fracture there was a 10° internal rotation deformity. Two of the femoral fractures had shortening of 1 cm, and one patient had shortening of about 2 cm. Compared to similar studies, all results were statistically significant (P<0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: The biologic plating method is a safe, simple and effective method of fixation for comminuted fractures of long bones. It has a high rate of union with minimal complications.
    KEY WORDS: Biological fixation, plate, comminuted fracture.

  6. Dual locked plating of unstable bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ufuk; Parmaksizoglu, Atilla Sancar

    2015-07-01

    The operative treatment of displaced bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is challenging. The displaced condyles must be reduced, depressed plateaus must be elevated and adequately supported and early rehabilitation must be encouraged in order to obtain good clinical results. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with dual locked plates using raft screws with MIPO technique and autologous bone grafting. We hypothesized that in this group of patients dual locked plating reduces the complication rates by avoiding loss of reduction due to the accomplished rigid fixation. Twenty-two consecutive patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (AO Type C) were included in this study. The mean follow up was 26 months. Bone healing was achieved in all patients with 3 cases of superficial and 1 case of deep infection. Secondary loss of reduction, secondary loss of alignment, early post-traumatic arthritis were not observed in this study. The Lysholm knee score showed an average of 80.5 points (range: 61.5-90) at the final follow up assessment. Optimal fixation of the fracture with dual locked plating which allows immediate motion and partial weight bearing may be an alternative concept to prevent secondary loss of reduction to obtain a good clinical outcome. PMID:26021666

  7. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  8. Tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is presented of a case of tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation complicated by radiation-induced pneumonitis. A 30-year-old army sergeant received a bone-marrow transplant from his brother for the treatment of a granulocytic sarcoma after local radiotherapy to the tumour. Six years earlier he had sustained an open, compound fracture of the left tibia and fibula while on army exercise. At the time a pin and plate had been inserted and booster anti-tetanus administered. Bone-marrow transplantation was performed after total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A was given against graft-versus-host disease. Fifty four days after transplantation tetanus was diagnosed and death followed 14 days later. Necropsy disclosed radiation-induced pneumonitis, but no organisms were cultured from the lungs or the old fracture site. It is suggested that spores were incorporated into the wound site before surgery and that oxygenation around the plate became compromised after transplantation, permitting germination of dormant spores, immunosuppression allowing development of the disease. (U.K.)

  9. MINIMALLY INVASIVE PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS (MIPO IN HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES – BIOMECHANICS – DESIGN – CLINICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevaiah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complex periarticular fractures of the long bones are difficult to treat. Classic intramedullary osteosynthesis do not provide a stable fixation , while open reduction and rigid fixation by classic plates ( R ecommended in the 60s - 70s is requiring large incisions with important deperiostation By the development of new plates (bridging plates, Limited Contact - Dynamic Compression Plate / LC - DCP, Point - Contact fixator / PC - Fix, plates with angular stability and new surgical techniques (I ndirect reduction and Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis / MIPO , biological plate osteosynthesis is important to preserve bone vascularization, to improve consolidation, to decrease infection rate, to avoid iterative fractures or bone grafting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 2013 and May 2015, patients aged >18 years underwent MIPO using a LCP for types 12 - A, 12 - B, and 12 - C closed diaphyseal humeral fractures. 8 The patients were prospectively evaluated. RESULTS: The mean follow - up period was 25 (range, 14 – 35 months. The mean operating time was 52 ( R ange, 40 – 82 minutes. The mean blood loss was 84 ml. The mean hospital stay was 2.8 days. The mean DASH score was 35.1 at month 3 and improved to 8.9 at month 6 and 5.2 at year 1 . Th e mean angulation was 4 0 in the coronal plane and 7 0 in the sagittal plane . DISCUSSION : After a short immobilization (1 - 2 weeks the patients started rehabilitation. All fractures healed within a mean time of 12 weeks following surgery, with good functional results regarding elbow and shoulder mobility . There were no vascular or nerve complications, except 2 postoperative temporary paresthesia for the radial nerve in distal fractures. CONCLUSIONS: With a good knowledge of the operative technique an d careful preoperative planning, these plates represent excellent and safe procedures for difficult articular fractures .

  10. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  11. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  12. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  13. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  14. Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2013-05-01

    Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4 ± 7.1 mm(3) (titanium-120, p = 0.015) and 18.7 ± 8.0 mm(3) (titanium-230, p = 0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8 ± 5.1 mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects. PMID:23255164

  15. Bone stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications

  16. Stability of Plates and Plated Structures - General Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maquoi, R.; Škaloud, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 55, 1-3 (2000), s. 45-68. ISSN 0143-974X. [Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures. Timisoara, 09.09.1999-11.09.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/97/0002; GA AV ČR IAA2071701 Keywords : stability * plates * plated structures * web breathing * design Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2000

  17. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  18. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  19. Functional bone histology of zebrafish reveals two types of endochondral ossification, different types of osteoblast clusters and a new bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish is as an important vertebrate animal model system for studying developmental processes, gene functions and signalling pathways. It is also used as a model system for the understanding of human developmental diseases including those related to the skeleton. However, surprisingly little is known about normal zebrafish skeletogenesis and osteogenesis. As in most vertebrates, it is commonly known that the bones of adult zebrafish are cellular unlike that of some other teleosts. After careful histological analyses of each zebrafish adult bone, we identified several acellular bones, with no entrapped osteocytes in addition to several cellular bones. We show that both cellular and acellular bones can even occur within the same skeletal element and transitions between these two cell types can be found. Furthermore, we describe two types of osteoblast clusters during skeletogenesis and two different types of endochondral ossification. The epiphyseal plate, for example, lacks a zone of calcification and a degradation zone with osteoblasts. A new bone type that we term tubular bone was also identified. This bone is completely filled with adipose tissue, unlike spongy bones. This study provides important insight on how osteogenesis takes place in zebrafish, and especially on the transition from cellular to acellular bones. Overall, this study leads to a deeper understanding of the functional histological composition of adult zebrafish bones. PMID:27278890

  20. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit this page to Yahoo! Buzz '); document.write(' Rank this page on Digg '); document.write(' Bookmark this ... to the knee. What Are Researchers Trying to Learn About Growth Plate Injuries? Researchers are searching for ...

  1. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . Together with Ghent University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness......This thesis is a study of plate shell structures -- a type of shell structure with a piecewise plane geometry, organized so that the load bearing system is constituted by distributed in-plane forces in the facets. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of smoothly curved shell structures is mainly due...... to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested...

  2. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  3. Quaternions as astrometric plate constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for solving problems in relative astrometry is proposed. In it, the relationship between the measured quantities and the components of the position vector of a star is modeled using quaternions, in effect replacing the plate constants of a standard four-plate-constant solution with the four components of a quaternion. The method allows a direct solution for the position vectors of the stars, and hence for the equatorial coordinates. Distortions, magnitude, and color effects are readily incorporated into the formalism, and the method is directly applicable to overlapping-plate problems. The advantages of the method include the simplicity of the resulting equations, their freedom from singularities, and the fact that trigonometric functions and tangential point transformations are not needed to model the plate material. A global solution over the entire sky is possible.

  4. Plate models and hidden informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plate or a shell structure is mainly characterized by the fact that the thickness is small compared to the other dimensions. This allows some kinematical and constitutive approximations which can be justified in a mathematical framework as far as the energy of the model is concerned. But in most cases, the three dimensional local behaviour is not represented by the plate or the shell model. For instance, interlayer stresses in a multilayered plate can be singular and lead to a delamination. But they are not contained in a standard plate model. The local waves trapped in one of these layers are not represented in these structural models. The goal of this paper is to give few possibilities to overcome these difficulties.

  5. Ultimately Thin Metasurface Wave Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, David; LePain, Matthew; Durach, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of a metasurface which can be considered a monolayer of two classical uniaxial metamaterials, parallel-plate and nanorod arrays, are investigated. It is shown that such metasurface acts as an ultimately thin sub-50 nm wave plate. This is achieved via an interplay of epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole behavior along different axes in the plane of the metasurface allowing for extremely rapid phase difference accumulation in very thin metasurface layers. These effects are...

  6. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Shivaji Mane; Jamir Arlikar; Nitin Dhende

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgras...

  7. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  8. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  9. Complications of massive allograft reconstruction for bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Borjian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the evolution of multi-drug chemotherapy and radiotherapy and new sophisticated surgical techniques, limb salvage and reconstruction, rather than amputation, has become the preferred treatment for patients with bone tumors. One option is allograft replacement. Although allograft has several advantages, it is not without complications. This study was performed to observe these complications in a group of patients treated with allograft replacement for bone tumor resection. The purpose was to gain an overview of the factors predisposing to these complications to minimize their occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on patients with benign aggressive and malignant bone tumors undergoing limb reconstruction with allograft between 1997 and 2005 in Al-Zahra and Kashani Hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Data was collected from patient files, clinical notes, radiographs and a recent physical examination. Complications including local recurrence, fracture of allograft, fixation failure, nonunion, infection, skin necrosis and neurological damage were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty patients including 39 males and 21 females were studied. The mean age of patients was 23 ± 11.7 years. The mean follow-up interval was 28.1 ± 12.4 months (mean ± SD. Complications were allograft fracture in 20%, local recurrence in 16%, fixation failure in 11%, nonunion in 6%, infection in 6%, skin necrosis in 6%, and peroneal nerve palsy in 1% of cases. Most local recurrences (60% were those with a mal-performed biopsy. Most allograft fractures occurred when a short plate was used. CONCLUSIONS: Allograft replacement for bone tumors remains a valid option. To avoid complications, biopsy should be done by a trained surgeon in bone oncology. A long plate is recommended for fixation. Sterility and graft processing must be optimal. Autogenous bone graft must be added at host-allograft junction. KEY WORDS: Bone tumors, bone allograft, limb

  10. Spontaneous urinary voiding of metallic screws in a patient with symphyseal plating for type II pelvic ring disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】With rapid advancement in surgical techniques and improvement in implant materials, rate of internal fixation for pubic symphyseal disruption in rotationally and vertically unstable pelvic ring injuries has increased. Among various modes of implant failure, screw/ plate breakage and loosening are common complications following unstable fixation. Migration of loose screws into the urinary bladder has been reported as an extremely un-common complication of pubic symphyseal plating. Here we present a case report of a 52-year-old female who pre-sented with asymptomatic passage of screws in her urine following migration into the bladder, 2 years after symphy-seal plating for pubic diastasis in an anteroposterior com-pression pelvic ring injury. Key words: Pubic symphysis diastasis; Bone plates; Bone screws

  11. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  12. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  13. USE OF THE PFO® NUT IN TREATING FRACTURES OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE HUMERUS IN PATIENTS WITH BONE FRAGILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Pires, Davi Calixto; Mota Neto, Jose da; de Camargo Rossato, Luis Henrique; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical results from application of the PFO® bone fixation nut, which was developed for use with 4.5 mm cortical screws, and to analyze any complications or bone reactions caused by this synthesis in porotic bone. Method: Between May 1999 and November 2007, the PFO® nut was used on 23 patients who underwent osteosynthesis with a PFS 80® plate in the proximal segment, to treat acute fractures, pseudarthrosis or defective consolidations. The average age of the patien...

  14. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  15. Bone fractures after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Evers, J.L.H.; Glasier, A.; Negri, Eva; Papapoulos, Socrates E; Ralston, Stuart H; Rizzoli, Rene; Baird, D T; Collins, J.; G. Benagiano; P.G. Crosignani; La Vecchia, C.; Volpe, A

    2010-01-01

    Every year 30% of individuals above age 65 fall, and falls are the principal cause of bone fractures. To reduce fracture incidence requires both prevention of falls and maintenance of bone strength.PubMed searches were performed, for studies of the epidemiology of fractures, bone physiology, endocrine effects, osteoporosis measurement, genetics, prevention and effectiveness. Topic summaries were presented to the Workshop Group and omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion.Ageing ...

  16. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  17. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  18. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  19. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  20. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  1. Bone densitometry in pediatric patients treated with pamidronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, Leslie E.; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Harcke, H.Theodore [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Department of Medical Imaging, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); Bachrach, Steven J. [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Division of General Pediatrics, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); McKay, Charles [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Division of Nephrology, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2005-05-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous pamidronate on the bone mineral density of children with osteogenesis imperfecta and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Charts of 38 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (n=20) and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (n=18) treated with pamidronate were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were selected for treatment because of prior fracture and/or abnormally low bone mineral density. All received intravenous pamidronate at two-month to eight-month intervals and were periodically examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All patients had abnormally low bone mineral density prior to treatment. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and z-scores showed serial improvement in 31 of 32 patients. Spine bone mineral density increased 78{+-}38.1% in OI and 47.4{+-}39.0% in children with cerebral palsy. The area of greatest lateral distal femur bone mineral density improvement was in the metaphysis adjacent to the growth plate, with a 96{+-}87.8% improvement in the osteogenesis imperfecta group and 65.7{+-}55.2% improvement in the cerebral palsy group. Increases in bone mineral density exceeded that expected for age-specific growth. This was demonstrated by improvement in both spine and femur z-scores for both groups. No children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy experienced fractures after the first week of treatment, whereas patients with osteogenesis imperfecta continued to have fractures but at a decreased rate. (orig.)

  2. Bone densitometry in pediatric patients treated with pamidronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of intravenous pamidronate on the bone mineral density of children with osteogenesis imperfecta and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Charts of 38 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (n=20) and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (n=18) treated with pamidronate were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were selected for treatment because of prior fracture and/or abnormally low bone mineral density. All received intravenous pamidronate at two-month to eight-month intervals and were periodically examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All patients had abnormally low bone mineral density prior to treatment. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and z-scores showed serial improvement in 31 of 32 patients. Spine bone mineral density increased 78±38.1% in OI and 47.4±39.0% in children with cerebral palsy. The area of greatest lateral distal femur bone mineral density improvement was in the metaphysis adjacent to the growth plate, with a 96±87.8% improvement in the osteogenesis imperfecta group and 65.7±55.2% improvement in the cerebral palsy group. Increases in bone mineral density exceeded that expected for age-specific growth. This was demonstrated by improvement in both spine and femur z-scores for both groups. No children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy experienced fractures after the first week of treatment, whereas patients with osteogenesis imperfecta continued to have fractures but at a decreased rate. (orig.)

  3. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  4. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  5. A preliminary study of bending stiffness alteration in shape changing nitinol plates for fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Gavin; Pfeifer, Ronny; Müller, Christian W; Gösling, Thomas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Hurschler, Christof

    2011-05-01

    Nitinol is a promising biomaterial based on its remarkable shape changing capacity, biocompatibility, and resilient mechanical properties. Until now, very limited applications have been tested for the use of Nitinol plates for fracture fixation in orthopaedics. Newly designed fracture-fixation plates are tested by four-point bending to examine a change in equivalent bending stiffness before and after shape transformation. The goal of stiffness alterable bone plates is to optimize the healing process during osteosynthesis in situ that is customized in time of onset, percent change as well as being performed non-invasively for the patient. The equivalent bending stiffness in plates of varying thicknesses changed before and after shape transformation in the range of 24-73% (p values inertia. PMID:21286815

  6. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  7. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  8. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  9. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  10. Marching of Freely Falling Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Hui; Gaston, Zachary; Liang, Zongxian

    2011-01-01

    "Marching of freely falling plates" is a fluid dynamics video for the Gallery of Fluid Motion submitted to APS-DFD 2011 at Baltimore Maryland. The problem of a freely falling plate is of interest in both fluid mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. The trajectory of the plate can be regular (Willmarth et al., 1964) or chaotic (Aref and Jones, 1993). As long as Reynolds number is high enough, regular flutter and tumble motion can be obtained for plates with small and large Froude numbers respectively. Belmonte et al. (1998) conducted experimental study on thin flat strips falling in a vertical cell. They categorized the Froude number at which the transition from fluttering to tumbling occurs. Andersen et al. (2005) analyzed the transitions between fluttering and tumbling using vorticity-stream function formulation and ODE dynamic equations based on quasi-steady models. They also found that the fluid circulation is mainly generated by the plate rotation and its angular velocity. However, the correlation among the pl...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  15. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  16. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  17. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURE WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proximal humeral fractures, particularly in osteoporotic patients, remain an unsolved problem. The objective of the study is to test the efficacy and functional outcome of locking compression plate in proximal humerus fractures and to evaluate the incidence of complication that may occur with locking compression plate in proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Prospective study involving Adults with proximal humerus fractures admitted from November 2010 to November 2012. In this study period 30 cases of fractures of proximal humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with Locking Compression Plate was evaluated. Clinical outcome was measured using neer’s score. RESULTS: In our study proximal humerus fracture was common in age group of 41 to 60 years (63% and the commonest mode of injury was Road traffic accident (53.3%. Mean follow up time was 12 month. Radiological union was achieved within 8 to 12 weeks in all cases. Most of these fractures were two part (n-21 followed by three part (n-6 and four part (n-3. We had 4 excellent (13.3% and 19 satisfactory (63.4% results and 7 had unsatisfactory (13.3% according to Neer’s criteria. Out of 30 patients, 7(23.4% had complication.3 patients had plate impingement, 2 patients had varus malunion, 2 patients had stiffness of shoulder with pain and functional restriction of movement. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion locking compression plate is mechanically and biologically an advantageous implant in proximal humeral fractures particularly in comminuted fractures and in osteoporotic bones in elderly patients, thus allowing early mobilization.

  19. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  20. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  1. Ultimately Thin Metasurface Wave Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Keene, David; Durach, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of a metasurface which can be considered a monolayer of two classical uniaxial metamaterials, parallel-plate and nanorod arrays, are investigated. It is shown that such metasurface acts as an ultimately thin sub-50 nm wave plate. This is achieved via an interplay of epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole behavior along different axes in the plane of the metasurface allowing for extremely rapid phase difference accumulation in very thin metasurface layers. These effects are shown to not be disrupted by non-locality and can be applied to the design of ultrathin wave plates, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements and plasmon-carrying optical torque wrench devices.

  2. Dual polarization flat plate antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.

    Rectangular waveguides with radiating slots are used in groups to form planar array microwave antennas with large apertures and small depth. Such flat plate antennas are widely used on spacecraft and aircraft. Typically, flat plate antennas provide fixed linear polarization. The present paper describes a new flat plate antenna which produces two coincident beams that are distinguished by their orthogonal linear polarizations. The antenna has two ports, one for each of the coicident beams. Completely external to the antenna, connecting a simple network to those terminal ports enables the antenna to provide right circular polarization from one port and left from the other. A different external network enables the antenna to have arbitrarily adjustable polarizations.

  3. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced 153Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for 153Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the 153Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (≥60% enriched in 152Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of 153Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed

  4. The normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses applications of the bone scan. It is the most frequently performed nuclear medicine investigation, the commonest indication being the detection of occult metastases, for which purpose the entire skeleton should be imaged. For other purposes it is often adequate to examine only part of the skeleton. The amount of isotope taken up at any site depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on bone mass. The scintigraphic appearance therefore does not necessarily correlate with the radiographic one; however, as there is a relationship between the rate at which bone is replaced and the quantity of bone which is present at any point, the two appearances are not entirely unrelated. Recognition of abnormality is based on a detailed knowledge of normal scintigraphic appearances

  5. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  6. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  7. Bone scanning in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bone scanning in osteoporosis a diagnosis of osteoporosis most often follows fracture, and clearly this should be confirmed by x-ray. The bone scan therefore does not have an important role to play in the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. While the exact mechanism by which the 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates localize in the skeleton is not fully understood, it is believed that they adsorb onto bone surfaces most probably via the calcium of hydroxyapatite crystals. Because the major factors that affect adsorption are osteoblastic activity and to a lesser extent skeletal vascularity, it is apparent that a bone scan image presents a functional display of skeletal metabolic activity. However, osteoporosis is a disorder in which gradual change in bone mass may occur over many years and, in keeping with this minor imbalance in skeletal metabolism, the bone scan appearances are usually normal. However, the scan images may appear of poor quality because of relatively low bone uptake of tracer with, on occasion, a washed-out pattern of activity in the axial and appendicular bone. It has been suggested that such a pattern occurs in severe or end-stage osteoporosis caused by markedly reduced osteoblastic activity. If kyphosis is observed on the bone scan or if there appears to be loss of spinal height with proximity of ribs to each other or increased closeness of rib cage to pelvis, then appearances suggest vertebral collapse and would be in keeping with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Such evidence is, however, indirect and in practice a bone scan is an extremely unreliable means of diagnosing osteoporosis

  8. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs

  10. OUTCOME OF LOCKING PLATES IN DISTAL TIBIA FRACTURES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh

    2016-05-01

    (22% 4 patients for which secondary surgery with bone grafting procedure was done after 4 months. According to AOFAS, 7 we scored the functional outcome of the patients after 5 months of injury. We had 23% of excellent result, 30.4% good and 46% fair with plate. CONCLUSION Locking anatomical plates are a boon and have started a new era in orthopaedic surgery in fixation with articular fractures. But due to lack of locking plate principle it is again cumbersome. Locking plates give relative stability for fracture and need as much as possible anatomical reduction of articular margins unlike in nail where we can do dynamisation if fracture going for delayed union in locking plates is not possible, hence doing as much as possible fracture alignment and then stabilising the fracture with screws is recommended.

  11. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  12. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12th postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 effects on proliferation and telomerase activity in sheep growth plate chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Logan B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 inhibits growth-plate chondrocyte proliferation and limits bone elongation. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations cause dwarfism, reduced telomerase activity and shorter telomeres in growth plate chondroyctes suggesting that FGFR3 reduces proliferative capacity, inhibits telomerase, and enhances senescence. Thyroid hormone (T3 plays a role in cellular maturation of growth plate chondrocytes and a known target of T3 is FGFR3. The present study addressed whether reduced FGFR3 expression enhanced telomerase activity, mRNA expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and RNA component of telomerase (TR, and chondrocyte proliferation, and whether the stimulation of FGFR3 by T3 evoked the opposite response. Results Sheep growth-plate proliferative zone chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with siRNA to reduce FGFR3 expression; FGFR3 siRNA reduced chondrocyte FGFR3 mRNA and protein resulting in greater proliferation and increased TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity (p 3 significantly enhanced FGFR3 mRNA and protein expression and reduced telomerase activity (p 3 at the growth plate may be partially mediated through the FGFR3 pathway. Conclusions The results suggest that FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation by down-regulating TERT expression and reducing telomerase activity indicating an important role for telomerase in sustaining chondrocyte proliferative capacity during bone elongation.

  14. Synthesis and ultrastructure of plate-like apatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Zhi, E-mail: zhuang@meiji.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Yoshimura, Hideyuki, E-mail: hyoshi@isc.meiji.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Aizawa, Mamoru, E-mail: mamorua@isc.meiji.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an inorganic constituent compound of human bones and teeth, with superior biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Its crystal structure is hexagonal, characterized by a(b)- and c-planes. In vertebrate long bones, HAp crystals have a c-axis orientation, while in tooth enamel, they have an a(b)-axis orientation. Many methods can be used to synthesize c-axis oriented HAp single crystals; however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a synthesis method for a(b)-axis oriented HAp single crystals. In this study, we successfully synthesized plate-like HAp crystals at the air–liquid interface of a starting solution via an enzyme reaction of urea with urease. Crystal phase analysis and ultrastructure observations were carried out, and the results indicated that the particles were single crystals, with almost the same a(b)-axis orientation as tooth enamel. It is hoped that by utilizing their unique surface charge and atomic arrangement, the resulting particles can be used as a high-performance biomaterial, capable of adsorbing bio-related substances and a model for tooth enamel. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals at air–liquid interface ► Ultrastructural analysis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals with a high a(b)-axis orientation ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel.

  15. Acute postoperative osteomyelitis in femur fracture: contribution of bone scintilography (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira; Rezende, Cleuza Maria de Faria; Sanchez-Ucros, Natalia; Laguardia, Priscilla [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Carlos Jorge Simal [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolcimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    The treatment of bone fractures is aimed at consolidating and returns of function as soon as possible and can be performed by different methods. Treatment with the plate in fractures of the femur in bridge aims not to address the location of fracture and stabilize it, maintaining the anatomical axis by the fixation of proximal and distal segments. Postoperative follow-up of the fracture is necessary to evaluate the irrigation of the bone structure and the effect of the method. The scintigraphy is a method capable of assessing the degree of bone remodeling and the presence or absence of local bone homeostasis. The objective of this report is to present the case of a rabbit, male, which was subjected to osteotomy and fixation of the femoral diaphysis by means of the plate in the bridge. After 10 days the animal was subjected to scintigraphic and radiographic evaluations. The animal came to death and an autopsy was performed on the same when it was observed macroscopy consistent with acute osteomyelitis due to contamination postoperative time. Radiographic evaluation in acute osteomyelitis is unclear. The methods assist in the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitis by allowing the detection of functional changes in this infectious process. The bone scintigraphy with diphosphonates labeled with technetium-99m shows increased bone turnover in the infected area and its high sensitivity, even in an early stage makes it the method of choice in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in patients without prior bone disease and bone radiologically normal. (author)

  16. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  17. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  18. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  19. Phosphate Interacts With PTHrP to Regulate Endochondral Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Eva S.; Zalutskaya, Alena; Chae, Byongsoo Timothy; Zhu, Eric D.; Gori, Francesca; Demay, Marie B.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate and parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) are required for normal growth plate maturation. Hypophosphatemia impairs hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis leading to rachitic expansion of the growth plate; however, the effect of phosphate restriction on chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone formation has not been examined. Investigations were, therefore, undertaken to address whether phosphate restriction alters the maturation of embryonic d15.5 murine metatarsal el...

  20. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  1. Crack propagation in prestressed plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad, M.; Flueler, P. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A second-order theory of initially stressed plates in the plane stress mode was used to find the dynamic stress field in the vicinity of a crack tip. Rapid crack propagation (RCP) behaviour associated with stresses caused by internal pressure and temperature was examined. The flat plate was placed under thermal conditions and was prestressed in such a way as to simulate hoop stress that may be expected in a pipe made of the same material. The presence of the tensile prestress in the thin plate raised the levels of the principal stress values and affected the direction at which the maxima of principal stress occurred. Second-order effects played an important role in the vicinity of the crack tip. Increased crack speed caused increased stress levels. There existed a limiting value at which the stresses at the crack tip became unbounded. The limiting value was affected by prestressing. The concept of simulating RCP testing of polymer pipes by a test on a conditioned plate of the same material, prestressed to simulate hoop stress caused by internal pressure, was judged to be reasonable. 6 refs. 5 figs.

  2. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  3. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat Fruits Food Gallery Vegetables All About the Vegetable Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans ... Updated: Jun 7, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker ...

  4. Plate Bridge in humerus. Perspective of a technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revision of the upper lumbar anatomy was made including the described anatomical approaches, bony specimens and the dissection of 16 cadavers (32 arms) of the morphology's department of del Valle University. Following the internal projection of Henry's approach and the deltopectoral, approach it was a safe corridor for the slip of a narrow plate, DCP 4.5, or one in golf stick modeled, keeping in mind the muscular inserts, the neurovascular structures, specifically the axillary nerve and the radial one and the configuration of the humerus. With that base they were carried out between October of the 2001 and may of the 2002, six surgeries; three in women and three in men of 24 to 56 years, patients with fractures of the diaphysis and of the union between the diaphysis and the metaphysis of the humerus, to achieve the same benefits of the system of bridge plate observed in the inferior member's long bones with minimum incision. Excellent consolidation of the fractures was obtained with the bridge plate's technique, and a good function of the extremity and indemnity of the mentioned nerves. We continue with the prospective study

  5. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  6. Bone cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the considerable disparity in published values of the risk for bone cancers from ionising radiation, the article 'An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model' by Leenhouts and Brugmans in the June 2000 issue of this Journal deserves further comment and consideration. The letter concludes that radiological protection and risk estimation has acquired an extra dimension, and it is clear that the risk of bone cancer from exposure to ionising radiation needs further review. Letter-to-the-editor

  7. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  8. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces and...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  9. Why date old bones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for pretreatment and purification of bone have not been accorded the same standard protocols that are applied to other sample materials. Many users lack confidence in bone dates, with some justification, and it is not clear how to proceed. With the advent of AMS dating, it is becoming easy to date very small amounts of highly purified samples such as single amino acids from bone collagen. This note serves a warning that there are dangers in the uncritical application of powerful separation and measurement techniques to uncharacterized material. (orig.)

  10. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  11. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method for...... determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  12. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  13. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  14. The short-term fixation of radiopharmaceuticals in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between local blood flow and bone clearance of 18 F, 32 P-P (orthophosphate), 32 P-PPi (pyrophosphate), 45 Ca, 85 Sr, 99mTc- and 113 Sn-EHDP was evaluated in the non-adult rat. During one single blood passage nearly 100% of 18 F was extracted in the femoral diaphysis, the extraction efficiency for the other radiopharmaceuticals was about 40%. Blood flow and bone clearance was higher and the extraction efficiency lower in the distal femoral epiphysis including the growth plate. The short-term bone uptake of 32 P-P was lowered considerably by the simultaneous application of inactive orthophosphate, whereas the bone uptake of 32 P-PP, was not suppressed. It is suggested that the rapid deposition of radiopharmaceuticals in bone is not caused by an ionic exchange process on crystal surfaces of already existing mineral but is due to an ionic exchange during the precipitation of calcium phosphate in the calcifying bone matrix. Only 18 F is exchanged with hydroxyl groups of already precipitated hydroxyapatite, whereas the calcium and phosphate ions in the precipitated hydroxyapatite are not further accessible to an exchange process. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MBE

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  16. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Results of autogenous trephine biopsy needle bone grafting in fractures of radius and ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhey, S; Shrestha, B P; Pradhan, R L; Pandey, B; Rijal, K P

    2005-01-01

    Cortico-Cancellous bone graft harvested from the anterior iliac crest by the conventional open method is associated with more morbidity and is more time consuming as compared to the percutaneous method using trephine biopsy needle. The aim of the study was to determine whether cancellous bone graft harvested from anterior iliac crest using trephine biopsy needle consistently achieved bone union in comminuted fractures and fractures of more than 3 weeks duration of radius and ulna and also to determine the morbidity at the donor site. Autogenous cancellous bone graft was harvested percutaneously from 28 iliac crests in 16 patients and applied at fracture sites of 30 forearm bones using a 4mm trephine biopsy needle after the fractures had been fixed with plate and screws. The patients were followed up regularly upto 6 to 9 months post - operatively in the OPD to determine the union status of the fractured bones and the morbidity at the donor site. 29 of the 30 fractures of the forearm bones united without any problems. The shaft of a trephine got bent during the harvesting procedure at the beginning of the study due to improper technique. Cancellous bone graft harvested from the anterior iliac crest results in predictable good union results in comminuted fractures of forearm bones and also fractures presenting after 3 weeks of injury. It is also an easier and quicker way of harvesting bone graft and is associated with lesser morbidity and earlier recovery as compared to conventional open method. PMID:16554860

  20. Distribution and property of nerve fibers in human long bone tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; PEI Guo-xian; JIN Dan; WEI Kuan-hai; QIN Yu; LIU Qing-si

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To observe the distribution of the nerve fibers in the bone tissue and the entry points of these fibers into the bone. Methods:The adult tibia was used for the ground sections which were afterwards made into the slice sections by decalcification in ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).The ground sections were stained in silver and the slice sections were stained in silver and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) respectively.Then,the samples of the transmission electron microscope and the atomic force microscope were made and observed. Results:In the human long bone tissue,many nerve fibers were distributed in the membrane,cortical bone,cancellous bone and marrow.The nerve fibers entered the bone from the nutrient foramen,and passed through the nutrient canal,Haversian's canal and Volkmann's canal,and finally into the bone marrow.In the nutrient canal,the nerve fibers,mainly the medullary nerve fibers,followed the blood vessel into the bone.In the cortical bone,the nerve fibers also followed the blood vessels and were mainly distributed along Haversian's canal and Volkmann's canal.In the bone trabecular and bone marrow,there were many nerve fiber endings arranged around the blood vessels,mainly around the tunica media of medium-size arteries in the marrow and around capillary blood vessels,and a few scattered in the bone marrow. There were sporadic nerve endings in epiphyseal plate and no nerve fibers permeated epiphysis to diaphysis.No distribution of nerve fibers could be found in cartilaginous part.Conclusions:There are many nerve fibers in bone and the nerve passageway is nutrient foramen,Volkman's canal,Haversian's canal and bone marrow.

  1. Immunoregulation of bone remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also. PMID:22837895

  2. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  3. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  4. Skull base bone hyperpneumatization

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, E J; Kouokam, L.M.; Nchimi, A L

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with a long standing history of compulsive Valsalva maneuvers, complaining of episodes of vertigo underwent head computed tomography. Axial CT slices at the level of the skull base (Fig. A) and the first cervical vertebrae (Fig. B) shows an extensive unusual pneumatization of both the body and lateral processes of the first cervical vertebrae (arrows), with air pouches dissecting planes between bone cortex and the periosteum around the occipital bone and the lateral process...

  5. Inca bones at asterion

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Suhit E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, In...

  6. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  7. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  8. Detecting microdamage in bone.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, T Clive; Mohsin, Sahar; Taylor, David; Parkesh, Raman; Gunnlaugsson, TThorfinnur; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Giehl, Michael; Gowin, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and ...

  9. Fracture Nasal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and u...

  10. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography a...

  11. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  12. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and fu...

  13. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  14. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  15. Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines.......Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines....

  16. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  17. Thermoelastic bending of locally heated composite plate

    OpenAIRE

    Жидик, Уляна

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of composite plates to rapid heating is investigated. A closed form solutions are presented for simply supported rectangular cross-ply and angle-ply laminated plates. Numerical results are finally presented and discussed.

  18. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is going to be a hormone bone morphogenic protein that will -- it's actually good to have some ... of the cage. This is the bone morphogenic protein, which has been mixed up on a sponge ...

  19. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  20. Dielectrophoretically controlled Fresnel zone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrimes, A F; Khodasevych, I; Mitchell, A; Rosengarten, G; Kalantar-zadeh, K

    2015-02-21

    Switchability is a highly sought after feature for planar optical systems. Suspensions of nanomaterials can be used for generating controllable changes in such systems. We report a planar diffractive microfluidic lens which integrates controlled dielectrophoresis (DEP) for trapping suspended nanomaterials. Silicon and tungsten oxide nanoparticle suspensions are used. These nanomaterials are trapped in such a way as to form alternating opaque and transparent rings using the DEP forces on demand. These rings form a planar diffractive Fresnel zone plate to focus the incident light. The Fresnel zone plate is tuned for the visible light region and the lens can be turned on (DEP applied) or off (DEP removed) in a controlled manner. This proof of concept demonstration can be further expanded for a variety of switchable optical devices and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip and optofluidic devices. PMID:25524620

  1. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  2. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden;

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... pilot study was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables...... this was for logistic reasons. All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting...

  3. Ion beams replace chrome plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion implantation is the process of altering surface properties by bombarding with high-energy metal ions. Because the process does not produce a coating, dimensions and bulk properties of the part remain unchanged, and implanted surfaces have no problems with adhesion, residual stress, or poor microstructure. Implanted surfaces can provide wear and/or corrosion resistance comparable with, or superior to, chrome plating. Furthermore, it is a relatively low-temperature process, which enables treatment of materials such as plastics, aluminum, and low-alloy steel. Furthermore, the performance of coatings can be improved by bombarding with ions during or after the coating process. Specifically, high-energy ions applied during deposition have been shown to reduce the required temperature for physical vapor deposition (PVD) systems, overcoming one of the major obstacles to replacing chromium plating with PVD coatings. This article will review the latest advances in metal-ion implantation equipment, with particular reference to economics and applications

  4. Simulation/prediction of osteogenic effects of vibration plates using thermodynamics model-a preliminary study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Václav; Maršík, František

    Lublin : Agatka, 2009, s. 148-151. ISBN 978-83-60783-18-4. [Sympozjum Naukowe.Sympozjum w ramach 40-lecia Katedry Ortopedii Dzieciecej UM i 60-lecia Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie. Lublin (PL), 17.09.2009-19.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bone remodeling * vibrating plates * thermodynamic model Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  5. Nanotechnology and mesenchymal stem cells with chondrocytes in prevention of partial growth plate arrest in pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plánka, L.; Srnec, R.; Rauser, P.; Starý, D.; Filová, Eva; Jančář, J.; Juhásová, Jana; Křen, J.; Nečas, A.; Gál, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 2 (2012), s. 128-134. ISSN 1213-8118 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9896 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : mesenchymal stem cells * growth plate defect * bone bridge Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 0.990, year: 2012

  6. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  7. Crosstalk between cancer cells and bone microenvironment in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, as well as lung and liver, is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this preference need to be elucidated, it appears that bone microenvironments possess unique biological features that enable circulating cancer cells to home, survive and proliferate, and destroy bone. In conjunction, cancers that develop bone metastases likely have the capacity to utilize these unique bone environments for colonization and bone destruction. This crosstalk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. Disruption of this interaction will allow us to design mechanism-based effective and specific therapeutic interventions for bone metastases

  8. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  9. The origin of background plating

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Stefan; Zuschlag, Annika; Raabe, Bernd; Hahn, Giso

    2011-01-01

    In the last years efforts were made to overcome the widespread screen printing metallization technique to reduce shading of the front side, increase the finger conductivity, and improve the contact properties of the metallization of crystalline silicon solar cells. A promising approach is plating via wet chemical metal deposition. Hereby, the metals nickel as contact layer and copper or silver as conduction layer are alternatives to the thick film screen printing process. One challenge using ...

  10. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  11. [Morphological analysis of bone dynamics and metabolic bone disease. Histomorphometric concepts of bone remodeling and modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki E

    2011-04-01

    In tissue level turnover of bone cells, bone remodeling shows a sequential events of activation, resorption, reversal and formation. This may be observed as secondary osteons in the cortical bone and trabecular packets in the cancellous bone. Microcracks are repaired by targeted remodeling, and calcium is released by non-targeted remodeling. In macromodeling, a macroscopic size of a bone increases with growth, without changing its basic figure. In micromodelimg, a shift of trabecula, a minishift, is biomechnically controlled. New lamellar bone is added parallel to compressive and tensile force, and bone resorption occurs at the opposite surface of formation. In minimodeling new lamellar bone is formed with a sequence of activation, then directly formation, without scalloping at the cement line between newly formed bone and its basic bone. PMID:21447918

  12. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  13. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  14. Study of uranium-electric plating measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plate-thickness of transform target (enriched Uranium-electric plating and depleted Uranium-electric plating) have been measured using Back to Back Ionization Chamber, Small solid angle device and Au-si surface barrier Semi-conductor. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment was analysed. (authors)

  15. Making of uranium plating for detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid track spark auto counter was always used to measure fission rate in neutron character experiment, the key part-transform target is plating (depleted Uranium and enriched Uranium). The plating was made with electric plating. The facture technics and methods is introduced, also the experiment result was analysed and discussed. (authors)

  16. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  17. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  18. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight...

  19. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  20. Additional bone graft accelerates healing of clavicle non-unions and improves long-term results after 8.9 years: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Schnetzke, Marc; Morbitzer, Christian; Aytac, Sara; Erhardt, Matthias; Frank, Christian; Muenzberg, Matthias; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Helbig, Lars; Suda, Arnold J.; Gruetzner, Paul-Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Clavicle non-unions can occur after both conservative and operative treatment failure. Here, we investigated the outcome of patients with delayed fracture healing or non-unions of the clavicle. Patients underwent revision surgery by plate osteosynthesis of the clavicle with or without bone grafting. Our aim was to determine rates of bone healing and the functional long-term outcome. Methods The study population of 58 consecutive patients was divided into group 1 (n = 25; no bone gr...

  1. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  2. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  3. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99mTc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99mTc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67Ga citrate and 111In white blood cells (111In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  4. In ovo administration of boron alters bone mineralization of the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N; Odom, T W; Sampson, H W; Pardue, S L

    1991-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that boron (B) is an essential element for animals, especially in bone metabolism. In this study, the influence of in ovo boron administration was assessed in the chicken. At 8 d of embryogenesis, carrier or B (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg) was injected on to the chorioallantoic membrane of fertile eggs. At hatching, body weights were recorded and tissue samples collected. Although boron failed to alter bone mineralization, it decreased (p less than 0.05) dried bone weight, suggesting a reduction in the bone organic matrix. Furthermore, 1 mg boron decreased (p less than 0.05) hatchability and increased (p less than 0.05) the height of the proliferative zone in the growth plate, indicating an unfavorable effect on bone elongation of the developing chick. PMID:1718368

  5. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  6. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  7. Bone health in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman-Levin, N; Hochberg, Z; Latzer, Y

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) put adolescents and young adults at risk for impaired bone health. Low bone mineral density (BMD) with ED is caused by failure to accrue peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. Although ED patients diagnosed with bone loss may be asymptomatic, some suffer bone pains and have increased incidence of fractures. Adolescents with ED are prone to increased prevalence of stress fractures, kyphoscoliosis and height loss. The clinical picture of the various EDs involves endocrinopathies that contribute to impaired bone health. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low bone turnover, with relatively higher osteoclastic (bone resorptive) than osteoblastic (bone formation) activity. Bone loss in AN occurs in both the trabecular and cortical bones, although the former is more vulnerable. Bone loss in AN has been shown to be influenced by malnutrition and low weight, reduced fat mass, oestrogen and androgen deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis, and more. Bone loss in AN may not be completely reversible despite recovery from the illness. Treatment modalities involving hormonal therapies have limited effectiveness, whereas increased caloric intake, weight gain and resumption of menses are essential to improved BMD. PMID:24165231

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    reported in acute and subacute bone and soft-tissue infection. FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. It is sensitive, has a high negative predictive value, and can differentiate degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection are inconclusive and its role for these indications remains to be determined. Other PET radiopharmaceuticals that are under investigation as infection imaging agents include gallium-68 citrate ((68)Ga) and iodine-124 fialuridine ((124)I -FIAU). PMID:26897336

  9. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  10. Design of grid plate and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grid plate in the fast reactor vessel is a perforated plate with about 800 circular holes supporting the fuel and blanket sub-assemblies. It transfers this load to the reactor vessel through a support structure. In a typical arrangement, the grid plate is suspended from the vessel walls. The plate is immersed in liquid sodium at 4000 C and is loaded by dead weight of the core, sodium pressure and a certain number of thermal shocks. It is required to analyse the deflection, slope and stresses in the plate and support structure. In particular, the stress concentration analysis has to be carried out. (author)

  11. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1996-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  12. Changes in the computed tomography (pixel) value of mandibular ramus bone and fixation screws after sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, K; Moroi, A; Iguchi, R; Kosaka, A; Ikawa, H; Yoshizawa, K

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the changes in computed tomography (CT) values of ramus bone and screws after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) setback surgery. The subjects were 64 patients (128 sides) who underwent bilateral SSRO setback surgery. They were divided into six groups according to the fixation plate type used and the use or not of self-setting α-tricalcium phosphate (Biopex): group 1: titanium plate and screws; group 2: titanium plate and screws with Biopex; group 3: poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) plate and screws; group 4: PLLA plate and screws with Biopex; group 5: uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite particles and poly-l-lactic acid (uHA/PLLA) plate and screws; group 6: PLLA/uHA plate and screws with Biopex. CT values (pixel values) of the lateral cortex, medial cortex, osteotomy site, and screws were measured preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 1 year postoperatively using horizontal CT images at the mandibular foramen taken parallel to the Frankfort horizontal plane. There were significant differences in the time-course change of pixel values for the lateral cortex (Pmaterial may affect bone quality during the process of bone healing after SSRO. PMID:26139563

  13. Growth Plate Flow and Metabolism Screening Using MR: A New Application for Specialized MR Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Rahbek, Ole;

    Summary MR Apparent Diffusion Constant and Surface Tension Images can provide an overview of the cell metabolism and flow of the bone growth plate. This is a new application for specialized MR sequences. Introduction Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for studies of joint cartilage as...... derived sequences can be applied to cartilage-like tissue such as growth plate. These sequences provide images that correspond to flow and cell-metabolism. MR imaging provides enough evidence and information about the structure and behavior of the growth plate to propose a standardized protocol for MRI...... signs of ischemic lesions; diffusion tensor images provide information on structure of the tissue and finally measurements of water concentration identifies the areas with highest osteoblast activity. Methods Four normal pig frozen tibiae were studied. Tomography, MR T1 and T2 sequences were performed...

  14. Degradation behaviour of LAE442-based plate–screw-systems in an in vitro bone model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of absorbable implant materials for fixation after bone fracture helps to avoid a second surgery for implant removal and the risks and costs involved. Magnesium (Mg) is well known as a potential metallic material for degradable implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate if degradable LAE442-based magnesium plate–screw-systems are suitable candidates for osteosynthesis implants in load-bearing bones. The corrosion behaviour was tested concerning the influence of different surface treatments, coatings and screw torques. Steel plates and screws of the same size served as control. Plates without special treatment screwed on up to a specified torque of 15 cNm or 7 cNm, NaOH treated plates (15 cNm), magnesium fluoride coated plates (15 cNm) and steel plates as control (15 cNm) were examined in pH-buffered, temperature-controlled SBF solution for two weeks. The experimental results indicate that the LAE442 plates and screws coated with magnesium fluoride revealed a lower hydrogen evolution in SBF solution as well as a lower weight loss and volume decrease in μ-computed tomography (μCT). The nanoindentation and SEM/EDX measurements at several plate areas showed no significant differences. Summarized, the different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour differently. Also the NaOH treatment seemed to have no essential influence on the degradation kinetics. The plates coated with magnesium fluoride showed a decreased corrosion rate. Hence, it is recommended to consider this coating for the next in vivo study. - Highlights: • Mg-based plate screw systems were examined in an in vitro corrosion setup. • Different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour. • Pretreatment with NaOH showed no increase in corrosion resistance. • Fluoride coating slowed down the corrosion rate of plates. • Fluoride coating might be an alternative for decrease of corrosion rate in vivo

  15. Degradation behaviour of LAE442-based plate–screw-systems in an in vitro bone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, Leonie [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Besdo, Silke [Institute of Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 11, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Angrisani, Nina [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Wriggers, Peter [Institute of Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 11, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hering, Britta [Institute of Production Engineering and Machine Tools, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Seitz, Jan-Marten [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Reifenrath, Janin, E-mail: janin.reifenrath@tiho-hannover.de [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The use of absorbable implant materials for fixation after bone fracture helps to avoid a second surgery for implant removal and the risks and costs involved. Magnesium (Mg) is well known as a potential metallic material for degradable implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate if degradable LAE442-based magnesium plate–screw-systems are suitable candidates for osteosynthesis implants in load-bearing bones. The corrosion behaviour was tested concerning the influence of different surface treatments, coatings and screw torques. Steel plates and screws of the same size served as control. Plates without special treatment screwed on up to a specified torque of 15 cNm or 7 cNm, NaOH treated plates (15 cNm), magnesium fluoride coated plates (15 cNm) and steel plates as control (15 cNm) were examined in pH-buffered, temperature-controlled SBF solution for two weeks. The experimental results indicate that the LAE442 plates and screws coated with magnesium fluoride revealed a lower hydrogen evolution in SBF solution as well as a lower weight loss and volume decrease in μ-computed tomography (μCT). The nanoindentation and SEM/EDX measurements at several plate areas showed no significant differences. Summarized, the different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour differently. Also the NaOH treatment seemed to have no essential influence on the degradation kinetics. The plates coated with magnesium fluoride showed a decreased corrosion rate. Hence, it is recommended to consider this coating for the next in vivo study. - Highlights: • Mg-based plate screw systems were examined in an in vitro corrosion setup. • Different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour. • Pretreatment with NaOH showed no increase in corrosion resistance. • Fluoride coating slowed down the corrosion rate of plates. • Fluoride coating might be an alternative for decrease of corrosion rate in vivo.

  16. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of distal tibial fractures using anterolateral locking plate: Evaluation of results and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Lakhotia; Gaurav Sharma; Kavin Khatri; G.N.Kiran Kumar; Vijay Sharma; Kamran Farooque

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:Soft tissue healing is of paramount importance in distal tibial fractures for a successful outcome.There is an increasing trend of using anterolateral plate due to an adequate soft tissue cover on anterolateral distal tibia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of minimally invasive anterolateral locking plate in distal tibial fractures.Methods:This is a retrospective study of 42 patients with distal tibial fractures treated with minimally invasive anterolateral tibial plating.This study evaluates the bone and soft tissue healing along with emphasis on complications related to bone and soft tissue healing.Results:Full weight bearing was allowed in mean time period of 4.95 months (3-12 months).A major local complication of a wound which required revision surgery was seen in one case.Minor complications were identified in 9 cases which comprised 4 cases of marginal necrosis of the surgical wound,1 case of superficial infection,1 case of sensory disturbance over the anterolateral foot,1 case of muscle hernia and 2 cases of delayed union.Mean distance between the posterolateral and anterolateral incision was 5.7 cm (4.5-8 cm).Conclusion:The minimally invasive distal tibial fixation with anterolateral plating is a safe method of stabilization.Distance between anterolateral and posterolateral incision can be placed less than 7 cm apart depending on fracture pattern with proper surgical timing and technique.

  17. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  18. Periostin action in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Periostin is a highly conserved matricellular protein that shares close homology with the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin 1. Periostin is expressed in a broad range of tissues including the skeleton, where it serves both as a structural molecule of the bone matrix and a signaling molecule through integrin receptors and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways whereby it stimulates osteoblast functions and bone formation. The development of periostin null mice has allowed to elucidate the crucial role of periostin on dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as on the skeletal response to mechanical loading and parathyroid hormone. The use of circulating periostin as a potential clinical biomarker has been explored in different non skeletal conditions. These include cancers and more specifically in the metastasis process, respiratory diseases such as asthma, kidney failure, renal injury and cardiac infarction. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels have been shown to predict the risk of fracture-more specifically non-vertebral- independently of bone mineral density. Because of its preferential localization in cortical bone and periosteal tissue, it can be speculated that serum periostin may be a marker of cortical bone metabolism, although additional studies are clearly needed. PMID:26721738

  19. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  1. Isolated oestrogen deficiency in male 30-year-old: persistent growth plates with severe osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A 31-year-old male presented with right rib pain and generalised skeletal symptoms. He has a past history of multiple fractures following trauma. No history of childhood fractures. Asthma (No steroids). A product of a consanguineous marriage, he has one child aged 7. Examination showed 178.6cm male with normal sexual characteristics. No abnormality detected apart from tenderness over right ribs. Bone scan showed active growth plates and right and left rib fractures. X-rays demonstrated a bone age of 15 1/2 - 16 yrs and a compression fracture of L2. His bone mineral density is severely reduced. Metabolic investigations revealed Testosterone 27.4 nmol (N 11-35), oestradiol < 70 pmol/L, ultrasensitive assay 14 and 17 pmol/L (consistent with 8-year-old male), LH N, FSH N, 46 XY Karyotype. Alkaline phosphatase. 148 (N<120), Normal glucose tolerance test. This patient illustrates a very rare condition of oestrogen deficiency in a male, probably due to aromatase deficiency. This enzyme converts testosterone to oestradiol. It illustrates the role of oestrogen in fusing growth plates and maintaining bone mass in males with otherwise normal androgen levels. A similar clinical picture can result from an oestrogen receptor abnormality. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Shear deformation in thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to understand the effect of auxeticity on shear deformation in thick plates. Three models for the shear correction factor of plates as a function of Poisson’s ratio were proposed: an analytical model, a cubic fit model and a modified model. Of these three, the cubic fit model exhibits the best accuracy over the entire range of Poisson’s ratio from −1 to 0.5. The extent of shear deformation is herein investigated using the example of uniformly loaded circular plates. It was found that the maximum deformation of such plates based on Mindlin theory approximates to those according to Kirchhoff theory when the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is highly negative. When the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is −1 and the edge of the plate is simply supported, the calculation of the maximum deflection by Mindlin theory simplifies into that by Kirchhoff theory. These results suggest that auxeticity reduces shear deformation in thick plates, permitting the use of classical plate theory for thick plates only if the plate material is highly auxetic. (paper)

  3. FIBULA AND ILIAC BONE GRAFTING WITH INTERNAL FIXATION FOR GAINT CELL TUMOUR OF PROXIMAL TIBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nishant Gaonkar; Takale; Kolekar; Vaibhav Koli; Jimit Shah

    2015-01-01

    Middle aged old female with swelling in left knee suggestive of giant cell tumour was treated with excisional biopsy with curettage, phenol cauterisation , bone graft and proximal tibia locking plate fixation. Sample sent for histopathology was consistent with diagnosis of giant cell tumour. No recurrence has been seen after 1 year of follow up.

  4. FIBULA AND ILIAC BONE GRAFTING WITH INTERNAL FIXATION FOR GAINT CELL TUMOUR OF PROXIMAL TIBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Gaonkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Middle aged old female with swelling in left knee suggestive of giant cell tumour was treated with excisional biopsy with curettage, phenol cauterisation , bone graft and proximal tibia locking plate fixation. Sample sent for histopathology was consistent with diagnosis of giant cell tumour. No recurrence has been seen after 1 year of follow up.

  5. Conditional Deletion of Indian Hedgehog in Limb Mesenchyme Results in Complete Loss of Growth Plate Formation but Allows Mature Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Densmore, Michael J; Lanske, Beate

    2015-12-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is widely recognized as an essential factor for proper skeletal development. Previous in vivo studies using mutant Ihh mouse models were limited by perinatal lethality or carried out after a growth plate formed. Thus the important role of Ihh in mesenchymal cell differentiation has not been investigated. In this study, we established Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) mice to ablate Ihh specifically in limb mesenchyme to allow us to observe the phenotype continuously from prenatal development to 3 weeks of age. Mutant mice displayed severe limb abnormalities characterized by complete lack of secondary ossification center and growth plate, indicating an essential role for Ihh in the development of these structures. Interestingly, we discovered that osteoblast differentiation and bone formation could occur in conditions of deficient Ihh. This is a novel finding that has not been observed because of the early lethality of previous Ihh mutants. Mature osteoblasts expressing osteocalcin could be detected in the center of mutant bones at postnatal day 10 (P10). Osteoclasts and blood vessel formation were also present, suggesting active bone remodeling. Histomorphometric analyses show a significant increase in osteoclast number with no major changes in bone formation rate at 3 weeks of age. Mutant long bones in the limbs were deformed, with cortices comprised of irregular woven bone. Also, there was a marked decrease in gene expression of osteoblastic and osteocytic markers. Moreover, mutant long bones displayed bone dysplasia in which we observed increased osteoclast activity and partially reduced osteoblastic and osteocytic differentiation that lead ultimately to loss of bone structures at 3 weeks of age. In summary, our data show for the first time, the presence of mature osteoblasts in long bones of the limbs despite the complete loss of growth plate formation due to Ihh deficiency. These data indicate an important function for Ihh in regulating limb

  6. [Inflammation and bone : Osteoimmunological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, K W; Neumann, E; Lange, U

    2016-06-01

    Microscopic fractures (so-called microcracks) or traumatic macrofractures require bone, as the basic scaffold of the human body, to have a high regenerative capability. In order to be able to provide this regenerative capability, bone is in a constant process of remodeling. This finely tuned homeostasis of bone formation and degradation can become disrupted, which leads to osteoporosis or other bone disorders. It has been shown that the immune system is substantially involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and that chronic inflammation in particular can disturb this balance; therefore, this article reviews the osteoimmunological aspects contributing to osteoporosis and other diseases associated with bone degradation. PMID:27250491

  7. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Morra, Gabriele; Müller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly changes from a weak hierarchy at 120-100 million years ago (Ma) towards a strong hierarchy, which peaked at 65-50, Ma subsequently relaxing back towards a minimum hierarchical structure. We suggest that this fluctuation reflects an alternation between top and bottom driven plate tectonics, revealing a previously undiscovered tectonic cyclicity at a timescale of 100 million years.

  8. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  9. [Effect of osthol on apoptosis and bone resorption of osteoclasts cultured in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Lei-Guo; Wang, Ming-Gang; Chen, Ke-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Han, Gui-Qiu; Zhu, Rui-Qing

    2012-02-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of osthol on osteoclasts' activity, bone resorption as well as apoptosis in vitro, and explore the mechanism of osthol in preventing osteoporosis. Osteoclasts were separated from long-limb bones of new born rabbits, cultured in 24-well plate with glass slices and bone slices, and treated by 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) osthol. Osteoclasts were identified by observing live cells with phase contrast microscope, HE staining, TRAP staining and toluidine blue staining of bone resorption pits. The numbers of bone resorption pits were counted as well as the surface area of bone resorption on bone slice. Osteoclasts were stained with acridine orange to detect the cell apoptosis. The ratio of apoptotic osteoclasts was observed under fluorescence microscope. The gene expression of RANKL, OPG, TRAP and p-JNK1/2 protein expression were examined using real time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Comparing with the control group without osthol, the rates of apoptotic osteoclasts increased obviously and the number and area of bone resorption pits decreased evidently with 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) osthol. There is significant difference between control group and experiment group treated by 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) osthol. Therefore, the osthol through RANK+RANKL/TRAF6/Mkk/JNK signal pathway inhibits the osteoclasts activity, enhances osteoclasts apoptotic and inhibits the bone resorption. PMID:22512027

  10. Impaired bone formation in Pdia3 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH2D3] is crucial for normal skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3 mediates 1α,25(OH2D3 initiated-rapid membrane signaling in several cell types. To understand its role in regulating skeletal development, we generated Pdia3-deficient mice and examined the physiologic consequence of Pdia3-disruption in embryos and Pdia3+/- heterozygotes at different ages. No mice homozygous for the Pdia3-deletion were found at birth nor were there embryos after E12.5, indicating that targeted disruption of the Pdia3 gene resulted in early embryonic lethality. Pdia3-deficiency also resulted in skeletal manifestations as revealed by µCT analysis of the tibias. In comparison to wild type mice, Pdia3 heterozygous mice displayed expanded growth plates associated with decreased tether formation. Histomorphometry also showed that the hypertrophic zone in Pdia3+/- mice was more cellular than seen in wild type growth plates. Metaphyseal trabecular bone in Pdia3+/- mice exhibited an age-dependent phenotype with lower BV/TV and trabecular numbers, which was most pronounced at 15 weeks of age. Bone marrow cells from Pdia3+/- mice exhibited impaired osteoblastic differentiation, based on reduced expression of osteoblast markers and mineral deposition compared to cells from wild type animals. Collectively, our findings provide in vivo evidence that PDIA3 is essential for normal skeletal development. The fact that the Pdia3+/- heterozygous mice share a similar growth plate and bone phenotype to nVdr knockout mice, suggests that PDIA3-mediated rapid membrane signaling might be an alternative mechanism responsible for 1α,25(OH2D3's actions in regulating skeletal development.

  11. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  12. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  13. Radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between December 1986 and January 1978, 68 patients with bone metastases were analyzed to evaluate the effect of radiation for the relief of pain. The 68 patients, who had a total of 97 lesions, complained of pain caused by their bone metastasis. The good, fair, and poor responses were found to be 18%, 60%, and 22%, respectively. With reference to the primary neoplasms, the effective response rate was 73% in lung cancer, 100% in breast cancer, 75% in gastric cancer, 100% in hepatic cancer, 100% in bladder cancer, 25% in epipharyngeal cancer, and 70% in the other neoplasms. Depending on the cell types of the lung cancer, the effective response rate was 80% for small cell carcinomas, 72% for adenocarcinomas and 40% for squamous cell carcinomas. Our results suggest that radiotherapy for bone metastases is to be recommended, since the effective response rate was 78% for the relief of pain. (author)

  14. Tectonic speed limits from plate kinematic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Müller, R. Dietmar; Seton, Maria; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    The motion of plates and continents on the planet's surface are a manifestation of long-term mantle convection and plate tectonics. Present-day plate velocities provide a snapshot of this ongoing process, and have been used to infer controlling factors on the speeds of plates and continents. However, present-day velocities do not capture plate behaviour over geologically representative periods of time. To address this shortcoming, we use a plate tectonic reconstruction approach to extract time-dependent plate velocities and geometries from which root mean square (RMS) velocities are computed, resulting in a median RMS plate speed of ∼ 4 cm /yr over 200 Myr. Linking tectonothermal ages of continental lithosphere to the RMS plate velocity analysis, we find that the increasing portions of plate area composed of continental and/or cratonic lithosphere significantly reduces plate speeds. Plates with any cratonic portion have a median RMS velocity of ∼ 5.8 cm /yr, while plates with more than 25% of cratonic area have a median RMS speed of ∼ 2.8 cm /yr. The fastest plates (∼ 8.5 cm /yr RMS speed) have little continental fraction and tend to be bounded by subduction zones, while the slowest plates (∼ 2.6- 2.8 cm /yr RMS speed) have large continental fractions and usually have little to no subducting part of plate perimeter. More generally, oceanic plates tend to move 2-3 times faster than continental plates, consistent with predictions of numerical models of mantle convection. The slower motion of continental plates is compatible with deep keels impinging on asthenospheric flow and increasing shear traction, thus anchoring the plate in the more viscous mantle transition zone. We also find that short-lived (up to ∼ 10 Myr) rapid accelerations of Africa (∼100 and 65 Ma), North America (∼100 and 55 Ma) and India (∼ 130 , 80 and 65 Ma) appear to be correlated with plume head arrivals as recorded by large igneous province (LIPs) emplacement. By evaluating

  15. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  16. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poundarik, Atharva A; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone's propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities, such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  17. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  18. Bone formation following implantation of bone biomaterials into extraction sites

    OpenAIRE

    Molly, Liene; Vandromme, Heleen; Quirynen, Marc; Schepers, Evert; Adams, Jessica L; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adequate bone volume is imperative for the osseointegration of endosseous implants, but post-extraction resorption and remodeling may challenge implant placement. The use of bone biomaterials has been advocated to fill extraction sites and to enhance primary implant stability during osseointegration. The objective of the case series was to evaluate bone formation histologically and biomechanically in extraction sites following implantation of three commercially available bone biom...

  19. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  20. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  1. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and ultrasound in their diagnosis and their management.

  2. [Cytogenetics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner-Capodano, A M; Poitout, D

    There has been much progress in the cytogenesis, and molecular biology of bone tumours such as Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcomas, greatly improving diagnostic possibilities and prognosis. Ewing's sarcoma is an indifferentiated sarcoma with round cells which usually occurs in children or adolescents. Ewing's sarcoma corresponds to 6% of all bone tumours. Histologically Ewing's sarcoma belongs to a group of small round cell tumours including neuroblastoma, embryon and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Differential diagnosis is difficult. Cytogenetic examinations can now differentiate Ewing's sarcoma from other small round cell tumours. There is a specific 11:12 translocation (q24; q12) which can be used as a marker. PMID:8785922

  3. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Bok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P < 0.001. Augmented corticotomy using nonautogenous graft materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side.

  4. Tooth movement out of the bony wall using augmented corticotomy with nonautogenous graft materials for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Bok; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Roitman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT) were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P corticotomy using nonautogenous graft materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side. PMID:25247172

  5. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  6. Bone lesions in early syphilis detected by bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, K.; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Lindewald, H; Sørensen, P S; Weismann, K

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of early syphilis with multiple bone lesions which all resolved after treatment with penicillin. We discuss why bone lesions may be more prevalent than generally believed and why 99m-Tc-MDP-bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiography in detecting syphilitic periostitis.

  7. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  9. SU-E-I-17: Evaluation of Commercially Available Extension Plates for the ACR CT Accreditation Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of commercially available extension plates on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values in the ACR CT accreditation phantom (Model 464, Gammex Inc., Middleton, Wi). The extension plates are intended to improve water HU values in scanners where the traditional solution involves scanning the phantom with an adjacent water or CTDI phantom. Methods: The Model 464 phantom was scanned on 9 different CT scanners at 8 separate sites representing 16 and 64 slice MDCT technology from four CT manufacturers. The phantom was scanned with and without the extension plates (Gammex 464 EXTPLT-KIT) in helical and axial modes. A water phantom was also scanned to verify water HU calibration. Technique was 120 kV tube potential, 350 mAs, and 210 mm display field of view. Slice thickness and reconstruction algorithm were based on site clinical protocols. The widest available beam collimation was used. Regions of interest were drawn on the HU test objects in Module 1 of the phantom and mean values recorded. Results: For all axial mode scans, water HU values were within limits with or without the extension plates. For two scanners (both Lightspeed VCT, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha WI), axial mode bone HU values were above the specified range both with and without the extension plates though they were closer to the specified range with the plates installed. In helical scan mode, two scanners (both GE Lightspeed VCT) had water HU values above the specified range without the plates installed. With the plates installed, the water HU values were within range for all scanners in all scan modes. Conclusion: Using the plates, the Lightspeed VCT scanners passed the water HU test when scanning in helical mode. The benefit of the extension plates was evident in helical mode scanning with GE scanners using a nominal 4 cm beam. Disclosure: The extension plates evaluated in this work were provided free of charge to the authors. The authors have no other financial interest in Gammex

  10. Radiographic examination of the hoof joint and navicular bone for the reason of prepurchase examination of the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal radiographic examination of the equine hoofjoint and navicular bone requires lateral, dorsopalmar and oblique proximodistal-palmarodistal (tangential) projections. The radiographic method used and the choice of the material are crucial elements for the image quality and the usefulness of the examination. It is not always easy to obtain precise lateral view, which can help in detection of changes on the flexor surface, disclose interior structure of navicular bone, as well as facilitates observation of dorsal aspect of the hoof joint. The dorsopalmar projection can provide nearly complete information about the borders of the navicular bone and its relationship to the adjacent structures. The 55 deg PP-PD projection reveals once again flexor surface and the interior structure of navicular bone without any superposition. This projection allows demonstration of early structural changes (namely sclerosis) in the transitional zone of the facies flexora bone plate and the navicular spongious bone

  11. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  13. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural uranium content in the bone of one person has been determined by a new method. The results were obtained by quantitative analysis of fission track autoradiographs of bone from a person injected witn 239Pu

  14. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Donate Now Select Page Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Late Effects of Treatment > Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Limb salvage is a surgical procedure that replaces ...

  15. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transmitted very efficiently through the head using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those ... changed from a normal soundwave into a bone conduction vibration, and that is what is passed then ...

  16. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importantly, this low bone mass is also associated with a seven-fold increased risk of fracture. Therefore, strategies to effectively prevent bone loss and increase bone mass are critical. We will review hormonal adaptations that contribute to bone loss in this population as well as promising new therapies that may increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk in AN. PMID:24882734

  17. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  18. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  1. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  2. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importantly, this low bone mass is also associated with a seven-fold increased risk of fracture. Therefore, strategies to effectively prevent bone loss and increase low bone mass are critical. We will review hormonal adaptations that contribute to bone loss in this population as well as promising new therapies that may increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk in AN. PMID:24882734

  3. Shock wave interaction with porous plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skews, Beric [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Aeronautical Engineering, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2005-11-01

    Previous detailed studies of the interaction of a shock wave with a perforated sheet considered the impact of a shock wave on a plate with regularly spaced slits giving area blockages of 60 and 67%, at various angles of incidence, and resulting in both regular and Mach reflection. The current work extends this study to a much wider variety of plate geometries. Blockage ratios of 20, 25, 33, 50, and 67 and inclinations of 45, 60, 75, and 90 to the shock wave were tested. Four different thicknesses of plate were tested at the same frontal blockage in order to assess the effects of gap guidance. Tests were conducted at two shock Mach numbers of 1.36 and 1.51 (inverse pressure ratios of 0.4 and 0.5). It is found that secondary reflected and transmitted waves appear due to the complex interactions within the grid gaps, and that the vortex pattern which is generated under the plate is also complex due to these interactions. The angle of the reflected shock, measured relative to the plate, decreases with plate blockage and the angle of inflow to the plate reduces with increasing blockage. By analysing the flow on the underside of the plate the pseudo-steady flow assumption is found to be a reasonable approximation. Both the pressure difference and the stagnation pressure loss across the plate are evaluated. It is found that over the range tested the plate thickness has a minimal effect. (orig.)

  4. A Refined Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucheng

    2011-04-01

    An improved higher-order shear deformation theory of plates is presented in this paper. The theory is developed from the transverse shear deformation theory presented by Ambartsumian [11]. The present plate theory contains kinematics of higher-order displacement field of plates, a system of higher-order differential equilibrium equations in terms of the three generalized displacements of bending plates, and a system of boundary conditions at each edge of plate boundaries. The present shear deformation theory of plates is validated by applying it to solve torsional plates and simply supported plates. The obtained solutions using the present theory are compared with the solutions of other shear-deformation theories. A good agreement is achieved through these comparisons and the advantages of the present theory are clearly verified. The shear deformation plate theory presented here can be applied to the analysis of laminated composite plates to better predict their dynamic and static behaviors. The proposed theory should also be supplemented to the theory of finite element analysis for developing new shell elements.

  5. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faical Ramdani; Omar Kettani; Benaissa Tadili

    2015-06-01

    Seismic triggering at plate boundaries has a very complex nature that includes seismic events at varying distances. The spatial orientation of triggering cannot be reduced to sequences from the main shocks. Seismic waves propagate at all times in all directions, particularly in highly active zones. No direct evidence can be obtained regarding which earthquakes trigger the shocks. The first approach is to determine the potential linked zones where triggering may occur. The second step is to determine the causality between the events and their triggered shocks. The spatial orientation of the links between events is established from pre-ordered networks and the adapted dependence of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. Based on a coefficient of synchronous seismic activity to grid couples, we derive a network link by each threshold. The links of high thresholds are tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  6. Intrusion Characteristics of Three Bone Cements for Tibial Component of Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Cadaveric Bone Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Justin K; Chong, Alexander C M; Dinh, Nam L; Adrian, Scott; Cusick, Robert; Wooley, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the intrusion characteristics of Simplex-HV to Simplex-P and Palacos-R in cadaveric proximal tibial bone. Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaver proximal tibiae were examined with standard arthroplasty tibial cuts. Each tibia was randomly assigned to receive one of the three bone cements for use with finger packing technique. Sagittal sections were prepared and analyzed using digital photography and stereoscopic micrographs to evaluate cement intrusion characteristics. The cement penetration depth was measured from the tibial bone cut surface, which did not include the cement thickness under the tibial base plate. Significant differences were detected in the bone cement penetration between the three cements. Penetration was increased using the Simplex-HV (average, 2.7 mm; range, 2.0-3.0 mm) compared with Simplex-P (average, 2.2 mm) and Palacos-R (average, 1.8 mm). These depths approximate to 3.7, 3.2, and 2.8 mm of total cement penetration, respectively. The data suggest that high-viscosity bone cement may provide good fixation of the tibial component of a total knee arthroplasty when using the finger packing technique. PMID:27518289

  7. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  8. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noble B.

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas o...

  9. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J; Partridge, Nicola C

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  10. Temporal bone dissection skill: A necessity for life otologic surgeries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomy of the temporal bone is complex and not easily learned. Hours of study in the temporal bone laboratory are required for a good grasp by the intending otologic surgeon in order to avoid predictable complications. Aim and Objective: This study aims at highlighting the steps involved toward acquiring the necessary skills and understanding this complex anatomy before embarking on life otological surgeries (temporal bones surgeries and cochlear implant in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of cadaver temporal bone dissection conducted over a period of 3 months. A total of 10 dry, formalin-fixed cadavers were used for the dissection. A team of doctors headed by a consultant otolaryngologist carried out the dissections on the cadavers. The landmark of importance for the dissections was the McEwen′s triangle. From this starting point, various otologic surgeries were performed hands-on on the cadavers using the appropriate burs and their sizes. Anatomic features encountered during the dissection were noted and recorded. Results: The 10 cadavers (100% were all adult males. The youngest and oldest cadavers were aged 25 and 45 years, respectively, with an overall mean age of 38.9 years. The interval between death and embalmment varied from 5 to 79 days. The suprameatal crest, dural plate, aditus and antrum were all present in the 20 temporal bones dissected. Cribrifossae and wide marrow mastoid cavity were noted in 17 (85% temporal bones each, highly pneumatized mastoid, herald air cells and incus were seen in 14 (70% each, tympanic remnant was seen in 13 (65% and stapes in 6 (30%. Conclusion: Temporal bone dissection provides an avenue in understanding the anatomic features and the variations that may pose a challenge in cochlear implant and other otologic surgeries and it enhances the dexterity of the otologic surgeon.

  11. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jash, A.; Majumdar, N.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-06-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with, grossly, three kind of features. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  12. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jash, Abhik; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with three kind of features grossly. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  13. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  15. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or...

  16. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeyere, A.; Somer, F. de; Perdieus, D.; Lemmens, L.; Schillebeeckx, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden (Belgium); Hauwe, L. van den [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)

    2000-02-01

    The CT and MRI findings in a case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone are reported. Although chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, only 10 % of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. The hyoid bone is a rare site of involvement with only seven cases reported previously. (orig.)

  17. Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone

    OpenAIRE

    Roato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recen...

  18. Craniocervical bone pneumatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of extensive craniocervical bone pneumatisation presenting after minor trauma. The patient had neurological signs and initial radiographs showed multiple lucencies in the skull base and the atlas vertebra. CT established the true nature of this rare condition. (orig.). With 3 figs

  19. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  20. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern for patients with MBD is the general loss in quality of life. How much of an effect MBD has on ... to be most effective in maintaining quality of life. A technetium bone scan ... blood count, because loss of red blood cells (anemia) is a frequent ...