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Sample records for bone mineral measurements

  1. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

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    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  2. Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

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    Nurgül Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine thechanges of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasisvulgaris.Methods: 33 patients, diagnosed with psoriasis vulgarisin Erciyes University, Medical School, Department of Dermatology,and 23 healthy subjects as control group wereincluded in this study. Lumbar and femur bone mineraldensity of all patients and control group were measured.Biochemical tests related to bone metabolism were performed.Results: We did not find statistically significant differencebetween patient and control groups’ bone mineral density.However, the lumbar spine t score of men, were found tobe significantly lower in the patient group than the controlgroup (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant differencein bone mineral density of women between thepatient and control groups. The effects on bone mineraldensity of disease period and using the topical corticosteroidswere not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study indicates that bone mineral densityof patients with psoriasis vulgaris was not differentfrom healthy subject.Key words: Psoriasis vulgaris, bone mineral density, osteoporosis

  3. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

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    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  4. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

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    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  5. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

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    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  6. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

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    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  7. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

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    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  8. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

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    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  9. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

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    Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

  10. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

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    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  11. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

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    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  12. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

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    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 5

  13. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

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    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  14. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

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    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  15. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

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    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  16. Normal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

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    Hardin, D.; R. Arumugam; Seilheimer, D.; Leblanc, A.; Ellis, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoporosis has been reported as a complication of cystic fibrosis (CF).
AIMS—To measure bone mineral density (BMD) in non-acutely ill adults and bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF.
METHODS—We analysed data from 28 adults and 13 children with CF. Corticosteroid use was minimal for the year prior to study in both groups. Dual x ray absorptiometry was used to measure total body and regional bone mineral density in adults. In children, whole body BMC was...

  17. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

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    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  18. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

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    Karen Van den Bussche

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa, and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias.

  19. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

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    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  20. Calcium supplement ingestion may alter lumbar spine bone mineral density measurement.

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    Krueger, Diane; Checovich, Mary; Gemar, Dessa; Wei, Xiaodan; Binkley, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Densitometry centers commonly request patients abstain from ingesting calcium supplements prior to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to avoid interference with bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, it is not clear that this practice is necessary. This study assessed the impact of recent calcium supplement intake on lumbar spine BMD measurement. The phase 1 experiment demonstrated BMD differences when placing a supplement over various areas of two encapsulated phantoms. To determine whether these results were clinically relevant, the phase 2 study enrolled 36 subjects who received spine scans before and after random assignment to ingest one Citracal, OsCal or People's Choice tablet providing 315, 500, and 600 mg of elemental calcium, respectively. The phase 3 study evaluated 15 subjects that had three spine scans with repositioning between to establish BMD precision, and then ingested a calcium carbonate tablet. Post-dosing scans were performed 15 and 30 minutes after tablet ingestion. The difference in L1-L4 BMD on subsequent scans was compared with the study derived least significant change (LSC) of 0.028 g/cm(2). In phase 2, L1-L4 BMD changes outside the LSC occurred in 36% of subjects with 47% having visualized tablets. Similarly, 33% of the phase 3 subjects demonstrated changes outside the LSC after calcium ingestion and 53% of the subjects in phase 3 had tablets visualized. Visualization of calcium tablets was not associated with BMD changes. In conclusion, calcium tablet intake may affect measured L1-L4 BMD within 30 minutes of ingestion. As such, it is appropriate to request patients abstain from calcium tablet ingestion prior to a spine DXA examination.

  1. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

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    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative (31)P NMR spectroscopy and (1)H MRI measurements of bone mineral and matrix density differentiate metabolic bone diseases in rat models.

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    Cao, Haihui; Nazarian, Ara; Ackerman, Jerome L; Snyder, Brian D; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Hrovat, Mirko I; Dai, Guangping; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Wu, Yaotang

    2010-06-01

    In this study, bone mineral density (BMD) of normal (CON), ovariectomized (OVX), and partially nephrectomized (NFR) rats was measured by (31)P NMR spectroscopy; bone matrix density was measured by (1)H water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI); and the extent of bone mineralization (EBM) was obtained by the ratio of BMD/bone matrix density. The capability of these MR methods to distinguish the bone composition of the CON, OVX, and NFR groups was evaluated against chemical analysis (gravimetry). For cortical bone specimens, BMD of the CON and OVX groups was not significantly different; BMD of the NFR group was 22.1% (by (31)P NMR) and 17.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. For trabecular bone specimens, BMD of the OVX group was 40.5% (by (31)P NMR) and 24.6% (by gravimetry) lower than CON; BMD of the NFR group was 26.8% (by (31)P NMR) and 21.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. No significant change of cortical bone matrix density between CON and OVX was observed by WASPI or gravimetry; NFR cortical bone matrix density was 10.3% (by WASPI) and 13.9% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. OVX trabecular bone matrix density was 38.0% (by WASPI) and 30.8% (by gravimetry) lower than CON, while no significant change in NFR trabecular bone matrix density was observed by either method. The EBMs of OVX cortical and trabecular specimens were slightly higher than CON but not significantly different from CON. Importantly, EBMs of NFR cortical and trabecular specimens were 12.4% and 26.3% lower than CON by (31)P NMR/WASPI, respectively, and 4.0% and 11.9% lower by gravimetry. Histopathology showed evidence of osteoporosis in the OVX group and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (renal osteodystrophy) in the NFR group. These results demonstrate that the combined (31)P NMR/WASPI method is capable of discerning the difference in EBM between animals with osteoporosis and those with impaired bone mineralization.

  3. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

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    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary;

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing and the general practitioner is integral to identifying these patients. It is, therefore, of interest to characterize the referral pattern of patients scheduled for determination of bone density by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning....... Altogether, 1551 scans from first-time referred women were analyzed with respect to normal bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis as the outcome, and the results were compared with age and body mass index (BMI). Using multiple regression analysis, risk estimates for osteoporosis were...... calculated with respect to patient characteristics. Only 21% of the referred patients had osteoporosis and 34% had osteopenia. Of these, 24% had osteopenia and a Z-score below -1. Half of the referred patients were women less than 60 yr with a markedly low risk of osteoporosis. A BMI less than 20 kg/m(2...

  4. Bone mineral density test

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    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  5. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

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    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  6. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

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    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  7. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

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    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  8. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P ....001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P

  9. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...

  10. Bone mineral density determinations by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the management of patients with Marfan syndrome--some factors which affect the measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Philip F; Peterson, Margaret G E; Schneider, Robert; Davis, Jessica G; Burke, Stephen W; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Mueller, Charles M; Raggio, Cathleen L

    2007-02-01

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) was sporadically reported in patients with Marfan syndrome. This may or may not place the Marfan patient at increased risk for bone fracture. In comparing the BMDs of our patients with those reported in the literature, it seemed that agreement between values, and hence the degree of osteoporosis or osteopenia reported, was dependent on the instrumentation used. The objective of this study was to statistically assess this impression. Bone mineral density measurements from our previously published study of 30 adults with Marfan syndrome performed on a Lunar DPXL machine were compared with studies published between 1993-2000 measured using either Lunar or Hologic bone densitometry instruments. The differences of our measurements compared with those made on other Lunar machines were not statistically significant, but did differ significantly with published results from Hologic machines (P density determinations will be required along with considerations of height, obesity, age, and sex.

  11. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/yea...... that low BMI constitutes a potential risk factor for osteoporosis....

  12. Bone mineral density in patients on maintenance dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Csaba; Marton, Adrienn; Nemeth, Zsofia Klara; Mucsi, Istvan

    2010-09-01

    Disorders of bone and mineral metabolism affect almost all patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). High prevalence of decreased bone mineral density has been reported in this population; however, the role and diagnostic utility of bone density measurements are not well established. The incidence of bone fractures is high in patients with ESRD, but the association between fractures and bone density is not obvious. A recent meta-analysis suggested that decreased density at the radius might be associated with higher overall fracture risk. Changes in bone mineral density reflect several underlying pathological processes, such as vitamin D deficiency, estrogen deficiency and changes in bone turnover. The response of bone to these factors and processes is not uniform: it can vary in different compartments of the same bone or in different bones of the skeleton. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between the various types of bone. This may be possible by proper selection of the measurement site or using methods such as quantitative bone computed tomography. Previous studies used different methods and measured bone mineral density at diverse sites of the skeleton, which makes the comparison of their results very difficult. The association between changes in bone mineral metabolism and cardiovascular mortality is well known in ESRD patients. Studies also suggest that low bone density itself might be an indicator for high risk of cardiovascular events and poor overall outcome in this population. Some of the risk factors of low bone mineral density, such as vitamin D or estrogen deficiency, are potentially modifiable. Further studies are needed to elucidate if interventions modifying these risk factors will have an impact on clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the options for and problems of assessment of bone density and summarize the literature about factors associated with low bone density and its link to clinical outcomes in patients on

  13. Combined vertebral fracture assessment and bone mineral density measurement : a new standard in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in academic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, P. L.; Jonkman, S.; Koolhaas, W.; Stiekema, A.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Slart, R. H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Analysis enables the detection of vertebral fractures in the same session as bone mineral density testing. Using this method in 2,424 patients, we found unknown vertebral fractures in approximately one out of each six patients with significant impact on management. The presence of

  14. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  15. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  16. A reliable method for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Rolf, Marijn P.; Roos, Jan C.; Burcksen, Jos; Knol, Dirk L.; de Groot, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a standardized protocol for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Ten able-bodied individuals (7 males) participated in this study. During one measuremen

  17. Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Floriani, I.; Torri, V.; Li, J.; Kuijk, C. van; Genant, H.K.; Lang, T.F. [Scientific Inst. ' Mario Negri' , Milan (Italy). Biometry and Data Management Unit

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 {+-}6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P{approx_equal}0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CT{sub T}OT{sub F}EM and CT{sub T}ROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by

  18. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  19. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  20. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  1. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  2. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  3. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  4. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  5. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  6. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  7. Mechanism of mineral formation in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H C

    1989-03-01

    The mechanism of mineral formation in bone is seen best where active new bone formation is occurring, e.g., in newly forming subperiosteal bone of the embryo, in the growing bone of young animals, and in healing rickets where the calcification process in osteoid is reactivated. A large body of ultrastructural evidence, using conventional and anhydrous methods for tissue preparation, has shown convincingly that extracellular matrix vesicles are present at or near the mineralization front in all of the above, and that these vesicles are the initial site of apatite mineral deposition. Thus bone resembles growth plate cartilage, predentin, and turkey tendon in having calcification initiated by matrix vesicles. Once the calcification cascade is begun, matrix vesicles are no longer needed to support mineralization and are consumed by the advancing mineralization front in which performed crystals serve as nuclei for the formation of new crystals. The rate of crystal proliferation is promoted by the availability of Ca2+, PO4(3-), and the presence of collagen, and retarded by naturally occurring inhibitors of mineralization such as proteoglycans and several noncollagenous calcium-binding proteins of bone including bone-Gla protein (osteocalcin), phosphoproteins, osteonectin, and alpha-2HS-glycoproteins. New electron microscopic immunocytochemical findings in our laboratory suggest that the origin of alkaline phosphatase-positive bone matrix vesicles is polarized to the mineral-facing side of osteoblasts and may be concentrated near the intercellular junctions of human embryonic osteoblasts.

  8. Localized tissue mineralization regulated by bone remodelling: A computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decco, Oscar; Adams, George; Cook, Richard B.; García Aznar, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Bone is a living tissue whose main mechanical function is to provide stiffness, strength and protection to the body. Both stiffness and strength depend on the mineralization of the organic matrix, which is constantly being remodelled by the coordinated action of the bone multicellular units (BMUs). Due to the dynamics of both remodelling and mineralization, each sample of bone is composed of structural units (osteons in cortical and packets in cancellous bone) created at different times, therefore presenting different levels of mineral content. In this work, a computational model is used to understand the feedback between the remodelling and the mineralization processes under different load conditions and bone porosities. This model considers that osteoclasts primarily resorb those parts of bone closer to the surface, which are younger and less mineralized than older inner ones. Under equilibrium loads, results show that bone volumes with both the highest and the lowest levels of porosity (cancellous and cortical respectively) tend to develop higher levels of mineral content compared to volumes with intermediate porosity, thus presenting higher material densities. In good agreement with recent experimental measurements, a boomerang-like pattern emerges when plotting apparent density at the tissue level versus material density at the bone material level. Overload and disuse states are studied too, resulting in a translation of the apparent–material density curve. Numerical results are discussed pointing to potential clinical applications. PMID:28306746

  9. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content. [Comparison of findings in patients with primary osteoporosis and healthy marathon runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Colbert, C; Bachtell, R; Thompson, K; Aloia, J; Cohn, S

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners.

  10. Dichromatic absorptiometry of vertebral bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C R; Madsen, M

    1977-01-01

    A dichromatic photon absorptiometric technique for the in vivo measurement of the bone mineral of the spine is discussed. A high purity, high activity 153Gd source which has photons of predominantly 44 and 100 keV was used as the transmission source. The transmission scans were performed on a modified Ohio Nuclear whole body rectillinear scanner. The precision of four measurements on three individuals and three measurements on one individual over a one month period was 2.3% (coefficient of variation). The accuracy determined by measurements of phantoms with known concentrations of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solutions was 1.2% (standard error of estimate). This technique can be applied in most well equipped nuclear medicine departments.

  11. The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medicine Physics, The Graduate School of Biomedical Science Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.

  12. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  13. The precision and influence of rotation for measurements of bone mineral density of the distal femur following total knee arthroplasty: a methodological study using DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therbo, Matthias; Petersen, Michael M; Schrøder, Henrik M; Nielsen, Palle K; Zerahn, Bo; Lund, Bjarne

    2003-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of DEXA (Norland XR-26 mark II) for quantitative measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) in the lateral plane of the distal femur after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). BMD was measured in 5-6 regions of interest (ROI) in close relation to the femoral component. In an in vitro study using 3 different distal femur phantoms, we found that the precision was affected by rotation of the distal femur. When BMD measurements were repeated within a range of motion of 40 degrees, 20 degrees, and 0 degrees, the coefficient of variation (CV) was approximately 15%, 10%, and 0.6%, respectively. We found that the use of bone cement for implant fixation had no effect on the level of BMD. Double measurements performed in 28 patients gave average CV values of 3.3%, 3.0%, and 2.6% for the uncemented Duracon, and Interax femoral components and the cemented AGC components, respectively. Our in vivo average CV measurements of BMD of the distal femur after TKA were on a level, suitable for repeated BMD measurements in prospective studies, which evaluate adaptive bone remodeling of the distal femur after cemented and uncemented TKA.

  14. Cross calibration of QDR-2000 and QDR-1000 dual-energy X-ray densitometers for bone mineral and soft-tissue measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Gram, J; Hansen, T. B.;

    1995-01-01

    ) and fan beam (FB) modes (n = 40-62) as a quality control measure. A total of 83 subjects (79 females and four males) with a wide range of bone mineral densities (BMD) were studied. There was a linear relationship between results with the QDR-1000W and QDR-2000 in SB mode, and between SB and FB mode...... device. Soft-tissue composition with FB (enhanced analysis protocol) on the QDR-2000 differed greatly from that obtained using SB (standard protocol). Lean tissue mass was 4 kg lower and fat mass 4 kg higher in FB mode.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  15. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  16. The Effect of (99m)Tc on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Whether the γ-emission by radioisotopes influences the outcome of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antecedent administration of (99m)Tc on DXA measurements regarding body composition and bone mineral...... density (BMD) using a K-edge filter scanner. The phantom measurements were performed by placing a urinary bladder phantom containing 40mL of radioisotope solution on the pelvic region of a whole-body phantom. Twenty-seven patients attending our department for a routine examination involving...... the administration of a tracer marked with (99m)Tc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient...

  17. Study of Bone Mineral Density Measuring System with Quantitative CT%定量CT骨矿密度测量系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景鑫; 张光; 孙晶; 韩邕; 韩学峰

    2001-01-01

    介绍一种定量CT骨矿密度测量系统。系统包括自制的固体骨矿密度CT测量校准模体和测量分析软件系统。检测表明该系统准确可靠,经济实用。%This paper introduces a kind of bone mineral density(BMD) measuring system with quantitative CT(QCT). This system includs a self-made solid calibration phantom for BMD and the measuring software. The results of the tests have showed that this system is reliable,cheap and ease of use for BMD measurement.

  18. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  19. Bone Mineral Density, PCB, PCQ and PCDF in Yusho

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 俊朗; 中野, 治郎; 枡田, 智子; 徳田, 昌紘; 榊原, 淳; 片岡, 英樹; 沖田, 実

    2009-01-01

    We measured bone mineral density of the distal end of radius with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum Ca, serum P, blood PCB level, blood PCQ level and blood PCDF level in Yusho. As a result, the osteoporosis group ( or = 70% and < 80% of YAM BMD), 16.1%, ...

  20. Influence of body constitution on bone mineral density measured by digital radiogrammetry; Einfluss der Koerperkonstitution auf die mittels digitaler Radiogrammetrie evaluierte Knochenmineraldichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, J.; Pfeil, A.; Petrovitch, A.; Kramer, A.; Mentzel, H.J.; Hansch, A.; Malich, A.; Kaiser, W.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Teufl, F. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Kreiskrankenhaus Stollberg (Germany); Lehmann, G.; Hein, G. [Klinik fuer Innere Medizin III, Abt. Rheumatologie und Osteologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: in addition to many established osteodensitometri-techniques, digital radiogrammetry (DXR) is considered to be a reliable method for measuring the cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). This study investigates the influence of body constitution on BMD of healthy adults as calculated by DXR. Materials and methods: in a prospective study, 246 adults without bone affecting diseases in their clinical history underwent DXR for analysis and calculations of bone mineral density and determination of metacarpal index (MCI) and porosity index (PI). Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were recorded for each patient. Results: for all individuals and for all BMI subgroups, both height (0.55measures an increase in BMD with increasing body weight. Therefore DXR, which provides a precise technique without influence of soft tissue, seems to be a promising technique for quantifying marginal alterations in cortical BMD as well for following the course of osteoporosis. (orig.)

  1. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  2. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  3. Total body and regional bone mineral densitometry (BMD) and soft tissue measurements: correlations of BMD parameter to lumbar spine and hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, H; Munz, M

    2000-08-01

    Bone loss in men and women seems to differ according to the skeletal regions or particular areas being evaluated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the method of choice for measuring total body and regional bone mineral area density (BMD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of DXA measurements of total body in relation to lumbar spine and hip in different scan beam designs. In 300 patients, ages 43-80 years, lumbar spine, hip, total body and regional bone mineral area density, and soft tissue measurements were performed on all subjects in the supine position on a QDR 2000 using single beam (SB) and fan beam (FB). Short-term precision errors were 0.7% (SB) and 1.2% (FB) for BMD total of the total body and between 1.2% and 8.0% for soft tissue measurements. All mid-term precision errors of BMD total, right and left leg, and pelvis were below 2.0% with SB and FB, whereas precision errors of thoracic and lumbar spine varied depending on the scan mode being applied. In contrast, all mid-term precision errors of soft tissue measurements were greater (2.6-11.0%). All SB values of BMD and soft tissue measurement were significantly higher than FB values, except for BMD values of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis. Furthermore, BMD total of the total body scan correlated significantly (P parameters with best "r"-values (0.86-0. 92) for the right and left leg in SB and FB design. In addition, there were excellent correlations (r > 0.94, P spine (or hip) and total body, being best for the subregional thorax. Our data demonstrate short-and mid-term precision errors of BMD with reproducible results for most areas in SB and FB design, whereas soft tissue measurements vary depending on the area being measured. Furthermore, there is a close relationship between BMD values of total body total and subregional parameters and lumbar spine and hip scans, respectively.

  4. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    sites (12%-13%, corresponding to about 1.0-1.5 SD), and extrapolation suggested reverse order of the rates of diminution thereafter (forearm > AP > LAT). When bone mineral content of the entire L3 vertebra (tBMC) was measured in vivo, AP tBMC could account for only 67% of the variation in LAT t...

  5. Bone Mineral Density Reduction Following Irradiation of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Total body bone mineral density (TBBMD was measured by X-ray absorptiometry in 46 brain tumor patients aged from 3.8 to 28.7 years (mean 14.9 y at a mean of 6.4 y (range 1.4-14.8 y after end of treatment for brain tumor.

  6. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  7. Técnicas de medida de densidad de masa ósea Bone mineral density measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ibáñez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los densitómetros por absorciometría fotónica simple y dual dejaron paso a las técnicas no isotópicas, absorciometría de rayos X simple y dual, que son las que más se usan en la actualidad. La técnica más extendida es la absorciometría de doble energía de rayos X, DXA, especialmente los densitómetros que analizan cadera y columna lumbar. Es una técnica precisa, fiable, y se ha demostrado que es capaz de predecir fracturas. Sin embargo, los densitómetros periféricos, tanto los que se basan en tecnología dexa como los de ultrasonidos, también han demostrado su utilidad. La topografía cuantificada computerizada es el único densitómetro tridimensional, capaz de diferenciar entre hueso cortical y trabecular. Tiene el inconveniente de la alta radiación y el alto coste económico. Repasamos las características, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes, de cada una de estas técnicas de medida de masa ósea. En el presente articulo se repasan las distintas técnicas densitométricas desarrolladas en los últimos años y los distintos criterios sobre las indicaciones de densitometría. No existen criterios unánimes al respecto, sin embargo distintos organismos y sociedades científicas han elaborado recomendaciones, basadas en los factores de riesgo de osteoporosis o de fractura, que pueden ser una guía útil para la práctica clínica.Different techniques for measuring bone mass density developed in the last years are revised. Single and dual fotonic absorciometry are now outdated by the use of single and dual x-ray absorciometry which don’t need an isotope source. The most widely used technique now is the dual energy x-ray asbsorciometry , specially the ones who analyse lumbar spine and hip. It is an accurate and precise tool and has proved to be a good predictor of fractures. Nevertherless, peripheral densitometers based on dual energy x-ray or on broadband ultrasonic attenuation, have also proved to be of utility

  8. Bone mineral imaging using a digital magnification mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Fukai; Tokumori, Kenji; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Arimura, Hidetaka; Morishita, Junji; Ohki, Masafumi

    2008-03-01

    The measurement of bone mineral content is important for diagnosis of demineralization diseases such as osteoporosis. A reliable method of obtaining bone mineral images using a digital magnification mammography system has been developed. The full-field digital phase contrast mammography (PCM) system, which has a molybdenum target of 0.1mm focal spot size, was used with 1.75 x magnification. We have performed several phantom experiments using aluminum step wedges (0.2 mm - 6.0 mm in thickness) and a bone mineral standard phantom composed of calcium carbonate and polyurethane (CaCO 3 concentration: 26.7 - 939.0 mg/cm 3) within a water or Lucite phantom. X-ray spectra on the exposure field are measured using a CdTe detector for evaluation of heel effect. From the equations of x-ray attenuation and the thickness of the subjects, quantitative images of both components were obtained. The quantitative images of the two components were obtained for different tube voltages of 24 kV to 39 kV. The relative accuracy was less than 2.5% for the entire aluminum thickness of 0.5 to 6.0 mm at 5 cm water thickness. Accuracy of bone mineral thickness was within 3.5% for 5cm water phantom. The magnified quantitative images of a hand phantom significantly increased the visibility of fine structures of bones. The digital magnification mammography system is useful not only for measurement of bone mineral content, but also high-resolution quantitative imaging of trabecular structure.

  9. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  11. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  12. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with areal and volumetric measures of bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone: impact of vitamin D-binding protein and its assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, T. O.; Leonard, M. B.; Baker, J.; Sayed, S.; Zemel, B. S.; Shults, J.; Herskovitz, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A comparison of the association of different forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and with areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) demonstrated that bioavailable and free 25(OH)D do not provide a better index of vitamin D status in terms of bone health compared to total 25(OH)D. Introduction This study aims to compare measures of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) using a monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA and assess correlations of total versus estimated free and bioavailable 25(OH)D with BMD and PTH concentrations. Methods DXA and peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) scans were obtained in 304 adults (158 black, 146 white), ages 21–80 years. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and albumin concentrations. Multivariable linear regression with standardized beta coefficients was used to evaluate associations of bone measures and PTH with total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D. Results Measures of DBP obtained using a monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA were not correlated (rs=0.02, p=0.76). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D based on the polyclonal assay were lower in black versus white participants (p<0.0001); this race difference was not evident using the monoclonal assay. Adjusted for age, sex, calcium intake, and race, all forms of 25(OH)D were negatively associated with PTH, but the absolute coefficient was greatest for total 25(OH)D (−0.34, p<0.001) versus free/bioavailable 25(OH)D (−0.18/−0.24 depending on DBP assay, p≤0.003). In analyses stratified on race, none of the measures of 25(OH)D were associated with BMD across DXA and pQCT sites. Conclusions The monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA yielded highly discrepant measures of DBP, particularly among black individuals, likely related to established race differences in DBP polymorphisms. Contrary to prior studies, our findings indicate that using DBP to estimate bioavailable and free 25(OH)D does not provide a better index of

  13. CT Measures of Bone Mineral Density and Muscle Mass Can Be Used to Predict Noncancer Death in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew M; Swain, Thomas A; Mayhew, David L; Cardan, Rex A; Baker, Christopher B; Harris, David M; Yang, Eddy S; Fiveash, John B

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To determine if computed tomographic (CT) metrics of bone mineral density and muscle mass can improve the prediction of noncancer death in men with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. All patients who underwent radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer between 2001 and 2012 with height, weight, and past medical history documented and who underwent CT that included the L4-5 vertebral interspace were included. On a single axial CT section obtained at the mid-L5 level, the mean CT attenuation of the trabecular bone of the L5 vertebral body (L5HU) was measured. The height-normalized psoas cross-sectional area (PsoasL4-5) was measured on a single CT section obtained at the L4-5 vertebral interface. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess effects on noncancer death. By using parameter estimates from an adjusted model, a prognostic index for prediction of noncancer death was generated and compared with age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) by using the Harrell c statistic. Results Six hundred fifty-three men met the inclusion criteria. Prostate cancer risk grouping, androgen deprivation, race, age-adjusted CCI, L5HU, and PsoasL4-5 were included in a multivariable model. Age-adjusted CCI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.36, P < .001), L5HU (HR = 2.88 for L5HU < 105 HU, HR = 1.42 for 105 HU ≤ L5HU ≤ 150 HU, P < .001), PsoasL4-5 (HR = 1.95 for PsoasL4-5 < 7.5 cm(2)/m(2), P = .003), and race (HR = 1.68 for African American race, HR = 1.77 for other nonwhite race, P = .019) were independent predictors of noncancer death. The prognostic index yielded a c value of 0.747 for the prediction of noncancer death versus 0.718 for age-adjusted CCI alone. Conclusion L5HU and PsoasL4-5, which are surrogates for bone mineral density and muscle mass, respectively, were independent predictors of noncancer death. The prognostic index that incorporated

  14. 2型糖尿病患者骨密度的测定%Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉华; 康后生; 毛淑芳; 严宗逊

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate into the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: BMD of lumbar ver-tebrae 2 -4 and femur in 63 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes mel-litua were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) andwere compared with age, sex and BMI-matched normal controlgroup. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in BMD of lumbarvertebrae 2 -4 in female of menopause with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05), but BMD of total were lower than that of the controls (P<0. 05), BMD of neck were significantly lower than thai of the controls (P<0.01); No significant differences were found in BMD of I2-4 and femurin male of 50 years old above with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: BMD of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is different according todifferent sex, BMD of female of menopause with type 2 diabetes mellituswere descended easily, especially in areas of neck BMD, it should cause topay attention to in order to prevent pathologic bone fracture; BMD of maleof 50 years old above with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have no the obviouschanges than that of the controls.

  15. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  16. Characterization of mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Biraja P; Silva, Emilio; Van Vliet, Krystyn; Gibson, Lorna J

    2008-05-01

    Mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds designed for bone regeneration have been synthesized via triple co-precipitation in the absence of a titrant phase. Here, we characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of these newly developed scaffolds with 50 and 75 wt.% mineral content. The 50 wt.% scaffold had an equiaxed pore structure with isotropic mechanical properties and a Ca-P-rich mineral phase comprised of brushite; the 75 wt.% scaffold had a bilayer structure with a pore size varying in the through-thickness direction and a mineral phase comprised of 67% brushite and 33 wt.% monetite. The compressive stress-strain response of the scaffolds was characteristic of low-density open-cell foams with distinct linear elastic, collapse plateau and densification regimes. The elastic modulus and strength of individual struts within the scaffolds were measured using an atomic force microscopy cantilevered beam-bending technique and compared with the composite response under indentation and unconfined compression. Cellular solids models, using the measured strut properties, overestimated the overall mechanical properties for the scaffolds; the discrepancy arises from defects such as disconnected pore walls within the scaffold. As the scaffold stiffness and strength decreased with increasing overall mineral content and were less than that of natural, mineralized collagen scaffolds, these microstructural/mechanical relations will be used to further improve scaffold design for bone regeneration applications.

  17. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

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    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  18. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

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    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  19. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  20. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  1. Cross-calibration of Lunar DPX-IQ and DPX dual-energy x-ray densitometers for bone mineral measurements in women: effect of body anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelainen, J; Honkanen, R; Vanninen, E; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Niskanen, L; Jurvelin, J S

    2005-01-01

    When dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments are replaced, it is essential to determine if systematic differences in measurements occur. As a part of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study (N=14,220), a group of women, aged 36 to 69 yr underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2 to L4 (n=89) and proximal femur scans (n=88) by the Lunar DPX and DPX-IQ, respectively, during the same visit. A high linear association (r from 0.944 to 0.989, p<0.001) between the two scanners was established for lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The average DPX values for BMD were 1.1% and 2.0% higher than those of DPX-IQ for the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and Ward's triangle (p=0.001), respectively. Femoral neck BMD values by the DPX were 1.4% lower (p<0.001) compared to DPX-IQ. The difference between trochanter BMD results (0.1%) was not significant (p=0.809). In the femoral neck and trochanter, but not in the lumbar spine or Ward's triangle, the differences in BMD values of the two machines were found to depend on body mass index. After linear formulas based on simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were calculated, the differences were negligible, enabling objective comparison of longitudinal measurements.

  2. Impaired Vestibular Function and Low Bone Mineral Density: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Anson, Eric; du Lac, Sascha; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that experimentally induced vestibular ablation leads to a decrease in bone mineral density, through mechanisms mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of bone mineral density is a common and potentially morbid condition that occurs with aging, and we sought to investigate whether vestibular loss is associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. We evaluated this question in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a large, prospective cohort study managed by the National Institute on Aging (N = 389). Vestibular function was assessed with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), a measure of saccular function. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In two-way t test analysis, we observed that individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density. In adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, we observed that older individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density, specifically in weight-bearing hip and lower extremity bones. These results suggest that the vestibular system may contribute to bone homeostasis in older adults, notably of the weight-bearing hip bones at greatest risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further longitudinal analysis of vestibular function and bone mineral density in humans is needed to characterize this relationship and investigate the potential confounding effect of physical activity.

  3. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body com...

  4. Endpoint comparison for bone mineral density measurements in North Central Cancer Treatment Group cancer clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Atherton, P.; Liu, H.; Novotny, P.; Hines, S.; Loprinzi, C. L.; Perez, E. A.; Tan, A.; Burger, K.; Zhao, X.; Diekmann, B.; Sloan, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement can vary depending upon anatomical site, machine, and normative values used. This analysis compared different BMD endpoints in two clinical trials. Trial results differed across endpoints. Future clinical trials should consider inclusion of multiple endpoints in sensitivity analysis to ensure sound overall study conclusions. Introduction Methodological issues hamper efficacy assessment of osteoporosis prevention agents in cancer survivors. Osteoporosis diagnosis can vary depending upon which bone mineral density (BMD) anatomical site and machine is used and which set of normative values are applied. This analysis compared different endpoints for osteoporosis treatment efficacy assessment in two clinical studies. Methods Data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase III clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance) were employed involving 774 patients each comparing two treatments for osteoporosis prevention. Endpoints for three anatomical sites included raw BMD score (RawBMD); raw machine-based, sample-standardized, and reference population-standardized T scores (RawT, TSamp, TRef); and standard normal percentile corresponding to the reference population-standardized T score (TPerc). For each, treatment arm comparison was carried out using three statistical tests using change and percentage change from baseline (CB, %CB) at 1 year. Results Baseline correlations among endpoints ranged from 0.79 to 1.00. RawBMD and TPerc produced more statistically significant results (14 and 19 each out of 36 tests) compared to RawT (11/36), TSamp (8/36), and TRef (7/36). Spine produced the most statistically significant results (26/60) relative to femoral neck (20/60) and total hip (13/60). Lastly, CB resulted in 44 statistically significant results out of 90 tests, whereas %CB resulted in only 15 significant results. Conclusions Treatment comparisons and interpretations were different across endpoints and anatomical sites

  5. Solid state NMR study of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.

    1992-01-01

    In high field (9.4 T) CP MASS (cross polarization magic angle sample spinning) studies, in contrast to the scheme in the literature that infers the presence of minor constituents in spectra, we developed a new scheme to suppress the main part of the spectra to show the minor constituents. In order to perform in vivo solid state NMR studies, a double tuned two port surface coil probe was constructed. This probe is a modified version of the traditional Cross probe, which utilizes two 1/4 wave length 50 ohm transmission line, one with open ended and the other with shorted end, to isolate the high and low frequency circuits. The two resonance frequencies in Cross probe were proton and carbon. Our probe is designed to resonate at the proton and phosphorus frequencies, which are much closer to each other and hence more difficult to be tuned and matched simultaneously. Our approach to solve this problem is that instead of using standard 50 ohm transmission lines, we constructed a low capacity open end coaxial transmission line and low inductance shorted end coaxial transmission line. The Q of the phosphorus channel is high. We developed a short contact time cross polarization technique for non-MASS spectroscopy which reduces the signal of the major component of bone mineral to emphasize the minor component. By applying this technique on intact pork bone samples with our home made surface coil, we observed the wide line component, acid phosphate, for the first time. Hydroxyapatite, brushite and octacalcium are considered in the literature to be the model compounds for bone mineral. Cross polarization dynamics has been studied on hydroxyapatite and brushite, which yielded an NMR value for the distance between proton and phosphorus. One and two dimensional CP MASS spectroscopy of octacalcium phosphate were also studied, which revealed the different cross polarization rates and anisotropic channel shifts of acid phosphate and phosphate ions in octacalcium phosphate.

  6. Osteopoikilosis: A Cause of Elevated Bone Mineral Density on Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement in a Young Woman: Case Report

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    Asylbek Kaparov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis (OPK is an asymptomatic, rare bone dysplasia. It causes an increase in bone density. The etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. OPK is generally diagnosed incidentally on plain radiographies which were performed for other locomotor system symptoms. Diagnostic lesions of OPK are typically diffuse, round, symmetrically shaped sclerotic bone areas. Laboratory findings and bone scintigraphy are usually normal. OPK should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteoblastic bone disorders. OPK is a benign disease and invasive diagnostic procedures as well as aggressive treatment modalities should be avoided. In young individuals who have elevated scores on dual-energy X-Ray absoptiometry measurement, OPK as well as other sclerosing bone disorders would be considered. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:25-8

  7. Quantification of bone mineral density to define osteoporosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M; Mandal, S K; Sengupta, S; Arshad, M; Singh, M M

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis centers on assessment of bone mass and quality. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines to assess bone status in laboratory animals and unsuitability of use of T-/Z-scores meant for clinical application in animal studies, most investigators involved in new drug research and development employ clinical biomarkers and kits to assess bone turnover rate and portray change in bone mineral density (BMD) as percentage of increase/decrease, making comparative assessment of the effect highly impractical. This study proposes threshold boundaries of BMD (rT-score) in colony-bred Sprague-Dawley rats, distinct from those used clinically. Boundaries were obtained keeping fixed Type-I error (alpha=0.025). Femur neck was considered best for defining bone status using BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Findings demonstrate that BMD-1.96 and <-0.80 rT-score as osteopenia. Performance of boundaries to ascertain bone status was examined through simulation under different physiological/ hormonal states viz. estrogen deficiency, ageing, estrus cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.98 obtained using BMD of femur neck, being close to unity, shows excellent ability of the proposed rT-score to effectively identify osteoporosis. Further studies using certain hierarchical measures of bone quality such as histomorphometry, mechanical testing etc. could supplement these findings. Since, unlike humans, most laboratory animals including rats only exhibit osteopenia and do not fracture their bones, the proposed thresholds are intended to serve as categorical tools to define bone quality and not to predict fracture risk.

  8. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was -0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was -0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alonso Garcia Alves Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was −0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was −0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.. Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P=0.004 for total body and P=0.003 for lumbar spine. One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  10. Unique micro- and nano-scale mineralization pattern of human osteogenesis imperfecta type VI bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Schmidt, Ingo; Roschger, Paul; Roschger, Andreas; Glorieux, Francis H; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Rauch, Frank; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by mutation in genes involved in collagen synthesis and leading to increased bone fragility, low bone mass, impaired bone material properties and abnormally high bone matrix mineralization. Recessive OI type VI is caused by mutation in SERPINF1 leading to a loss-of-function of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a collagen-binding protein with potent antiangiogenic activity. Affected patients develop a severe OI phenotype with a striking histological characteristic, rare in other OI types, of an excess of osteoid tissue and prolonged mineralization lag time. To get insights into matrix mineralization, we evaluated biopsies from 9 affected children by quantitative and by high-resolution backscattered electron imaging and assessed bone mineralization density distribution. Thickness, shape and arrangement of mineral particles were measured in a subset of 4 patients by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. Typical calcium content in the bone matrix was found to be increased compared to controls, even exceeding values found previously in OI patients with collagen-gene mutations. A main characteristic however, is the coexistence of this highly mineralized bone matrix with seams showing abnormally low mineral content. Atypical collagen fibril organization was found in the perilacunar region of young osteocytes, suggesting a disturbance in the early steps of mineralization. These observations are consistent with the presence of a heterogeneous population of mineral particles with unusual size, shape and arrangement, especially in the region with lower mineral content. The majority of the particles in the highly mineralized bone areas were less disorganized, but smaller and more densely packed than in controls and in previously measured OI patients. These data suggest that the lack of PEDF impairs a proper osteoblast-osteocyte transition and consequently

  11. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, J.S.; Dobritz, M.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Baum, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wolf, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD{sub MDCT} values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. (orig.)

  12. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

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    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  13. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

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    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  14. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  15. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases.

  16. Tendon gradient mineralization for tendon to bone interface integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2013-11-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a "bone-to-bone" interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into five groups: (1) normal FDP tendon, (2) CaP (non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), (3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2 HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), (4) CaPFetuin (non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and (5) CaPEXTFetuin (extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 µm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction.

  17. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  18. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  19. Measurement of bone mineral density at proximal femur by dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry%股骨近端骨密度的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华俦

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry can be regarded as "gold standard" for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up. The measurement of BMD at proximal femur can not only predict an occurrence of the hip fracture but also in the other part of body fracture. The elderly population with high incidence of osteoporosis often combine with many degenerative disease, such as degenerative scoliosis, osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc herniation etc. These pathological changes in the lumbar spine might reduce the accuracy of BMD in anterposterior position. So the measurement of BMD at proximal femur become more and more popular in the clinical trial or diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Europen and American areas in recently. This article reviews the anatomy characteristics of proximal femur, method and purport of measurement of BMD at proximal femur, and refers to some matters must be paid more attention in the procedures of measurement of BMD and facilitate clinicians and technicians to assess the clinical meaning of measurement of BMD at proximal femur comprehensively.%双能X线骨密度仪检测骨密度是诊断骨质疏松症和疗效随访的金标准,特别是髋部骨密度的测量对于骨折的预测尤其测定部位本身骨折的预测作用较大.由于脊柱部位的骨密度测量值易受到脊柱退行性疾病的病理改变如退行性侧凸、骨赘增生、腰椎间盘突出等影响,测量的准确性下降.因而近年来欧美国家临床试验也好或者骨质疏松诊疗也好,大都以股骨近端的BMD测定为标准.本文就股骨近端解剖特点、骨密度测量的意义、方法以及测量的注意点作一个综述,以期帮助临床医生或技术员全面评估股骨近端骨密度测定的意义.

  20. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  1. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  2. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  3. [Bone mineral density, PCB, PCQ and PCDF in Yusho].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshiro; Nakano, Jiro; Masuda, Tomoko; Tokuda, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Atsushi; Kataoka, Hideki; Okita, Minoru

    2009-05-01

    We measured bone mineral density of the distal end of radius with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum Ca, serum P, blood PCB level, blood PCQ level and blood PCDF level in Yusho. As a result, the osteoporosis group ( or = 70% and or = 80% of YAM BMD) group was 76.8%. Also, 42.3% of all female tested subjects observed in osteoporosis group. The moderate group, 19.2%, the normal group was 38.5%. There was no difference in PCB blood level, PCQ, PCDF for men and women in osteoporosis group, moderate group, and in the normal group. Serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen increased in the male osteoporosis group, but serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase did not change. This study was inconclusive since the results did not determine the influence that PCB, PCQ, PCDF gave to bone density and bone metabolism.

  4. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Ade, Peter; Marten, Berit; Weber, Petra; Timm, Wolfram; Açil, Yahya; Glüer, Claus-C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have shown positive effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on mineral absorption and metabolism and bone composition and architecture. These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride. A positive outcome of dietary prebiotics is promoted by a high dietary calcium content up to a threshold level and an optimum amount and composition of supplemented prebiotics. There might be an optimum composition of fructooligosaccharides with different chain lengths (synergy products). The efficacy of dietary prebiotics depends on chronological age, physiological age, menopausal status, and calcium absorption capacity. There is evidence for an independent probiotic effect on facilitating mineral absorption. Synbiotics, i.e., a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, can induce additional effects. Whether a low content of habitual NDO would augment the effect of dietary prebiotics or synbiotics remains to be studied. The underlying mechanisms are manifold: increased solubility of minerals because of increased bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids, which is promoted by the greater supply of substrate; an enlargement of the absorption surface by promoting proliferation of enterocytes mediated by bacterial fermentation products, predominantly lactate and butyrate; increased expression of calcium-binding proteins; improvement of gut health; degradation of mineral complexing phytic acid; release of bone-modulating factors such as phytoestrogens from foods; stabilization of the intestinal flora and ecology, also in the presence of antibiotics; stabilization of the intestinal mucus; and impact of modulating growth factors such as polyamines. In conclusion, prebiotics are the most promising but also best investigated substances with respect to a bone-health-promoting potential, compared with probiotics

  5. Measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in patients with the Wisconsin hip, an uncemented femoral stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, B J; Checovich, M M; McBeath, A A; Wilson, M A; Heiner, J P

    1996-02-01

    Although qualitative evidence of femoral bone remodeling, secondary to total hip arthroplasty (THA), is apparent on radiographs, quantification of change in bone mass from radiographs is limited. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry overcomes many of the limitations and yields accurate and precise bone mineral density (BMD) data. In this study, regional changes in femoral BMD were examined in 89 THA patients with a 2-year follow-up period. Thirty-two patients were evaluated initially before surgery and followed through the first 2 postoperative years. A second group was comprised of 57 patients whose surgery had been performed 1 to 6 years prior to entry into the study; they were also followed for 2 years hence. Thus, both immediate and later bone responses were evaluated prospectively. Maximal bone remodeling was seen in the first 6 months after THA and with a near plateau by the end of the first year. A slow yearly decline in BMD appeared to occur as long as 8 years after THA, thus demonstrating the long-term effects of the introduction of a femoral stem. Variance in preoperative BMD was explained by disease only; no other factors (age, weight, sex) showed significant associations, and body weight was the only variable that affected rate of remodeling after THA (not age, weight, sex, prosthesis size, nor disease). All patients were healthy, relatively young individuals who were good candidates for uncemented implantation, and none showed evidence of clinical complications or surgical failure. It is therefore suggested that the patterns and results reported here be viewed as normative data, that is, the typical skeletal adaptation to THA. In future application, observation of disparate BMD results as compared with these "normal" data may be predictive of abnormal response to surgery and potential for later problems.

  6. Molecular packing in bone collagen fibrils prior to mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Benjamin; Zhou, Hong-Wen; Burger, Christian; Chu, Benjamin; Glimcher, Melvin J.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional packing of collagen molecules in bone collagen fibrils has been largely unknown because even in moderately mineralized bone tissues, the organic matrix structure is severely perturbed by the deposition of mineral crystals. During the past decades, the structure of tendon collagen (e.g. rat tail) --- a tissue that cannot mineralize in vivo, has been assumed to be representative for bone collagen fibrils. Small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis of the native, uncalcified intramuscular fish bone has revealed a new molecular packing scheme, significantly different from the quasi-hexagonal arrangement often found in tendons. The deduced structure in bone collagen fibrils indicates the presence of spatially discrete microfibrils, and an arrangement of intrafibrillar space to form ``channels'', which could accommodate crystals with dimensions typically found in bone apatite.

  7. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  8. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  9. Bone Mineral Density Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Characteristics of Bone Turnover Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Şahin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis, characterised with excessive new bone formation and calcification in spine and peripheral joints, causes osteoporosis which is a general component of inflammatory arthritis. Since is excessive bone formation affects bone mineral density, there are problems in diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis efforts made for finding the right diagnostic tool. Besides bone metabolism and turn-over in inflammatory diseases should be known in detail, because it has a place in diagnosis and follow-up. In this review, bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis, the importance and usage of bone turn-over parameters are discussed in the light of literature data.

  10. Mechanisms of Bone Mineralization and Effects of Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The data suggest that PTH and PKC inhibit nodule formation, and that alternative energy sources are utilized by osteoblasts in the process of mineralization. The conditions and techniques to grow, fix, photograph, and measure bone mineralization in vitro were defined. The results are presently in preliminary form and require further assessment as follows; quantitate the surface area of nodules + treatments via computer-aided image analysis; use PTH + inhibitors of signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of nodule formation; determine how protein kinase C is involved as a promotor of nodule formation; cell proliferation vs. cell death affected by modulation of signal transduction (i.e., PTH, enzyme inhibitors and activators); identify mRNA induced or decreased in response to PTH and signaling modulators that encode proteins that regulate cell morphology, proliferation, and nodule formation. Therefore, several follow-up studies between the laboratories at NASA-Ames Research Center and my laboratory at the University of Illinois have been initiated.

  11. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  12. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-02-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: (1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC[sub TB]/LBM), (2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, (3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and (4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC[sub TB]/LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author).

  13. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  14. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bon...

  15. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, U K; Við Streym, S; Mosekilde, L

    2012-01-01

    In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone l...

  16. Bone mineral content measurement in 255 old patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病255例骨矿含量测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡万春; 张凡; 李晓卫

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of osteoporosis and influential factors of bone mineral content(BMC)in old diabetic patients. Methods BMC was measured in 255 old diabetic patients, using mode l SD-1000 single photoabsorptiometer. Results ①BMC was signific an tly higher in males than in females and decreased with increasing ages in males and femmales.②BMC decreased with lengthening medical history. ③In male diabeti c patients BMC correlated positively with the body mass indices (BMI), but there was no significant difference between the group with BMI 20-25 kg/m2 and the group with BMI over 25 kg/m2 in female patients. ④The incidence of osteoporo sis in this group was 38.04%(32.45% for male:46.15% for female) Conclusion Combined osteoporosis is a common chronic complication in old patients with diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨老年糖尿病患者合并骨质疏松的发病率及骨矿含量的影响因素。  方法使用SD-1000型骨矿物仪测量255例老年糖尿病患者。结果 ①男性糖尿病患者BMC显著高于女性,男、女性BMC均随年龄的增高 而降低;②随着病程的增加BMC降低,呈显著负相关;③男性糖尿病患者BMC与体重指数(BMI)呈显著正相关,女性患者BMI20~25 kg/m2组与大 于25 kg/m2组之间BMC相差不显著;④本组糖尿病合并骨质疏松发病率为38.04%,其中男 性为32.45%,女性为46.15%。结论 糖尿病合并骨质疏松是糖尿病的一种常见慢性并发症。

  17. Biomarkers of bone and mineral metabolism following bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Kang, Moo Il

    2009-01-01

    The loss of bone mass often occurs after patients undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The rapid impairment of bone formation and the increase in bone resorption, as mirrored by the biochemical markers of bone turnover, might play a role in this bone loss, and especially during the immediate post-BMT period. The possible direct causes for this paradoxical uncoupling are exposure to immunosuppressants, hypogonadism, the changes of cytokines, the changes of the bone growth factors, and the damage to the osteoprogenitor cells because of myeloablative therapy. In this chapter, we discuss the general aspects of post-BMT bone loss with a peculiar focus on the remodeling imbalance of bone and its relation to the use of immunosuppressants and the changes of sex hormones, growth factors, and cytokines.

  18. Serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti Susanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since high bone turnover is associated with decreased bone mass, biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict fractures in elderly women, particulary those involving trabecular bone, and use of a combination of bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers may improve fracture prediction. The serum levels of osteocalcin constitute a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. Compared to imaging techniques, assays for osteocalcin are safe, noninvasive and easily performed. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women in South Jakarta from February to April 2010. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric characteristics, serum osteocalcin levels and BMD. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the left distal radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean serum osteocalcin was 28.99 ± 10.02 ng/ml. The Pearson correlation test on all subjects indicated a significant inverse correlation between serum osteocalcin and femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.29; p=0.034. By arranging the data into tertiles, a significant association was found in non-obese subjects between mean femoral neck BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.036. The Tukey posthoc multiple comparison test showed a significant mean difference in femoral neck BMD between the lowest and the highest tertiles of osteocalcin serum concentrations (p=0.028. Maintenance of body weight is important for maintaining BMD in postmenopausal women.

  19. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  20. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  1. Bone mineral status in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Amy; Ringelheim, Julie; Feldman, Henry A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2007-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by a deficiency in an adrenal enzyme resulting in alterations in cortisol and aldosterone production. Bone status is affected by chronic glucocorticoid therapy and excess androgen exposure in children with CAH. This cross-sectional study enrolled participants with 21-hydroxylase deficiency from a pediatric referral center. Bone mineral density in the participants was normal when compared to age, gender and ethnicity adjusted standards, with respect to chronological age or bone age. Lean body mass was positively correlated with bone mineral content (BMC), independent of fat mass (p bone status may be explained by the differential effects of glucocorticoids on growing bone, beneficial androgen effects, or other disease specific factors.

  2. The mechanical consequences of mineralization in embryonic bone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.J.M.; Donkelaar, C.C. van; Jepsen, K.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Weinans, H.; Burger, E.H.; Huiskes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mineralization on the mechanical properties of embryonic bone rudiments. For this purpose, four-point bending experiments were performed on unmineralized and mineralized embryonic mouse ribs at 16 and 17 days of gestational age. Young's modulus

  3. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  4. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency.......Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  5. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with nanocr......The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  6. Osteocyte regulation of bone mineral: a little give and take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G J; Findlay, D M

    2012-08-01

    Osteocytes actively participate in almost every phase of mineral handling by bone. They regulate the mineralisation of osteoid during bone formation, and they are also a major RANKL-producing cell. Osteocytes are thus able to liberate bone mineral by regulating osteoclast differentiation and activity in response to a range of stimuli, including bone matrix damage, bone disuse and mechanical unloading, oestrogen deficiency, high-dose glucocorticoid and chemotherapeutic agents. At least some of these activities may be regulated by the osteocyte-secreted product, sclerostin. There is also mounting evidence that in addition to regulating phosphate homeostasis systemically, osteocytes contribute directly to calcium homeostasis in the mature skeleton. Osteocyte cell death and the local loss of control of bone mineralisation may be the cause of focal hypermineralisation of bone and osteopetrosis, as seen in aging and pathology. The sheer number of osteocytes in bone means that "a little give and take" in terms of regulation of bone mineral content translates into a powerful whole organism effect.

  7. Thenar muscle blood flow and bone mineral in the forearms of lumberjacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, P; Alhava, E M; Valtola, J

    1975-02-01

    Forty lumberjacks who had used a chain saw for 0-20 years and who had no general disease affecting the bones were studied by measuring the thenar muscle blood flow of both hands by the 133-Xe local clearance method. Bone mineral in the left forearm in the region of cancellous and cortical bone was assessed by the 241-Am gamma ray attenuation method. Virbration was found to decrease the blood flow in the saw-bearing left hand compared with the right hand of the lumberjacks. The bone mineral density (g/vm-3) was lower in the forearm bones of the lumberjacks than in controls of the same age with healthy bones. Moreover the poorer the thenar muscle blood flow, the greater was the decrease in the mineral density of the distal radius. Measurement of the mineral density of the forearm bones by the gramma ray attenuation method can be used for early detection of bone lesions in traumatic vasospastic disease.

  8. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  9. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  10. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  11. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  12. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desouki, M. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jurayyan, N. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (``superscan``) in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm{sup 2}(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm {sup 2}(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation.

  14. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Peri-and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dinç

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the determinants of osteoporosis in elderly, nutritional factors play a significant role. In a cross-sectional study the effects of several nutritional factors on bone mineral density were investigated in 44 women aged over 40 years. Nineteen premenopausal and twenty five postmenopausal women were enrolled the study. Subjects were instructed to keep seven-day nutritional record. Bone mineral density measurements were performed with DXA, and laboratory investigations related to bone metabolism were undertaken. Daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were analysed by a nutritional analysis program. The associations between daily dietary intakes of this nutritional components and bone mineral density were investigated. The daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were not correlated significantly with lumbar and hip bone mineral density. Lumbar bone mineral density was correlated with age. There was no significant association between daily protein or sodium intake and urinary calcium excretion. The results suggest that the manifestation of osteoporosis in women is influenced to a greater extent by age and years since menopause than by the distribution of nutritional factors in normal mixed diet. However, further studies with larger series are essential to evaluate the role of dietary composition on the manifestation of osteoporosis and bone metabolism.

  16. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  17. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  18. Influence of basal energy expenditure and body composition on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Aparecida Bezerra Quirino,1 João Modesto-Filho,2 Sancha Helena de Lima Vale,3 Camila Xavier Alves,3 Lúcia Dantas Leite,4 José Brandão-Neto51Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 3Postgraduate Health Science Program, 4Department of Nutrition, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index, body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of a sample of 50 women, with minimum time since menopause between 1 and 10 years. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2–L4, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure were measured by bioimpedance.Results: The mean age of the women was 51.49 ± 3.86 years and time since menopause was 3.50 ± 2.59 years. Significant negative correlations were found between chronological age and lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric bone mineral density. In regard to time since menopause, we also observed significant negative correlations with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle. The following significant positive correlations were recorded: body mass index with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; fat mass with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; lean mass with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter; and basal energy expenditure with bone mineral density at all sites assessed. On the other hand, the multiple linear regression model showed that: 20.2% of bone mineral density variability at the lumbar spine is related to lean mass and time since

  19. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Physical Activity Level in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Monemi Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study purposed to investigate the relationship between physical activity level and bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly of Amirkola in northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was part of a proposal to assess the situation of the elderly in Amirkola (AHAP (Amirkola Health and Ageing Project conducted on 1113 elderly individuals (616 males and 497 females in Amirkola city. Physical activity was measured using a standard questionnaire of physical activity in the elderly (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly. Mineral bone mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spines, and vitamin D levels were measured in morning blood samples. T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and linear regression tests were used to analyze data. The mean physical activity of women (118.6±55.5 was higher than that of men (110.3±71.1 (p=0.035. This study found a significant positive relationship between total physical activity and femur bone mineral density (p=0.001 and r=0.101, but this association was not significant in lumbar spines (p=0.597 and r=0.016, though bone mineral density increased in both areas with increased physical activity (p=0.098. A significant inverse relationship between age and physical activity (p=0.001 and between age and bone mineral density (p=0.001 was observed. Analyzing the influencing variables using the linear regression model indicated physical activity, age, and BMI had significant relationships with bone mineral density in the femur, but neither vitamin D nor calcium played a role. Given the positive correlation between bone mineral density and physical activity, it can be concluded that low intensity weight-bearing activities carried out in compliance with safety rules may be suitable for the elderly.

  20. Transient precursor strategy in mineral formation of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Steve

    2006-09-01

    The strategy in biomineralization of initially depositing a less ordered mineral and then transforming it into a more crystalline mature phase is probably widespread among invertebrates. The report in this issue by N.J. Crane, V. Popescu, M.D. Morris, P. Steenhuis, M.A. Ignelzi, Raman spectroscopic evidence for octacalcium phosphate and other mineral species deposited during intramembraneous mineralization. Bone (In press), using micro-Raman spectroscopy to study early mineral deposits in mice calvaria, provides strong evidence that the transient precursor strategy also occurs in vertebrates.

  1. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  2. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  3. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  4. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  5. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, fracture and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely prescribed simple analgesic and antipyretic. It exerts its effects via cyclooxygenase and endocannabinoid pathways, which may affect signalling in bone cells and hence influence bone metabolism. Given the high rates of paracetamol use in the community and the evidence linking its mechanism of action to bone metabolism, we aimed to investigate the association between paracetamol use, fracture, and bone mineral density (BMD) in women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Cases (n = 569) were women aged ≥ 50 years identified from radiological reports as having sustained a fracture between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 775) were women without fracture recruited from the same region during this period. BMD was measured at the spine, hip, total body and forearm using dual energy absorptiometry. Medication use, medical history and lifestyle factors were self-reported. There were 69 (12.1%) paracetamol users among the cases and 63 (8.1%) among the controls. Paracetamol use increased the odds for fracture (OR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.24, p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMD at the spine, total hip and forearm did not confound the association. However, incorporating total body BMD into the model attenuated the association (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14, p = 0.051). Further adjustment for age, weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, calcium intake, medication use, medical conditions, falls and previous fracture did not explain the association. These data suggest that paracetamol use is a risk factor for fracture, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  6. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  7. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  8. A pilot study on the impact of body composition on bone and mineral metabolism in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María C; Parisi, Muriel S; Díaz, Sergio P; Mastaglia, Silvina R; Deferrari, Juan M; Seijo, Mariana; Bagur, Alicia; Micheli, Federico; Oliveri, Beatriz

    2007-08-01

    The impact of body composition on bone and mineral metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) was evaluated. Body fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by DXA in 22 PD patients and 104 controls. Female patients exhibited reduced body mass index, fat mass, and BMD compared to controls (p<0.05). Significant positive correlation was found between 25 OHD levels and BMC. Diminished bone mass in women with PD was found to be associated with alterations in body composition and low 25 OHD levels.

  9. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  10. EXERCISE AND BONE MINERAL ACCRUAL IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melonie Burrows

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease causing an increase in morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. Indeed, there has been a large emphasis on the prevention of osteoporosis through the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood and adolescence. The prepubertal human skeleton is sensitive to the mechanical stimulation elicited by exercise and there is increasing evidence that regular weight-bearing exercise is an effective strategy for enhancing bone mineral throughout growth. Physical activity or participation in sports needs to start at prepubertal ages and be maintained through pubertal development to obtain the maximal peak bone mass achievable. High strain eliciting sports like gymnastics, or participation in sports or weight bearing physical activity like soccer, are strongly recommended to increase peak bone mass. Many other factors also influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet and endocrine status. However, this review article will focus solely on the effects of physical activity and exercise providing a summary of current knowledge on the interplay between activity, exercise and bone mass development during growth. Due to the selection bias and other confounding factors inherent in cross-sectional studies, longitudinal and intervention studies only will be reviewed for they provide a greater opportunity to examine the influence of mechanical loading on bone mineral accretion over time

  11. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  12. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  13. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  14. Bone mineral density measurement and osteoporosis treatment after a fragility fracture in older adults: regional variation and determinants of use in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Jean-Pierre

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis (OP is a skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone strength and predisposition to increased risk of fracture, with consequent increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is therefore an important public health problem. International and Canadian associations have issued clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of OP. In this study, we identified potential predictors of bone mineral density (BMD testing and OP treatment, which include place of residence. Methods Our study was a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec Health Insurance Board. The studied population consisted of all individuals 65 years and older for whom a physician claimed a consultation for a low velocity vertebral, hip, wrist, or humerus fracture in 1999 and 2000. Individuals were considered to have undergone BMD testing if there was a claim for such a procedure within two years following a fracture. They were considered to have received an OP treatment if there was at least one claim to Quebec's health insurance plan (RAMQ for OP treatment within one year following a fracture. We performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions by gender. Predictors included age, site of fracture, social status, comorbidity index, prior BMD testing, prior OP treatment, long-term glucocorticoid use, and physical distance to BMD device. Results The cohort, 77% of which was female, consisted of 25,852 individuals with fragility fractures. BMD testing and OP treatment rates were low and gender dependent (BMD: men 4.6%; women 13.1%; OP treatment: men 9.9%; women 29.7%. There was an obvious regional variation, particularly in BMD testing, ranging from 0 to 16%. Logistic regressions demonstrate that individuals living in long term care facilities received less BMD testing. Patients who had suffered from vertebral fractures, or who had received prior OP treatment or BMD testing, regardless of gender, subsequently

  15. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  16. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  17. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  18. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  19. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pcontemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (Pdance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  20. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  1. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

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    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  2. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe George; Hosahithlu K Ganesh; Shrikrishna Acharya; Tushar R Bandgar; Vyankatesh Shivane; Anjana Karvat; Shobna J Bhatia; Samir Shah; Padmavathy S Menon; Nalini Shah

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, 9 female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism ( n = 37), hepatitis B ( n = 25) and hepatitis C ( n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level.

  3. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  4. Correlation of Serum Leptin Level with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Chinese Adolescent Dancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; YAN LAN; JING HU; YAN-HUA YANG; QIAN ZHANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate plasma leptin concentrations in adolescent female dancers and to determine whether leptin has some effects on their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. Methods Sixty dancers aged 15-17 years and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two bone turnover markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRACP), were determined by ELISA. Results The dancers had a lower fat mass and a lower leptin level than the controls, while they had a relatively higher BMD of the total body and legs after adjustment for BMI and age. The levels of bone resorption and formation of markers were higher in the dancers than in the controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, body weight, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. In dancers, Leptin was positively correlated with the BMD of the total body and the left leg. However, after adjustment for BMI, no correlation of serum leptin concentrations with BMD values was found in either dancers or controls. Nor correlation was found between leptin and bone turnover markers after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion The leptin profile is different between the controls and the dancers with a lower BMI and a lower fat mass. Circulating plasma leptin level depends on BMI and is not a direct determinant of BMD in Chinese adolescent dancers.

  5. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  6. Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; McKee, Marc D; Lanske, Beate

    2014-03-01

    Excessive FGF23 has been identified as a pivotal phosphaturic factor leading to renal phosphate-wasting and the subsequent development of rickets and osteomalacia. In contrast, loss of FGF23 in mice (Fgf23(-/-) ) leads to high serum phosphate, calcium, and 1,25-vitamin D levels, resulting in early lethality attributable to severe ectopic soft-tissue calcifications and organ failure. Paradoxically, Fgf23(-/-) mice exhibit a severe defect in skeletal mineralization despite high levels of systemic mineral ions and abundant ectopic mineralization, an abnormality that remains largely unexplained. Through use of in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and immunogold labeling coupled with electron microscopy of bone samples, we discovered that expression and accumulation of osteopontin (Opn/OPN) was markedly increased in Fgf23(-/-) mice. These results were confirmed by qPCR analyses of Fgf23(-/-) bones and ELISA measurements of serum OPN. To investigate whether elevated OPN levels were contributing to the bone mineralization defect in Fgf23(-/-) mice, we generated Fgf23(-/-) /Opn(-/-) double-knockout mice (DKO). Biochemical analyses showed that the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia observed in Fgf23(-/-) mice remained unchanged in DKO mice; however, micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed a significant improvement in total mineralized bone volume. The severe osteoidosis was markedly reduced and a normal mineral apposition rate was present in DKO mice, indicating that increased OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice are at least in part responsible for the osteomalacia. Moreover, the increased OPN levels were significantly decreased upon lowering serum phosphate by feeding a low-phosphate diet or after deletion of NaPi2a, indicating that phosphate levels contribute in part to the high OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice. In summary, our results suggest that increased OPN is an important pathogenic factor mediating the mineralization defect and the

  7. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  8. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Dosa, Laura; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7 ± 3.8 years) KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT). Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p < 0.005) and BTT (p < 0.0005) z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p < 0.0001) and significantly lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.0001), osteocalcin (p < 0.05), and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p < 0.005). Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages. PMID:27413371

  9. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  10. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess....

  12. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  14. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  15. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  16. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  17. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women...... with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61......-81 years). Correlation between the two methods was estimated using correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman plots. A moderate correlation between phalangeal BMD versus total hip (r = 0.47) and lumbar spine (r = 0.51), and an AUC on 0.80 was found. The mean difference between phalangeal T score...

  18. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Patients Receiving Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Yıldırım

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine possible effects of anticonvulsant drugs on bone mineral density. Twenty two patients with epilepsy who have been receiving anticonvulsant drugs and also 22 healthy controls were included in the study. The average age was 28.9 ± 8.9 years in the patients group and 30.5 ± 6.9 years in the control group. The average drug receiving time was 6.45 ± 4.2 years. At baseline ESR, hemogram, urine deoxypiridinoline (DPD, routine biochemical and hormonal values were determined in both groups. Lumbar spine and left femur bone mineral density (BMD values were determined with hologic 2000 DEXA. In the statistical analysis, urine DPD levels in the patient group were significantly higher than control group (p0.05. Lumbar spine and left femur BMD values were significantly decreased in patients group (respectively p<0.01, p<0.001. We determined that in the patients using anticonvulsant drugs there was an increase in bone resorption and this effect was more evident in cortical bone than trabecular bone.

  20. Dietary carbohydrates and fat influence radiographic bone mineral content of growing foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Lawrence, L A; Kronfeld, D S; Cooper, W L; Sklan, D J; Dascanio, J J; Harris, P A

    1999-12-01

    Hydrolyzable carbohydrate intake in horse diets may become excessive when rapidly growing pastures are supplemented with grain-based concentrates. The substitution of fat and fiber for hydrolyzable carbohydrate in concentrates has been explored in exercising horses but not in young, growing horses. Our objective was to compare bone development in foals that were fed pasture and concentrates rich in sugar and starch (corn, molasses) or fat and fiber (corn oil, beet pulp, soybean hulls, oat straw). Forty foals were examined, 20 each in 1994 and 1995. In each year, 10 mares and their foals were fed a corn and molasses supplement (SS) and 10 others were fed a corn oil and fiber supplement (FF). The concentrates were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous, and mineral content was balanced to complement the pastures and meet or exceed NRC requirements. Dorsopalmar radiographs were taken of the left third metacarpal monthly from birth to weaning and then every other month until 1 yr of age. Bone density was estimated using imaging software and an aluminum stepwedge. Radiographic examination indicated differences in medial, lateral, and central bone mineral content of the metacarpal III. Bone mineral content increased with age, and a plateau was observed during winter. Bone mineral content was lower in weanlings and yearlings fed the FF supplement than in those fed SS. Subjective clinical leg evaluations indicated differences in physitis, joint effusion, and angular and flexural limb deformities in response to age, and possibly to season. Regression analysis indicated positive relationships between bone mineral content and body weight, age, and body measurements. Nutrient and chemical interactions, such as the binding of calcium by fat and fiber, may alter the availability of elements necessary for bone development.

  1. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Movaseghi; Heydar Sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years,...

  2. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  3. STUDY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS IN HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvapandian Kirubaharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Vitamin D metabolites participate in the regulation of calcium homoeostasis and bone metabolism. Severe and prolonged vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly and may lead to development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone loss, for which reason it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis. AIM To determine the relationships between serum 25 (OH D, bone mineral density, and serum calcium and phosphorus in 50 postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study with a total of 50 healthy women aged over 50 years with amenorrhoea for 12 months were included. None of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Measurements of bone mineral density were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Analysis of serum levels of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were done. RESULTS There exists an inverse correlation between BMD and 25(OH D levels (r = - 0.127, p>0.05 and that between 25 (OH D and phosphate levels among postmenopausal women (r = -0.167, p >0.05, which is not significant. No significant difference exists in the serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase between vitamin D insufficient & deficient persons (p >0.05. CONCLUSION Elevated levels of serum 25(OH D were associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased bone turnover, but it was insignificant.

  4. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  5. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  6. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sumru Özel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T s...

  7. Serum estradiol levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women are at high risk of disease, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, malignancies, dementia and osteoporosis. This is due to decreased levels of estrogen/estradiol, produced mainly in the ovaries, leading to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, which is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum estradiol levels and BMD in postmenopausal women. The study, which was of cross-sectional design, involved 184 postmenopausal women meeting the inclusion criteria, viz. healthy postmenopausal women aged between 47 and 60 years having taken no hormonal medications in the previous 3 years. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, including BMD and serum estradiol levels. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the distal radius by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA instrument. The mean serum estradiol concentration was 7.54 ± 4.65 pg/ml, while in 49.5% of the subjects the estradiol concentration was £ 5 pg/ml. In postmenopausal women with estradiol concentrations of > 5 pg/ml, a significant positive relationship was found between BMD and the T-scores for the femoral neck. Thus the higher the serum estradiol levels, the higher the BMD values for femoral neck region. In conclusion, the results of this study point to estradiol levels as a major factor in determining the BMD values in postmenopausal women.

  8. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  9. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, pexercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, pexercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, pExercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  10. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

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    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  11. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

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    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  12. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  13. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

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    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  14. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men

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    Madhu N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD. The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as 3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.

  15. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  16. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis

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    Zurstegge Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. Methods We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery. Results The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. Conclusion The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.

  17. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  18. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  20. Decreased bone tissue mineralization can partly explain subchondral sclerosis observed in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L G E; van Donkelaar, C C; van Rietbergen, B; Emans, P J; Ito, K

    2012-05-01

    For many years, pharmaceutical therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) were focused on cartilage. However, it has been theorized that bone changes such as increased bone volume fraction and decreased bone matrix mineralization may play an important role in the initiation and pathogenesis of OA as well. The mechanisms behind the bone changes are subject of debate, and a better understanding may help in the development of bone-targeting OA therapies. In the literature, the increase in bone volume fraction has been hypothesized to result from mechanoregulated bone adaptation in response to decreased mineralization. Furthermore, both changes in bone volume fraction and mineralization have been reported to be highest close to the cartilage, and bone volume fraction has been reported to be correlated with cartilage degeneration. These data indicate that cartilage degeneration, bone volume fraction, and bone matrix mineralization may be related in OA. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between cartilage degeneration, bone matrix mineralization and bone volume fraction at a local level. With microCT, we determined bone matrix mineralization and bone volume fraction as a function of distance from the cartilage in osteochondral plugs from human OA tibia plateaus with varying degrees of cartilage degeneration. In addition, we evaluated whether mechanoregulated bone adaptation in response to decreased bone matrix mineralization may be responsible for the increase in bone volume fraction observed in OA. For this purpose, we used the experimentally obtained mineralization data as input for bone adaptation simulations. We simulated the effect of mechanoregulated bone adaptation in response to different degrees of mineralization, and compared the simulation results to the experimental data. We found that local changes in subchondral bone mineralization and bone volume fraction only occurred underneath severely degenerated cartilage, indicating that bone

  1. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  2. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28⩾3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (⩽10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Results: Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (−0.7%), (p = 0.015). Conclusion: In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:18408246

  3. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  4. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Cancer Survivorship, Memphis, TN (United States); Shelso, John [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Memphis, TN (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P = 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  5. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  6. Nonenzymatic Glycation and Degree of Mineralization Are Higher in Bone From Fractured Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlay, Delphine; Armas, Laura A G; Gineyts, Evelyne; Akhter, Mohammed P; Recker, Robert R; Boivin, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy fractures are frequent complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (T1DM). Modifications of bone intrinsic composition might be a potential cause of fragility observed in diabetic subjects. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were found in numerous connective tissues from T1DM patients. However, whether AGEs are present at high levels in bone matrix from diabetic subjects is unknown. Moreover, whether elevated AGEs in the bone matrix impair mineralization has not been addressed in humans. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether bone matrix from fracturing and nonfracturing T1DM contained more AGEs than bone from healthy patients (CTL), and 2) to compare the degree of mineralization of bone and hardness between fracturing and nonfracturing T1DM versus CTL. We analyzed iliac crest bone biopsies from 5 fracturing T1DM patients, 5 nonfracturing T1DM patients, and 5 healthy subjects, all age- and sex-matched. AGEs (pentosidine) in bone matrix was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography separately in trabecular and cortical bone. The degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) was assessed by digitized microradiography, and mechanical properties by micro- and nanohardness tests. Trabecular bone from fracturing T1DM exhibited significantly higher levels of pentosidine than CTL (p = 0.04) and was more mineralized than nonfracturing T1DM (p = 0.04) and CTL (p = 0.04). Trabecular bone was not significantly different in pentosidine between nonfracturing T1DM and CTL. Cortical bone from nonfracturing T1DM was not significantly different from CTL. Positive correlations were found between HbA1c and pentosidine (r' = 0.79, p < 0.003) and between HbA1c and DMB (r' = 0.64, p < 0.02). Both modifications could lead to less flexible bone (reduced modulus of elasticity) and a tendency toward low-energy fractures in T1DM patients.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  8. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  9. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Hua-Ling Ruan; Yi Lia Min Zhang; Chang-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism.Methods:A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other.Results:In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis.

  10. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

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    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  11. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

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    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  12. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment...... with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  14. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced a

  15. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaseghi, Farzaneh; Sadeghi, Heydar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  16. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Movaseghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  17. BONE MINERAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BODY IN 292 NORMAL SUBJECTS ASSESSED BY DUAL X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明伟; 余卫; 徐苓; 田均平; 邢小平; 孟迅吾

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study the whole body bone mineral changes in normal subjects.Methods. Bone mineral was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in 292 normal subjectsaged 10~79 years, including 152 females and 140 males. They were divided into age-groups by decade.Results. In males, the ages with peak value of total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone min-eral density (TBMD), anteroposterior spine BMD(L2-4 BMD) were in the 30~39,20~39, 20~29 age-groups respectively. In females, they were all in the 30~39 age-group. Peak values of TBMC, TBMD,L2-4 BMD were higher in males than those in females. Loss of bone mineral for females was more pro-nounced than that for males. Loss of L2-4 BMD was more pronounced than TBMD.Conclusion. This study provides the normal bone mineral data of whole body for males and females,and the characteristic of changes.

  18. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

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    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  19. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  20. Bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    Sušić Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well known that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA as a chronic inflammatory disease with onset during the childhood, beside other complication, can lead to bone metabolism disturbance and osteoporosis. Objective. To assess bone mineral density (BMD in children with JIA and to identify factors playing role in bone mineral disturbance. Methods. Seventy-five patients (26 male and 49 female average disease duration 7.2 (2.4-16.8 years, and 73 age matched healthy control subjects (29 male and 44 female participated in the study. Mean age of the groups was about 14.5 years. BMD was determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA of the lumbar spine (L2-L4. For further analysis we used the absolute value of BMD, expressed as g/cm2, Z score expressed as SD (relative value as standard deviation decline of normal BMD values of referent Italian population with identical age and gender, bone mineral content (BMC as g/cm, and corrected BMD - BMDv as g/cm3. Results. Z score in the group of patients was significantly lower (-1.02±1.6 in comparison to the control group (-0.09±1.4; p<0.001. BMD, BMDv and BMC were also statistically lower in patients with JIA. The lowest Z score was found in patients with systemic onset (-2.63 SD. Z score showed a statistically significant positive correlation with arthritis course (polyarticular course had lower Z score, body mass index and standard deviation score for height and weight. Statistically significant negative correlation was detected in regard to Z score and glucocorticoid (GC treatment duration, GC cumulative dose, number of joints with limited range of motion, radiological stage and functional class. Conclusion. The results showed a decreased BMD in patients with JIA in comparison to the control group. Systemic onset, polyarthritis, longer treatment with GC and higher cumulative dosage, as well as higher damage level (functional status and radiological stage are factors playing negative role

  1. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  2. Bone Mineral Density Evaluation in Four Different Occupational Groups

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    Mustafa Turgut Yıldızgören

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD and to discuss the potential risk factors for osteoporosis in four different occupational groups. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 males who were admitted to our clinics for their periodic occupational controls and 40 healthy subjects were included. Demographic features of the participants were recorded. BMD was evaluated by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA from lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur. Results: Participants were mainly from the following four occupational groups; accumulator manufacturers (n=30, 21.4%, painting workers (n=30, 21.4%, welders (n=15, 10.7%, and quartz miners (n=25, 17.9% sectors. In addition, there were 40 healthy subjects (28.6%. Compared with the control group, femoral neck T-scores (p=0.023 and Z-scores (p=0.031 were significantly lower in miners. L2-L4 BMD values were significantly lower in accumulator manufacturers (p=0.041 and quartz miners (p=0.022 as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Workers in the accumulator and mining sectors had lower BMD than control subjects. Clinicians should keep in mind occupational risk factors related with chemical exposure for osteoporosis while questioning osteoporosis risk factors. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 19-22

  3. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

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    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  4. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  5. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

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    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  6. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

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    Massimo Poggi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  8. Correlates of Bone Mineral Density and Sagittal Spinal Balance in the Aged

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and sagittal spinal balance in the Korean elderly population. Methods The retrospective study included subjects aged 60 years and above, who had whole-spine lateral radiography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) within a year's gap between each other. Sagittal vertical axis (SVA) for evaluation of sagittal spinal balance and five spinopelvic parameters were measured through radiography. The presence of compr...

  9. Bone resorption and mineral excretion in rats during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, C. E.; Adachi, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Bone resorption was measured directly in flight and synchronous control rats during COSMOS 1129. Continuous tracer administration techniques were used, with replacement of dietary calcium with isotopically enriched Ca-40 and measurement by neutron activation analysis of the Ca-48 released by the skeleton. There is no large change in bone resorption in rats at the end of 20 days of spaceflight as has been found for bone formation. Based on the time course of changes, the measured 20-25 percent decrease in resorption is probably secondary to a decrease in total body calcium turnover. The excretion of sodium, potassium, and zinc all increase during flight, sodium and potassium to a level four to five times control values.

  10. The association between metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, hip bone geometry and fracture risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L. Oei (Ling); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG), femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men part

  11. Reduced bone mineral density in men after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anijar J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD of 30 heart transplant (HT recipients to that of 31 chronic heart failure (CHF patients waiting for transplantation and to determine their biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormone levels. The BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were also obtained. The mean age of the two groups did not differ significantly. Mean time of transplantation was 25.4 ± 21.1 months (6 to 88 months. Except for the albumin levels, which were significantly higher, and magnesium levels, which were significantly lower in HT patients when compared to CHF patients, all other biochemical parameters and hormone levels were within the normal range and similar in the two groups. Both groups had lower BMD of the spine and proximal femur compared to young healthy adults. However, the mean BMD of HT patients was significantly lower than in CHF patients at all sites studied. Bone mass did not correlate with time after transplantation or cumulative dose of cyclosporine A. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the cumulative dose of prednisone. These data suggest that bone loss occurs in HT patients mainly due to the use of corticosteroids and that in 30% of the patients it can be present before transplantation. It seems that cyclosporine A may also play a role in this loss.

  12. Mutifactorial analysis of risk factors for reduced bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah A Bartram; Robert T Peaston; David J Rawlings; David Walshaw; Roger M Francis; Nick P Thompson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in a cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to identify the relative significance of risk factors for osteoporosis.METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight unselected patients (92 M, 166 F) with CD were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine and hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and bone resorption by measuring urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD)and N-telopeptide (NTX).RESULTS: Between 11.6%-13.6% patients were osteoporotic (T score < -2.5) at the lumbar spine and/or hip. NTX levels were significantly higher in the patients with osteoporosis (P < 0.05) but BSAP and DPD levels were not significantly different. Independent risk factors for osteoporosis at either the lumbar spine or hip were a low body mass index (P < 0.001), increasing corticosteroid use (P < 0.005), and male sex (P < 0.01).These factors combined accounted for 23% and 37% of the reduction in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip respectively.CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that osteoporosis is common in patients with CD and suggest that increased bone resorption is the mechanism responsible for the bone loss. However, less than half of the reduction in BMD can be attributed to risk factors such as corticosteroid use and low BMI and therefore remains unexplained.

  13. Bioinspired, biomimetic, double-enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone regeneration with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A.; Łapa, Agata; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels are popular materials for tissue regeneration. Incorporation of biologically active substances, e.g. enzymes, is straightforward. Hydrogel mineralization is desirable for bone regeneration. Here, hydrogels of Gellan Gum (GG), a biocompatible polysaccharide, were mineralized biomimetical...

  14. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  15. Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in fetuin-A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jong; Busse, Björn; Gupta, Himadri S; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W C; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix--a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth.

  16. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD, mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs and trabecular bones (Tbs were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp at 2 and 4 weeks to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks. The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical

  17. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  19. Protein and mineral characterisation of rendered meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, M; Penkman, K E H; Wess, T J; Reaney, S; Collins, M J

    2012-10-01

    We report the characterisation of meat and bone meal (MBM) standards (Set B-EFPRA) derived from cattle, sheep, pig and chicken, each rendered at four different temperatures (133, 137, 141 and 145 °C). The standards, prepared for an EU programme STRATFEED (to develop new methodologies for the detection and quantification of illegal addition of mammalian tissues in feeding stuffs), have been widely circulated and used to assess a range of methods for identification of the species composition of MBM. The overall state of mineral alteration and protein preservation as a function of temperature was monitored using small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS), amino acid composition and racemization analyses. Progressive increases in protein damage and mineral alteration in chicken and cattle standards was observed. In the case of sheep and pig, there was greater damage to the proteins and alteration of the minerals at the lowest treatment temperature (133 °C), suggesting that the thermal treatments must have been compromised in some way. This problem has probably impacted upon the numerous studies which tested methods against these heat treatments. We use protein mass spectrometric methods to explore if thermostable proteins could be used to identify rendered MBM. In more thermally altered samples, so-called 'thermostable' proteins such as osteocalcin which has been proposed as a ideal target to speciate MBM were no longer detectable, but the structural protein type I collagen could be used to differentiate all four species, even in the most thermally altered samples.

  20. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  1. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dyke, J. P.; Aaron, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability wi...

  2. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Pham, Thu Trang; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Finch, Sarah L; El Hayek, Jessy; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between vitamin D status, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and markers of calcium homeostasis in preschool-aged children. Children (n=488; age range: 1.8-6.0 y) were randomly recruited from Montreal. The distal forearm was scanned using a peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar PIXI; GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). A subset (n=81) had clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (cDXA) scans (Hologic 4500A Discovery Series) of lumbar spine (LS) 1-4, whole body, and ultradistal forearm. All were assessed for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone concentrations (Liaison; Diasorin), ionized calcium (ABL80 FLEX; Radiometer Medical A/S), and dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes by survey. Age (p75 nmol/L positively associated with forearm and whole body BMC and aBMD (p<0.036). Sun index related to (p<0.029) cDXA forearm and LS 1-4 BMC and whole-body aBMD. Nutrient intakes did not relate to BMC or aBMD. In conclusion, higher vitamin D status is linked to higher BMC and aBMD of forearm and whole body in preschool-aged children.

  3. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  4. Risk factors for developing mineral bone disease in phenylketonuric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Bóveda, M Dolores; Leis, María R; Mera, Antonio; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fernández-Lorenzo, José R; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2013-03-01

    There is a compromised bone mass in phenylketonuria patients compared with normal population, but the mechanisms responsible are still a matter of investigation. In addition, tetrahydrobiopterin therapy is a new option for a significant proportion of these patients and the prevalence of mineral bone disease (MBD) in these patients is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study including 43 phenylketonuric patients. Bone densitometry, nutritional assessment, physical activity questionnaire, biochemical parameters, and molecular study were performed in all patients. Patients were stratified by phenotype, age and type of treatment. The MBD prevalence in phenylketonuria was 14%. Osteopenic and osteoporotic (n=6 patients) had an average daily natural protein intake significantly lower than the remaining (n=37) patients with PKU (14.33 ± 8.95 g vs 21.25 ± 20.85 g). Besides, a lower body mass index was found. There were no statistical differences in physical activity level, calcium, phosphorus and fat intake, and in phenylalanine, vitamin D, paratohormone, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid blood levels. Mutational spectrum was found in up to 30 different PAH genotypes and no relationship was established among genotype and development of MBD. None of the twelve phenylketonuric patients treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (27.9%), for an average of 7.1 years, developed MBD. Natural protein intake and blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were significantly higher while calcium intake was lower in these patients. This study shows that the decrease in natural protein intake can play an important role in MBD development in phenylketonuric patients. Therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin allows a more relaxed protein diet, which is associated with better bone mass.

  5. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  6. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry.

  7. Effect of unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on bone mineral content and density of rat's mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladizesky, M G; Cutrera, R A; Boggio, V; Mautalen, C; Cardinali, D P

    2000-01-14

    To assess the effect of a local sympathectomy on bone metabolism, the effect of a unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (Gx) on growth and bone mineral content and density of the ipsi- and contralateral mandibles was examined in female rats. A significant increase in the hemi-mandibular bone ipsilateral to Gx was found as compared to the contralateral, sham-operated side 30 days, but not 15 days, after surgery. Bone mineral content of the hemi-mandibular bones was significantly lower in the side ipsilateral to Gx in the group of rats killed on the 30th day after surgery. Since no difference in areas between innervated and denervated hemi-mandibles was found, bone mineral density was also significantly lower in the hemi-mandible ipsilateral to Gx. The results further support that a regional sympathectomy causes qualitative alterations in bone modeling and remodeling, leading to bone resorption.

  8. The effect of weight bearing on bone mineral density and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Choi, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The present study aims to explore the effect of weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twelve children with CP of functional level of gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) V and 6 healthy children (control group) were included in the study. Participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to measure the BMD of the femur and full-length anteroposterior radiography to measure the bone length of the femur and tibia at baseline and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A with programmed standing exercises and assisted standing for more than 2 hours a day, more than 5 days a week; and group B with conventional physiotherapy with a standing program for 20 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week. Results: A 6-month follow-up showed significantly increased BMD on the femur neck in the control group. Although the changes in BMD were not significant in both groups, group A demonstrated an increased trend of BMD, whereas group B showed a decreased trend. Bone length was significantly increased in all 3 groups at the 6-month follow-up. Although this increase was not significant, the change in bone length was greatest in the control group. The smallest changes were observed in group B. Conclusions: Weight bearing exercise may play an important role in increasing or maintaining BMD in children with CP and is also expected to promote bone growth. Programmed standing may be used as an effective treatment method to increase BMD in children with CP. However, further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up period are required to reveal further information on the benefit of weight bearing exercise and to develop a detailed program. PMID:28272197

  9. Potential Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Repatriated Prisoners of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    be determined. Captivity in a prisoner of war (POW) or concentration camp is associated with multiple risk factors for bone loss such as dietary ...adult primiparous Göttengen miniature pigs : effects on bone mineral and mineral metabolism . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007 ; 293: E385

  10. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  11. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reix, Philippe; Bellon, Gabriel [Hopital Femme Mere Enfant, Service de Pediatrie, Pneumologie, Allergologie, Mucoviscidose, Bron (France); Braillon, Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service d' Imagerie Foetale et Pediatrique, Bron (France)

    2010-03-15

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 {+-} 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94{+-}0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  12. Ⅰ型胶原N末端肽和定量CT骨密度早期测定实验性骨不连%Early diagnosis of experimental bone nonunion:measurement of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and quantitative CT determination of bone mineral density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坚平; 沈宁江; 史占军; 王健; 肖军; 吴多能; 张武

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, X-ray examination is mainly used for diagnosis of nonunion. However, this method that relies only on the clinician’s experience and degree of calus mineralization has less accuracy because it is vulnerable to projection, processing conditions and subjective factors. OBJECTIVE:To establish an animal model of nonunion and to detect the variation of biochemical markers and bone mineral density. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, and bone defect and fracture models were made in the midshaft of the forearm radius, respectively. X-ray examination of the forearm, quantitative CT measurement of bone mineral density and serological test were carried out before and at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 weeks after surgery.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Postoperative X-ray films showed that the in the bone defect group, a little calus formed in three rabbits at 2 weeks, the calus formed stably at 5 weeks, but there was stil no healing at 8 weeks; in the fracture group, the fracture line was blurred at 2 weeks and a large number of caluses formed at 6-8 weeks. Compared with the fracture group, the value of bone mineral density in the bone defect group began to decrease significantly at 5 weeks after surgery. Results from the serological test showed that in the bone defect group, the activity of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase increased after surgery, reached peak at 4 weeks, began to decrease at 5 weeks and became stable at 6 weeks; the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b increased after surgery, peaked at 4 weeks, then decreased and stabilized basicaly; the expression of N-terminal telopeptide of type I colagen decreased significantly at 5 weeks after surgery and became stable at 6 weeks. These findings indicate that the systematic monitoring of changes in bone mineral density and biochemical indicators such as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and type I colagen

  13. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  14. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  15. Intramuscular neridronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Bertoldo, Francesco; Sartori, Leonardo; Di Munno, Ombretta; Filipponi, Paolo; Marcocci, Claudio; Frediani, Bruno; Palummeri, Ernesto; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Costi, Daniele; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-11-01

    Compliance to osteoporosis treatment with oral bisphosphonates is very poor. Intermittent intravenous bisphosphonate is a useful alternative, but this route is not readily available. Neridronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that can be given intramuscularly (IM), was tested in a phase 2 clinical trial in 188 postmenopausal osteoporotic women randomized to IM treatment with 25 mg neridronate every 2 weeks, neridronate 12.5 or 25 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo. All patients received calcium and vitamin D supplements. The patients were treated over 12 months with 2-year posttreatment follow-up. After 12-month treatment, all three doses were associated with significant bone mineral density (BMD) increases at both the total hip and spine. A significant dose-response relationship over the three doses was observed for the BMD changes at the total hip but not at the spine. Bone alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly by 40-55% in neridronate-treated patients, with an insignificant dose-response relationship. Serum type I collagen C-telopeptide decreased by 58-79%, with a significant dose-response relationship (P < 0.05). Two years after treatment discontinuation, BMD declined by 1-2% in each dose group, with values still significantly higher than baseline at both the spine and the total hip. Bone turnover markers progressively increased after treatment discontinuation, and on the second year of follow-up the values were significantly higher than pretreatment baseline. The results of this study indicate that IM neridronate might be of value for patients intolerant to oral bisphosphonates and unwilling or unable to undergo intravenous infusion of bisphosphonates.

  16. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  17. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured......Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...

  18. Influence of Particle Size of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on New Bone Formation and Implant Stability after Simultaneous Sinus Floor Elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Aaboe, Merete; Janner, Simone F M;

    2013-01-01

    Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE).......Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE)....

  19. The Effect of Acupuncture on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳钢; 王玲玲; 王东岩; 卓铁军; 申志祥

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory that the kidney is in charge of the bone, the authors carried out a study on the effect of acupuncture on bone mineral density in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated by the method of reinforcing the kidney to strengthen the bone, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows.

  20. PTH(1-84) Administration in Hypoparathyroidism Transiently Reduces Bone Matrix Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; Bilezikian, John P; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rubin, Mishaela R

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hypoparathyroidism have low circulating parathyroid (PTH) levels and higher cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness. Treatment with PTH(1-84) was shown to increase abnormally low bone remodeling dynamics. In this work, we studied the effect of 1-year or 2-year PTH(1-84) treatment on cancellous and cortical bone mineralization density distribution (Cn.BMDD and Ct.BMDD) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in paired transiliac bone biopsy samples. The study cohort comprised 30 adult hypoparathyroid patients (14 treated for 1 year; 16 treated for 2 years). At baseline, Cn.BMDD was shifted to higher mineralization densities in both treatment groups (average degree of mineralization Cn.CaMean +3.9% and +2.7%, p mineralizing surface) was predictive for Cn.BMDD outcomes in the 1-year PTH(1-84) group, but not in the 2-year PTH(1-84) group. Our findings suggest higher baseline bone matrix mineralization consistent with the decreased bone turnover in hypoparathyroidism. PTH(1-84) treatment caused differential effects dependent on treatment duration that were consistent with the histomorphometric bone formation outcomes. The greater increase in bone formation during the first year of treatment was associated with a decrease in bone matrix mineralization, suggesting that PTH(1-84) exposure to the hypoparathyroid skeleton has the greatest effects on BMDD early in treatment.

  1. Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

  2. The effect of long-term acidifying feeding on digesta organic acids, mineral balance, and bone mineralization in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Højberg, Ole; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects...... (P dietary supplementation of BA and the replacement of CaCO3 with CaCl2 affected the nutrient balances of P and Ca. Mineral concentration and total mineral density of metacarpal III bones was reduced both by BA...... of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium...

  3. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  4. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  5. Estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建民; 朱汉民; 朱晓颖; 戴蒙; 江凌; 许曼音; 陈家伦

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between the polymorphisms of estrogen receptor (ER) gene, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biochemical markers in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)in 186 Chinese postmenopausal women. The PvuⅡ and XbaⅠ polymorphisms of the ER gene were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bone biochemical markers, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and pyridinoline were measured by ELISA. Results The femoral neck(FN) BMD (Z score) was higher in pp compared to Pp (-0.01±0.12 vs. -0.35±0.09, P<0.05) while lumbar spine BMD (Z score) was higher in XX type compared to Xx and xx genotypes (0.01±0.45 vs -1.53±0.17, -1.29±0.10, P<0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Women without Px haplotype (n=79) had a higher BMD Z-score for the lumbar spine (-1.03±0.14 vs -1.45±0.11, P<0.05) and femoral neck (-0.01±0.11 vs -0.31±0.09, P<0.05) than those who had it (n=107). Conclusions The present study suggested that the pp and XX genotypes of ER gene might play a certain role in maintaining FN and lumbar spine BMD. ER genotypes without Px haplotype might be favorable to bone mass, while those with it might exert some harmful effect on bone mineral density.

  6. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  7. The Effect of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on Saos-2 Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Arash; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Eslami, Mohammad; Motahhary, Pourya; Morad, Golnaz; Shidfar, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) is a xenogenic bone substitute, widely used in maxillofacial bone regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate its influence on the growth behavior of human osteosarcoma cell line, Saos-2 culture, and compare it with the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone, an inductive factor for osteoblasts. Materials and Methods Human osteosarcoma cells, Saos-2, were cultured on Bio-Oss and their growth rate was compared to Saos-2 cultures treated with Dexamethasone 10-7 M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS, in the control group. Assessment of proliferation was performed after 24, 36, and 48 hours by counting cells using trypan blue exclusion method. Alkaline phosphatase was measured spectrophotometrically at 405 nm with paranitrophenol buffer. Results After 48 hours, the number of Saos-2 cells increased significantly when subcultured with Bio-Oss. Bio-Oss was more effective on the enhancement of proliferation of Saos-2 cells when compared to the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in cells grown on Bio-Oss and dexamethasone 10-7 M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS control group. The greatest level of activity was observed in the group containing Bio-Oss after 48 hour. Conclusion The significant increase of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity in cells cultured on Bio-Oss, compared to Dexamethasone-treated cells, suggests the important role of this bone substitute in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:23922573

  8. Genetic determinants of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral densities and bone microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD, not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD, trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878 followed by replication (n = 1,052 identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10⁻¹⁴; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10⁻¹²; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10⁻¹⁰; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10⁻⁹. The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500 followed by replication (n = 1,022 identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10⁻⁹. High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729. rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.93 and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735 are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose

  9. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A.L. Berends (Anne); P. Henneman (Peter); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, in

  10. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself.

  11. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  12. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  14. Weight-bearing physical activity, calcium intake, systemic glucocorticoids, chronic inflammation, and body constitution as determinants of lumbar and femoral bone mineral in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaniemi, A; Savolainen, A; Kröger, H; Kautiainen, H; Isomäki, H

    1999-01-01

    The associations between the lumbar and femoral bone mineral and several body constitutional, lifestyle, and disease related variables were studied in 111 children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) by factor and multiple linear regression analyses. In addition to the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), bone width and bone mineral volumetric density (BMDvol) were determined by dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Factor analysis of 13 explanatory variables yielded six non-correlating factors, named as body size, physical activity, calcium intake, glucocorticoids, disease duration, and disease activity. These six factors were used as new variables to explain BMD, BMDvol, and bone width by multiple linear regression analyses. These showed body size, physical activity, and calcium intake as significant positive and disease activity and glucocorticoids as significant negative determinants of BMD in JCA. The analyses revealed also considerable differences in the relationships between factors and BM Dvol or bone width.

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Residents of Villages Surrounding Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimof

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs associated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated association between fruit and vegetables intake and bone mineral density in rural population of Tehran surroundings. Subjects were a subgroup of a large study on prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surrounding Tehran, capital of Iran. Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL (Calscan method at the heels. Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 years were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men were 69.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetable intake women were grouped as those consuming less than 1.5 servings of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reported consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01. Those consumed more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin A (r= 0.03, P<0.05 was correlated with BMD. High consumption of vegetables positively affected bone mineral density in rural women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables could positively affect osteoporosis prevention.

  16. Determinants of ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties: effects of architecture, mineralization, and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, C M; Spence, C A; Vance, J L; Christopherson, G T; Patel, B; Turner, A S; Divine, G W; Fyhrie, D P

    2004-09-01

    Significant decreases in ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties (specifically, stress-rate sensitivity, and damping efficiency) are associated with three years of ovariectomy and are particularly evident at higher frequencies [Proc. Orthop. Res. Soc. 27 (2002) 89]. It is unclear what materials or architectural features of bone are responsible for either the viscoelastic properties themselves, or for the changes in those properties that were observed with estrogen depletion. In this study, we examined the relationship between these viscoelastic mechanical properties and features involving bone architecture (BV/TV), materials parameters (ash density, %mineralization), and histologic evidence of remodeling (%remodeled, cement line interface). The extent of mineralization was inversely proportional to the material's efficiency in damping stress oscillations. The damping characteristics of bone material from ovariectomized animals were significantly more sensitive to variation in mineralization than was bone from control animals. At low frequencies (6 Hz or less), increased histologic evidence of remodeling was positively correlated with increased damping efficiency. However, the dramatic decreases in stress-rate sensitivity that accompanied 3-year ovariectomy were seen throughout the bone structure and occurred even in areas with little or no secondary Haversian remodeling as well as in areas of complete remodeling. Taken together, these data suggest that, while the mineral component may modify the viscoelastic behavior of bone, the basic mechanism underlying bone viscoelastic behavior, and of the changes in that behavior with estrogen depletion, reside in a non-mineral component of the bone that can be significantly altered in the absence of secondary remodeling.

  17. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public health Vitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared

  18. Muscle strength and soccer practice as major determinants of bone mineral density in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Marques, Elisa; Brito, João;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between isokinetic strength of the lower limb muscles and bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) of adolescent male soccer players and age-matched controls not involved in sport (12-15years). METHODS: A random sample of 151 young males was divided...... into soccer players (SG; n=117) and control subjects (CG; n=34). Peak torque of knee extensors (PTE) and flexors (PTF) was measured during isokinetic knee joint movement (90°/s) of the dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. BMD and BMC of the whole-body, lumbar spine, dominant/non-dominant lower limb were...

  19. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...

  20. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  1. The Construction and Investigation of PLGA Artificial Bone by Biomimetic Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHENG Qixin; WANG Jinguang; WANG yuntao; HAO Jie

    2005-01-01

    To modify the surface property of poly lactide co-glycolide (PLGA) by biomimetic mineralization to construct a new kind of artificial bone. PLGA films and 3 diamensional (3-D) porous scaffolds hydrolyzed in alkaline solution were minerilized in SBF for 14 days. The morphology and composition of the mineral grown on PLGA were analyzed with SEM, FTIR and XRD. The porosity of the scaffolds was detected by using the liquid displacement method. The compressive strength of the scaffolds was detected by using a Shimadzu universal mechanic tester. An obvious mineral coating was detected on the surface of films and scaffolds. The main component of the mineral was carbonated hydroxyapatite (HA) similar to the major mineral component of bone tissues. The porosity of the un-mineralized and mineralized porous scaffolds was (84.86±8.52) % and (79.70±7.70) % respectively. The compressive strength was 0. 784±0. 156 N/mm2 in un-mineralized 3-D porous PLGA and 0. 858±0. 145 N/mm2 in mineralized 3-D porous PLGA. There were no significant differences between the mineralized and un-mineralized scaffolds (P>0. 05) in porosity and biomechanics. Biomimetic mineralization is a suitable method to construct artificial bone.

  2. Effects of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins On Bone Mineral Density and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Samancı

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins have been shown to have effects on bone metabolism in laboratory studies. While early clinic studies have showed lower risk for osteoporotic fractures among statin users than nonusers, subsequent studies have found mixed results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism. Thirty-five consecutive postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women who were treated for at least last 6 months with statins were included in the study. Seventy-five normocholesterolemic age-matched postmenopausal women were in the control group. Subjects with a history of any diseases and used drugs that may affect calcium or bone metabolism were excluded from the study. Age, associated illness, years since menopause, and body mass index (BMI were obtained from all the patients including the control group. Besides, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy D3, osteocalcin, and urinary calcium excretion were measured. BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at femoral neck and 3rd lomber spine. Mean duration of statin use was 28.17±21.17 months. BMI was found to be statistically higher in statin users than nonusers (27.47±3.67kg/m2 and 25.46±3.91 kg/m2, respectively. The markers of bone metabolism used in the study were found to be similar between the groups. BMD was not different in statin users and nonusers at femoral neck and lomber spine. As conclusion, statin use did not affect BMD and bone metabolism in this study. In our opinion large randomised, controlled, prospective clinical trials are needed to accurately determine the role of statins in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  4. Microscale Material Properties of Bone and the Mineralized Tissues of the Intervertebral Disc-Vertebral Body Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, Rachel C.

    mineralized biological tissues and at the bone-cartilage interface plays an important mechanical role. Nanoindentation measurements in osteonal bone are affected by location within the lamellar structure, even though mineral volume fraction within a single osteon is relatively consistent compared to the differences observed between bone and calcified cartilage. While increasing mineral volume fraction contributes to increases in modulus in the calcified cartilage layer of the vertebral body-intervertebral disc interface, significant scatter remains. The collagenous matrix structure and type of collagen appear to have a significant influence on modulus as well. Collagen fibers of the disc mineralize adjacent to the bone of the vertebral body, and the persistence of this attachment zone from adolescence through senescence indicates that it likely serves a mechanical function. Fiber insertions into thick calcified cartilage regions likely create mechanically robust anchor points at the osteochondral interface.

  5. The Effects of Bone Mineral Density and Level of Serum Vitamin-D on Pain and Quality of Life in Fibromialgia Patients - Original Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Küçükali Türkyılmaz; Ebru Yılmaz Yalçınkaya; Kadriye Öneş

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the levels of serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 in premenopausal Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) patients, and to examine the effect of them to the pain and quality of life in premenopausal FMS patients. Material and Methods: Premenouposal 30 patients with fibromyalgia and 30 healthy controls included the study. The demographic characteristic, serum values, vitamin D levels, bone mineral density measurements, Visual Analog ...

  6. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  7. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  8. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  9. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS and ...

  10. Effect of Progressive Locomotor Treadmill Compared to Conventional Training on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Remodeling in Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Mobarake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The decrease in bone mass in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons increases the risk factors for fractures. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of progressive locomotor treadmill training (LT on muscle mass, bone mineral density, and bone remodeling in paraplegia patients. Methods The subjects investigated in this research included seventeen paraplegic spinal cord injured persons who were divided randomly into two groups: LT group (n = 10 and conventional exercise group (n = 7. The exercise training protocol was performed during 12 weeks, 3 days a week, 60 minutes a session. LT included 15 minutes warm-up on stationary bike plus 45 minutes LT with 50 percent body-weight support and finally 10 minutes cool-down as an adjunct to a conventional physiotherapy program. 10 percent loading weight was added per week for LT. Conventional exercise training incorporated 15 minutes warm-up plus 45 minutes over-ground training such as stretch exercise and resistance training. Results The obtained results showed that there were significant differences in serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P < 0.001, osteocalcin levels (P = 0.003, bone mineral content (BMC of the femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral density (BMD of femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral content (BMC of the lumbar spine (P < 0.001, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.000 between LT and conventional exercise regimes. Conclusions LT training, in addition to improvement of motor function and reduction of bone loss, can be prescribed as an effective exercise intervention for the treatment of osteoporosis in incomplete spinal cord injured persons.

  11. Bone mineral density and vitamin D status in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, F; Speelman, A D; van Nimwegen, M; van der Schouw, Y T; Backx, F J G; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M; Verhaar, H J J

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. Several factors may be involved in the development of bone loss, including malnutrition, immobilization, low body mass index, decreased muscle strength, vitamin D deficiency and medication use. This study investigates the prevalence of osteoporosis and possible risk factors associated with bone loss in early stage PD. In 186 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2.5, mean age 64.1 years, 71 % men) bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with DEXA. T- and Z-scores were calculated. Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that contributed to BMD. 25-OH-vitamin D status of PD patients was compared with 802 controls (mean age 63.3 years, 50 % men) using linear regression analysis. Osteoporosis (11.8 %) and osteopenia (41.4 %) were common in PD patients. Mean Z-score for the hip was 0.24 (SD 0.93), and for the lumbar spine 0.72 (SD 1.91). Female gender, low weight, and low 25-OH-vitamin D were significantly correlated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine. PD patients had lower 25(OH)D serum levels than controls (B = -10, p = 0.000). More than half of the patients with early stage PD had an abnormal BMD. Female gender, low weight, and low vitamin D concentration were associated with bone loss. Furthermore, vitamin D concentrations were reduced in PD patients. These results underscore the importance of proactive screening for bone loss and vitamin D deficiency, even in early stages of PD.

  12. Synovial cell production of IL-26 induces bone mineralization in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Andersen, Thomas; Jæhger, Ditte; Woetmann, Anders; Østgård, René; Kenngott, Elisabeth E; Syrbe, Uta; Sieper, Joachim; Hvid, Malene; Deleuran, Bent; Kragstrup, Tue W

    2017-04-02

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is characterized by inflammation and new bone formation and can be treated by inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-17A. IL-26 is considered a proinflammatory cytokine, predominantly related to Th17 cells. In the present study, we investigate IL-26 expression in SpA patients, and examine the in vitro production of IL-26 by synovial cells and the effects of IL-26 on human osteoblasts. IL-26 was measured by ELISA in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) of 15 SpA patients and in plasma samples from 12 healthy controls. Facet joints from axial SpA patients were stained for IL-26 and analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Synovial fluid mononuclear cells, C-C motif chemokine receptor 6 memory Th17 cells, and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were isolated, and supernatants were analyzed for IL-26 content by ELISA. FLSs were further stained for IL-26 production and the myofibroblast marker α-smooth-muscle-actin (αSMA) and analyzed by flow cytometry. Human osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of IL-26, and the degree of mineralization was quantified. We found that IL-26 levels in SF were increased compared with plasma (P < 0.0001). Moreover, IL-26 expression was found in facet joints of axial SpA patients within the bone marrow. IL-26 secretion was primarily found in αSMA(+) myofibroblasts. In contrast, Th17 cells did not produce detectable amounts of IL-26. Human osteoblasts treated with IL-26 showed increased mineralization compared with untreated osteoblasts (P = 0.02). In conclusion, IL-26 seems to be produced by myofibroblasts in the inflamed synovium and could be a possible facilitator of bone mineralization in SpA.

  13. Fatigue, bone pain, lower extremity weakness and bone mineral density%乏力、骨痛、双下肢酸软与骨密度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀兰; 陈莉; 张童茜; 施宝颖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship among fatigue, bone pain, weakness in both lower extremities, and bone mineral density. Methods The bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebra 1-4 ( LI -4) and the femoral neck was measured in 2069 clinical patients with fatigue, bone pain, and weakness in both lower extremities. Results Most patients with above symptoms were women, especially those who were over SO years of age. Most patients existed abnormal bone mass. The lower the bone mass wag, the more severe the pain was. The incidence of osteoporosis increased with age growing.%目的 探讨乏力、骨痛、双下肢酸软等症状与骨密度的关系.方法 对2069名以乏力、骨痛及双下肢酸软临床症状就诊者进行了腰椎( L1-4)及股骨颈骨密度测定.结果 以此症状就诊者女性居多,且以50岁为甚,就诊者中大多存在着骨量异常,骨量越低,疼痛程度越重,随着年龄增大,骨质疏松发病率也随之增高.结论 疼痛程度与骨量下降、年龄增长成正比.

  14. Bone mineral disorder in chronic kidney disease: Klotho and FGF23; cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova Villanueva, Laura; Sánchez González, Carmen; Sánchez Tomero, José Antonio; Aguilera, Abelardo; Ortega Junco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular factors are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Bone mineral metabolism disorders and inflammation are pathological conditions that involve increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. The cardiovascular risk involvement of bone mineral metabolism classical biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, vitamin D and PTH is well known. The newest markers, FGF23 and klotho, could also be implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study ...

  16. Bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and fractures in patients with systemic sclerosis: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Atteritano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis-related osteoporosis and the prevalence of vertebral fragility fracture in postmenopausal women with systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-four postmenopausal women with scleroderma and 54 postmenopausal controls matched for age, BMI, and smoking habits were studied. BMD was measured by dual energy-x-ray absorptiometry at spine and femur, and by ultrasonography at calcaneus The markers of bone turnover included serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline. All subjects had a spine X-ray to ascertain the presence of vertebral fractures. RESULTS: bone mineral density at lumbar spine (BMD 0.78±0.08 vs 0.88±0.07; p<0,001, femoral neck (BMD: 0.56±0.04 vs 0.72±0.07; p<0,001 and total femur (BMD: 0.57±0.04 vs 0.71±0.06; p<0,001 and ultrasound parameter at calcaneus (SI: 80.10±5.10 vs 94.80±6.10 p<0,001 were significantly lower in scleroderma compared with controls; bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone level were significantly higher in scleroderma compared with controls, while serum of 25(OHD3 was significantly lower. In scleroderma group the serum levels of 25(OHD3 significantly correlated with PTH levels, BMD, stiffness index and bone turnover markers. One or more moderate or severe vertebral fractures were found in 13 patients with scleroderma, wherease in control group only one patient had a mild vertebral fracture. CONCLUSION: Our data shows, for the first time, that vertebral fractures are frequent in subjects with scleroderma, and suggest that lower levels of 25(OHD3 may play a role in the risk of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures.

  17. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  18. Response Of Mineralizing And Non-Mineralizing Bone Cells To Fluid Flow: An In Vitro Model For Mechanotransruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren A.

    2004-01-01

    osteoblasts, including increased proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and production of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and osteopontin. Several proteins have been implicated in osteoblastic mechanotransduction including Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). We will characterize relative levels of each protein in mineralizing or non-mineralizing MC3T3 osteoblastic cells that have been exposed to fluid flow compared to non-fluid flow using immunofluorescent staining and two- photon laser microscopy as well as western blotting. Because calcium-mediated pathways are important in osteoblastic signaling, we will transfect MC3T3 cells with cameleon probes for Ca2+ containing YFP and CFP. Results will be analyzed using FRET/FLIM to study differential release of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing matrix mineralization. In addition, we plan to conduct several microarray experiments to determine differential gene expression in MC3T3 cells in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing mineralization.

  19. Bone mineral content reduction in youth with surgical form of Schistosomiasis mansoni: factors involved in the pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two children and adolescents from 14 to 20 years of age, suffering from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varicose veins, were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD, before undergoing medical and surgical treatment. The surgical protocol was splenectomy, autoimplantation of spleen tissue into a pouch of the major omentum and ligature of the left gastric vein. Follow up of these patients? ranges from one to ten years with a mean of five years. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2 - L4 through the dual energy absorptionmetry X-ray (DEXA, using a LUNAR DPX-L densitometer. The degree of Symmers´ fibrosis was assessed by semiautomatic hystomorphometry. In eleven patients, the serum magnesium was measured before an intravenous overload of this ion and subsequently after eight and twenty four hours. Urine was collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after the magnesium overload. Deficiency of magnesium was considered when the uptake of this ion was greater than 40%. There was a significant trend of association between the status of bone mineral content and the Symmers´ fibrosis degree (c² = 6.606 R = 0.01017. There was also a moderate agreement between the greater fibrosis densities ( > the mean percentage and bone mineral deficits. Although the normal bone mineral content was more found among the patients with better hepatic functional reserve, the results did not reach statistical significance. There was a marked magnesium retention (>95% in one patient who had severe osteoporosis and a slight depletion (<5% in another patient, who presented no bone mineral deficit. It was concluded that the patients included in this series, showed an important BMD deficit, specially among the females which has had a significant improvement after medical and surgical treatment. Bone mineral deficit was associated with the degree of Symmers´ fibrosis. Magnesium depletion was present in two out of eleven patients. It is

  20. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Gang Yu; Shao-Bo Nie; Feng-Xiang Liu; Chuan-Long Wu; Bo Tian; Wen-Gang Wang; Xiao-Qing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA).However,the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved.The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture,mineralization,and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA.Methods:A medial meniscal tear (MMT) operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA.At 2,4,8,and 12 weeks following the MMT operation,cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining,whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD),mineral-to-collagen ratio,and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs) and trabecular bones (Tbs) were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning,confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing,respectively.Results:Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction.Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV,trabecular number,connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th],and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) at 2 and 4 weeks) to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV,Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate,and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks).The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks.The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction.Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction.The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks.Conclusion:The microarchitecture,mineralization and mechanical properties of subchondral bone changed in a time

  1. The effect of enamel matrix proteins and deproteinized bovine bone mineral on heterotopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Tonetti, Maurizio; Karring, Thorkild; Lang, Niklaus P

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the osteoinductive potential of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in the muscle of rats. Sixteen rats were used in this study. The animals were divided in three groups. Group A: a pouch was created in one of the pectoralis profundis muscles of the thorax of the rats and DBBM particles (Bio-Oss) were placed into the pouch. Healing: 60 days. Group B: a small pouch was created on both pectoralis profundis muscles at each side of the thorax midline. In one side, a mixture of EMD (Emdogain) mixed with DBBM was placed into one of the pouches, whereas in the contralateral side of the thorax the pouch was implanted with DBBM mixed with the propylene glycol alginate (PGA--carrier for enamel matrix proteins of EMD). Healing: 60 days. Group C: the same procedure as group B, but with a healing period of 120 days. Qualitative histological analysis of the results was performed. At 60 days, the histological appearance of the DBBM particles implanted alone was similar to that of the particles implanted together with EMD or PGA at both 60 and 120 days. The DBBM particles were encapsulated into a connective tissue stroma and an inflammatory infiltrate. At 120 days, the DBBM particles implanted together with EMD or PGA exhibited the presence of resorption lacunae in some cases. Intramuscular bone formation was not encountered in any group. The implantation of DBBM particles alone, combined with EMD or its carrier (PGA) failed to exhibit extraskeletal, bone-inductive properties.

  2. Lower Serum Creatinine Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Subjects without Overt Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with deterioration of bone mineral density. Because serum creatinine can serve as a marker of muscle mass, we evaluated the relationship between serum creatinine and bone mineral density in an older population with normal renal function.Data from a total of 8,648 participants (4,573 men and 4,075 postmenopausal women aged 45-95 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were analyzed from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010. Bone mineral density (BMD and appendicular muscle mass (ASM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut points of serum creatinine for sarcopenia were below 0.88 mg/dl in men and 0.75 mg/dl in women. Subjects were divided into two groups: low creatinine and upper normal creatinine according to the cut point value of serum creatinine for sarcopenia.In partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, serum creatinine was positively associated with both BMD and ASM. Subjects with low serum creatinine were at a higher risk for low BMD (T-score ≤ -1.0 at the femur neck, total hip and lumbar spine in men, and at the total hip and lumbar spine in women after adjustment for confounding factors. Each standard deviation increase in serum creatinine was significantly associated with reduction in the likelihood of low BMD at the total hip and lumbar spine in both sexes (men: odds ratio (OR = 0.84 [95% CI = 0.74-0.96] at the total hip, OR = 0.8 [95% CI = 0.68-0.96] at the lumbar spine; women: OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.73-0.95] at the total hip, OR=0.81 [95% CI = 0.67-0.99] at the lumbar spine.Serum creatinine reflected muscle mass, and low serum creatinine was independently associated with low bone mineral density in subjects with normal kidney function.

  3. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  4. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.c, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.u [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  5. Osteoporosis: Are we measuring what we intend to measure? In search of the ideal bone strength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2006-02-01

    In 1991 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined osteoporosis as a "loss of bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of the skeleton leading to increased risk of fracture." 1,2 Since microarchitecture can not be measured directly, a panel of the WHO recommended that the diagnosis be made according to a quantifiable surrogate marker, calcium mineral, in bone. Subsequently in 1994, the definition focused on the actual bone "density," giving densitometric technology a central place in establishing the diagnosis of osteoporosis. 3,4 But soon it became obvious that there was only limited correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and actual occurrence of fractures and that decreases in bone mass account for only about 50% of the deterioration of bone strength with aging. In other words only about 60% of bone strength is related to BMD. 5 Recent developments in bone research have shown that bone mineral density in itself is not sufficient to accurately predict fracture risk. Bone is composed of inorganic calcium apatite crystals that mineralize an organic type I collagen matrix. The degree of mineralization, the properties of the collagen matrix, crystal size, trabecular orientation, special distribution of the different components and many more factors are all impacting bone strength. 6-14 Human cadaver studies have confirmed the correlation between bone density and bone. 26 strength. 5,15-20 Changes in cancellous bone morphology appear to lead to a disproportionate decrease in bone strength. 21-26 When postmenopausal women are stratified by age, obvious differences between BMD and actual fracture risk are observed. 24 Felsenberg eloquently summarizes what he calls the "Bone Quality Framework." In great detail he talks about the geometry and micro- architecture of bone and how the different components are related to functional stability. 27 Are our current testing modalities appropriately addressing these structural factors? Are we keeping in mind that in

  6. Lumbar and radial bone mineral density in children and adolescents with X-linked hypophosphatemia: evaluation with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, R.M.; Poznanski, A.K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Langman, C.B. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Objective. To evaluate the bone mineral status of children being treated for X-linked hypophosphatemia, including potential differences between cortical bone in the radial diaphysis and combined cortical and trabecular bone in the lumbar spine.Design and patients. Forty-four bone mineral evaluations were performed in 11 children and adolescents with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the radial diaphysis were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), second metacarpal cortical thickness was measured on hand radiographs, and these results were expressed as Z-scores (standard deviations from the mean). Results. For the 11 initial examinations, Z-scores (mean{+-}SD) were: radial BMD, -2.73{+-}1.15, lumbar BMD, +1.28{+-}1.53; and cortical thickness, -2.21{+-}0.95. Lumbar BMD Z-scores were significantly greater than those for radial BMD and cortical thickness. On follow-up examinations there was a mild increase in radial BMD and decrease in lumbar BMD. Although these changes were statistically significant, they were quite small and the discordance between radial and lumbar BMD was not corrected. Conclusions. Children and adolescents who are being treated for X-linked hypophosphatemia manifest a bone mineral disorder characterized by decreased BMD in the appendicular skeleton and increased BMD in the lumbar spine. Although current therapy is successful in its anti-rachitic effects, it does not correct this bone mineral disorder and additional therapeutic trials should be considered. (orig.)

  7. Influence of mineral phase in mineralization of a biocomposite containing chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash—in vitro study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krithiga Gunasekaran; Santhosh Kumar Baskar; Divya Sapphire Mohan; Thotapalli P Sastry

    2014-05-01

    A resorbable composite which acts as a active barrier in guided bone regeneration was fabricated using chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash. Its potential to form bone like apatite in simulated body fluid was assessed in this study. The mechanical strength of these composites was correlated with bone ash ratios and composites with better tensile strength were studied for their acellular bioactivity by incubating in simulated body fluid for 21 days. Composites without bone ash did not show acellular bioactivity which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. In case of biocomposites with bone ash, there was an increase in residual weight indicating the mineralization of the composite. The composite containing bone ash has shown the peaks related to phosphate vibrations in its Fourier-transform infrared spectrum. Scanning micrographs revealed formation of apatite like crystals on its surface. Ca/P ratio was found to be 1.7 which is nearer to that of natural bone. Thus, prepared composites can be used as resorbable biocomposite in maxillofacial and oral defects.

  8. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  9. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D' Haese, Patrick C. [Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium); Van Hoof, Viviane O. [Department of Biochemistry, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Bohic, Sylvain [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l{sup -1} in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  11. Vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental health in young Australian women: the Safe-D study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T. Callegari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study. Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life.

  12. The Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Quality of Life in Men with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalkın Çalık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Osteoporosis (OP is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. OP is an important health problem with regard to morbidity, mortality, and negative effects on quality of life (QOL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone mineral density (BMD on QOL in men with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 male patients aged between 40-60 years admitted to Bolu Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Hospital were included in the study. 113 patients (mean age: 50.01±5.01 years diagnosed with OP according to BMD values at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and the femur neck measured using Dual Energy X-Ray absorptiometry were formed the case group, 67 patients (mean age: 44.62±3.86 years not diagnosed with OP were formed control group. A questionnaire prepared for assessment of sociodemographic features and risk factors for osteoporosis was applied in both groups after they gave their consent. The quality of life was assessed by means of Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO and Short Form-36 (SF-36. In the statistical analysis student’s t test and correlation analyses were performed by using SPSS 11.0 computer program and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Both femoral neck and lomber spine bone mineral density was lower in the case group than that of the control group (p<0.001. According to QUALEFFO and SF-36 scores, OP was found to reduce the quality of life (p<0.001. Smoking, bone fracture and inadequate daily calcium intake have negative effects on quality of life in the case group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Quality of life was influenced by numerous variables. These results point out that osteoporotic patients should be evaluated multidimensionally and different approaches are needed to improve their quality of life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 10-4

  13. Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, N.M.B.K.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Everts, V.; Mulder, L.; Grünheid, T.; Bank, R.A.; Zentner, A.; Eijden, T.M.G.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is an important constituent of bone, and it has been suggested that changes in collagen and mineral properties of bone are interrelated during growth. The aim of this study was to quantify age-related changes in collagen properties and the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). The DMB in

  14. DXA measurements in rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine

    2011-01-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients...

  15. Association between Bone Mineral Density and Clinical Parameters in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ersöz,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine the association between the bone mineral density and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with TBI included to the study. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements which determines the femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores in patients was performed via Lunar Prodigy DPX system. Clinical parameters such as types of involvements (plegia, upper-lower extremity spasticity values, presence of heterotypic ossification, ambulation levels were determined and their relations with femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores were examined with Mann-Whitney U Test. Results: In the comparison of sub groups of type of plegia (tetraplegic/hemi-paraplegic, lower extremity spasticity values [Ascworth score 0/1-2-3-4, presence of heterotopic ossification no statistically significant (p>0.05 difference was found in the femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores. On the other hand, in the subgroups determined according to ambulatory levels of the patients (confined to bed-wheelchair/ ambulated (orthesis-hand support-independent] significant difference was observed in the femur neck T scores (p=0.044. Femur neck T scores were significantly high in ambulated patients (p=0.044. Conclusion: In TBI cases ambulation level is a factor which significantly affect bone mineral density. It is necessary to ambulate patients with potential as soon as possible and to plan alternative approaches in patient could not be ambulated.

  16. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Mølgaard, Christian; Husby, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Area (BA) accretion. Methods This longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline and after two years follows up. BMC, BMD, and BA were measured. The total body less head (TBLH) values were used...... intensity levels was for boys and girls respectively, sedentary 62% and 64%, low 29% for both genders and moderate to high 9% and 7% of the total time. Mean (range) BMC, BMD, and BA was 1179 g (563–2326), 0.84 g/cm2 (0.64-1.15) and 1393 cm2 (851–2164), respectively. Valid accelerometer data were obtained...... for a mean of 6.1 days, 13 hours per day. Conclusions There 7was a positive relationship between the log odds of moderate to high-level PA versus low level activity and BMC, BMD and BA. Children with an increased proportion of time in moderate to high-level activity as opposed to sedentary and low...

  17. Management of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder: Korean working group recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunah Hwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For Korean dialysis patients, chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder is a serious burden because of cardiovascular calcification and mortality. However, recent epidemiologic data have demonstrated that many patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis are out of the target ranges of serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone. Thus, we felt the necessity for the development of practical recommendations to treat abnormal serum phosphorus, calcium, and iPTH in dialysis patients. In this paper, we briefly comment on the measurement of serum calcium, phosphorus, iPTH, dialysate calcium concentration, dietary phosphorus restriction, use of phosphate binders, and medical and surgical options to correct secondary hyperparathyroidism. In particular, for the optimal management of secondary hyperparathyroidism, we suggest a simplified medication adjustment according to certain ranges of serum phosphorus and calcium. Large-scale, well-designed clinical studies are required to support our strategies to control chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder in this country. Based on such data, our practice guidelines could be established and better long-term outcomes should be anticipated in our dialysis patients.

  18. Bone Marrow Concentrate and Bovine Bone Mineral for Sinus Floor Augmentation : A Controlled, Randomized, Single-Blinded Clinical and Histological Trial-Per-Protocol Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Rickert, Daniela; Gutwald, Ralf; Nagursky, Heiner; Oshima, Toshiyuki; Xavier, Samuel P.; Christmann, Johannes; Kurz, Patrick; Menne, Dieter; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Wagner, Wilfried; Koch, Felix P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of substituting autogenous bone (AB) by bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). Both AB and BMAC were tested in combination with a bovine bone mineral (BBM) for their ability of new bone formation (NBF) in a multicentric, randomized, c

  19. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  20. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  1. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence.

  2. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD. Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1 to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2 to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1 the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2 the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count, and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2=0.002; df=1; P=0.96; χ2/df=0.002; RMSEA<0.01; TLI=1.5; CFI=1.0. A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β=0.38; b=0.15; SE=0.07; C.R.=2.0; P=0.046. It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  3. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  4. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  5. Validation of a simple and fast method to quantify in vitro mineralization with fluorescent probes used in molecular imaging of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moester, Martiene J C; Schoeman, Monique A E; Oudshoorn, Ineke B; van Beusekom, Mara M; Mol, Isabel M; Kaijzel, Eric L; Löwik, Clemens W G M; de Rooij, Karien E

    2014-01-01

    Alizarin Red S staining is the standard method to indicate and quantify matrix mineralization during differentiation of osteoblast cultures. KS483 cells are multipotent mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells that can differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts and are a well-characterized model for the study of bone formation. Matrix mineralization is the last step of differentiation of bone cells and is therefore a very important outcome measure in bone research. Fluorescently labelled calcium chelating agents, e.g. BoneTag and OsteoSense, are currently used for in vivo imaging of bone. The aim of the present study was to validate these probes for fast and simple detection and quantification of in vitro matrix mineralization by KS483 cells and thus enabling high-throughput screening experiments. KS483 cells were cultured under osteogenic conditions in the presence of compounds that either stimulate or inhibit osteoblast differentiation and thereby matrix mineralization. After 21 days of differentiation, fluorescence of stained cultures was quantified with a near-infrared imager and compared to Alizarin Red S quantification. Fluorescence of both probes closely correlated to Alizarin Red S staining in both inhibiting and stimulating conditions. In addition, both compounds displayed specificity for mineralized nodules. We therefore conclude that this method of quantification of bone mineralization using fluorescent compounds is a good alternative for the Alizarin Red S staining.

  6. Mechanism of mobilization of bone mineral by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brommage, R.; Neuman, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism(s) by which 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/(1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ promotes the mobilization of bone mineral, calvarial lactate production, and mineral solubility were studied in an in vitro incubation system. The calvairae were obtained from neonatal mice, some of which were previously injected with 20 ng of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. In live bones 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ mobilized bone mineral as evidenced by the increased release of both calcium and phosphate into the medium throughout 48 h of incubation. When examined as a function of incubation time and the interval between injection and incubation, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ did not affect lactate production. Apparently, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ does not mobilize skeletal mineral through a lactate-mediated pH gradient mechanism. Over 4 days of incubation, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/-treated calvariae supported higher buffer levels of calcium and phosphate in the absence of cellular metabolism, indicating the solubility of bone mineral was increased by 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ treatment. Because the effects of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were observed in nonvital bone, a pump mechanism cannot fully explain the 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/-induced transfer of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. These findings suggest that a mechanism involving an increase in bone mineral solubility, presumably mediated through a mineral solubilizer(s), is at least partially responsible for the skeletal actions of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/.

  7. Assessment of bone mineral status in children with Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-ßeta, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone minerali...

  8. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  9. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  11. Changes in bone mineral density of the acetabulum and proximal femur after total hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Shen, Bin; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zong-ke; Kang, Peng-de; Pei, Fu-xing

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) of acetabulum and proximal femur after total hip resurfacing arthroplasty. A comparative study was carried out on 51 hips in 48 patients. Group A consisted of 25 patients (26 hips) who had undergone total hip resurfacing and group B consisted of 23 patients (25 hips) who had had large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). BMDs around the acetabulum and proximal femur were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 2 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and annually thereafter during the 3 years after surgery. At final follow-up, the acetabular net mean BMD decreased by 11% in group A and 10% in group B with no differences between two groups (P = .35). For the femoral side, in Gruen zone 1, the mean BMD increased by 4% in group A, whereas it decreased by 11% in group B (P = .029). In Gruen zone 7, the mean BMD increased by 8% at the final follow-up in group A, whereas it decreased by 13% in group B (P = .02). In both groups the mean BMD increased by 3% in Gruen zones 3, 4, 5, and 6. Stress-related bone loss of the acetabulum was comparable for MOM THA and resurfacing devices, but proximal femoral bone density increased in the resurfacing group and decreased in the THA group.

  12. Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) consumption is associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Andrea S; Gallo, María E; Saraví, Fernando D

    2012-01-01

    Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) tea consumption is higher in Argentina and other South American countries than those of coffee or tea (Camellia sinensis). The effects of Yerba Mate on bone health have not previously been explored. From a program for osteoporosis prevention and treatment, postmenopausal women who drank at least 1 L of Yerba Mate tea daily during 4 or more years (n=146) were identified, and matched by age and time since menopause with an equal number of women who did not drink Yerba Mate tea. Their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Yerba Mate drinkers had a 9.7% higher lumbar spine BMD (0.952 g/cm(2) versus 0.858 g/cm(2): p<0.0001) and a 6.2% higher femoral neck BMD (0.817 g/cm(2) versus 0.776 g/cm(2); p=0.0002). In multiple regression analysis, Yerba Mate drinking was the only factor, other than body mass index, which showed a positive correlation with BMD at both the lumbar spine (p<0.0001) and the femoral neck (p=0.0028). Results suggest a protective effect of chronic Yerba Mate consumption on bone.

  13. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  14. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment...

  15. Assessment of bone mineral density by DXA and the trabecular microarchitecture of the calcaneum by texture analysis in pre- and postmenopausal women in the evaluation of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanithi R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo evaluation of trabecular bone structure could be useful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis for the characterization of therapeutic response and understanding the role of parameters other than bone mineral density (BMD in defining skeletal status. This study was made to evaluate changes taking place in the trabecular architecture of bone with age and menopausal status in women. The findings are compared with the femoral neck bone as well as the trochantar bone mineral density determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, which is a standard reference test for evaluation of osteoporosis. Seventy females were recruited for the study, 25 pre-menopausal (mean age ± SD: 39.4 ± 3.8 and 45 postmenopausal (mean age ± SD: 57.9 ± 7.9 women. The right femoral neck bone mineral density was measured for them by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. For the same individuals, lateral view radiographs of the right calcaneum were taken as well. The radiographs were digitized and the region of interest (ROI of 256 x 256 pixels was selected, the run-length matrix was computed for calculating seven parameters [Table 1] and the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform of the image was calculated. Using the FFT, the power spectral density (PSD was derived and the root mean square (RMS value was determined. Our results confirm that age has a significant influence on the texture of the trabecular bone and bone mineral density.

  16. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in Dutch perimenopausal women: the Eindhoven perimenopausal osteoporosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets-Goevaers, C G; Lesusink, G L; Papapoulos, S E; Maartens, L W; Keyzer, J J; Weerdenburg, J P; Beijers, L M; Zwinderman, A H; Knottnerus, J A; Pols, H A; Pop, V J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in perimenopausal women, and to assess determinants of low bone mineral density (BMD). All women born between 1941 and 1947 (aged between 46 and 54 years) living in the city of Eindhoven were invited to participate in the study: 5896 white Dutch women, representing 73% of the total number of Dutch women in this age group, were studied. Of these, 24% were using estrogen preparations and 19% had undergone hysterectomy, with or without oophorectomy. All women were interviewed and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined according to the criteria proposed by a WHO working group. In the population studied the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 27.3% and 4.1%, respectively. With progression from premenopause to menopause, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased from 0.4% to 12.7%, and that of osteopenia from 14.5% to 42.8%. An increased risk for low BMD (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was associated with age, menopausal status and smoking, while alcohol consumption, high body mass index (BMI) and use of estrogens had a protective effect. This study of a large population-based cohort of perimenopausal women revealed a high prevalence of low bone mass and, therefore, a higher risk for osteoporotic fractures. The data further suggest that, when issues on the long-term efficacy and safety of preventive treatments are resolved, it may be possible to identify women at higher risk who are most likely to benefit from screening strategies.

  17. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  18. The measurement of bone mineral density of normal population in Jiaodong area using digital absorptiometry%胶东地区健康人群数字吸收法骨密度测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建东; 楚庆速; 林治恩; 周武强; 刘心武; 岳述福; 余朝坤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find out the bone mineral density (BMD) of normal population in Jiaodong area, BM D distribution at different ages , and the prevalence of osteoporosis. To predict fracture risk by given BMD. Methods: Selected 3306 people of long-term healthy residence in Jiaodong area , including 1302 men and 2004 women. After systematically photographing the digital radiography by carestre health system , length , volume , bone mineral content , BMD index value , T value and Z value of the middle phalanx of the second , third and fourth hands were got using OsteoGram 2000 software system. Then the statistics was done by defining 5 years as an age group. Results: The results showed a BMD peak at age 30-35 for both genders. For women ,the BMD peak maintains at 20-45 years old. A rapid bone mineral loss occured at age 55-60 and a slight rebound occured after the age of 75. For men, BM D was decreasing year by year. According to the diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis approved by W HO in 1994, the prevalence of osteoporosis of normal population in Jiaodong area was 11. 07%, 14.87% for women and 5.22% for men. Conclusion: There is a relatively low prevalence rate of osteoporosis of normal population in Jiaodong area.Women's BMD peak remains for a relatively long time. The BMD peak and bone mineral loss of men in all ages comply with the general characieristics of a BMD normative database. To pay attention to women 's BMD after the age of 55 has important clinical significance.%目的:研究测定胶东地区健康人群手指骨密度(BMD),确定各年龄段骨密度分布情况以及骨质疏松患病率,并通过给定的骨密度值对骨折危险性进行预测.方法:选取长期居住胶东地区的健康人群共3 306例,其中男1 302例,女2 004例,由锐柯数字化放射成像系统摄片后经OsteoGram 2000软件系统处理,得到被检者非优势手第2、3、4指中节指骨的长度、体积、骨矿含量、BMD指数值以及T值和Z值,按5

  19. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  20. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  1. Automated simulation of areal bone mineral density assessment in the distal radius from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, A. J.; Kazakia, G. J.; Link, T.M.; Majumdar, S

    2009-01-01

    Summary An automated image processing method is presented for simulating areal bone mineral density measures using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in the ultra-distal radius. The accuracy of the method is validated against clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This technique represents a useful reference to gauge the utility of novel 3D quantification methods applied to HR-pQCT in multi-center clinical studies and potentially negates the need for sepa...

  2. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  3. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsisi HF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hany Farid Eid Morsy Elsisi,1 Gihan Samir Mohamed Mousa,1 Mohamed Taher Mahmoud ELdesoky2 1Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, 2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background and purpose: Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF or circuit weight training (CWT on short-run basis (after 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT (n=15 each group. The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4 and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05. But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. Keywords: magnetic field, circuit weight training, bone mineral density, elderly women, bone mineral content, bone mass

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  5. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  6. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  7. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (piron (piron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, piron iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, piron negatively (r=-0.119, piron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in determining bone density in healthy premenopausal women.

  8. Measurement and Modelling of Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila Garcia, Ada

    2005-01-01

    of scale formation found in many industrial processes, and especially in oilfield and geothermal operations. We want to contribute to the study of this problem by releasing a simple and accurate thermodynamic model capable of calculating the behaviour of scaling minerals, covering a wide range...... of temperature and pressure. Reliable experimental solubility measurements under conditions similar to those found in reality will help the development of strong and consistent models. Chapter 1 is a short introduction to the problem of scale formation, the model chosen to study it, and the experiments performed...... the thermodynamic model used in this Ph.D. project. A review of alternative activity coefficient models an earlier work on scale formation is provided. A guideline to the parameter estimation procedure and the number of parameters estimated in the present work are also described. The prediction of solid...

  9. 双能X射线骨密度仪测量离体羊股骨骨折端及钢板对接骨折端的骨密度%Ex vivo femoral bone mineral measurements in sheep using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军; 闫虎; 谭远超; 张秋玲; 鲁玉来

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, sheep has gradually become a promising model in osteoporosis research.OBJECTIVE: To measure the sheep femoral fracture fragments and all bone mineral density by the dual energy X-rayabsorptiometry (DXA), and to discusses the precision and accuracy of the DXA in the process of measurements.METHODS: The Own Lunar lumbar model was scanned with DXA 10 times every day in order to determine the precision of themachine and then continuous scanned for 25 days. Shewhart control chart was established according to the measured data. Fivefemoral bones were selected from three sheep and scanned repeatedly seven times. The DXA animal analysis software wasused to analyze the bone density of the sheep femoral fracture fragments and all bone mineral density to calculate its accuracy.Besides, eight femoral bones from four sheep were selected, fixed at the femoral fracture site by two kinds of steel plates foranalysis of bone mineral density and observation of bone mineral content changes.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The precision of the machine was -1.0% and the accuracy of the sheep femoral fracturefragments and all bone density was 0.005-0.537 g/cm2. The short-term precisions of the femoral and fracture fragments bonemineral density were separately 0.8% and 1.5%, and the short-term precisions of the femoral and fracture fragments bonemineral content were 0.9% and 7.5%. There was no significant meaning in the bone density of sheep femoral fixed by differentplates and bone mineral content difference. The results confirm that the DXA can accurately measure the bone density of thefemur in vitro , but there are some errors in analyzing the bone mineral density of fracture fragments.%背景:目前,羊已逐渐成为骨质疏松研究中很有前途的动物模型.目的:采用双能X射线骨密度仪测量羊股部骨折断端及全部骨密度,探讨双能X射线骨密度仪测量过程中的准确度和精确度.方法:对双能X射线骨密度

  10. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  11. Peak Bone Mass Measurement in Iranian Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a disabling disease characterized by compromised bone strength, which predisposes a patient to increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was evaluation the pattern of bone mass in Iranian healthy population. Methods: The study was performed between December 2000 and May 2001 on one thousand three healthy Iranian sub¬jects who currently live in Tehran. They were selected randomly by cluster random sampling among men and women of 10-76 yr from 50 clusters. The volunteer people were referred to the Bone Mineral Density BMD unit of EMRC. The partici¬pants were recalled for three times and the response rate was 83%. BMD was measured by DXA using Lunar DPX-MD device. Results: Females achieved maximum lumbar BMD up to 25-35. Femur BMD maximized in 30 to 35 and after 45 the inten¬sity of bone loss increased. Female peak bone mass in lumbar region was 1.19 ± 0.12 g/cm2and in femur was 1.02±0.12 g/cm2. Male peak bone mass in lumbar region occurred between ages 25-40 yr, Male's femur BMD maximized in 20-30. In male peak lumbar bone mass was 1.22±0.16 g/cm2 and femur was 1.08±0.15 g/cm2. Osteopenia was recog¬nized in 50% and 48.8% of women above 50 in spine and total femur, respectively, however these percentages were 37.1% and 34.8% among male subjects. Conclusion: Iranian BMD values sufficiently different from other countries to warrant a separate reference sample with which to compare individuals for the purpose of diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia according to the WHO criteria.

  12. Effect of raloxifene on arthritis and bone mineral density in rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ikuta; Hagino, Hiroshi; Okano, Toru; Enokida, Makoto; Teshima, Ryota

    2011-02-01

    We studied the effect of raloxifene (RAL) on arthritis and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Seven-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: rats without CIA (CNT), CIA rats that underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and were treated with RAL (CIA + OVX + RAL), CIA rats that underwent OVX and were treated with vehicle (CIA + OVX + Veh), CIA rats that had sham surgery and were treated with RAL (CIA + sham + RAL), and CIA rats that had sham surgery and were treated with vehicle (CIA + sham + Veh). RAL was orally administered at 10 mg/kg every day for 3 weeks, beginning 1 week after initial sensitization until death at 4 weeks. Every week until death, we evaluated hind paw thickness and arthritis score. BMD was measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal metaphysis and the diaphysis of the femur; we also performed histomorphometry of the proximal tibia and histological evaluation of arthritis. RAL administration suppressed hind paw thickness and arthritis score and prevented decreases in BMD and cortical thickness. In the histomorphometric analysis, bone-resorption parameters were significantly lower in the RAL groups than in the Veh groups. RAL significantly inhibited synovial proliferation in CIA rats. RAL effects on arthritis and bone were apparent regardless of whether an animal had undergone OVX. RAL could suppress arthritis and bone loss in estrogen-replete or -depleted rats. These findings, using an animal model, indicate the potential usefulness of RAL as an effective treatment for premenopausal RA patients as well as postmenopausal ones.

  13. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Synthesized Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimow, P. D.; Luo, S.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Liu, W.; Staneff, G. D.; Ahrens, T. J.; Chen, G.

    2002-12-01

    Direct thermal conductivity (k) measurement of mantle minerals is crucial to constrain the thermal profile of the Earth as well as geodynamic studies of the mantle (e.g., to determine the Rayleigh number). We have embarked on systematic multi-anvil syntheses of dense polycrystalline specimens of mantle phases of adequate size and zero porosity for precise thermal conductivity measurements by the 3ω method (\\textit{Cahill and Pohl, Phys. Rev. B, 1987}) under elevated temperatures (T). Coesite and stishovite (see \\textit{Luo et al., GRL, 2002}) as well as majorite and wadsleyite have been synthesized; ringwoodite and perovskite are scheduled. Preliminary thermal conductivity measurements at ambient pressure on coesite (120 - 300 K, 9.53 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) are consistent with prior room temperature data (\\textit{Yukutake & Shimada, PEPI, 1978}), while our stishovite data at 300 K appear to be low (1.96 Wm-1K-1). Efforts are being made to extend the measurement to higher temperatures (e.g., above Debye temperature Θ D), thus allowing determination of k(T) relationship (say, k~ T-n); success will depend on the decomposition kinetics of these metastable phases. The pressure dependence of k of these synthesized samples can also be measured (\\textit{e.g., Osako et al., HPMPS-6, 2002; Xu et al., EOS, 2001}). Recent thermal conductivity measurement on LiF and Al2O_3 from shock wave loading (\\textit{Holland & Ahrens, 1998}) is consistent with the modeling on MgO and Al2O_3 (\\textit{Manga & Jeanloz, JGR, 1997}) with classical theories. Thus, k values at modest pressures and T (say, above Θ D) would allow extrapolation of k to appropriate mantle conditions.

  14. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  15. ASSOCIATION OF PARATHYROID HORMONE GENE POLYMORPHISM WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN CHINESE WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 孟迅吾; 周学瀛; 邢小平; 余卫

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the distribution frequency of parathyroid hormone(PTH) gene polymorphism in healthy adults from Bejing area and to explore the association of PTH genotypes with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods. PTH gene polymorphism was detected in 270 subjects by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP). The digestion products of restriction enzyme Bst B1 were separated on 1% agarose gels. PTH genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequences analysis. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, DPX- L, Lunar). Results. Genotype frequencies of BB, Bb, bb were 73.7% , 25.9% and 0.4% respectively in Beijing adults( P0.05). Conclusion. PTH gene polymorphism is not associated with BMD in Chinese women. The further research to explore the genetic risk factors of osteoporosis should be committed.

  16. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  17. Cardiovascular risk and mineral bone disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Hagen; Jeske, Susann; Schmitz, Karin; Warncke, Gert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has been coined recently to highlight that the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism is a major contributor to vascular calcification and finally cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by clinical, biochemical and/or histological findings, i.e. i) biochemical alterations in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and their key player parathyroid hormone (PTH), Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), klotho and vitamin-D, ii) the occurrence of vascular and/or soft tissue calcification, and iii) an abnormal bone structure and/or turnover. Apart from the combined and synergistic action of "traditional" and uremia-related risk factors, promoters and inhibitors of calcification have to be considered as well. This review will focus on the disturbed mineral metabolism as the triggering force behind distortion of vascular integrity and cardiovascular malfunction in CKD patients.

  18. Cardiovascular Risk and Mineral Bone Disorder in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Staude

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has been coined recently to highlight that the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism is a major contributor to vascular calcification and finally cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by clinical, biochemical and/or histological findings, i.e. i biochemical alterations in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and their key player parathyroid hormone (PTH, Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23, klotho and vitamin-D, ii the occurrence of vascular and/or soft tissue calcification, and iii an abnormal bone structure and/or turnover. Apart from the combined and synergistic action of "traditional" and uremia-related risk factors, promoters and inhibitors of calcification have to be considered as well. This review will focus on the disturbed mineral metabolism as the triggering force behind distortion of vascular integrity and cardiovascular malfunction in CKD patients.

  19. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  20. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk factor in Egyptian male and female battery manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, Bassem M; Hassan, Nahed S; Aziz, S W

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the relation between lead exposure and the risk of various symptoms of osteoporosis in male and female battery manufacturing workers by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 18 female and 24 male workers were chosen with the same age range, duty hours per day, work history and weight. A total of 15 healthy controls were chosen with no previous history of bone illness and normal blood lead concentration. Blood lead concentration was measured in all workers and controls. Non-lead elevated subjects were excluded. Bone mineral density was measured by X-ray-based dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan machine. Spine, femur neck and radius sites were studied. Results showed that both male and female workers recorded significant elevated levels of lead concentration accompanied by osteoporosis when compared with control. Interestingly, the data revealed that fracture risk in female was significantly higher than male workers. It was concluded that lead poisoning may act as osteoporosis risk factor or co-factor in female workers by activating the conversion of osteopenia to osteoporosis.

  1. Effect of Wearing Style on Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Gökçe Kutsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most important public health problems as a result of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, muscle pain disease, muscle weakness and increased risk of falls and fracture. Outfitting style effects the synthesis and blood levels of vitamin D. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of outfitting style on blood vitamin D and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five female patients who were diagnosed with osteoporosis were included in our study. These women were divided into two groups according to their clothing habits as veiled and unveiled. Data of all patients about menopause, exposure to sun light, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry results, blood calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and osteoporosis treatment were recorded. Results: We found 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was significantly low in women with veiled dressing style (17,0±7,9 ng/ml in veiled and 33.9±22.0 ng/ml in unveiled patients, p<0.001. There was statistically significant correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and femur neck Z-scores, femur total bone mineral density, femur total T-score L1-L4 bone mineral density, femur neck bone mineral density for different seasons (p<0.05. Conclusion: Postmenopausal osteoporotic veiled women are more prone to vitamin D deficiency than unveiled women. Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is accompanying further decrease in bone mineral density. Despite low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in veiled postmenopausal osteoporotic women, there is not direct correlation between wearing style and bone mineral density. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:85-8

  2. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.

  3. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  4. The role of bone in CKD-mediated mineral and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouzam, Nadine M; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and vascular calcifications start early in the course of CKD. Based on the growing body of evidence that alterations of bone and mineral metabolism and the therapies designed to treat the skeletal consequences of CKD are linked to cardiovascular calcifications, the Kidney Disease, Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group redefined renal osteodystrophy as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, and this newly defined disorder is now known as "chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)". Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived protein, is the first biochemical abnormality to be associated with CKD-MBD, and high FGF23 levels correlate with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that bone is central to both initiating and perpetuating the abnormal mineral metabolism and vascular disease in CKD. The current standard therapies for CKD-MBD affect FGF23 levels differently; non-calcium-based binders with or without concurrent use of dietary phosphate restriction reduce FGF23 levels, while calcium-based binders seem to either increase or have no effect on FGF23 levels. Active vitamin D sterols increase FGF23 levels, whereas therapy with calcimimetics decreases FGF23 levels. Thus, the appropriate therapy that will minimize the rise in FGF23 and prevent cardiovascular morbidity remains to be defined.

  5. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Leveille, S.G.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Koepsell, T. D.; Beresford, S. A.; BELLE, G.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between dietary vitamin C and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study using retrospective diet and vitamin supplement data. SETTING: The Seattle area of Washington State. PARTICIPANTS: Screenees for a clinical trial of a drug to prevent osteoporotic fractures; 1892 women aged 55-80 years who had hip bone densitometry and osteoporosis risk factor information. MAIN RESULTS: Mean energy adjusted...

  6. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  7. 绝经后妇女腰椎骨密度容积性定量 CT测量研究%Evaluation of bone mineral density measurement of lumbar vertebrae by volumetric quantitative CT in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡跃增; 王立英; 吴胜勇; 兰静; 李景学

    2009-01-01

    %、(75.1±17.9)%、(62.8±20.9)%、(49.2±21.9)%]、正常组[分别为(120.6±19.4) mg/cm3、(154.0±16.3) mg/cm3、(131.1±21.1) mg/cm3、(95.6±5.3)%、(91.4±8.7)%、(84.7±12.4)%、(75.2±15.5)%],P值均<0.01。 DXA测量中AP-SPINE值在骨质疏松伴骨折组[(0.84±0.16)g/cm2]与骨质疏松组[(0.85±0.06)g/cm2]之间的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。在骨质疏松组和骨质疏松伴骨折组 AP-SPINE 仅与3 D-CORT 间有相关性( R2=0.189,P<0.01);App60 BV/TV%、 App80 BV/TV%、App100 BV/TV%、App120 BV/TV%与3D-TRAB 或2D-TRAB之有相关性(3D 法:R2值分别为0.955、0.951、0.941、0.912;2D 法:R2值分别为0.912、0.910、0.878、0.821;P值均<0.01)。容积性BMD的测量精确度为0.70%~2.25%。结论 vQCT技术可区分骨质疏松及伴骨质疏松性骨折绝经后妇女骨量,能力高于DXA,其中整体骨BMD诊断严重骨质疏松的效果最好;App BV/TV%可反映骨质疏松者骨小梁丢失程度,预测骨折风险。%Objective To demonstrate the validity of volumetric QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry( DXA ) in bone mineral density ( BMD ) measurement and compare the difference in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Methods One hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women [mean age (62.1 ±7.0) years] who received thoracolumbar radiographic examination were enrolled and divided into four groups ( normal, osteopenia, osteoporotic and osteoporotic fractured group) also based on their BMD value of lumbar vertebra( AP-SPINE) measured by DXA: >x¯-1s,x¯-1s—x¯-2s,0.05].In osteoporotic groups, AP-SPINE was not correlated significantly with other variables except 3D-CORT ( R2 =0.189, P <0.01 );parameters of App60, 80, 100, 120 BV/TV% were correlated

  8. A novel 3-D mineralized tumor model to study breast cancer bone metastasis.

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    Siddharth P Pathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with advanced breast cancer, but the role of the bone mineral hydroxyapatite (HA in this process remains unclear. We have developed a novel mineralized 3-D tumor model and have employed this culture system to systematically investigate the pro-metastatic role of HA under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were cultured within non-mineralized or mineralized polymeric scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming-particulate leaching technique. Tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of pro-osteoclastic interleukin-8 (IL-8 was increased in mineralized tumor models as compared to non-mineralized tumor models, and IL-8 secretion was more pronounced for bone-specific MDA-MB231 subpopulations relative to lung-specific breast cancer cells. These differences were pathologically significant as conditioned media collected from mineralized tumor models promoted osteoclastogenesis in an IL-8 dependent manner. Finally, drug testing and signaling studies with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta confirmed the clinical relevance of our culture system and revealed that breast cancer cell behavior is broadly affected by HA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that HA promotes features associated with the neoplastic and metastatic growth of breast carcinoma cells in bone and that IL-8 may play an important role in this process. The developed mineralized tumor models may help to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may ultimately enable more efficacious therapy of patients with advanced breast cancer.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility Improvement of Vertebroplasty PMMA Bone Cements by Incorporating Mineralized Collagen

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    Hong-Jiang Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cement is a commonly used bone adhesive and filling material in percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty surgeries. However, PMMA bone cements have been reported to cause some severe complications, such as secondary fracture of adjacent vertebral bodies, and loosening or even dislodgement of the set PMMA bone cement, due to the over-high elastic modulus and poor osteointegration ability of the PMMA. In this study, mineralized collagen (MC with biomimetic microstructure and good osteogenic activity was added to commercially available PMMA bone cement products, in order to improve both the mechanical properties and the cytocompatibility. As the compressive strength of the modified bone cements remained well, the compressive elastic modulus could be significantly down-regulated by the MC, so as to reduce the pressure on the adjacent vertebral bodies. Meanwhile, the adhesion and proliferation of pre-osteoblasts on the modified bone cements were improved compared with cells on those unmodified, such result is beneficial for a good osteointegration formation between the bone cement and the host bone tissue in clinical applications. Moreover, the modification of the PMMA bone cements by adding MC did not significantly influence the injectability and processing times of the cement.

  10. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

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    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  11. Reduced bone mineral density and altered bone turnover markers in patients with non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B or C infection

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    Ingolf Schiefke; Andreas Fach; Marcus Wiedmann; Andreas V. Aretin; Eva Schenker; Gudrun Borte; Manfred Wiese; Joachim Moessner

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Previous studies suggest that loss of bone mineral density (BMD) frequently occurs in patients with chronic viral liver disease, presenting with histologically proven liver cirrhosis. However, little is known about the occurrence of bone disease in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to evaluate this particular population for BMD and bone turnover markers.METHODS: Biochemical markers of bone turnover and BMD were measured in 43 consecutive patients with HCV (n = 30)or HBV (n = 13) infection without histological evidence for liver cirrhosis. Mean age was 49 years (range 26-77 years). BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in the femoral neck (FN) and the lumbar spine (LS) region. In addition, bone metabolism markers were measured.RESULTS: BMD was lowered in 25 (58%) of the patients with chronic hepatitis B or C (FN: 0.76 (0.53-0.99); LS:0.96 (0.62-1.23) g/cm2). Eight (32%) osteopenic patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.005) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (P = 0.001) were significantly elevated in the more advanced stages of fibrosis. Mean 7-score value was lower in patients with chronic hepatitis C as compared to patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.09).CONCLUSION: There was a significantly reduced BMD in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B or C infection. Alterations of bone metabolism already occurred in advanced liver fibrosis without cirrhosis. According to our results, these secondary effects of chronic viral hepatitis should be further investigated.

  12. Guided bone regeneration produced by new mineralized and reticulated collagen membranes in critical-sized rat calvarial defects.

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    Veríssimo, Denusa M; Leitão, Renata F C; Figueiró, Sônia D; Góes, Júlio C; Lima, Vilma; Silveira, Charles O; Brito, Gerly A C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regenerative effect of glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking on mineralized polyanionic collagen membranes in critical-sized defects on rat calvarias. Bone calvarial defects were induced in Wistar rats, which were then divided into five groups: a sham group; a control group, which received a commercial membrane; and GA, 25GA, and 75GA groups, which received one of three different polyanionic collagen membranes mineralized by 0, 25, or 75 hydroxyapatite cycles and then cross-linked by GA. Bone formation was evaluated based on digital radiography and computerized tomography. Histological analyses were performed 4 and 12 weeks after the surgical procedure to observe bone formation, membrane resorption, and fibrous tissue surrounding the membranes. Measurement of myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 1beta production was performed 24 h after surgery. The percentage of new bone formation in the GA, 25GA, and 75GA groups was higher compared with the control and sham groups. In the GA and 25 GA groups, the membranes were still in place and were contained in a thick fibrous capsule after 12 weeks. No significant difference was found among the groups regarding myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin 1beta levels, although the GA, 25GA, and 75GA groups presented decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha compared with the control group. These new GA cross-linked membranes accelerated bone healing of the calvarium defects and did not induce inflammation. In addition, unlike the control membrane, the experimental membranes were not absorbed during the analyzed period, so they may offer advantages in large bone defects where prolonged membrane barrier functions are desirable.

  13. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

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    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  14. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

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    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  15. Estrogen Receptor Gene (ESR1 PVUII and XBAI Polymorphisms and Bone Mineral Density in Kazakh Women

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    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a common age-related disease that is strongly influenced by genetics. Polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene alpha (ESR1 are consistently been associated with bone mineral density (BMD and fracture. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate potential association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP variants of the ESR1 gene and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine in Kazakh women. Methods: 140 female participants in Pavlodar clinics with varying measures of BMD. We are examined the potential association of BMD with 2 SNPs from the ESR1 gene (rs2234693 [PvuII] and rs9340799 [XbaI]. Genotyping of the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms was performed by direct sequencing of the gene fragments containing restriction sites with the identification of genotypes PP, Pp, pp and XX, Xx, xx respectively. Results: Unadjusted mean BMD values ranged from 1.14±0.14 g/cm2 in Caucasian women and 1.03±0.11 g/cm2 in Asian women. The association between PvuII polymorphism and BMD at the lumbar spine (p= 0.04 for PP=Pp=pp was statistically significant in all women. The XbaI polymorphism was not associated with BMD at lumbar spine. The relative risk for low BMD was higher for the marker PvuII (RR=1.51 than for the marker XbaI (RR=1.35. Conclusion: The PvuII polymorphism had a weak association with lumbar spine BMD.  XbaI polymorphism was unlikely to be a predictor of lumbar spine BMD in Kazakh women. These conclusions could help to determine the genetic risk factors for osteoporosis; however, further studies on the association between gene polymorphisms and BMD are needed including larger numbers of participants and genes to clarify genetic risks.

  16. Fracture Risk and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa

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    Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890

  17. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

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    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow.

  18. Application of new optical coherence elastography to monitor the mineralization processing in bone tissue engineering constructs

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    Guan, Guangying; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Yang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Generation of functional tissue in vitro through tissue engineering technique is a promising direction to repair and replace malfunctioned organ and tissue in the modern medicine for various diseases which could not been treated well by conventional therapy. Similar to the embryo development, the generation of tissue in vitro is a highly dynamic processing. Obtaining the feedback of the processing real time is highly demanded. In this study, a new methodology has been explored aiming to monitor the morphological and mechanical property alteration of bone tissue engineering constructs simultaneously. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) equipped with a LDS V201 permanent magnet shaker and a modulated acoustic radiation force (ARF) to provide a vibration signal, has been used for the real time and non-destructive monitoring. A phantom construct system has been used to optimize the measurement conditions in which agar hydrogel with concentration from 0, 0.75 to 2% with/without hydroxyappatite particles have been injected to 3D porous poly (lactic acid) scaffolds to simulate the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and mineralized ECM. The structural and elastography images of the constructs have clearly demonstrated the linear relation with the increased mechanical property versus the increase of agar concentration within the pores of the scaffolds. The MG63 bone cells seeded in the scaffolds and cultured for 4 weeks have been monitored by the established protocol exhibiting the increased mechanical strength in the pore wall where the ECM or mineralized ECM was assumed to be formed in comparison to empty pores. This study confirms that OCE-ARF could become a valuable tool in regenerative medicine to assess the biological events during in vitro culture and conditioning.

  19. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

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    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  20. Serum γ-Glutamyl Transferase Is Inversely Associated with Bone Mineral Density Independently of Alcohol Consumption

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    Han Seok Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundγ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT is a well-known marker of chronic alcohol consumption or hepatobiliary diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated that serum levels of GGT are independently associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to test if serum GGT levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 462 subjects (289 men and 173 women, who visited Severance Hospital for medical checkup, were included in this study. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional association between serum GGT and BMD was evaluated.ResultsAs serum GGT levels increased from the lowest tertile (tertile 1 to the highest tertile (tertile 3, BMD decreased after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, amount of alcohol consumed, smoking, regular exercise, postmenopausal state (in women, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between log-transformed serum GGT levels and BMD. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tertile 3 of serum GGT level was associated with an increased risk for low bone mass compared to tertile 1 (odds ratio, 2.271; 95% confidence interval, 1.340 to 3.850; P=0.002.ConclusionSerum GGT level was inversely associated with BMD in Korean adults. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of the inverse relationship.

  1. Differences in lower limb bone mineral density in children with anisomelia.

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    Wroński, Sławomir; Gaździk, Tadeusz S; Kaleta, Marek; Kotas-Strzoda, Justyna

    2002-12-30

    Background. Lower limb discrepancy (anisomelia) can be caused by many different factors leading to shortening (90% of cases) or lengthening of a limb (10% cases). This article present the results of densitometric tests performed on patients treated for lower limb discrepancy in the Department of Orthopedic of the Silesian Academy of Medicine in the years 1997-1998. Material and methods. Our research involved 57 patients, 31 girls and 26 boys. The Ilizarov technique was used to lengthen 33 femurs and 24 tibias. The average discrepancy was 45 mm (48 mm in the femurs and 42 mm in the tibias), and the patients average age was 13,8 years (range 7-26). The test were performed with a DPX apparatus by the Lumar Corporation. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the area of the shortened limb segment and compared to the results of the analogous measurement of the opposite limb. The height of the measurement frame was 50 mm, and the width was equal to the width of the bone. The measurement field was located in each case at a distance of 3-4 cm (on the respective bone) from the line of the knee joint, in order to eliminate additional density caused by growth cartilage and the imposition of the patella. The repeatability of the tests was assured by a support maintaining constant internal limb rotation of 400. Results. A difference in BMD between the shorter limb and the opposite limb was found in 47 children (82,5%). The average was 16,5%, whereas it was higher in the shorter femurs (19,1%, range 4,5 - 68,5%) than in the tibia (14%, 5,2 - 59,8%). A greater degree of demineralization was found in the girls (23,5%) than in the boys (20%). No correlation was found between the etiology of the shortening and the degree of calcification. Conclusions. The results of these tests may have great significance in the case of densitometric monitoring of regenerated bone being formed in the course of lower limb by the Ilizarow method.

  2. Effects of endurance and resistance exercises on bone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male rats

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    Maryam Banparvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized by  loss of bone mass, resulting in bone weakness and an increase in susceptibility to fractures. The aim of the current study was to determine skeletal changes induced by two progressive loading training programs on the bone properties of osteoporotic male rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done on 30 Wistar male rats having mean weight of 180-200 g. They were divided into .5 equal groups. In the experimental group, osteoporosis was induced through intraperitoneal injection of 20% ethanol solution (3g/kg/day for four consecutive days for 3 weeks. The rest of the groups were  baseline group (pre test, resistance training, endurance training, and the control. The two training groups completed 12 five-day weeks of training program. according to resistance or endurance protocols. The other 6 rats were considered as the healthy group without any intervention . At the end of the intervention, the animals were killed and their bone mineral density (BMD of the femur and  L4, L5 were measured. Tensile max load of the left tibia and compression of the L5 vertebra were measured using mechanical tests. Results: The endurance (P= 0.035 and resistance (P= 0.001 groups femur BMD had significantly increased compared to that of the control . L4, L5 BMD in resistance training and control was significantly greater than that of endurance group (P= 0.001,P= 0.001. The tensile maximum load of the tibia and compression of the L5 in the resistance group was significantly greater than the control (P=0.01,P=0.03. Conclusion: Resistance training, compared to endurance training, can induce more effective favourable changes in bone mineral status and bone strength.

  3. Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

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    Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p  0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

  4. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

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    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  5. Effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Feng Qian; Ping Cao; Shuan Liu; Hong-Ping Yang; Ming-Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures.Methods:A total of 120 patients with primary osteoporosis were included in this study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=60). Control group received consistent treatment, observation group received individualized regular anti-osteoporosis treatment, and then the differences in bone mineral density, bone metabolism, trace elements, oxidative stress, fracture incidence, and so on were compared between two groups of patients 1 year after treatment.Results:Absolute BMD value of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; serum bone formation indexes ALP, BGP, PⅠNP and PⅠCP content were higher than those of control group; serum bone resorption indexesβ-CTX, sRANKL, TRACP, BAP and DPD content were lower than those of control group; serum trace elements iron and zinc content were higher than those of control group while calcium content was lower than that of control group; serum AOPP and MAOA content of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC content were significantly higher than those of control group;fracture incidence was significantly lower than that of control group during treatment.Conclusions:The regular anti-osteoporosis treatment can increase bone mineral density, optimize the overall condition and reduce the incidence of long-term fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis.

  6. Densidade mineral óssea de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade Bone mineral density in overweight and obese adolescents

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    Fernanda Cobayashi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a densidade óssea como fator concomitante da obesidade em adolescentes pós-púberes, controlando outras variáveis que possam interferir nessa relação. MÉTODOS: Estudo com 83 sobrepesos e obesos (IMC > P85 e 89 não obesos (P5 OBJECTIVE: to study bone density as a concomitant factor for obesity in post-pubertal adolescents, controlling for other variables that may interfere in such a relation. METHODS: Study comprising 83 overweight and obese adolescents (BMI > P85 and 89 non obese ones (P5 < BMI < P85. Cases and controls were selected out of 1,420 students (aged 14-19 from a public school in the city of São Paulo. The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-L4 in g/cm² was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR™ DPX-L. The variable bone density was dichotomized using 1.194 g/cm² as cutoff point. Bivariate analyses were conducted considering the prevalence of overweight and obesity followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression according to a hierarchical conceptual model. RESULTS: The prevalence of bone density above the median was twice more frequent among cases (69.3% than among controls (32.1%. In the bivariate analysis such prevalence resulted in an odds ratio (OR of 4.78. The logistic regression model showed that the association between obesity and mineral density is yet more intense with an OR of 6.65 after the control of variables related to sedentary lifestyle and intake of milk and dairy products. CONCLUSION: Obese and overweight adolescents in the final stages of sexual maturity presented higher bone mineral density in relation to their normal-weight counterparts; however, cohort studies will be necessary to evaluate the influence of such characteristic on bone resistance in adulthood and, consequently, on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis at older ages.

  7. Benefit period using alendronate to increase bone mineral density in women with osteoporosis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferda Ozdemir; Meliha Rodoplu

    2005-01-01

    Background Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate is a specific inhibitor of bone resorption and now in the forefront of treatment of osteoporosis. In this study, we reported a significant increase in bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and the hip in postmenopausal women taking alendronate at 10 mg/d for 1, 2 and 3 years. Methods Participants had received daily, oral, 10 mg dose of alendronate for one to three years and placed into one of three groups according to alendronate treatment duration: 41 women received alendronate for 1 year (group Ⅰ), 46 received alendronate for 2 years (group Ⅱ), and 30 received alendronate for 3 years (group Ⅲ). Measurements of bone density had been made by dual energy X-ray absorbtiometry once each year. Results The differences in L2-L4, L2, L4, femoral neck and trochanter BMD values before and after treatment for first group were significantly different. In second group, significant differences between initial and after treatment were found at the other sites except at the Ward's triangle. In the third group, only a significant increase in the L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, trochanter BMD values between before treatment and at the end of third year was found. Comparisons between groups were performed with Student's t test. ANOVA was used to test the age, menopause age, menopause duration and initial BMD values between the three groups. Calculated P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusions Alendronate had increased BMD significantly at the spine and hip in postmenopausal women over three years. Increases of BMD in third group were significant during the first and second years. However, continued therapy with alendronate had been required to maintain the gain in BMD over the third year.

  8. Mineralization, biodegradation, and drug release behavior of gelatin/apatite composite microspheres for bone regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Jo, J.; Wang, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Jansen, J.A.; Tabata, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin microspheres are well-known for their capacity to release growth factors in a controlled manner, but gelatin microspheres do not calcify in the absence of so-called bioactive substances that induce deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone mineral. This study has investigated if CaP nanocry

  9. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  10. Predictors of bone mineral density in patients with Sheehan′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan′s syndrome is a leading cause of panhypopituitarism.It is associated with osdteoporosis due to a number of factors like gonadal and growth hormone deficiency; and other factors.In our study, 58 % of patients had osteopenia and 37% had osteoporosis at lumbar spine. Duration of illness had a significant inverse relationship with bone mineral density.

  11. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77 con

  12. Pharmacogenetic risk factors for altered bone mineral density and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet); R.D. van Beek (Robert Diederik); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground This study investigates pharmacogenetic risk factors for bone mineral (apparent) density (BM(A)D) and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia Design and Methods We determined the influence of SNPs in 4 genes (vitamin-D receptor (VDR: BsmI/ApaI/TaqI and Cdx-2

  13. Uric acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: the link lies within the fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirro, M; Mannarino, M R; Bianconi, V; De Vuono, S; Sahebkar, A; Bagaglia, F; Franceschini, L; Scarponi, A M; Mannarino, E; Merriman, T

    2017-03-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Fat accumulation is linked to SUA and BMD, thus possibly explaining the mixed results. We found that adiposity drives part of the association between SUA and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Impairment of mineralization by metavanadate and decavanadate solutions in a fish bone-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiago, Daniel M; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M Leonor; Aureliano, Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Vanadium, a trace metal known to accumulate in bone and to mimic insulin, has been shown to regulate mammalian bone formation using in vitro and in vivo systems. In the present work, short- and long-term effects of metavanadate (containing monomeric, dimeric, tetrameric and pentameric vanadate species) and decavanadate (containing decameric vanadate species) solutions on the mineralization of a fish bone-derived cell line (VSa13) were studied and compared to that of insulin. After 2 h of incubation with vanadate (10 microM in monomeric vanadate), metavanadate exhibited higher accumulation rates than decavanadate (6.85 +/- 0.40 versus 3.95 +/- 0.10 microg V/g of protein, respectively) in fish VSa13 cells and was also shown to be less toxic when applied for short periods. In longer treatments with both metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, similar effects were promoted: stimulation of cell proliferation and strong impairment (75%) of extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. The effect of both vanadate solutions (5 microM in monomeric vanadate), on ECM mineralization was increased in the presence of insulin (10 nM). It is concluded that chronic treatment with both vanadate solutions stimulated fish VSa13 cells proliferation and prevented ECM mineralization. Newly developed VSa13 fish cells appeared to be appropriate in the characterization of vanadate effects on vertebrate bone formation, representing a good alternative to mammalian systems.

  15. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: a Bridge Between Bone Minerals and Renal Volume Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer Kor

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the interaction between the phosphate-regulating hormone Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) as key player in bone-mineral homeostasis and renal volume handling, mainly in the context of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). First, we elaborate on the ro

  17. Murine metapodophalangeal sesamoid bones: morphology and potential means of mineralization underlying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Lowder, Elizabeth M; Jacquet, Robin D; Landis, William J

    2010-05-01

    Normal murine metapodophalangeal sesamoid bones, closely associated with tendons, were examined in terms of their structure and mineralization with reference to their potential function following crystal deposition. This study utilized radiography, whole mount staining, histology, and conventional electron microscopy to establish a maturation timeline of mineral formation in 1- to 6-week-old metapodophalangeal sesamoids from CD-1 mice. An intimate cellular and structural relationship was documented in more detail than previously described between the sesamoid bone, tendon, and fibrocartilage enthesis at the metapodophalangeal joint. Sesamoid calcification began in 1-week lateral sesamoids of the murine metacarpophalangeal joint of the second digit. All sesamoids were completely calcified by 4 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy of 2-week metacarpophalangeal sesamoids revealed extensive Type I collagen in the associated tendon and fibrocartilage insertion sites and Type II collagen and proteoglycan networks in the interior of the sesamoid. No extracellular matrix vesicles were documented. The results demonstrate that murine sesamoid bones consist of cartilage elaborated by chondrocytes that predominantly synthesize and secrete Type II collagen and proteoglycan. Type II collagen and proteoglycans appear responsible for the onset and progression of mineral formation in this tissue. These data contribute to new understanding of the biochemistry, ultrastructure, and mineralization of sesamoids in relation to other bones and calcifying cartilage and tendon of vertebrates. They also reflect on the potentially important but currently uncertain function of sesamoids as serving as a fulcrum point along a tendon, foreshortening its length and altering advantageously its biomechanical properties with respect to tendon-muscle interaction.

  18. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  19. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  20. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  1. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 1...

  2. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength.

  3. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  4. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  5. The Effects of Bone Mineral Density and Level of Serum Vitamin-D on Pain and Quality of Life in Fibromialgia Patients - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Küçükali Türkyılmaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine bone mineral density (BMD and the levels of serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 in premenopausal Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS patients, and to examine the effect of them to the pain and quality of life in premenopausal FMS patients. Material and Methods: Premenouposal 30 patients with fibromyalgia and 30 healthy controls included the study. The demographic characteristic, serum values, vitamin D levels, bone mineral density measurements, Visual Analog Scala (VAS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Short Form- 36 (SF-36 and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionery Form (FIQ were determined. Patient and control group were compared in terms of these parameters. Results: There was no significant difference of Vitamin D levels and bone mineral density between case and controls. There was no significant difference between the groups with low and high vitamin D levels in terms of VAS, FIQ, BDI in SF-36 in FMS patients. There was no significant change with regard to VAS, FIQ, BDI, and SF36 between FMS patients with high or low BMD. Conclusion: There is no difference of vitamin D levels and bone mineral density between FMS patients and control group, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density have no effect on pain and quality of life in premenopausal patients with FMS. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:53-7

  6. Association of pioglitazone treatment with decreased bone mineral density in obese premenopausal patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Andersen, Mikael; Hagen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    .948-1.341) g/cm(2) (average decline 1.1%) and femoral neck 0.966 (0.767-1.217) vs. 0.952 (0.760-1.192) g/cm(2) (average decline 1.4%), both P ..., sex hormones, and body composition. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone treatment was followed by decreased lumbar and hip BMD and decreased measures of bone turnover in a premenopausal study population relatively protected from bone mineral loss Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  7. Investigation of the Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Predisposing Factors in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women in a Sample of Patients From Gaziantep and Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Madenci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the association between the bone mineral density and risk factors predisposing to osteoporosis as well as impact of regional factors on bone mineral density by comparing the data obtained from patients who lived in Gaziantep (a province in the south east of this country and Trabzon (a province in the north east of this country. Included in the study were 318 patients, of whom 162 were from Gaziantep and 156 from Trabzon. Bone mineral density of the patients was measured with DEXA, and those who had a t score below (-2.0 SD on bone mineral density measurement in the back and hip regions were included in the study. An osteoporosis follow up questionnaire that was modified from MEDOS study questionnaire was filled. The patients who lived in Gaziantep were fatter than those who lived in Trabzon (p0.05. The bone mineral density (L2-4 femur (total and Wards triangle of the patients who lived in Trabzon was significantly lower than in Gaziantep (p0.05. White skin color and high tea consumption were more common in the second group (p<0.001. Some parameters like dark or wheat skin and black eye color, birth and abortion rate, and sun bathing habis were more common in the first group (p<0.001. In conclusion, fist and cost effective option to estimate whether the patient carries a high risk is to evaluate the place where the patient lives as well the habits and traditions. The proceeding bone mineral density measurement will help to diagnose the disease. We believe that this approach will help not only for early diagnosis of osteoporosis but also useful economically.

  8. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  9. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization: results from the Southampton Women's Survey cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. Results: In total......, 520 and 446 mother-offspring pairs had measurements of maternal serum retinol and β-carotene, respectively. Higher maternal serum retinol in late pregnancy was associated with lower offspring total body BMC (β = −0.10 SD/SD; 95% CI: −0.19, −0.02; P = 0.020) and BA (β = −0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.......03; P = 0.009) but not BMD. Conversely, higher maternal serum β-carotene concentrations in late pregnancy were associated with greater total body BMC (β = 0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.21; P = 0.016) and BA (β = 0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22; P = 0.010) but not BMD. Conclusions: Maternal serum retinol...

  10. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  11. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis.

  12. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  13. Effects of short-term swimming exercise on bone mineral density, geometry, and microstructural properties in sham and ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong Kiew Ooi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the effects of swimming exercise on bone health in ovariectomized animals with estrogen deficiency, which resembles the postmenopausal state and age-related bone loss in humans. This study investigated the effects of swimming exercise on tibia and femur bone mineral density (BMD, geometry, and microstructure in sham and ovariectomized rats. Forty 3-month-old female rats were divided into four groups: sham operated-sedentary control (Sham-control, sham operated with swimming exercise group (Sham-Swim, ovariectomy-sedentary control (OVx-control, and ovariectomy and swimming exercise (OVx-Swim groups. Swimming sessions were performed by the rats 90 minutes/day for 5 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of the study, tibial and femoral proximal volumetric total BMD, midshaft cortical volumetric BMD, cross-sectional area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (MOI, and bone microstructural properties were measured for comparison. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The Sham-Swim group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA greater values in bone geometry parameters, that is, tibial midshaft cortical area and MOI compared to the Sham-control group. However, no significant differences were observed in these parameters between the Ovx-Swim and Ovx-control groups. There were no significant differences in femoral BMD between the Sham-Swim and Sham-control groups. Nevertheless, the Ovx-Swim group elicited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA higher femoral proximal total BMD and improved bone microstructure compared to the Ovx-Sham group. In conclusion, the positive effects of swimming on bone properties in the ovariectomized rats in the present study may suggest that swimming as a non- or low-weight-bearing exercise may be beneficial for enhancing bone health in the postmenopausal population.

  14. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction. We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  15. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, M A; Ribeiro, H J; Valverde, T M; Sousa, B R; Martins-Júnior, P A; Mendes, R M; Ladeira, L O; Resende, R R; Kitten, G T; Ferreira, A J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs) on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction). We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Measurement of the density of animal bone by absorptiometry: some preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de; Hormaza, Joel Mesa; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Measurement of bone mineral content for different bone types at various sites of the human body has been extensively studied in the last three decades. There are several methods for the determination of bone mineral density and strength by using non ionizing and ionizing radiation, as well as by other techniques, such as ultrasound. In humans, the accuracy and precision of those kind of measurement varies between the methods and, in all the cases, reference values are adopted as a function of sex, age and nutritional parameters. In this work, we have presented some preliminary results of the measurement of the density in animal bone obtained experimentally by absorptiometry, which is based on the fact that attenuation of a gamma ray beam is proportional to the coefficient of mass attenuation of an object in the path of the beam: with the increase of the density of the object, less photons will pass through it. Starting from this, we can calculate the bone mineral density in any point of the material. The radionuclide (through a sealed and shielded source of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am with an activity of 7.4 GBq and an energy of 59.6 keV) is the photons source and a scintillation detector quantify the transmitted photons through the bone to determine the density. The results obtained experimentally were compared with theoretical ones calculated by simulation with the MCNPX based Monte Carlo transport code. (author)

  17. Control of in vivo mineral bone cement degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Britta; Geffers, Martha; Ignatius, Anita; Gbureck, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The current study aimed to prevent the formation of hydroxyapatite reprecipitates in brushite-forming biocements by minimizing the availability of free Ca(2+) ions in the cement matrix. This was achieved by both maximizing the degree of cement setting to avoid unreacted, calcium-rich cement raw materials which can deliver Ca(2+) directly to the cement matrix after dissolution, and by a reduction in porosity to reduce Ca(2+) diffusion into the set cement matrix. In addition, a biocement based on the formation of the magnesium phosphate mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) was tested, which should prevent the formation of low-solubility hydroxyapatite reprecipitates due to the high magnesium content. Different porosity levels were fabricated by altering the powder-to-liquid ratio at which the cements were mixed and the materials were implanted into mechanically unloaded femoral defects in sheep for up to 10 months. While the higher-porosity brushite cement quantitatively transformed into crystalline octacalcium phosphate after 10 months, slowing down cement resorption, a lower-porosity brushite cement modification was found to be chemically stable with the absence of reprecipitate formation and minor cement resorption from the implant surface. In contrast, struvite-forming cements were much more degradable due to the absence of mineral reprecipitates and a nearly quantitative cement degradation was found after 10 months of implantation.

  18. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  19. Minerals and vitamins in bone health: the potential value of dietary enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Guéguen, Léon; Palacios, Cristina; Shearer, Martin J; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-06-01

    Nutrition is important to bone health, and a number of minerals and vitamins have been identified as playing a potential role in the prevention of bone diseases, particularly osteoporosis. Despite this, there is currently no consensus on maximum levels to allow in food or as dietary supplements. The benefits of supplementation of populations at risk of osteoporosis with Ca and vitamin D are well established. Prolonged supplementation of Ca and vitamin D in elderly has been shown to prevent bone loss, and in some intervention studies to prevent fragility fractures. Although P is essential to bone health, the average intake is considered to be more than sufficient and supplementation could raise intake to adverse levels. The role of vitamin K in bone health is less well defined, though it may enhance the actions of Ca and vitamin D. Sr administered in pharmacological doses as the ranelate salt was shown to prevent fragility fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, there is no hard evidence that supplementation with Sr salts would be beneficial in the general population. Mg is a nutrient implicated in bone quality, but the benefit of supplementation via foodstuffs remains to be established. A consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health should balance the risks, for example, exposure of vulnerable populations to values close to maximal tolerated doses, against evidence for benefits from randomised clinical trials, such as those for Ca and vitamin D. Feedback from community studies should direct further investigations and help formulate a consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health.

  20. Death Receptor 3 (TNFRSF25 Increases Mineral Apposition by Osteoblasts and Region Specific New Bone Formation in the Axial Skeleton of Male DBA/1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser L. Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Genome wide association studies identified TNFSF member TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A, TNFSF15 as a potential modulator of ankylosing spondylitis (AS. TL1A is the only confirmed TNFSF ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3, TNFRSF25; however, its role in disease pathology is not characterised. We evaluated DR3’s role in controlling osteoblast- (OB- dependent bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Osteoprogenitor cells and OB were cultured from male DR3-deficient (DR3ko and wild-type (DR3wt DBA/1 mice. DR3 and RANKL expression were tested by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase and mineralization were quantified. Osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and pro MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. A fluorescent probe (BoneTag was used to measure in vivo mineralization in 10-month-old mice. Results. DR3 was expressed on osteoprogenitors and OB from DR3wt mice. Alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and mineral apposition were significantly elevated in DR3wt cultures. Levels of RANKL were comparable whilst osteoprotegerin was significantly increased in DR3wt cultures. In vivo incorporation of BoneTag was significantly lower in the thoracic vertebrae of 10-month-old DR3ko mice. Conclusions. These data identify new roles for DR3 in regulating OB-dependent bone mineral apposition. They potentially begin to explain the atypical pattern of new bone formation observed in the axial skeleton of grouped, aging DBA/1 mice.

  1. The relationship between anthropometric parameters and bone mineral density in an Iranian referral population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Soltani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health concern in both developed and developing countries. In this study the association between anthropometric measures and osteoporosis was investigated in 3630 males and females visiting BMD clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a teaching hospital and referral center for osteoporosis affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Anthropometric measurements obtained and also Bone Mineral Density (BMD measurement was done using a Lunar DPXMD densitometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS with Chi-square and ANOVA with post-hoc tests. Results showed that the weight, BMI and age had the strongest correlation with the BMD values in the studied people. While age is negatively correlated with BMD in all the studied people, a positive association was noted between weight, height and BMI and BMD parameters (P<0.01. It was concluded that certain anthropometric parameters (BMI and weight can considerably affect one's risk of developing osteoporosis. Further research on the effect of these variables on the association of weight and BMD is needed.

  2. Association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haiyu; Xu, Shaonan; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jiayin; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng; Ru, Bin; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adolescents. Three hundred eighty-four Chinese adolescents aged 14-18 yr (148 males and 236 females) were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Total body and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Duration of playing video games, defined as hours per day, was measured by a self-report questionnaire. We examined the association between duration of playing video games and BMD using multiple linear regression analysis. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, parental education, body mass index, adolescents with longer video game duration were more likely to have lower legs, trunk, pelvic, spine, and total BMD (p video game was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese adolescents. These findings provide support for reducing duration of playing video games as a possible means to increase BMD in adolescents. Future research is needed to elucidate the underlined mechanisms linking playing video games and osteoporosis.

  3. Evaluation of the results of bone mineral density measurement in adult women in longevity region%长寿地区成年女性骨密度测量结果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 徐世民; 李春燕; 冯哲; 贺韩臻

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测广西巴马地区20岁~60岁成年女性的骨密度,探讨其骨密度变化的规律.方法 随机选取当地268位20岁~60岁成年女性,按不同年龄分组,每组5岁,共8组.应用韩国生产跟骨超声骨密度测定仪,测定跟骨骨密度.采用SPSS16.0对数据进行分析.结果 268例全部进入分析.(1)女性的峰值骨密度处于36岁~40岁年龄组,峰值组的骨密度高于绝经后组(P<0.05),且随年龄的增加呈现先升高后下降的趋势.(2)女性的骨密度随年龄的增加而减少,导致骨质疏松症的发病率升高.(3)Pearson相关分析显示,女性的SI和年龄呈现出负相关(r=-0.193,P<0.01),和身高有显著关系(r=0.157,P<0.05),并未发现与体重和BMI有关系.结论 广西巴马地区20岁~60岁女性SI值与年龄和身高均有显著相关性,本研究获得的SI值为进一步探讨长寿地区成年女性的骨密度状况提供参考依据.%Objective To investigate the changing pattern of bone mineral density (BMD) by testing BMD in adult women aging from 20 to 60 years old in Bama, Guangxi. Methods Two hundred and sixty-eight adult women aging from 20 to 60 years old were randomly selected. All subjects were divided into 8 groups according to a 5-year-age division. BMD of the calcaneus was tested with ultrasound BMD detector ( Korea). A SPSS 16. 0 software was used to analyze the data. Results The data of all 268 women were analyzed. The peak BMD of the women occurred in 36-40-year-old group. Peak BMD was higher than that in postmenopausal group (P < 0. 05 ) , with a tendency of increasing first then decreasing along with the increase of age. BMD of women decreased along with the increase of age , leading to a high incidence of osteoporosis. SI of BMD was negatively correlated with age ( r = - 0. 193, P < 0. 01 ) while it was significantly correlated with height ( r = 0. 157 , P < 0. 05 ) , according to Pearson correlation analysis . However, no correlation with

  4. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    2002-01-01

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked a

  5. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D are important for fat and bone metabolism but the intake is declining in Western societies with a potential deleterious effect on growth and bone health. Dietary PUFA composition favors the intake of omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) compared to omega-3 (n-3 PUFA......). Hormones (eicosanoids) from n-6 PUFA induce fat cell differentiation and an intake high in n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA is hypothesized to inhibit differentiation and hypertrophy of adipose cells and subsequently the risk for obesity. Identification of dietary components with effects on fat tissue growth...... is increasing in many Western societies. Bone mineral accrual in childhood influences later bone health and optimization may be preventive against the development of demineralizing skeletal disorders. The purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate the association between n-3 PUFA in breastmilk and BMI...

  6. Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health

  7. Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2015-07-01

    Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0.1 higher, compared with those with an intake of < once/week. Although significant, this difference is small, and its clinical relevance is questionable. Intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0.001).

  8. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  9. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...... girls by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the forearm and calcaneus. An accelerometer registered the level of physical activity during 4 days (2 weekdays and the weekend). Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured. In order to establish thresholds (count . min(-1)) for bone......-stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...

  10. Vitamin D status and its relationship with bone mineral density in a healthy Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Khashayar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Considering the controversial results regarding the relationship between vitamin D levels and bone mineral density in different populations, the present study was designed to evaluate this correlation in a healthy Iranian population. METHODS: Using a random cluster sample of apparently healthy men and women, this multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out among 4450 individuals living in urban areas of five major cities in Iran. Bone mineral density (BMD values at different sites were analyzed along with the serum levels of 25(OHD and PTH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to estimate the main effects, through comparing the mean values of these markers based on the bone mineral density status of the study group in each sex. RESULTS: 25(OHD levels were inversely correlated with BMD values at total hip (r = -0.062 in men and r = -0.057 in women and spine (r = -0.076 in men and r = -0.107 in women. After adjusting the data for age, the inverse correlation was no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Serum 25(OHD levels are inversely correlated with bone mass values in both sexes.

  11. Relation of androgen receptor gene polymorphism to bone mineral density and fracture risk in early postmenopausal women during a 5-year randomized hormone replacement therapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmén, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna-Mari; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Heikki; Komulainen, Marja; Pallonen, Heli; Saarikoski, Seppo; Honkanen, Risto; Mäenpää, Pekka H

    2003-02-01

    In women, the influence of androgens on bone health is not clear. It has been suggested that the androgen receptor (AR) genotype is associated with bone mineral density and serum androgen levels in pre- and perimenopausal women, but the association between AR genotype, bone mineral density, and fracture risk has not been studied in postmenopausal women. Therefore, we studied whether AR polymorphism affects bone mineral density, bone mineral density change, or fracture risk in a 5-year randomized hormone replacement therapy (HRT) trial on 331 early postmenopausal women (mean baseline age, 52.7 +/- 2.3 years). The participants consisted of two treatment groups: the HRT group (n = 151) received a sequential combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate and 1 mg cyproterone acetate with or without vitamin D3, 100-300 IU + 93 mg calcium as lactate/day, and the non-HRT group (n = 180) received 93 mg calcium alone or in combination with vitamin D3, 100-300 IU/day for 5 years. Bone mineral density was measured from lumbar spine and proximal femur (DXA) before and after the 5-year trial. All new symptomatic, radiographically defined fractures were recorded during the follow-up. The length of CAG repeat in exon 1 of AR gene was evaluated after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The subjects were divided into three repeat groups according to AR alleles. None of the baseline characteristics were associated with AR gene polymorphism and HRT treatment. The polymorphism did not influence the calculated annual changes of lumbar or femoral neck bone mineral density during the 5-year follow-up in the HRT (p = 0.926 and 0.146, respectively) or non-HRT (p = 0.818 and 0.917, respectively) groups. In all, 28 women sustained 33 fractures during the follow-up. Thus, the numbers of fractures were limited. The AR repeat length variation was not significantly associated with fracture risk in the HRT or non-HRT groups (p = 0.632 and 0.459, respectively; Cox proportional hazards model

  12. Role and significance of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in measurement of bone mineral density in children with upper extremity fractures%双能X线吸收法检测儿童上肢骨折的骨密度及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦溦; 杨星华; 刘洋; 韦继刚; 陈辉; 郭元

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the bone mineral density in children with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and examine the relevance of bone mineral density with the risk of pediatric upper limb fracture.Methods A total of 864 children (8-14 years of age) admitted into our hospital in 2009 were involved in the study.The bone mass density (Z score) at the left radius was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Children were grouped according to their Z score and age to observe correlations of Z value and age with the incidence of fractures.Results Thirty-three children were lost to follow-up.For the other 831 children,the mean duration of follow-up was 2 years.Z sore was ≤-2 in 66 children and >-2 in 765 children.There was significant difference in fracture incidence between children with Z score of ≤-2 and >-2 (27.27% vs 5.49%,P <0.01).Furthermore,fracture incidence in children at age group of 8-10 years and 11-14 years revealed significant difference (10.83% vs 5.03%,P < 0.01).Conclusions Bone mineral density is closely related to upper limb fracture in children and increases with aging.Early application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to detect the bone density is an effective primary measure for prevention of fractures in children.%目的 探讨双能X线吸收法检测儿童上肢骨折的骨密度及其意义. 方法 选取2009年1-12月体检的8~14岁儿童864例,采用双能X线骨密度测试仪检测左桡骨骨密度Z值,根据Z值大小进行分组观察Z值与骨折的关系;根据年龄分组观察年龄与骨折的关系. 结果 864例患者中获得2年随访831例,失随访33例.Z值结果显示,Z值≤-2者66例,Z值>-2者765例.Z值≤-2组儿童骨折发生率为27.27%,Z值>-2组骨折发生率为5.49%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);8~10岁组儿童骨折发生率为10.83%,11 ~ 14岁组骨折发生率为5.03%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 骨密度与儿童上肢骨

  13. Relationship among bone mineral density, collagen composition, and biomechanical properties of callus in the healing of osteoporotic fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bin; MU Jian-xiong; PEI Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the change and relationship among bone mineral density (BMD), collagen composition and biomechanical properties of the callus in the healing process of osteoporotic fracture.Methods: The osteoporotic rat model and fracture model were established through bilateral ovariectomy(OVX) and osteotomy of the middle shaft of the right hind tibiae, respectively. Ninety female SD rats were randomly divided into OVX group and sham group. With the samples of blood and callus, roentgenoraphic and histological observation were performed for the assessment of the healing progress of the fracture, and the serum concentration of TRAP-5b, proportion of type Ⅰ collagen,BMD and biomechanical properties of the callus were measured.Results: The OVX group experienced a significant delay of fracture healing. The mean serum concentration of TRAP-5b of rats in the OVX group was much higher than that in the sham group after the operation (P < 0.05), but the difference at the same time point after fracture was smaller than that before fracture (P < 0.05 ). The BMD of the callus in both groups reached the peak value at the 6 th week after fracture while the proportion of the type Ⅰ collagen and the biomechanical strength reached the peak at the 8th week.Conclusions: The deficiency of estrogen after the ovariectomy could induce the up-regulation of the osteoclasts activities, whereas the potency of further activation after fracture was depressed. Although the synthesis of collagen together with its mineralization determines the biomechanical properties of new bone, the accumulation of collagen could be assessed as an index in the prediction of biomechanical strength of bones independent of the bone mineral deposition.

  14. Relationship between Coronary Risk Factors, C-Reactive Protein, Bone Mineral Density and Carotid Circulation Among Frail Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatassem S. Amer1, Tamer M. Farid1, Ekrami E. Abdel-rahman1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frailty may now be regarded as a geriatric syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors, resulting from cumulative declines across multiple physiologic systems, causing vulnerability to adverse health outcomes including falls, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and mortality. The inflammatory mediators as C-reactive protein have been associated with the development of the geriatric frailty. Several studies have pointed out increased level of homocystiene in frail elderly Increasing frailty was associated with lower bone mineral density, as both bone mass and muscle strength decrease during ageing and this has also been associated with higher risk of osteoporotic fractures in frail elderly. Objective: To compare frail and non-frail elderly regarding Bone mineral density, carotid circulation and serum levels of Homocysteine, coronary risk factors and CRP. Methods: 104 elderly patients, who were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (52 frail participants: diagnosed by Fried’s criteria as applied by Avila-Funes et al., 2008. Group B (52 non-frail participants.All participants were subjected to the following: through history, physical examination, ADL, IADL assessment, MMSE ,GDS, laboratory investigations including; CRP, homocystiene and total lipid profile, measurement of bone mineral density by DEXA and carotid intima-media thickness by carotid duplex. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, among both groups.Frail participants had higher ADL and IADL dependence, higher incidence of depression, cognitive impairment and osteoprosis.They also had higher levels of homocystiene , CRP , CIMT and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is more prevalent among frail elderly also frailty is associated with more ADL & IADL dependence, higher GDS scores & lower MMSE score in addition to higher mean level of homocystiene, CRP & triglycerides in addition to low serum HDL & higher CIMT

  15. Optical Biosensor Based on Microbendings Technique: An Optimized Mean to Measure the Bone Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, a disease in humans, reduces bone mineral density. The microarchitecture of the bone gets deteriorated with change in variety of proteins in the bone. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the strength of human bone, considering its structural properties and degradation due to aging, disease, and therapeutic treatment, becomes an integral part of the bioengineering studies. This paper presents a model of fiber optic biosensors (FOBs which utilizes microbending technique to measure the strength of the bone. In parallel, an artificial neural network (ANN based test bench has been developed for the optimization of FOBs strain measurement in orthoapplications using MATLAB. The performance accuracy of the given model appears to be considerable in ensuring the detection of the onset of osteoporosis.

  16. Effect of HIP/ribosomal protein L29 deficiency on mineral properties of murine bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloofman, Laura G; Verdelis, Kostas; Spevak, Lyudmila; Zayzafoon, Majd; Yamauchi, Mistuo; Opdenaker, Lynn M; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Boskey, Adele L; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B

    2010-07-01

    Mice lacking HIP/RPL29, a component of the ribosomal machinery, display increased bone fragility. To understand the effect of sub-efficient protein synthetic rates on mineralized tissue quality, we performed dynamic and static histomorphometry and examined the mineral properties of both bones and teeth in HIP/RPL29 knock-out mice using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). While loss of HIP/RPL29 consistently reduced total bone size, decreased mineral apposition rates were not significant, indicating that short stature is not primarily due to impaired osteoblast function. Interestingly, our microspectroscopic studies showed that a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking during maturation of HIP/RPL29-null bone precedes an overall enhancement in the relative extent of mineralization of both trabecular and cortical adult bones. This report provides strong genetic evidence that ribosomal insufficiency induces subtle organic matrix deficiencies which elevates calcification. Consistent with the HIP/RPL29-null bone phenotype, HIP/RPL29-deficient teeth also showed reduced geometric properties accompanied with relative increased mineral densities of both dentin and enamel. Increased mineralization associated with enhanced tissue fragility related to imperfection in organic phase microstructure evokes defects seen in matrix protein-related bone and tooth diseases. Thus, HIP/RPL29 mice constitute a new genetic model for studying the contribution of global protein synthesis in the establishment of organic and inorganic phases in mineral tissues.

  17. Higher bone turnover is related to spinal radiographic damage and low bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis patients with active disease: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Arends

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive bone formation and bone loss. Our aim was to investigate the association of bone turnover markers (BTM with spinal radiographic damage and bone mineral density (BMD in AS patients with active disease. METHODS: 201 consecutive AS outpatients of the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included. Serum markers of bone resorption (C-telopeptides of type-I collagen, sCTX and bone formation (procollagen type-I N-terminal peptide, PINP; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BALP were measured. Z-scores were used to correct for the normal influence that age and gender have on bone turnover. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers according to modified Stoke AS Spinal Score (mSASSS. The presence of complete bridging (ankylosis of at least two vertebrae was considered as measure of more advanced radiographic damage. Low BMD was defined as lumbar spine and/or hip BMD Z-score ≤ -1. RESULTS: Of the 151 patients with complete data, 52 (34% had ≥ 1 complete bridge, 49 (33% had ≥ 1 syndesmophyte (non-bridging, and 50 (33% had no syndesmophytes. 66 (44% had low BMD. Patients with bridging had significantly higher sCTX and PINP Z-scores than patients without bridging (0.43 vs. -0.55 and 0.55 vs. 0.04, respectively. Patients with low BMD had significantly higher sCTX Z-score than patients with normal BMD (-0.08 vs. -0.61. After correcting for gender, symptom duration, and CRP, sCTX Z-score remained significantly related to the presence of low BMD alone (OR: 1.60, bridging alone (OR: 1.82, and bridging in combination with low BMD (OR: 2.26. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study in AS patients with active and relatively long-standing disease demonstrated that higher serum levels of sCTX, and to a lesser extent PINP, are associated with the presence of complete bridging. sCTX was also associated with low BMD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm that serum levels of s

  18. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  19. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Cuenca-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group, hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct. During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5. Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT, histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70% than for mineral scaffold alone (22% and hybrid constructs (35%. The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft. Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored

  20. Evaluation of posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep using mineral scaffolds seeded with cultured bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-López, María D; Andrades, José A; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-12-16

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4-L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  1. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone-PDL-cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; Schuck, Jim; Webb, Samuel; Landis, William; Ho, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone and PDL-cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between tooth and bone, mineral formation and resorbing events at the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, AFM-based nanoindentation technique, and were correlated with histochemical stains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogenous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey’s fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III - 1240 cm−1) to inorganic (phosphate - 960 cm−1) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL-bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft-hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the physicochemical properties of tissues per se, and consequently the overall biomechanics of the bone

  2. Measurement and Modelling of Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila Garcia, Ada

    2005-01-01

    of scale formation found in many industrial processes, and especially in oilfield and geothermal operations. We want to contribute to the study of this problem by releasing a simple and accurate thermodynamic model capable of calculating the behaviour of scaling minerals, covering a wide range......-liquid equilibrium of sulphate scaling minerals (SrSO4, BaSO4, CaSO4 and CaSO4•2H2O) at temperatures up to 300ºC and pressures up to 1000 bar is described in chapter 4. Results for the binary systems (M2+, )-H2O; the ternary systems (Na+, M2+, )-H2O, and (Na+, M2+, Cl-)-H2O; and the quaternary systems (Na+, M2+)(Cl...

  3. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-01-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.