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Sample records for bone meal

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  2. PROTEIN OF MEAT AND BONE MEAL FOR PIGS

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    Patieva S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern requirements of intergovernmental standards to the quality and safety of livestock produce provide for the use of highly productive animals capable under small expenses to produce more the high quality produce. In particular, at the formation of meat productivity at pigs the great significance has an achievement of optimal digestion and assimilability of consumed fodder means. In the connection, the study of digestion of meat and bone meal from slaughterhouse wastes of cattle (MCM and poultry (MCBM presents the scientific interest. In the fodder experience on the growing pigs with the fistula of iliac intestines there was investigated the digestion of two types of meat and bone meal from slaughterhouse wastes of cattle (MCM and poultry (MKBM. The iliac accessibility of amino acids of meat and bone meal found itself too low: 49,3 % - 69,3 %. The accessibility of general protein reliably did not differ from the average accessibility on main amino acids - 61,5 %. To count the real iliac accessibility of raw protein and amino acids of meat and bone meal there was determined an endogenous emission of these substances on the casein diet. The real iliac accessibility of protein and individual amino acids did not leave the limits in 73% on МCM and 69% - on МCBМ. The accessibility of lysine, leucine and isoleucine MCBM is reliably higher than the same in MCM (P

  3. Utilization of Meat and Bone Meal Bottom Ash in Ceramics

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    Virginija VALANČIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During utilization of animal waste meat and bone meal (MBM is received, realization and use of which has been stopped due to risk for the transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection. The MBM must be safely stored or treated. Most often meat and bone meal undergoes thermal treatment. During combustion large quantities of residues (ashes are received, the recycled use of which has been given a lot of attention lately. In this work it was investigated the impact of the additive of the bottom ash (BA formed during combustion of the MBM on the properties of forming mass and ceramic body of hydromica clay, and also it was evaluated a possibility to use the MBM BA in manufacturing of building ceramics. After replacing the sand in porous ceramics by this additive the plasticity of the forming mass, drying and firing shrinkage as well as density of ceramic body changed insignificantly whereas the compressive strength increased by 8 % - 22 %. So the MBM BA can be utilized in production of porous ceramics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.256

  4. Assessment of Alternative Phosphorus Fertilizers for Organic Farming: Meat and Bone Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Kurt (Prof. Dr. phil. habil.)

    2015-01-01

    In the past meat and bone meal was a major source of nutrients for recycling back to agricultural land, either as animal feed or organic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. Nowadays - since the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in 1999 - it is mainly used as fertilizer. Although meat and bone meals are allowed by EU regulation in organic farming, several growers’ organisations prohibited them since the BSE crisis. Incineration or melting in a cupola furnace are alternative treatme...

  5. Co-combustion of coal and meat and bone meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; P. Abelha; M.H. Lopes; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-12-01

    Feeding meat and bone meal (MBM) to cattle, sheep or other animals has been banned within the EU since 1 of July 1994. The quantities to be eliminated are measured in millions of tons. Disposal to landfill is not an option, as simply burying the material cannot destroy any potential bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) pathogens. One disposal option is the co-combustion of coal and MBM, to ensure that any living organism is totally thermally destroyed and at the same time valorising its energetic potential. Fluidised bed co-combustion of MBM is considered a viable technological option as it has the flexibility to burn coal with different materials in an efficient way, at relatively low temperatures (750-850{sup o}C) with lower environmental impact. For this purpose, co-combustion tests of coal and MBM were carried out on a pilot scale FBC, to investigate the implications of the results. This involved the determination of the emissions of pollutants like NOx, N{sub 2}O, VOC, CO{sub 2}, as well as the composition and the valorisation of the ashes produced. The ashes from the bed, the cyclones and the stack were collected and analyzed for biological activity, ecotoxicity, heavy metal concentration and leachability. The results obtained suggest that the ashes were suitable to be deposited in municipal landfills. 23 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. School meals for better nutrition and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Mandatory new standards for food served in schools in England are being phased in from September 2008. These comprise three sets of standards: food-based, nutrient-based and standards covering food other than lunch. They reflect the Governments concern about poor nutrition and rising trends of obesity among the school-age population and the effect of these on ong- as well as short-term health, including increased risks of diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancers. The standards set minimum requirements for healthier foods and restrict less healthy items served at lunchtimes and other meals and snacks at school, including from vending machines or tuck shops. The standards set specific requirements for nutrients and the frequency, and in some cases the quantity, on which they should be provided. They cover fruit and vegetables (not less than two portions per pupil per day), drinks, deep-fried foods and micronutrients. There are requirements for calcium, as evidence shows that many school-age children and adolescents do not consume adequate amounts for bone health. The standards recommend that a variety of dairy foods, low-fat where possible, should be provided, including milk, cheese, yoghurt, fromage frais and custard. A minimum of 193 mg of calcium must be provided at lunch for all primary school children from September 2008. The standards apply to all Local Authority maintained primary and secondary schools, sixth forms on the premises of secondary schools, schools for children with special educational needs, and pupil referral units. They are not mandatory for independent schools although these will be expected to comply. The standards are derived from the UK nutrient recommendations (Dietary Reference Values). Responsibility for the provision of school meals and for ensuring the standards are met lies with the Local Authorities, or the schools under delegated powers. Monitoring will be by Ofsted, the body responsible for inspecting schools. Implementing the

  7. Destruction of meat and bone meals in cement plants; Destruction des farines animales dans les cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-10-01

    Following the crisis of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease ('mad cow' disease), the French cement industrialists have been requested by the government since 1996 to eliminate the forbidden meat and bone meals in cement kilns where they are used as fuel substitutes. This article presents the advantages of the cement industry file in the destruction of such wastes, the validation and the safety aspects of this process. Meat and bone meal represents a high-grade fuel that lowers the environmental impact of cement production and does not affect the quality of cement. (J.S.)

  8. 9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or... °Fahrenheit (121 °Centigrade), may be imported without further restrictions for use as fertilizer or as...

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage period on the microbial loads and some nutritive components of meat-bone meal and fish meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy) on some nutritive components, total energy, microbial load, salmonella microbes and quality characteristics of fish meal and meat-bone meal. The results indicated that there were no significant (P>0.05) changes in the values of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and total energy of fish and meat-bone meals as influenced by gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) treatments in compression with the control. Irradiation and storage treatments had no effects on the crude protein values. Irradiation treatment (5 kGy) of fish and meat-bone meals was effective to decrease their microbial and fungi loads. There were no changes in the fungi loads of fish and meat bone meals as influenced by storage. Salmonella microbes were not indicated in the experimental samples. Irradiation treatments of fish and meat-bone meals had no effects on the total acids values, whereas, increased the peroxide and volatile basic nitrogen values. (author)

  10. Effects of dietary Aspergillus meal prebiotic on turkey poults production parameters and bone qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Aspergillus meal (AM), a prebiotic on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host and have been shown to stimulate calcium and magnesium a...

  11. Application of cholesterol determination method to indirectly detect meat and bone meals in ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the presence of meat and bone meal (MBM in ruminant feed, by identifying the cholesterol using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The proposed method demonstrated precision, trueness, and capability to detect MBM in the ruminant feed.

  12. Prion infected Meat-and-Bone Meal is still infectious after biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has led to world-wide drop in the market for beef by-products, such as Meat-and-Bone Meal (MBM), a fat-containing product traditionally used as an animal feed supplement. While normal rendering is insufficient, the production of biodiesel from M...

  13. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil...

  14. Physical and chemical characterisation of crude meat and bone meal combustion residue: 'waste or raw material?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the European beef industry, the use of animal by-product is now severely controlled. Meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. Main disposal option is incineration, producing huge amounts of ashes the valorisation of which becomes a major concern. The aim of this work is to characterise MBM combustion residue in order to evaluate their physical and chemical properties to propose new valorisation avenues. The thermal behaviour of crude meat and bone meal was followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (24 wt.%) inorganic residue was collected. The resulting ashes were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution, specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) couple with energy disperse X-ray analysis (EDX). Elemental analysis revealed the presence of chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium with high level of phosphate (56 wt.%) and calcium (31 wt.%), two major constituents of bone, mainly as a mixture of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and Ca3(PO4)2 phases. The impact of combustion temperature (from 550 to 1000 deg. C) on the constitution of ashes was followed by TGA, XRD and specific surface measurements. We observed a strong decrease of surface area for the ashes with crystallisation of calcium phosphates phases without major changes of chemical composition

  15. EQUATIONS TO PREDICT THE METABOLIZABLE ENERGY OF MEAT AND BONE MEAL FOR GROWING PIGS

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    Ricardo Araújo Castilho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The prediction of metabolizable energy (ME of meat and bone meal (MBM for pigs is an interesting tool, however, used models to predict these values must be validated in order to garantee higher precision. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and energetic composition of different types of MBM for pigs and to adjust and validate models to better predict the ME based on the chemical composition. Thirty-two barrows, averaging an initial weight of 26.75 ± 1.45 kg, were individually allotted in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of seven types of MBM that replaced 20% of the basal diet. A stepwise procedure was the statistical procedure used to adjust the prediction equations and the ME was the dependent parameter. The validation of the adjusted models was performed using an independent databank of chemical and energetic composition of theBrazilian and international MBM. The metabolizable energy of different meat and bone meals ranged from 1645 to 2645 kcal kg-1. The equations that provide a good prediction of metabolizable energy of meat and bone meal for swine in Brazil are EM1 = -4233.58 + 0.4134GE + 72CP + 89.62ash - 159.06Ca; EM2 = 2087.49 + 0.3446GE + 31.82ash - 189.18Ca; EM3 = 2140.13 + 0.3845GE - 112.33Ca; EM4 = -346.58 + 0.656GE; EM5 = 3221.27 + 178.96fat - 76.55ash; and EM6 = 5356.45 - 84.75ash.

  16. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM...... the order of 600–1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision...

  17. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meal in feeds by sandwich ELISA with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kato, Masatoshi; Endo, Kiwamu; Kotoura, Satoshi; Takeda, Zenya

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two monoclonal antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide with an amino-acid sequence related to the C-terminus of bovine myoglobin and the whole molecule of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-denatured bovine myoglobin was adapted for detecting bovine myoglobin in contaminated feeds. The ELISA employed bovine meat extract of a known myoglobin concentration as a calibration standard and had an limit of detection (LOD) of 3.54 ng/ml and an limit of quantification (LOQ) of 11.0 ng/ml corresponding to 0.022% and 0.067% (wt/wt) bovine meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) mixed in 20-fold-diluted feed extracts, respectively. A cut-off threshold of 20.6 ng/ml bovine myoglobin was set to simplify ELISA and facilitate quick assessment of test results without a tedious calibration process. The ELISA was able to detect bovine MBM in artificially prepared model feeds, mixed botanical feeds, mixed botanical feeds with skimmed milk, fish meal, pork meal and pork/chicken meal at 0.1% (wt/wt). It was also able to detect sheep MBM in test feeds, but showed no reactivity to swine MBM, chicken MBM, skimmed milk or gelatine of bovine origin. The advantages of this method are the quick and easy extraction protocol of proteins from test feeds, using 100 mM sodium sulphide and 0.6% sodium dodecyl sulphate in the extraction solution and the effective detection of bovine and sheep MBM at 0.1% (wt/wt). PMID:26166832

  18. Co-gasification of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cascarosa; L. Gasco; G. Gea; J.L. Sanchez; J. Arauzo [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain). Thermochemical Processes Group

    2011-08-15

    After the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy illness appeared, the meat and bone meat (MBM) produced from animal residues became an important waste. In spite of being a possible fuel due to its heating value (around 21.4 MJ/kg), an important fraction of the meat and bone meal is being sent to landfills. The aim of this work is to evaluate the co-gasification of low percentages of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor as a potential waste management alternative. The effect of the bed temperature (800-900{sup o}C), the equivalence ratio (0.25-0.35) and the percentage of MBM in the solid fed (0-1 wt.%) on the co-gasification product yields and properties is evaluated. The results show the addition of 1 wt.% of MBM in a coal gasification process increases the gas and the liquid yield and decreases the solid yield at 900{sup o}C and 0.35 of temperature and equivalence ratio operational conditions. At operational conditions of 900{sup o}C and equivalence ratio of 0.35, the specific yield to gas (y{sub gas}) increases from 3.18 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg to 4.47 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg. The gas energy yield decreased 24.1% and the lower heating value of the gas decreases from 3.36 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP) to 2.16 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP). The concentration of the main gas components (H{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}) hardly varies with the addition of MBM, however the light hydrocarbon concentrations decrease and the H{sub 2}S concentration increases at the higher temperature (900{sup o}C). 32 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

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    Carolyn Payus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this

  20. Diffusion of Protease into Meat & Bone Meal for Solubility Improvement and Potential Inactivation of the BSE Prion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government-imposed feed bans have created a need for new applications for meat & bone meal (MBM). Many potential new applications require MBM protein to be both soluble and free of infectious prions. Treatment with protease is generally effective in reducing insoluble, thermally-denatured proteins ...

  1. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract

  2. Co-combustion of meat and bone meal with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, N.O. [Elsam A/S, Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Henriksen, N.; Hundeboel, I. [Elsam A/S, Skaerbaek (Denmark); Wieck-Hansen, K. [Elsam A/S, Studstrupvaerket (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    In consequence of the mad cow disease or BSE crisis, the EU decided to ban all use of mean and bone meal (MBM) for animal consumption by January 2001. However, due to the considerable volumes of MBM involved, the lack of available incineration capacity was an obvious problem. In Denmark the annual production of MBM is around 200 kilotonnes, or 7 to 8% of the total EU volume. Only a small fraction of the MBM is 'specified risk material' (SRM), e.g. brains and spinal cords from cows, etc., which must be burnt for safety reasons. The co-combustion of MBM with natural gas is a promising and straight forward option for the incineration of MBM with residual product recovery. However, corrosion at nominal steam date (>480 C) is severe, and this problem can only be solved either by a reduction of the steam parameters or by the addition of efficient additives to the fuel. (orig.)

  3. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMSTM) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  4. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance. PMID:27254452

  5. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  6. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management

  7. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management. PMID:23916845

  8. Physical and chemical characterisation of crude meat and bone meal combustion residue: 'waste or raw material?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deydier, Eric [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France)]. E-mail: eric.deydier@iut-tlse3.fr; Guilet, Richard [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France); Sarda, Stephanie [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France); Sharrock, Patrick [LCBM, Universite Paul Sabatier, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France)

    2005-05-20

    As a result of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the European beef industry, the use of animal by-product is now severely controlled. Meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. Main disposal option is incineration, producing huge amounts of ashes the valorisation of which becomes a major concern. The aim of this work is to characterise MBM combustion residue in order to evaluate their physical and chemical properties to propose new valorisation avenues. The thermal behaviour of crude meat and bone meal was followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (24 wt.%) inorganic residue was collected. The resulting ashes were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution, specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) couple with energy disperse X-ray analysis (EDX). Elemental analysis revealed the presence of chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium with high level of phosphate (56 wt.%) and calcium (31 wt.%), two major constituents of bone, mainly as a mixture of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phases. The impact of combustion temperature (from 550 to 1000 deg. C) on the constitution of ashes was followed by TGA, XRD and specific surface measurements. We observed a strong decrease of surface area for the ashes with crystallisation of calcium phosphates phases without major changes of chemical composition.

  9. Traceability of bovine meat and bone meal in poultry by stable isotope analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Carrijo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM was widely used in animal diets until outbreaks of Bovine Spongiform Encefalopathy (BSE occurred in some countries. It has not been confirmed yet whether or not BSE may be transmitted to man through chicken meat originated from poultry that had been fed diets containing MBM. Therefore, consumers nowadays express preference for meat originated from birds fed exclusively vegetable diets. This study analyzed samples of major breast muscle (Pectoralis major using mass spectrometry of stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen as a means to assess the presence of MBM in broiler diets, a technique that might be used in the certification of poultry quality. A total of 150 day-old chicks were reared in five randomized treatments with increasing MBM dietary inclusion levels (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8%. On day 42, breast muscle samples were collected from three birds per treatment and used in the determination of 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotope ratios. The breast muscle isotope values were expressed as delta in parts per thousand (delta‰. The following carbon isotope values (13C were found: 18.74‰±0.11, 18.51‰±0.19, 18.24‰±0.10, -17.79‰ ±0.12, and -17.15‰±0.15 for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8% MBM dietary levels, respectively. Nitrogen isotope values (15N were 1.65‰±0.14, 1.65‰±0.28, 1.72‰±0.08, 1.95‰±0.16, and 2.52‰ ± 0.09 for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8% MBM dietary levels, respectively. This study showed important differences in delta13C and delta15N values in breast meat, evidencing a simultaneous enrichment of this isotopic pair, which allowed tracing MBM in bird diets. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes may be used to ensure feeding with exclusively vegetable diets, and might also be used as a reliable evaluation tool in broiler meat certification. The diet with 1% inclusion level of MBM and the exclusively vegetable diet showed similar results.

  10. Immunological detection of osteocalcin in meat and bone meal: a novel heat stable marker for the investigation of illegal feed adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuz, Grit; Zagon, Jutta; Broll, Hermann; Bernhardt, Christian; Linke, Bettina; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A sandwich ELISA was developed for the detection of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM) in feed, based on polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the synthetic N-terminal amino acid sequence 1?9 (YLDHWLGAP) of bovine osteocalcin. To set up a sandwich ELISA pair, a commercial mouse monoclonal capture antibody binding to a highly conserved epitope in the mid-fragment of the peptide was employed. It is shown that the bone marker osteocalcin is immunologically well detectable...

  11. Assessment of low amounts of meat and bone meal in the diet of laying hens by using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Madeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the inclusion of low amounts of ingredients such as wheat bran, corn gluten and yeast in the diet of laying hens can interfere with the traceability of meat and bone meal (MBM in eggs and its fractions (albumen and yolk. We used 256 laying hens distributed across eight treatment groups, which consisted of a diet based on corn-soybean-wheat (CSW bran meal and other diets that had additions comprising gluten and/or (MBM and/or yeast. To analyse the isotopic ratios (13C:12C and 15N:14N, on the 28th and 56th days, 16 eggs were randomly taken for each treatment (four for each repetition, where eight eggs (two for each repetition were used to harvest yolk and albumen samples and the remaining eight (two for each repetition were used to analyse the whole egg. We concluded that detection of 2.0% MBM in the egg and its fractions is possible; however, the results for treatments containing gluten and yeast were not different from those containing MBM. Therefore, the inclusion of 3.0% gluten and/or yeast does not result in different ?13C and ?15N isotopic values in the egg and its fractions compared to the values obtained with the addition of 2.0% MBM in the diet.

  12. The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM applied every second year on maize grown for grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (MBM is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L. grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year, and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years. Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

  13. Co-Fuelling of Peat with Meat and Bone Meal in a Pilot Scale Bubbling Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Orjala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion performance trials of Meat and Bone Meal (MBM and peat were conducted using a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB reactor. In the combustion performance trials the effects of the co-combustion of MBM and peat on flue gas emissions, bed fluidization, ash agglomeration tendency in the bed and the composition and quality of the ash were studied. MBM was mixed with peat at 6 levels between 15% and 100%. Emissions were predominantly below regulatory limits. CO concentrations in the flue gas only exceeded the 100 mg/m3 limit upon combustion of pure MBM. SO2 emissions were found to be over the limit of 50 mg/m3, while in all trials NOx emissions were below the limit of 300 mg/m3. The HCl content of the flue gases was found to vary near the limit of 30 mg/m3. VOCs however were within their limits. The problem of bed agglomeration was avoided when the bed temperature was about 850 °C and only 20% MBM was co-combusted. This study indicates that a pilot scale BFB reactor can, under optimum conditions, be operated within emission limits when MBM is used as a co-fuel with peat. This can provide a basis for further scale-up development work in industrial scale BFB applications.

  14. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  15. New eco-friendly animal bone meal catalysts for preparation of chalcones and aza-Michael adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Yassine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two efficient reactions were successfully carried out using Animal Bone Meal (ABM and potassium fluoride or sodium nitrate doped ABMs as new heterogeneous catalysts under very mild conditions. After preparation and characterization of the catalysts, we first report their use in a simple and convenient synthesis of various chalcones by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and then in an aza-Michael addition involving several synthesized chalcones with aromatic amines. All the reactions were carried out at room temperature in methanol; the chalcone synthesis was also achieved in water environment under microwave irradiation. Doping ABM enhances the rate and yield at each reaction. Catalytic activities are discussed and the ability to re-use the ABM is demonstrated. Results For Claisen–Schmidt the use of ABM alone, yields never exceeded 17%. In each entry, KF/ABM and NaNO3/ABM (79-97% gave higher yields than using ABM alone under thermic condition. Also the reaction proceeded under microwave irradiation in good yields (72-94% for KF/ABM and 81-97% for NaNO3/ABM and high purity. For aza-Michael addition the use of ABM doped with KF or NaNO3 increased the catalytic activity remarkably. The very high yields could be noted (84-95% for KF/ABM and 81-94% for NaNO3/ABM. Conclusion The present method is an efficient and selective procedure for the synthesis of chalcones an aza-Michael adducts. The ABM and doped ABMs are a new, inexpensive and attractive solid supports which can contribute to the development of catalytic processes and reduced environmental problems.

  16. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen;

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer...

  17. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  18. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.;

    2013-01-01

    optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, including 3rd and 4th graders from nine public schools. In autumn 2011, fasting blood samples were drawn and serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH analysed. Background interviews were...... status and childhood bone health are needed. Objective: To evaluate the status of serum 25(OH)D in autumn and the association between 25(OH)D concentrations and bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish children (55°N). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using baseline data from the...... for bone area (BA), age, height, weight, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and physical activity. Likewise, no associations were found between serum 25(OH)D and BA or BMD. Conclusion: A substantial number of Danish children did not reach the recommended level of 25(OH)D (>50 nmol/l) during autumn...

  19. Development of a readily applied method to quantify ractopamine residue in meat and bone meal by QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Vanessa; Franzen, Angélica R L; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Tavernari, Fernando C; Dalla Costa, Osmar A; Feddern, Vivian

    2016-03-15

    A QuEChERS method of ractopamine (RCT) residue detection in swine meat and bone meal (MBM) samples was demonstrated. Samples were hydrolyzed with protease and β-glucuronidase prior to QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction and clean-up. Samples were analyzed in a Liquid Chromatography (equipped with ACE 5 C18 column under gradient elution) coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization mode (using multiple reaction monitoring, MRM). The method was validated for its specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), recovery, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, limits of detection (LODs), quantification (LOQs), and stability according to international guidelines (European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC). Recoveries ranged from 96.3 to 107.0%. Repeatability and reproducibility showed both RSD<5.7% and 3.1%, respectively. LODs and LOQs were 1.91 and 6.36ppb, respectively. CCα and CCβ values were 1.91 and 2.37ppb, respectively. RCT showed good stability for spiked samples and real samples when the concentration was higher, otherwise at lower concentration stability was lower. The proposed method can be successfully applied on a regular basis for the determination of RCT in MBM, demonstrating the usefulness of the method as a tool for compliance monitoring in regulatory laboratories. PMID:26927879

  20. Identification of Proteins and Peptide Biomarkers for Detecting Banned Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in Meat and Bone Meal by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbaix, Hélène; Budinger, Dimitri; Dieu, Marc; Fumière, Olivier; Gillard, Nathalie; Delahaut, Philippe; Mauro, Sergio; Raes, Martine

    2016-03-23

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986, with processed animal proteins (PAPs) as the main vector of the disease, has led to their prohibition in feed. The progressive release of the feed ban required the development of new analytical methods to determine the exact origin of PAPs from meat and bone meal. We set up a promising MS-based method to determine the species and the source (legal or not) present in PAPs: a TCA-acetone protein extraction followed by a cleanup step, an in-solution tryptic digestion of 5 h (with a 1:20 protein/trypsin ratio), and mass spectrometry analyses, first without any a priori, with a Q-TOF, followed by a targeted triple-quadrupole analysis. Using this procedure, we were able to overcome some of the major limitations of the official methods to analyze PAPs, detecting and identifying prohibited animal products in feedstuffs by the monitoring of peptides specific for cows, pigs, and sheep in PAPs. PMID:26943838

  1. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: 'Chemical and ecotoxicological studies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO3.2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10 000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3 g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10 000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer

  2. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...... in controlied landfills and the feasibility of use of the ash by the phosphate and fertilizer industries. We assumed that all specified risk material (SRM) and MBM produced in Denmark would be incinerated in this gas-fired power plant. Based on observations in 2001, we assumed that, on average, six (range: 0...

  3. Rastreabilidade da farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em ovos de poedeiras alimentadas com ingredientes alternativos Traceability of bovine meat and bone meal in eggs from laying hens fed with alternative ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia Denadai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar traços de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos, em ovos de poedeiras alimentadas com dietas comerciais com inclusão de ingredientes vegetais alternativos e leveduras. A detecção foi feita pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e do nitrogênio. Foram utilizadas 384 poedeiras, distribuídas aleatoriamente em oito tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle - à base de milho e farelo de soja - e sete dietas com inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos, acrescidas ou não de outros ingredientes (farelo de trigo, quirera de arroz, farelo de algodão, glúten de milho, levedura de cana e levedura de cerveja. No 35º dia, foram tomados aleatoriamente 24 ovos por tratamento: 12 para análise de ovo e 12 para análise de gema e albúmen, em separado. Após análise isotópica de carbono e nitrogênio, os resultados foram submetidos à análise multivariada de variância. As médias dos pares isotópicos dos ovos, gema e albúmen, em todos os tratamentos, diferiram daquelas do tratamento-controle. A técnica dos isótopos estáveis permite detectar, nos ovos, gema e albúmen, a farinha de carne e ossos bovinos utilizada na dieta de poedeiras, mesmo com a inclusão de outros ingredientes vegetais e leveduras.The objective of this work was to detect traces of the bovine meat and bones meal in eggs of laying hens fed on commercial diets including alternative plant ingredients and yeast. The bovine meal detection was performed through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope technique. Three hundred eighty-four laying hens were randomly distributed in eight treatments. Treatments consisted of one control diet - a corn-and-soybean based meal - and seven diets with bovine meat and bone meal, including or not other ingredients (wheat bran, rice, cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal, sugarcane yeast and brewer yeast. At the 35th day, 24 eggs per treatment were randomly collected, 12 for egg analyses

  4. Improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals by gamma irrdiation, Baked de-boned chicken meat with potatoe slices or baked fish and cooked rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals. The prepared meals (included baked chicken meat with potato slices or baked fish and cooked rice) were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of O, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 KGy followed by cold storage (4 C). The effects of irradiation and cold storage on the microbiological aspects, chemical and organoleptic properties of samples were studied. The results showed that irradiation of the prepared meals decreased the initial total bacterial count, total psychrophilic bacteria and total yeast and molds, proportionally to the applied dose, hence prolonged their refrigerated shelf-life. Moreover, irradiation at dose of 1.5 KGy reduced the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, while 3 KGy dose completely eliminated these bacteria in all samples. Salmonella was not detected in all irradiated and non-irradiated meals and Vibrio sp. were absent in irradiated and non-irradiated baked fish. On the other hand, gamma irradiation had no remarkable effects neither on the chemical composition of the main component of meals nor on their ph, while it increased the thiobarbituric acid (TEA) value for baked chicken and fish meat. However, cold storage gradually increased the values of TEA and gradually decreased the ph value for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Finally, irradiation treatments had no effects on the sensory properties (appearance, odor and taste) of all meals and extended their time of sensory preference

  5. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other...

  6. Digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de aminoácidos de farinhas de carne e ossos para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibility of meat and bone meals amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 52,5 ± 5,1 kg. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples no íleo terminal, e, após 20 dias de recuperação, foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao término das duas primeiras repetições, os tratamentos foram redistribuídos para evitar que o mesmo animal recebesse a mesma dieta em duas repetições consecutivas. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica as farinhas de carne e ossos. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina, das diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos variaram de 54,87 a 74,80; 62,62 a 81,19 e 72,35 a 85,46%, respectivamente, e a variação entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira foram de 57,00 a 76,08; 66,26 a 83,07 e 73,76 a 86,39%, respectivamente, para a lisina, treonina e metionina. As farinhas de carne e ossos apresentaram grande variação, em função das diferentes amostras, quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes e verdadeiros dos aminoácidos.The experiment was carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids from six different meat and bone meals. Twelvecrossbred swines, castrated males, averaging 52.5 ± 5.1 kg initial weight, were used. The animals were previously submitted to the simple T canula surgery implantation at the terminal ileum and, after twenty days of recovery period, they were allotted to a randomized blocks design, with six treatments, four replicates and one animal per

  7. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement in...... the school meal project. The anlysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developes as an arena for...

  8. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  9. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    1994-01-01

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become potentially dangerous. When the opportunity to eat a very large meal is regular and predictable, animals adopt strategies that maximize the efficiency of the process while minimizing the threatening h...

  10. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  11. Avaliação da Farinha de Carne e Ossos na Alimentação de Frangos de Corte Evaluation of Meat and Bone Meal in Broiler Chickens Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Um mil quatrocentos e quarenta pintos de um dia, machos, foram utilizados com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da farinha de carne e ossos (FCO sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, com os fatores: níveis de inclusão da FCO (3 e 6%, tipos de FCO (37,51 e 41,58% de proteína bruta, valores de energia metabolizável da FCO conforme equações de predição sugerida pelo NRC (1994 ou tabela de Rostagno et al. (1994, mais um tratamento controle sem a inclusão de FCO, com quatro repetições de 40 aves cada. O consumo de ração e ganho de peso (GP foram influenciados pela inclusão de FCO, sendo verificado maior GP quando a FCO não foi utilizada. As demais características de desempenho não foram afetadas pelos fatores estudados. A gordura abdominal foi reduzida quando a FCO não foi utilizada. Concluiu-se que dietas de frangos de corte contendo até 6% de FCO proporcionam pior desempenho quando comparadas com aquelas a base de milho e farelo de soja.Fourteen hundred and forty day-old male chicks were used to evaluate the use of meat and bone meal (MBM on performance and carcass yield of broilers. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial random arrangement: inclusion levels of MBM (3 and 6%, types of MBM (37.51 and 41.58% of crude protein, metabolizable energy values for MBM according to prediction equations (NRC, 1994 or by Rostagno et al.(1994, plus a control diet without MBM, with four replicates of forty chickens each. Feed intake and body weight gain (WG were influenced by inclusion levels of MBM, with higher WG when MBM was not used. The remaining performance characteristics were not altered by the factors studied. There was reduction in abdominal fat when MBM was not used. It was concluded that the performance was impaired due to the use of diets containing up to 6% of MBM when compared to corn-soybean meal diets.

  12. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  13. Determination of osteocalcin in meat and bone meal of bovine and porcine origin using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for determining the origin of meat and bone meal (MBM) by detecting species-specific osteocalcin (OC) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry (HR-Q/TOF MS). The analysis is based on the detection of typical species-specific OC and its tryptic peptide fragments which differ in mass due to differences in the amino-acid sequences between species. After dissolving the MBM samples in EDTA buffer, purification after ultrafiltration was performed using two methods: solid-phase extraction using Zip-Tip C18 or size exclusion coupled with reverse-phase chromatography. Fractions containing partially purified intact OC were analyzed using LC-Q/TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Species-specific OC was detected at the typical protonated and doubly protonated molecular ions. Furthermore, typical porcine- and bovine-derived tryptic fragments from MBM were detected after enzymatic digestion. In order to determine the underlying amino-acid sequences and to confirm the assignment to OC-derived peptides, MS/MS analysis was carried out. In conclusion, we were able to detect OC in bovine and porcine MBM with high sensitivity and the MS-based method described here by which total OC mass and marker peptides of digested OC are recorded can be used as an alternative approach to detect genus-specific differences in MBM and can be applied as a confirmatory method to mainly immunological osteocalcin screening methods.

  14. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: 'Chemical and ecotoxicological studies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deydier, E. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante - LCIS (LU06), IUT, Avenue G. Pompidou, BP 258, 81104 Castres (France)]. E-mail: eric.deydier@iut-tlse3.fr; Guilet, R. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique - LGC (UMR 5503), 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: richard.guilet@iut-tlse3.fr; Cren, S. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Pereas, V. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante - LCIS (LU06), IUT, Avenue G. Pompidou, BP 258, 81104 Castres (France); Mouchet, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Gauthier, L. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10 000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3 g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10 000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  15. Technical requirements and general recommendations for the disposal of meat and bone meal and tallow; Technische Anforderungen und allgemeine Empfehlungen fuer die Entsorgung von Tiermehl und Tierfett in Verbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nottrodt, A.; Wandschneider, J.; Gutjahr, M.; Chibiorz, J. [Wandschneider und Gutjahr Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-02-19

    In December 2000 and January 2001 the current state of knowledge and experience of the combustion of meat and bone meal (MBM) and tallow was compiled and examined. Taken into account the existing regulations and recommendations, this report was written in order to provide guidance on techniques and standards for the thermal mal treatment of these materials. It is supposed to assist both operators of incineration plants and authorities to evaluate the suitability of a process and determine the necessary prerequisites. Lacks of knowledge are identified, and recommendations for gathering further information and experience are given in the report. The preparation of this report involved extensive discussions with representatives of incineration plants, governmental departments and MBM processing plants. The report includes physical and chemical data on MBM and tallow. It compiles the current experience with the combustion of MBM and offers requirements and recommendations. (orig.) [German] Im Dezember 2000 und Januar 2001 wurde der aktuelle Stand des Wissens und der Erfahrungen bei der Verbrennung von Tiermehl, Tierfett und sonstigen bei der Tierkoerperbeseitigung anfallenden Stoffe zusammengetragen und gesichtet. Auf dieser Grundlage, und gestuetzt auf die einschlaegige neuere Literatur sowie auf bereits bestehende Empfehlungen und Regelwerke, wurden Handlungshilfen abgeleitet, um schnellstens bundesweit den Betreibern von geeigneten industriellen thermischen Prozessen und Abfallverbrennungsanlagen sowie den beteiligten Genehmigungs- und Ueberwachungsbehoerden einen einheitlichen Handlungsrahmen fuer die thermische Behandlung dieser Stoffgruppe zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Es wurden auch Wissens- und Erfahrungsdefizite identifiziert; dazu werden im Bericht entsprechende Hinweise und Empfehlungen gegeben. Die Arbeitsplanung sah eine enge inhaltliche Diskussion mit den einschlaegigen Unternehmensverbaenden der Betreiber von thermischen Behandlungsanlagen einerseits und

  16. Determination of osteocalcin in meat and bone meal of bovine and porcine origin using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balizs, Gabor, E-mail: gabor.balizs@bfr.bund.de [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Thielallee 88-92, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Weise, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Thielallee 63, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Rozycki, Christel; Opialla, Tobias; Sawada, Stefanie; Zagon, Jutta; Lampen, Alfonso [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Thielallee 88-92, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-05

    A method has been developed for determining the origin of meat and bone meal (MBM) by detecting species-specific osteocalcin (OC) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry (HR-Q/TOF MS). The analysis is based on the detection of typical species-specific OC and its tryptic peptide fragments which differ in mass due to differences in the amino-acid sequences between species. After dissolving the MBM samples in EDTA buffer, purification after ultrafiltration was performed using two methods: solid-phase extraction using Zip-Tip C{sub 18} or size exclusion coupled with reverse-phase chromatography. Fractions containing partially purified intact OC were analyzed using LC-Q/TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Species-specific OC was detected at the typical protonated and doubly protonated molecular ions. Furthermore, typical porcine- and bovine-derived tryptic fragments from MBM were detected after enzymatic digestion. In order to determine the underlying amino-acid sequences and to confirm the assignment to OC-derived peptides, MS/MS analysis was carried out. In conclusion, we were able to detect OC in bovine and porcine MBM with high sensitivity and the MS-based method described here by which total OC mass and marker peptides of digested OC are recorded can be used as an alternative approach to detect genus-specific differences in MBM and can be applied as a confirmatory method to mainly immunological osteocalcin screening methods.

  17. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  18. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  19. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  20. Mustard meal weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  1. Farinha de carne e ossos na alimentação de larvas de tilápia do Nilo Meat and bone meal to feed Nile tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos (FCO na alimentação de larvas de tilápia do Nilo. As dietas foram formuladas de forma a apresentarem-se isoproteicas (38,6% e isoenergéticas (3500kcal de ED kg-1, com diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 5; 10 e 15% de FCO. Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram distribuídas 360 larvas de tilápia (6,59±0,02mg e 0,90±0,08cm em 24 aquários de 30L. Os peixes foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente às 8h, 10h30min, 13h, 15h30min e 18h, por 30 dias. Ao final do experimento, foram avaliados as médias de peso final (PF, o comprimento final (CF, o comprimento padrão (CP e a sobrevivência (SO, e os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão pelo programa SAEG. O nível de inclusão de até 15% de FCO na dieta não influenciou o peso final das larvas. Entretanto, o maior CP foi observado nas larvas alimentadas com o maior nível de inclusão de FCO na dieta. Portanto, pode ser utilizado o total de até 15% de inclusão de FCO em rações para larvas de tilápia do Nilo.The present study evaluated the inclusion of meat and bone meal (FCO in Nile tilapia larvae feeding. The diet was formulated to be isoproteic (38.6% DP and isocaloric (3500kcal DE kg-1 with different FCO levels at 0; 5; 10 and 15%. A 30-day trial was carried out in a complete randomized design with 360 Nile tilapia larvae (6.59 ± 0.02mg and 0.90 ± 0.08cm distributed in 24 50l-aquaria and fed until satiation five times a day at 8h00, 10h30, 13h00, 15h30 and 18h00. At the end of the experiment the average final weight (PF, final length (CF, standard length (CP and survival (% (SO were evaluated and the data was submitted to a regression analyses. The Inclusion level of up to 15% of FCO in the diet did not influence larvae weight gain. However, the higher CP was observed in larvae fed with the highest level of FCO inclusion in diet. Therefore, it can be used a total of up to

  2. In vitro solubility of meat and bone meal protein with different pepsin concentrations Solubilidade in vitro da proteína de farinhas de carne e ossos com diferentes concentraçoes de pepsina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Bellaver

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro protein digestibility of protein sources has been correlated with in vivo digestibility values. However, factors like protein origin, enzyme used and its concentration, pH and processing have been related with the significance of the correlation between the estimates. To address only the enzyme concentration factor, this paper had the objective of testing pepsin at 0.2, 0.02, 0.002 and 0.0002% using the standard AOAC (1995 procedure. Two meat and bone meals (MBM with low and high crude protein (CP content were used to determine the coefficient of solubility of CP in pepsin and HCl (CSCPPEPH. Centrifugation was used to establish the nitrogen (N in the soluble phase, instead of filtration and analysis of N in the residue. The variance analysis and a non-linear asymptotic model were adjusted. The CSCPPEPH under different pepsin concentrations for the two MBM showed higher solubility discrimination with low pepsin concentration. The level of 0.0002% pepsin is better to predict the CP soluble in MBM. This finding implies the assumption that 0.2% pepsin found in the AOAC is not correct for the purpose of determining the range of solubility in high and low CP content in MBM.A digestibilidade in vitro da proteína de fontes protéicas tem sido correlacionada com a digestibilidade in vivo. Entretanto, fatores como a origem protéica, enzima usada e sua concentração, pH e processamento têm sido relacionados com a significância da correlação entre as estimativas. Para atuar somente no fator da concentração enzimática, este trabalho teve por objetivo testar a pepsina nas concentrações de 0,2, 0,02, 0,002 e 0,0002%, utilizando o procedimento padrão do AOAC (1995. Duas farinhas de carne e ossos com baixo ou alto teor de proteína (PB foram usadas para determinar o coeficiente de solubilidade da PB em pepsina e HCl (CSCPPEPH. Centrifugação foi usada para obter o nitrogênio (N na fase solúvel, em vez da filtração e análise do N no

  3. The traceability of animal meals in layer diets as detected by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Denadai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to trace the inclusion of animal meals in layer diets by analyzing eggs and their fractions (yolk and albumen using the technique of carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Two-hundred and eighty-eight (288 73-week-old Shaver White layers, never fed animal ingredients, were randomly distributed in six treatments with six replicates each. The treatments were: control - corn and soybean meal based diet and five other experimental diets including bovine meat and bone meal (MBM; poultry offal meal (POM; feather meal (FM; feather meal and poultry offal meal (OFM, and poultry offal meal, feather meal, and meat and bone meal (MBOFM. The isotopic results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Ellipses were determined through an error matrix (95% confidence to identify differences between treatments and the control group. In the albumen and yolk of all experimental treatments were significantly different from the control diet (p < 0.05. In summary, the stable isotope technique is able to trace the animal meals included in layer feeds in the final product under these experimental conditions.

  4. Rastreabilidade da farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em ovos de poedeiras comerciais pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e nitrogênio Traceability of bovine meat and bones meal in eggs of commercial laying hens through carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia Denadai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo rastrear a inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em dietas para poedeiras comerciais, por meio da análise dos ovos e de suas frações (gema e albúmen, pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e nitrogênio e avaliar o índice analítico mínimo detectável. Foram utilizadas 240 galinhas poedeiras da linhagem Shaver White de 73 semanas de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram avaliados cinco níveis de inclusão (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0% de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em uma dieta à base de milho e farelo de soja. No 35º dia, foram tomados aleatoriamente 24 ovos por tratamento: 12 serviram para amostragem de gema e albúmen e os outros 12 para amostragem do ovo (gema + albúmen. Os resultados isotópicos foram submetidos à análise multivariada de variância e, a partir das matrizes de erro, com 95% de confiança, foram determinadas elipses para identificar as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos com o fornecimento das dietas experimentais e a dieta controle, sem farinha de carne e ossos bovinos. No ovo e na gema, a partir do par isotópico da dieta com 3,0% de farinha de carne e ossos, houve diferenciação do par do tratamento controle, enquanto, no albúmen, a diferenciação ocorreu a partir do nível de 1,5% de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos na dieta. Pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis, é possível rastrear o uso de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos na alimentação de poedeiras; no albúmen, o nível mínimo de inclusão detectável é de 1,5% e, no ovo e na gema, 3,0%.The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bones meal in diets of laying hens analyzing eggs and theirs fractions (yolk and albumen, by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, as well as to evaluate the detectable analytical minimal index. Two hundred and forty (240 Shaver White laying hens aging 73 weeks were

  5. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  6. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase in...... sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  7. Meal of Nile Tilapia carcass in diets for rabbits: chemical composition and bone resistanceFarinha de carcaça de Tilápia em dietas para coelhos: composição química e resistência óssea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Legnani Galan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of fish produced and processed terminates in the form of industrial waste, which may be used to produce nutritious and low cost food. This study aimed to assess the carcass quality and bone resistance in rabbits fed with diets enriched with meal filleting residue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. There were 50 animals distributed in five treatments in which the diets were 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% for inclusion of meal. The values of crude protein, calcium and phosphorus from muscle of rabbits responded quadratically. The major fatty acids in the muscle of rabbits were 16:0, 18:1 n9 and 18:2 n6. The average resistance (23.40 kgf and chemical composition of bones and calcium (20.36 g/100 g phosphorus (0.17 g/100g and iron (0.17 mg/100 g were not influenced by the inclusion of the meal. It was concluded that the meal of tilapia filleting residue influenced carcass quality characteristics of rabbits but did not influence the resistance and the chemical composition of bones. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as características qualitativas da carcaça e a resistência óssea de coelhos alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com farinha de resíduos de filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram utilizados 50 animais, distribuídos em um delineamento interamente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (0%, 1%, 2%, 3% e 4% de inclusão da farinha e dez repetições. Os valores de proteína bruta, cálcio e fósforo dos músculos dos coelhos, apresentaram efeito quadrático. Os ácidos graxos majoritários no músculo dos coelhos foram 16:0, 18:1n9 e 18:2n6. A resistência média (23,40 Kgf e a composição química dos ossos, cálcio (20,36g/100g fósforo (0,17g/100g e ferro (0,17mg/100g não foram influenciadas pela inclusão da farinha. Conclui-se que a farinha de resíduos de filetagem de tilápia, influenciou nas características qualitativas da carcaça dos coelhos, porém não influenciou na resistência e na

  8. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Danica; Mistlberger, Ralph; Hsu, Cynthia; Steele, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory...

  9. Probióticos em rações para frangos de corte utilizando farinha de carne e ossos com diferentes níveis de contaminação bacteriana Use of probiotics in broiler rations containing bone and meat meal with different levels of bacterial contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Soares Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    na incidência de diarréia, quando se utilizou farinha de carne e ossos com médio e alto nível de contaminação bacteriana.Aiming to study the effects of probiotics on performance of broiler chickens fed on diets containing bone and meat meal with different levels of bacterial contamination, an experiment was carried out in the Federal University of Lavras . 576 one-day-old broiler chicken of the Hubbard line, of both sexes, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 4 X 3 scheme (4 rations and 3 probiotics with 4 replications, being 12 birds per plot, housed in cages. The treatments were made up of 4 rations, one with no meat meal and with bicalcic phosphate (check and the other three with meat meal with high, medium and lower levels of contamination (1.0x104, 4.5x103 and 1.0x103 ufc/g, respectively. Each of these rations were fed: without probiotic; with a probiotic containing about 3 billion viable cells pergram of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium e Sacharomices cerevisae, at the a dose of 10 g/ton; and a probiotic containing Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidófillus, Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus sp., at the concentration of 3 X1010 ufc/g of this product, added to water (1.33 g/L in the first 24 hours of chick's life. It was found that there was not any significant effects (P<0.05 on the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion, for the birds fed on the ration with low level contamination. The inclusion of bone and meat meal resulted in a better feed conversion for the birds fed on the rations with high and medium contamination. It was observed a reduction on the appearance of diarrhea, during the first week chick's life, when the probiotics were used and an increase when bone and meat meal with medium and high level of contamination.

  10. The Family Meal Panacea:Exploring How Different Aspects of Family Meal Occurrence, Meal Habits and Meal Enjoyment Relate to Young Children’s Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict ...

  11. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  12. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry and...... red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact on...

  13. Corn gluten meal application equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has determined that corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further evaluation of CGM in field vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface. The use o...

  14. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (p<0.05). No observed effects on Bone Area and Bone Mineral Density. Conclusions Fish-containing NND school meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  15. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...

  16. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  17. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  18. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal) for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP), formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively....

  19. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hjuler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... capacity (Xr). This shows that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  20. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in...

  1. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    OpenAIRE

    Máikal S. Borja; Oliveira, Ronaldo L.; Luciano S. Lima; Adriana R. Bagaldo; Gleidson GP. Carvalho; Cláudio VDM Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis) during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of hi...

  2. Ready-meals with a difference

    OpenAIRE

    Braida, Marina; Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    2008-01-01

    Mintel data shows that the value of the frozen ready-meals market in the UK has been reduced by the effect of price promotion, while chilled ready-meals continue to be a big rival in the market place. This has caused the main players to diversify into premium and luxury range prepared meals. The developing market for food in central and Eastern Europe may also represent an opportunity for increased sales of these products. Most ready-meals are made up of a combination of carbohydrate (eg rice...

  3. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  4. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  5. EFFECT OF FAECAL COLLECTION INTERVAL AND DIETARY MEAT AND BONE MEAL LEVELS ON DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉含量对异育银鲫(Carassiusauratus gibelio) 消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 雷武; 韩冬; 杨云霞

    2008-01-01

    本研究探讨了通过收集器不同粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉(MBM)含量对异育银鲫干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的表观消化率 (ADC) 影响.不同梯度(0, 20, 40, 60, 80 ,100%)的肉骨粉替代鱼粉(FM) 蛋白配制成六种等氮 (粗蛋白: 410 g/kg) 等能 (总能: 18 kJ/g) 的饲料,通过11周的饲养实验,实验开始后2周开始收集粪便,收集时间分别是:排粪后 1 min, 投喂后4h和16h. 结果表明,干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率明显随粪便收集时间增加而升高(p0.05). 干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率随饲料中肉骨粉含量的增加呈线性或近线性下降.因此,在消化率测定中应该尽快收集排出的粪便以保证消化率的真实性.消化率是影响肉骨粉利用一个因素.%The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of faecal collection interval (using a settling column) and the levels of dietary meat and bone meals (MBM) on the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) for dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus in gibel carp. Six iso-nitrogenous (crude protein: 410 g/kg) and iso-energetic (gross energy: 18 kJ/g) diets were used in which fish meal (FM) protein was gradually replaced by MBM at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. These diet combinations were fed to juvenile gibel carp for 11 weeks. The faecal samples were collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment using a settlement column starting 1 min after excretion started, or 4h and 16h after feeding. The results showed that the ADCs of dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus increased significantly as the time from excretion to faecal collections increased while not being significant for the high MBM inclusion diets. ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, energy and phosphorus decreased linearly or almost linearly with the increase in dietary MBM levels. These findings suggest that faeces should be collected soon after they had settled under the conditions of this

  6. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  7. Mealtime and meal patterns from a cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fjellström, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The meal is universal, existing in every society, culture and social class, but its symbolic meanings differ across individuals and groups. Encyclopaedias define a meal as a certain amount of food eaten at a specific time, some researchers define the meal as part of the eating space, and some by nutritionally distinguishing meals from eating events, such as snacks. Meal patterns and meal orders in Sweden have changed considerably over the centuries according to historical evidence. In modern ...

  8. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  9. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. PMID:26994739

  10. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde;

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorat...

  11. Cognitive control of meal onset and meal size: Role of dorsal hippocampal-dependent episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marise B

    2016-08-01

    There is a large gap in our understanding of how top-down cognitive processes, such as memory, influence energy intake. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding how the brain controls the timing of meals and meal frequency. Understanding how cognition influences ingestive behavior and how the brain controls meal frequency will provide a more complete explanation of the neural mechanisms that regulate energy intake and may also increase our knowledge of the factors that contribute to diet-induced obesity. We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal neurons, which are critical for memory of personal experiences (i.e., episodic memory), form a memory of a meal, inhibit meal onset during the period following a meal, and limit the amount ingested at the next meal. In support, we describe evidence from human research suggesting that episodic memory of a meal inhibits intake and review data from human and non-human animals showing that impaired hippocampal function is associated with increased intake. We then describe evidence from our laboratory showing that inactivation of dorsal hippocampal neurons decreases the interval between sucrose meals and increases intake at the next meal. We also describe our evidence suggesting that sweet orosensation is sufficient to induce synaptic plasticity in dorsal hippocampal neurons and raise the possibility that impaired dorsal hippocampal function and episodic memory deficits contribute to the development and/or maintenance of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we raise some critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27083124

  12. Bone Up on the Need for Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Most grade-schoolers drink milk at each meal, but teens, especially girls, often switch to carbonated soda at mealtime just as they should be building up their bone bank of calcium. Why calcium is important and how to get enough of it are covered. (MT)

  13. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;

    2015-01-01

    underlying the school meals on the costs and on the rate of food waste.Design/methodology/approach - The analysis combines recipes, dietary records and food waste data from a school meal intervention with collected price data within an economic optimization framework.Findings - A New Nordic School meal...... scheduling of week plans and reducing the level of organic ambition to 60 per cent. Reducing portion sizes could reduce the cost differential by an extra 5 per cent, which would also reduce food waste by about 15 per cent.Originality/value - Higher costs and food waste in a restrictive ingredient sourcing...

  14. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  15. Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  16. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  17. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  18. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, C.A.C.L .; Torgal, J.; Graça, Pedro; Oliveira Martins, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumersapos; perceptions about salt. Methods Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by...

  19. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas; Jorge Torgal; Pedro Graça; Maria do Rosário Oliveira Martins

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a...

  20. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  1. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  2. The nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal supplemented by enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredanović Slavica A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international limitations imposed on the utilization of meat and bone meals in animal diets, together with the increasing demand for soybean meal, create a necessity to search for other protein sources to economically balance compound feeds. In this regard it is important to note that sunflower is the best adapted high-protein crop available in some European regions and that is useful to use it in poultry farming as the replacement of other protein sources. Protein and many other nutrients are “imprisoned” to variable degrees, inside sunflower meal fibrous structures, and remain less available for digestion by the poultry’s own proteases and other endogenous enzymes. Added exogenous enzymes (phytase, hemicellulase, cellulase, carbohydrase, protease, etc. offer a number of creative possibilities for breakdown and “liberation” of these nutrients, their easier digestion and absorption, and thus development of new nutritional standards and new diets formulation. Supplementation of poultry diets containing sunflower meal by different enzymes increasingly contribute to sustainable poultry farming by enhancing production efficiency, increasing the effectiveness of nutrient utilization and upgrading in environmental protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  3. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  4. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  5. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  6. Dietary patterns for meals of Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Santos, Roberta; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Troncoso Baltar, Valéria

    2015-09-14

    The use of dietary patterns (DP) in nutritional research is well established; however, only a few studies of DP according to specific meals have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to identify the DP regarding breakfast, lunch and dinner meals of the population (aged 20 years and older of both sexes) that participated in the Health Care Survey of Sao Paulo. Food intake was estimated by using the Multiple Source Method - considering two 24- h dietary recalls. On the basis of the food groups for each meal, a factor analysis, with a principal component estimation, was applied (varimax rotation) in order to derive the DP. Prevalences of meal skipping were 5·6 % for breakfast, 3·6 % for lunch and 12·8 % for dinner. The findings revealed three breakfast DP: healthy, traditional and snack; five lunch DP: traditional, salad, sweetened juice, Western and meats; and four dinner DP: coffee with milk and bread, transitional, traditional, and soup and fruits. The results of this study indicate that the DP identified in accordance with the meal nicely discriminates food intake, emphasising peculiarities that are not found in global analyses and might support dietary advice. PMID:26220554

  7. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

    2006-10-01

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control

  8. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde;

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an...... explorative secondary outcome analysis on data from 784 children from the OPUS School Meal Study, a cluster-randomised cross-over trial where children received school meals for 3 months and habitual lunch for 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of each dietary period, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH......·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods...

  9. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues. PMID:26598858

  10. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  11. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  12. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  13. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  14. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by...... increasing unconfined yield strength and reduced flowability factors. Deviation and reproducibility are acceptable for all temperatures except for 850°C where belite formation and possibly calcination sinter the raw meal....

  15. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  16. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  17. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Charge Up! Healthy Meals and Snacks for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternate Language URL Healthy Meals and Snacks for Teens Page Content Healthy Meals and Snacks for TEENS - ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  19. Sunflower meal protein as a feed for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lević Jovanka D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the nutritional aspects associated with the utilization of sunflower meal in broiler diets. To gain the maximum benefit from this feed ingredient, some of the characteristics of sunflower meal must be considered. In broiler diets, it is recommended that only high-quality decellulosed sunflower meal be used. Our own results and a broad variety of published reports have thus been consulted. Experiments with high protein sunflower meal in broiler diets have shown that sunflower meal can successfully replace soybean meal, provided that diets are supplemented with adequate amounts of lysine and energy. Consequently, the inclusion of sunflower meal in broiler diets may vary depending on the fiber content of the meal, the lysine and/or energy supplementation of the diet.

  20. 21 CFR 573.540 - Hydrolyzed leather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrolyzed leather meal. 573.540 Section 573.540... Additive Listing § 573.540 Hydrolyzed leather meal. (a) Identity. Hydrolyzed leather meal is produced from leather scraps that are treated with steam for not less than 33 minutes at a pressure of not less than...

  1. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  2. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina;

    2013-01-01

    effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender...

  3. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  4. Cafeteria staff perceptions of the new USDA school meal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of...

  5. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  6. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  7. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9...

  8. Mustard meal as an organic herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Field research was conducted in s...

  9. PROTEIN FRACTIONATION AND PROPERTIES OF SALICORNIA MEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicornia bigelovii Torr. is an annual salt-marsh oilseed plant. Hexane-defatted salicornia meal was extracted sequentially with 0.5 M sodium chloride (2x), water, 70% ethanol, and 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (2x). Each sodium chloride extract was dialyzed against deionized water and centrifuged to se...

  10. Parabrachial CGRP Neurons Control Meal Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos A; Bowen, Anna J; Schwartz, Michael W; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-05-10

    The lateral parabrachial nucleus is a conduit for visceral signals that cause anorexia. We previously identified a subset of neurons located in the external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBel) that express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inhibit feeding when activated by illness mimetics. We report here that in otherwise normal mice, functional inactivation of CGRP neurons markedly increases meal size, with meal frequency being reduced in a compensatory manner, and renders mice insensitive to the anorexic effects of meal-related satiety peptides. Furthermore, CGRP neurons are directly innervated by orexigenic hypothalamic AgRP neurons, and photostimulation of AgRP fibers supplying the PBel delays satiation by inhibiting CGRP neurons, thereby contributing to AgRP-driven hyperphagia. By establishing a role for CGRP neurons in the control of meal termination and as a downstream mediator of feeding elicited by AgRP neurons, these findings identify a node in which hunger and satiety circuits interact to control feeding behavior. PMID:27166945

  11. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  12. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...

  13. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  14. NetPot: Easy Meal Enjoyment for Distant Diners

    OpenAIRE

    Foley-Fisher, Zoltan; Tsao, Vincent; Wang, Johnty; Fels, Sid

    2010-01-01

    We capture key factors of a group meal with communication and interface technologies to make a meal more enjoyable for diners who cannot be collocated. We determined three factors of a popular group meal, Chinese hotpot, that are essential for a group meal experience: interacting as a group with food, a central shared hotpot, and a feeling that others are nearby. We developed a prototype system to maintain these factors for an online meal with remote friends. Our technique is of interest to d...

  15. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). Postpizza meal BG AUC was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type. PMID:21957874

  17. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  18. Objective measures of meal variety lacking association with consumers' perception of variety with self-selected buffet meals at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Brockhoff, Per B.; Lahteenmaki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    variety, and second to explore the associations between subjective meal variety and decision-making rules and individual eating styles. Data consist of 510 meals compiled from workplace lunch buffets by 71 respondents over 31 optional days. Meals were photographed and coded according to the number of...... other objective measures, such as the number of components or any of the visual cues of the meal. Subjective meal variety was linked with the decision-making rule of having many dishes when compiling buffet lunches. Participants with higher scores on uncontrolled eating and food neophobia were found to......Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived...

  19. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg for pigs, dry mater (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, mineral matter (MM, crude fiber (CF, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (Pt, sodium (Na, total lysine (LIS, methionine plus cystine total (MC, threonine (THR, tryptophan (TRI and non-nitrogen extraction (ENN of this product. The mean values were biscuit meal 3681 kcal / kg; 8.93%, 9.07%, 11.61%, 2.71%, 2.64%, 0.12%, 0.21%; 0, 34%, 0.23%, 0.30%, 0.26%, 0.16% and 69.66%, for ME; U, CP, EE, MM, FB; Ca, Pt, Na; LIS; MC , TRE, TRI and NFE, respectively.

  20. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg) for pigs, dry mater (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), mineral matter (MM), crude fiber (CF), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pt), sodium (Na), total lysine (LIS), methionine plus cystine total (MC), threonine (THR), tryptophan ...

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of rib bone samples and of bone reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis method was used for the determination of trace elements in rib bone samples taken from autopsies of accident victims. The elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, Rb and Zn were determined in cortical tissues by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. The reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were also analyzed in order to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of the results. It was verified that lyophilization is the most convenient process for drying bone samples since it does not cause any element losses. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for rib samples and the literature values as well as between the results obtained for different ribs from a single individual and for bones from different individuals. (author)

  2. Do meal replacement drinks have a role in diabetes management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditschuneit, Herwig H

    2006-01-01

    The poor effectiveness of conventional dietary treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance in patients with type-2 diabetes may be improved by a meal replacement strategy that provides a strong structured meal plan with reasonable opportunity for dietary variety. Typical meal replacement programs fix the intake of one or two meals per day with a calorie-controlled, nutritionally balanced commercial formulation, and allow prudent additional meals and snacks. In obese subjects, diets with meal replacements have proven to be more efficient than conventional diets. Patients on the meal replacement regimen lost 7.3 and 8.4% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively, whereas the patients on the conventional diet had lost 1.4% and 3.2% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively. The meal replacement plan has also proven to be effective in patients with type-2 diabetes. After 6 and 12 months, patients in the meal replacement group achieved on average a weight loss of 5.24 and 4.35% of their initial body weight, respectively. In contrast, after 6 and 12 months, patients on the individualized diet plan achieved on average a weight loss of 2.85 and 2.36% of their initial body weight, respectively. Meal replacements offer a promising strategy for treating obese patients with type-2 diabetes. PMID:16820739

  3. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  4. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  5. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP, formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively. Feeding was done at the rate of 4% of wet fish body weight daily for five months. The overall average weight gains in T1, T2 and T3 for three fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla were 356.6 ± 15.12, 332.6 ± 14.32 and 362.4 ± 12.12; 320.4 ± 14.03, 305.6 ± 14.03 and 337.1 ± 16.02; and 284.6 ± 13.07, 282.2 ± 15.13 and 305.1 ± 17.43g, respectively. Net fish yields (all the species together were 1529.5 ± 13.93, 1327.0 ± 12.19 and 1122.5 ± 10.28 Kg/ha/year under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The gross fish production was calculated as 2338.5 ± 12.49, 2137.5 ± 11.65 and 1931.5 ± 13.01 Kg/ha/year in T1, T2 and T3 pond, respectively. In all the treatments, Catla catla showed better growth performance, followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. The treated ponds caused a decrease in fish production when replacement of fish meal was done with canola meal.

  6. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M.; Brockhoff, Per B.;

    2016-01-01

    meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not...... associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but...... several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to...

  7. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  8. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina; Mäkäla, Johanna; Palojoki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents in two social situations: for themselves and for the family. In addition, the frequency of family meals is compared between the countries studied. The survey data (n = 1539) were collected during 2006–2007 from 9th grade students (aged 14–17 years) in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Analysis was based on both quantitative variables and open-ended data. Family meals were found to be less common among Finnish responden...

  9. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For...... the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in- house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total...

  10. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with inhouse catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly sele...

  11. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  12. The Meal Frequency Project : The effect of meal frequency on body composition during 12-weeks of strength training

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human trials on the effect of meal frequency on body composition are scarce. Short-term studies show increased rate of protein synthesis immediately after intake of amino acids (Rennie 2002), and frequent meals are shown to aid in the preservation of lean body mass when dieting (Iwao 1996). Consequently it could be hypothesised that in response to strength training interventions, more frequent meals will give larger muscle mass accumulation and lower fat mass than fewe...

  13. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  14. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  15. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  16. Categorization of foods as "snack" and "meal" by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi, Elizabeth D

    2012-06-01

    The cognitive representation of a food as being a "snack" or a "meal" influences eating behavior. We found previously that subjects who considered a particular food to be a 'snack' ate significantly more calories when tested later than subjects who considered the same foods as a 'meal'. We conducted two surveys to determine the categorization of foods as "snacks" or "meals". Survey 2 included a larger variety of foods with detailed descriptions and a response option of "never tried". Both surveys found that potato chips, crackers, cookies, and nuts were consistently viewed as snacks, while soups, burritos, pizza, and pancakes were consistently viewed as meals. Useful for future research are foods we found that students varied in considering a snack or meal. Survey 1 found that half the respondents viewed toast, cheese on toast, muffins, and French fries as snacks and the other half as meals. Similarly, in Survey 2 potato salad, toast with jam, English muffin, cinnamon rolls, and nachos were categorized almost equally as snack and meal. These foods can be used in studies looking at the effects of categorizing a food as a meal or snack on other behaviors or categorization, while controlling for the food item. PMID:22343136

  17. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  18. Adhesion Properties of Plywood Glue Containing Soybean Meal as Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soybean meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive intended for sprayline coaters. Ground soybean meal, with 51.5% (dry basis, db) crude protein and 1.5% (db) residual oil, replaced the current industry extender, wheat flour, in the standard ...

  19. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  20. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  1. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  2. Toxicological evaluation of mowrah (Madhuca latifolia Macbride) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, K M; Gandhi, V M; Mulky, M J

    1996-01-01

    Mowrah (M. latifolia) seeds yield 40-50% edible fat and the meal contains saponins besides protein and high level of carbohydrates. The toxicity of the meal was evaluated as it has a potential for use in animal feedstuffs. The meal was fed to young and adult rats at levels of 10 to 40% in diet. The animals showed marked inhibition of feed intake and loss of body weight resulting in mortalities. Histopathological examination revealed a gradation of damage from slight erosion of the tip of villi of intestinal mucous membrane to complete necrosis and destruction of it, with increasing amounts of mowrah seed meal in diets. The other significant change was a severe vacuolar degeneration of kidney tubular cells. Detoxification or complete removal of the toxins is necessary for utilization of the meal as animal feedingstuff. PMID:8698410

  3. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  4. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a...... process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze-chilling on the...... quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  5. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  6. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M; Brockhoff, Per B; Thorsdottir, Inga; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using a longitudinal approach, we monitored a total of 71 participants compiled and experienced 519 meals from their workplace canteen buffet during a three-month period; in addition the composed lunches were photographed. Before and after the lunch choice period respondents filled in a questionnaire on several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced. PMID:27235825

  7. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  8. Use of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal to replace soybean meal in diets for pond raised channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prices of soybean meal and corn he two most commonly used, traditional feed ingredients in channel catfish diets ave increased dramatically in recent years. Using less-expensive alternative feed ingredients to partially replace soybean meal and corn would reduce feed cost. The present study eval...

  9. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  10. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  11. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    ), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals......-on-wheels and nursing home meals, as well as that of the homemade energy and protein dense drink, varied considerably. The nursing home menus seldom or never fulfilled the recommendations. Our findings support the conclusion that meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients do not...... commonly served, including the standard menu (most commonly prepared), the energy and protein dense menu, and two types of texture modified menus (chopped and blended). Also, one portion of a homemade energy and protein dense drink was collected and analyzed. For each of the participating kitchens (N = 10...

  12. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  13. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  14. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    extruded whole soybean, meat and bone meal 36%, meat and bone meal 45%, fish meal, full fat poultry by-product meal, feather meal, spray-dried plasma 70%, spray-dried plasma 78% and erythrocytes. The average values of essential and non essential true amino acids digestibility coefficients, in percentage, were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, 83.32 and 87.20; corn gluten meal 60%, 92.90 and 94.86; soybean protein concentrate, 91.10 and 90.19; partially defatted extruded whole soybean: 88.90 and 88.91, meat and bone meal, 36%, 88.63 and 85.94; meat and bone meal 45%, 87.80 and 85.00; fish meal, 89.39 and 87.32; full fat poultry by-product meal, 79.22 and 74.36; feather meal, 85.89 and 82.32; spray-dried plasma 70%, 87.22 and 87.78; spray-dried plasma 78%, 90.42 and 91.40; and erythrocytes, 95.25 and 94.31.

  15. Evidence for a second meal cognitive effect: glycaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index evening meals are associated with cognition the following morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Hoyle, Emily; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Dye, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed at breakfast can enhance memory in comparison to high-GI foods; however, the impact of evening meal GI manipulations on cognition the following morning remains unexplored. Fourteen healthy males consumed a high-GI evening meal or a low-GI evening meal in a counterbalanced order on two separate evenings. Memory and attention were assessed before and after a high-GI breakfast the following morning. The high-GI evening meal elicited significantly higher evening glycaemic responses than the low-GI evening meal. Verbal recall was better the morning following the high-GI evening meal compared to after the low-GI evening meal. In summary, the GI of the evening meal was associated with memory performance the next day, suggesting a second meal cognitive effect. The present findings imply that an overnight fast may not be sufficient to control for previous nutritional consumption. PMID:21605502

  16. Influence of a Regular, Standardized Meal on Clinical Chemistry Analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Background Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinical chemistry testing. Methods We studied 17 healthy volunteers who consumed light meals containing a standardized amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. We collected blood for routine clinical chemistry tests before the meal and 1, 2, and 4 hr thereafter. Results One hour after the meal, triglycerides (TG), albumin (ALB), uric acid (UA), phosphatase (ALP), Ca, Fe, and Na levels significantly increased, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and P levels decreased. TG, ALB, Ca, Na, P, and total protein (TP) levels varied significantly. Two hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, and Na levels remained significantly high, whereas BUN, P, UA, and total bilirubin (BT) levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were recorded for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Fe, Na, P, BT, and direct bilirubin (BD) levels. Four hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, Na, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), P, Mg, and K levels significantly increased, whereas UA and BT levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were observed for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Na, Mg, K, C-reactive protein (CRP), AST, UA, and BT levels. Conclusions A significant variation in the clinical chemistry parameters after a regular meal shows that fasting time needs to be carefully considered when performing tests to prevent spurious results and reduce laboratory errors, especially in an emergency setting. PMID:22779065

  17. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced meat products potato-based products. Fats are mainly stabilized by synthetic antioxidants BHT or BHA. In this work we proved that synthetic antioxidant BHT was not the best stabilizer of the stored sunflower oil. Typical by-products of fat industry were studied as a potential source of cheap natural antioxidants. The whole sunflower or rapeseed meal added into stored sunflower oils in the amount of 20 g kg-1 increased oil’s stability more than 0.1 g kg-1 addition of BHT. In order to increase antioxidant activity of whole meal we carried out its fractionation to obtain five fractions with different particles size. Out of these fractions, fraction 4 with particles size of 0.05 – 0.15 10-3 m was very effective, second only to whole meal, especially to whole sunflower meal. They increased the stability of sunflower oil 1.4 times during storage. By-products such as sunflower or rapeseed meal added directly into sunflower oil can extend its shelf life.

  18. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p camelina meal. Weight gain (p camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p camelina meal had significantly higher (p camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  19. Death Row Confessions and the Last Meal Test of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Kniffin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post hoc analyses of Rector v. Arkansas have regularly highlighted that the defendant requested that part of his last meal be saved so that he could it eat later. While the observation is typically raised as part of arguments that Rector was incompetent and unfit for execution, the more basic fact is that commentators have drawn important inferences about Rector’s mental state from how he treated his last meal. In this essay, we draw upon multiple disciplines in order to apply the same inferential logic to a much broader sample and explore the question of whether traditionally customized last meals might offer signals of defendants’ guilt or innocence. To investigate this, the content of last-meal requests and last words reported for people executed in the United States during a recent five-year period were examined. Consistent with the idea that declination of the last meal is equivalent to a signal of (self-perceived innocence, those who denied guilt were 2.7 times as likely to decline a last meal than people who admitted guilt (29% versus 8%. Consistent with the complementary theory that people who admit guilt are relatively more “at peace” with their sentence, these individuals requested 34% more calories of food than the rest of the sample (2786 versus 2085 calories. A third finding is that those who denied guilt also tended to eat significantly fewer brand-name food items. Previous discussions of last meals have often lacked quantitative measurements; however, this systematic analysis shows that last meal requests offer windows into self-perceived or self-proclaimed innocence. Knowing one’s last meal request and one’s last words can provide valuable new variables for retrospectively assessing the processes that led to past executions.

  20. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

  1. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  2. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Copra meal (CM) is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%); because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00%) and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine), limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this...

  3. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  4. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  5. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  6. Long-term effects of corn, soybean meal, wheat bran, and fish meal on manganese utilization in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Baker, D H

    1986-07-01

    A 7-week assay was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of several natural feed ingredients on Mn utilization. Chicks were fed a Mn-deficient casein-dextrose diet supplemented with fish meal, wheat bran, or a corn-soybean meal mixture. Although these feed ingredients contain significant quantities of Mn, they actually depressed performance and reduced the Mn concentration in key tissues when dietary Mn was near the chick's minimal requirement. At deficient levels of dietary Mn, fish meal also had detrimental effects on those parameters, and it increased the severity of perosis as well. PMID:3748949

  7. A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  8. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  9. Charge Up! Healthy Meals and Snacks for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... for half of your grain servings. [ Top ] Take control! One fast food meal can have more calories, ...

  10. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, M

    2001-02-01

    Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a unifactorial structure and has satisfactory convergent validity. The scale's nomological validity is supported in that it conforms to expectations regarding various psychographic constructs and various food-related behaviors. Convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cooking enjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking, and to be positively related to role overload. The analyses also suggest that the lack of relation between the meal preparer's working status and convenience food consumption, as found in many studies, is due to convenience food not offering enough preparation convenience. Consuming take-away meals and eating in restaurants appear to satisfy the consumer's need for convenience more adequately. PMID:11161342

  11. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  12. THE HOME MEAL REPLACEMENT OPPORTUNITY: A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    Many food retailers perceive home meal replacements (HMR) or meal solutions as major opportunities for sales growth. These fully- or partially-prepared foods appear to solve growing consumer needs: lack of time, lack of skill, and lack of desire to prepare food. However, a recent financial review of the foodservice operations at 10 large supermarket chains found that the average store's prepared food operation was losing money. The study identified three important areas that supermarkets need...

  13. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-01-01

    In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced...

  14. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Mark P.; Allison, David B.; Fontana, Luigi; Harvie, Michelle; Longo, Valter D.; Willy J. Malaisse; Mosley, Michael; Notterpek, Lucia; Ravussin, Eric; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Seyfried, Thomas N.; Varady, Krista A; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-01-01

    Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects ...

  15. Predicting children's meal preferences: how much do parents know?

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Todd, Peter M.; Mata, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how accurate parents are at predicting their children's meal preferences and what cues best describe parents’ predictions. In Study 1, 30 parents predicted their children's school lunch choices from actual school menus. Parents’ prediction accuracy matched the stability of children's meal choices (assessed in a 4-month retest), implying that accuracy was as high as can be expected. Parents appeared to make their predictions by using specific knowledge about their child's likes ...

  16. Lunch in children and adolescents : meal pattern and relevance for the short-term cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Lunch is a meal that is eaten at midday and differs considerably between countries regarding meal type (cold vs. hot meal) and meal size (multicourse vs. snack meal). Considering the large number of schoolchildren attending all-day schools, information on their lunch pattern and on the acute effects of lunch on their cognitive functioning are of high public health relevance. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to describe and evaluate potential differences in lunchtime energy and fo...

  17. The Processing Technology of Feather Meal and Its Use as a Protein Source in Ruminant Ration

    OpenAIRE

    Wisri Puastuti

    2007-01-01

    Feather meal protein contains high level of keratin, which consists of 14% disulphide cystine, therefore feather meal protein is difficult to be digested by proteolytic enzymes. Feather meal must be processed before being used in the ration, because the digestibility of unprocessed feather meal is very low (5.8%). There are four processing methods of feather meal, i.e. physical, chemical, enzymatic and microbiological. The aim of these processings is to alleviate or break down the bonds in th...

  18. Effects of Replacing Fishmeal with Animal By-products Meal Supplementation in Diets on the Growth and Nutrient Utilization of Mangrove Red Snapper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  19. Effects of meals on hemodynamics: implications for antihypertensive drug studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, T C; Conrad, K A; Mar, J H; Nelson, L

    1986-03-01

    The ingestion of food is known to affect blood pressure and heart rate, but food is often allowed in patients under observation for antihypertensive drug effects. Seventy-seven patients with essential hypertension were observed for 8 hours after a 16-hour fast. Thirty-six continued to fast, 20 ate a high-carbohydrate meal, and 21 ate a meal of their own choice. Blood pressure and heart rate did not change during fasting, but both meals lowered mean supine and standing diastolic blood pressures during the subsequent 4 hours by 3 to 7 mm Hg (P less than 0.001). The high-carbohydrate meal reduced supine systolic blood pressure by 6 mm Hg (P less than 0.0001). Both meals increased supine and standing heart rates by 5 to 8 bpm (P less than 0.001). After the self-selected meal, standing systolic blood pressure increased in younger patients but decreased in older patients. Food ingestion during antihypertensive drug studies may interfere with the interpretation of results and should be avoided whenever possible. PMID:3948465

  20. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.;

    2012-01-01

    school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of...... school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...

  1. Pre-Meal Affective State and Laboratory Test Meal Intake in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girl...

  2. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Ferriday; Matthew L Bosworth; Nicolas Godinot; Nathalie Martin; Ciarán G. Forde; Emmy Van Den Heuvel; Appleton, Sarah L.; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation...

  3. Variation in the oral processing of everyday meals is associated with fullness and meal size; a potential nudge to reduce energy intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciaran G.; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L.; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N=12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation w...

  4. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  5. Growth, Immune Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Cottonseed Meal and Supplemental Essential Amino Acid as Substitute for Soybean Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier studies indicate that tilapia utilized cottonseed meal (CSM) poorly relative to soybean meal (SBM) or SBM and peanut meal. It has also been shown that gossypol was not a contributing factor, since these fish can tolerate very high levels of dietary gossypol (1,600-2,000 mg/kg diet). Moreover...

  6. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: Neuroendocrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica F Patton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus is directly entrained by daily light-dark cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect neural, hormonal and behavioral outputs. The daily rhythm of food intake provides stimuli that entrain most peripheral and central oscillators, some of which can drive a daily rhythm of food anticipatory activity if food is restricted to one daily mealtime. The location of food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs that drive food anticipatory rhythms, and the food-related stimuli that entrain these oscillators, remain to be clarified. Here, we critically examine the role of peripheral metabolic hormones as potential internal entrainment stimuli or outputs for FEOs controlling food anticipatory rhythms in rats and mice. Hormones for which data are available include corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1. All of these hormones exhibit daily rhythms of synthesis and secretion that are synchronized by meal timing. There is some evidence that ghrelin and leptin modulate the expression of food anticipatory rhythms, but none of the hormones examined so far are necessary for entrainment. Ghrelin and leptin likely modulate food-entrained rhythms by actions in hypothalamic circuits utilizing melanocortin and orexin signaling, although again food-entrained behavioral rhythms can persist in lesion and gene knockout models in which these systems are disabled. Actions of these hormones on circadian oscillators in central reward circuits remain to be evaluated. Food-entrained activity rhythms are likely mediated by a distributed system of circadian oscillators sensitive to multiple feeding related inputs. Metabolic hormones appear to play a modulatory role within this

  7. Occupational doses in pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation has become an indispensable tool when it comes to diagnosis and therapy. However, its use should happen in a rational manner, taking into account the risks to which the staff is being exposed. Barium meal (BM), or upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies, using fluoroscopy, are widely used for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnostic in children and professionals are required to stay inside the examination room to position and immobilize pediatric patients during the procedure. Therefore, it is very important that proffessionals strictly follow the technical standards of radiation protection. According to the ICRP and the NCRP recommendations, the annual limit equivalent doses for eyes, thyroid and hands are, espectively, 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv. Based on those data, the aim of the current study is to estimate the annual equivalent dose for eyes, thyroid and hands of professionals who perform BM procedures in children. This was done using properly package LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters in 37 procedures; 2 pairs were positioned near each staff´s eye, 2 pairs on each professional´s neck (on and under the lead protector) and 2 pairs on both staff´s hands. The range of the estimative annual equivalent doses, for eyes, thyroid and hands, are, respectively: 14 – 36 mSv, 7 – 22 mSv and 14 – 58 mSv. Only the closest staff to the patient exceeded the annual equivalent doses in the eyes (around 80% higher than the limit set by ICRP). However, the results from this study, for hands and thyroid, compared to similar studies, show higher values. Therefore, the optimization implementation is necessary, so that the radiation levels can be reduced. (authors)

  8. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  9. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  10. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  11. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  12. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  13. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  14. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  15. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in alfalfa meal, sugar beet pulp, and wheat bran compared to wheat and protein ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Rademacher, M; Sauer, W C; Blank, R; Mosenthin, R

    2014-03-01

    A total of 11 (8 + 3 for replacement) barrows with an initial BW of 23 kg and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were used in 2 consecutive experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 7 assay feed ingredients according to 2 consecutive duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square designs. In Exp. 1, 3 corn starch-based assay diets were formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), or meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and 1 assay diet that contained 136 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from wheat as commonly used feed ingredients for pigs. In Exp. 2, the pigs were fed 4 assay diets formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either the same SBM as in Exp. 1 or a combination of this SBM and alfalfa meal (AM), sugar beet pulp (SB), or wheat bran (WB) to compare the SID of AA in these feed ingredients with those used in Exp. 1. The SID of AA in CM was lower compared to SBM (P wheat. Among fiber rich feed ingredients, SID values were lower in SB compared to WB (P feed ingredients are used in diet formulation for pigs. PMID:24492581

  16. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  17. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. PMID:26585635

  18. Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

    2002-07-01

    The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

  19. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  20. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  1. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  2. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  3. The effects of poultry meal source and ash level on nursery pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, T P; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S

    2004-09-01

    Weanling pigs (total of 560) were used in two experiments to determine the effects of poultry meal in nursery diets on pig performance. In Exp. 1,210 barrows and gilts (initially 7.4 kg and 21 +/- 2 d of age) were fed one of five diets, which included a control diet with no specialty protein products or (as-fed basis) the control with 2.5 or 5.0% fish meal, or 2.9 or 5.9% poultry meal (11.8% ash). Poultry meal replaced fish meal on an equal lysine basis. Overall (d 0 to 28), pigs fed diets containing fish meal had greater (P improvement observed in pigs fed the diet containing 2.5% fish meal. Pigs fed diets containing fish meal had improved (P lysine basis. Overall (d 0 to 15), there were no differences in ADG and ADFI (P = 0.14); however, pigs fed diets containing fish meal or poultry meal had improved (linear, P < 0.01) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing low-ash poultry meal had greater (P < 0.01) G:F compared with pigs fed diets containing high-ash poultry meal. Based on these data, quality control specifications, such as ash content, need to be considered when using poultry meal as an animal protein replacement in diets for nursery pigs. PMID:15446491

  4. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  5. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean ± SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52±17% and 52±16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  6. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior; Monika Piwowar; Jacek Kwiatkowski; Janusz Kasperczyk; Agata Skop-Lewandowska

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logi...

  7. Exploring hospitality within hospital meals by means of visual methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reflects the application of visual methodologies adapted in an explorative study on hospitality and hospital meals. It takes point of departure in a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork placed at a general hospital in 2012. Visual methodologies were applied in multiple ways. This...... includes visual methodologies as part of observation and interview strategies. The paper presents and discusses how the application of different visual methodologies can contribute to the construction of ethnographical knowledge on hospitality and hospital meals. Finally ethical considerations as well as...

  8. Surface characterization of ashtree wood meal by inverse gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shu; LIN Xu; SONG JingWei; SHI BaoLi

    2007-01-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a sensitive and convenient method to characterize surface properties and thermodynamic parameters of solid materials. Surface properties of ashtree wood meal were determined by inverse gas chromatography in this work. The dispersive component of the surface free energy and acid-base parameters of the ashtree wood meal were characterized. The dispersive component of surface free energy was within 36-39 mJ/m2, the Lewis acidic number Ka was 0.53, and the basic number Kb was 0.21, respectively. The results show that ashtree is amphoteric and predominantly acidic wood.

  9. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...... comprises economic, environmental and social aspects. The impacts on and trade-offs between the different dimensions of sustainability are discussed, and combined with aspect of product quality. Furthermore, we identify the important planning decisions in relation to production and distribution and organise...

  10. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.;

    physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... MetS-markers in 8-11-year-olds at nine Danish schools without existing school meal programmes. Methods In a cluster-randomized cross-over design we assigned 834 third and fourth graders to school lunch and snacks based on the New Nordic Diet and usual home-packed lunch (control) for 3 months. We...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...

  11. Effect on hemodynamics of a liquid meal alone and in combination with propranolol in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Simonsen, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    intravenous infusion of propranolol in combination with the meal. No significant effects were observed on systemic hemodynamics after the meal alone. Heart rate (-14%; P less than 0.01) and cardiac index (-24%; P less than 0.01) decreased after meal in combination with propranolol. The mean hepatic venous...... pressure gradient increased significantly after ingestion of the meal alone with a maximal effect after 30 minutes (+13%; P less than 0.05) and returned to baseline values after 2 hours. Meal in combination with propranolol had no significant effect on the hepatic venous pressure gradient. Hepatic blood...... flow increased substantially after the meal alone with a maximal effect after 30 minutes (+28%; P less than 0.01), whereas no significant effect was observed after meal in combination with propranolol. Azygos blood flow increased significantly after the meal alone (+36%; P less than 0.05), whereas...

  12. Tropical forage meals: An alternative for sustainable monogastric species production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilisation of tropical forage meals for monogastric feeding is nowadays a priority in order to obtain ecological sustainable and low cost productions. The aim of this paper is to offer information of an integral evaluation of physico-chemical characterization and molecular composition of six tropical forage meals: three temporary legumes Canavalia ensiformis (canavalia), Lablab purpureus, (dolicho), Stizolobium aterrimun (mucune) and two shrubs (Morus alba, mulberry: Erythryna poeppigiana, erithrina) and a tree, Tricahnthera gigantean, trichantera. In addition the purpose was also to study the effects of these tropical forage legumes through the gastrointestinal tract of poultry, swine, rabbits and guinea pigs. The last aspect was confirmed with performance experiments under controlled condition for rabbits and guinea pig. Twenty-nine experiments were designed in order to carry out these purposes. Seven were related to physico-chemical and structural characterization of forage meals, 15 corresponds with the study of the sources effects in digestive physiology of poultry (5), swine (3), rabbits (7) and guinea pig (5). Forage meals were elaborated as indicated by. Chemical analyses were conducted according to AOAC (2000), fibrous fraction was determined by Goering and Van Soest and molecular fibre structure was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy Phytochemical screening was carried out by the procedure of Miranda (2000). Extractable tannin content, protein and fibre bound tannin were quantified by Scull, as well as oligosaccharides present in foliage meals. Amino acids were determined according to Biochrom (1986). There were utilised castrated growing pigs (22.5 ± 2 kg) Yorkshirex Landracex Duroc, hybrid HE21 roosters of 50 d of age and broilers of 21-42 d of same genetic line for digestibility and morphophysiological studies. Also there were employed growing hybrids rabbits New Zeland x Semi-giant for digestibility studies in vivo and their cecal inoculum for

  13. An initial investigation replacing fish meal with a commercial fermented soybean meal product in the diets of juvenile rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Barnes; Brown, Michael L.; Kurt A. Rosentrater; Jason R. Sewell

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of PepSoyGen (PSG), a commercially-available fermented soybean meal product, was evaluated with juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss in an initial 70-day feeding trial, with a supplemental trial involving a subset of the experimental diets continuing for an additional 40 d. Six diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% PSG, with the PSG directly replacing fish meal, were used in the first trial. There were no significant differences in weight gain...

  14. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p < 0.05). Following the meal, BG was lower after lentils and chickpeas at 150 and 165 min, and AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05). PMID:24797207

  15. The Effect of Hydrolyzed Render Meal, Enzyme Treated Swine Skin Meal, and Cattle Skin Meal on Egg Production Performance, Eggshell Quality, Egg Quality, and Blood Characteristics in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. M.; Cho, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    The trial was conducted to investigate effect of hydrolyzed render meal and skin derived protein meal on the egg production performance, eggshell quality, egg quality and blood characteristics in laying hens. A total of 280 44 week (wk) old (Hy-Line brown) laying hens were used in this 6- wk trial. Birds were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, 1) BD, basal diet; 2) HRM, basal diet with 2% hydrolyzed render meal; 3) SSM, basal diet with 2% swine skin meal; 4) CHM, basal diet with 2% cattl...

  16. Muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs: effects of different levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in finishing ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rômulo Soares dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in the diet on the muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs finished at feedlot. This study was carried out at Estação Experimental de Pendência, belonging to Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB. Forty male Santa Inês lambs in feedlot were used in the experiment. Treatments were randomly assigned to the animals according to a completely randomized design, with four treatments, that consisted of growing substitution levels of ground corn for forage cactus meal: 0, 33, 66 and 100% of substitution and ten replications (lambs. Animals were slaughtered and carcasses cooled for 24 hours for later assessment of conformation, morphometry, loin eye-muscle area, fatness, perirenal fat, marbling and subcutaneous fat thickness. Legs were separated for dissection of muscle, bone, subcutaneous fat, intermuscle fat and total fat, which were weighed for the determination of the muscle:bone and muscle:fat relation and the relative weight of tissue components. Averages were submitted to variance and regression analyses at a 5% level of probability. Diets had no effect on carcass conformation. However, a negative linear effect on weights and yields of fats was observed with the increased levels of forage cactus meal in the diet, and the opposite was observed in the muscle yield behavior. Forage cactus meal is biologically as efficient as ground corn, because it increases the muscularity and reduces the adiposity of the carcass of Santa Inês lambs in feedlot.

  17. Compound soft regenerated skull material for repairing dog skull defects using bone morphogenetic protein as an inductor and nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhidong Shi; Mingwang Liu; Zhongzong Qin; Qinmei Wang; Ying Guo; Haiyong He; Zhonghe Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies of skull defects and regeneration, bone morphogenetic protein as an inductor and nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold have been cocultured with osteoblasts.OBJECTIVE: To verify the characteristics of the new skull regenerated material after compound soft regenerated skull material implantatiom.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The self-control and inter-group control animal experiment was perfurmed at the Sun Yat-sen University, China from February to July 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-tour healthy adult dogs of both genders weighing 15-20 kg were used in this study. Nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold was cocultured with osteoblasts. Using demineralized canine bone matrix as a carrier, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was employed to prepare compound soft regenerated skull material. Self-designed compound soft regenerated skull material was implanted in models of skull defects.METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned into two groups, Group A (n = 16) and Group B (n = 8).Bilateral 2.5-cm-diameter full-thickness parietal skull defects were made in all animals. In Group A, the right side was reconstructed with calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, and nanomcter bone meal composite;the left side was reconstructed with calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, nanometer bone meal and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite. In Group B, the right side was kept as a simple skull detect, and the left side was reconstructed with calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, nanometer bone meal and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone regeneration and histopathological changes at the site of the skull defect were observed with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope after surgery.The ability to form bone was measured by alizarin red S staining. In vitro cultured osteoblasts were observed for morphology.RESULTS: One month following surgery, newly formed bone trabeculae mostly covered the

  18. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  19. The performance of young pigs fed different amounts of marigold (Calendula officinalis) meal; a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, V.A.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; STOCKHOFE, N.; Cone, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Hexane-extracted calendula meal was tested in an acceptance trial with pigs to determine their response to calendula meal. Performance parameters included feed intake, daily growth and post mortem histopathological examination of vital organs. Although calendula meal showed potential as a ration ingredient for young pigs it is advised not to include more than 10% of it in the diet

  20. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of seed meal from a... for the safe use of seed meal from a variety of bioengineered safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)...

  1. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  2. 21 CFR 73.295 - Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract. 73.295... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.295 Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal is the dried,...

  3. 46 CFR 148.04-21 - Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). 148.04-21 Section 148.04-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... § 148.04-21 Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). (a) Coconut meal pellets; (1)...

  4. The impact of price reductions on individuals’ choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-01-01

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals...

  5. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in calories, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  7. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation doses during paediatric barium meal and cystourethrography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriadis, A; Gialousis, G; Karlatira, M; Karaiskos, P; Georgiou, E; Yakoumakis, E [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Str., Goudi 11527, Athens (Greece); Makri, T; Papaodysseas, S, E-mail: anestisdim@yahoo.com [Radiological Imaging Department, Ag. Sofia Hospital, Lebadias and Thibon, Goudi 11527, Athens (Greece)

    2011-01-21

    Organ doses are important quantities in assessing the radiation risk. In the case of children, estimation of this risk is of particular concern due to their significant radiosensitivity and the greater health detriment. The purpose of this study is to estimate the organ doses to paediatric patients undergoing barium meal and micturating cystourethrography examinations by clinical measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. In clinical measurements, dose-area products (DAPs) were assessed during examination of 50 patients undergoing barium meal and 90 patients undergoing cystourethrography examinations, separated equally within three age categories: namely newborn, 1 year and 5 years old. Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport in male and female mathematical phantoms was applied using the MCNP5 code in order to estimate the equivalent organ doses. Regarding the micturating cystourethrography examinations, the organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation doses were the urinary bladder (1.87, 2.43 and 4.7 mSv, the first, second and third value in the parentheses corresponds to neonatal, 1 year old and 5 year old patients, respectively), the large intestines (1.54, 1.8, 3.1 mSv), the small intestines (1.34, 1.56, 2.78 mSv), the stomach (1.46, 1.02, 2.01 mSv) and the gall bladder (1.46, 1.66, 2.18 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. Organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation during barium meal examinations were the stomach (9.81, 9.92, 11.5 mSv), the gall bladder (3.05, 5.74, 7.15 mSv), the rib bones (9.82, 10.1, 11.1 mSv) and the pancreas (5.8, 5.93, 6.65 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. DAPs to organ/effective doses conversion factors were derived for each age and examination in order to be compared with other studies.

  8. Meal Pattern Requirements and Offer versus Serve Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information on federal policy regarding meal-pattern requirements for school-nutrition programs. It also describes the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) provision, which allows students to decline either one or two food items they do not intend to eat in order to reduce food waste. The manual explains food components, gives examples of…

  9. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  10. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    overcoming typical challenges of comparison across school meal arrangements, such as differences across children, schools or countries. The dissertation builds on data from a four month field work in 4th grade, 26 semi-structured interviews with children, chefs, and teachers, and 834 children’s self...

  11. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production. PMID:26413070

  12. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs About SHPPS: SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted ... canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods or beverages. • 4.0% of states and 6.6% of ...

  13. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  14. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF DEFATTED SALICORNIA MEAL BY AIR CLASSIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicornia bigelovii Torr. is a leafless, annual salt-marsh plant. Previous investigators reported the seed contained 26-33% oil, 30-33% protein, 5-7% fiber, and 5-7% ash over a five-year period. Hexane-defatted salicornia meal was ground in a pin mill and separated by air classification into vari...

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED AND INJECTION MOLDED CORN GLUTEN MEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was performed to investigate the compounding of corn gluten meal (CGM) and decanoic acid and to evaluate their mechanical properties. The mixture of CGM and 30% decanoic acid was compounded in a twin screw extruder, followed by injection molding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tens...

  16. The shaping of organic & healthy school meal provision concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    and healthy school meal programmes were chosen as the study subjects. Based on an analysis of interviews with school food coordinators in the three municipalities, the paper identifies the involved actors and maps the interactions among them. After discussing the similarities and difference among...

  17. Low-Income Students and School Meal Programs in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition programs help improve nutrition among vulnerable children. In so doing, they help build a better future for these children and the state. Now that California is implementing the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF), there is additional reason to make sure all students who are eligible for free or low-cost meals enroll in these…

  18. Corn gluten meal application equipment evaluations for organic weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further use of CGM in vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface and detrimental impact of CGM on direct-seeded vegetables. ...

  19. Food, Meals and Physical Activity in Danish Kindergartens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, Michelle Nadia; Pedersen, Dorthe

    Parents saw the pedagogues as role models. An aspect of this is that the pedagogues ate the same food as the children during the meal, instead of just supervising and eating their own food. This perspective was seconded by the pedagogues themselves, as they recognised their own importance, both a...

  20. Irradiation of ready meals for microbial safety and shelf-life extension: 1. microbial quality of waakye and other other ready-to-eat meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waakye bought from the open market and 14 meals prepared under the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan were microbiologically investigated. The aerobic mesophilic count (AMC) (107 - 108 CFU g1) and coliform count (106 - 107 CFU g-1) for complete waakye meals, including macaroni, fried fish, sauce and vegetable salad, exceeded the microbiological standards for such ready-to-eat meals. The AMC (101 - 104 CFU g1) and coliform count (101 - 102 CFU g-1) for all the ready meals prepared under HACCP and stored (-5 to 00C) for up to 5 days were within the standards. Potential pathogens isolated from waakye and the meals prepared under HACCP plan included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Enterobacter spp. Subsequent studies will exploit the potential of irradiation to eliminate pathogens and ensure the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat meals. (au)

  1. Meal anticipation potentiates postprandial ghrelin suppression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Volker; Friedrich, Monique; Zemlin, Janna; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schultes, Bernd; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Circulating concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin show a postprandial decrease in dependence on meal size and composition. Cognitive determinants of postprandial ghrelin suppression in humans are largely unexplored. We assessed the effects of cued meal anticipation on pre- and postprandial concentrations of total plasma ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and leptin as well as on markers of glucose metabolism in healthy men. In a between-subject comparison, meal anticipation was induced in 14 fasted men at 08:00 h by the announcement and subsequent presentation of a breakfast buffet. Fifteen fasted control subjects were informed that they would remain fasted until noon. At 10:00 h, both groups were served a rich free-choice breakfast. At 12:00 h, all subjects underwent a snack test assessing casual cookie intake. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, glucose, insulin and leptin were frequently assessed. Preprandial endocrine parameters as well as breakfast intake (all p>0.23) and subsequent snack consumption (p>0.83) were comparable between groups. The postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels observed in both groups was markedly stronger in subjects who had anticipated breakfast intake (p0.56). Results indicate that meal anticipation is a critical determinant of postprandial ghrelin suppression that, as suggested by unaltered pancreatic polypeptide levels, appears to be mediated independent of vagal activation. Our findings highlight the role of subtle cognitive factors in the postprandial regulation of ghrelin secretion, suggesting that neurobehavioral approaches to improved food intake control should take into account meal anticipatory mechanisms. PMID:22094111

  2. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Ploutz-Snyder R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability for exploration missions. Food bars have previously been used to supplement meals in the Skylab food system, indicating that regular consumption of bars will be acceptable. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task is to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars, which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, using both traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). All bars will be prioritized based on acceptability and the four top candidates will be evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact to mood, satiety, dietary discomfort, and satisfaction with food will be analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies. In addition, these bars will be evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal

  3. Effects of meal size and composition on incretin, alpha-cell, and beta-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M; McQuarrie, Kelly; Girman, Cynthia J; Stein, Peter P; Mari, Andrea; Holst, Jens J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2010-04-01

    The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate postprandial insulin release from the beta-cells. We investigated the effects of 3 standardized meals with different caloric and nutritional content in terms of postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin responses. In a randomized crossover study, 18 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 6 healthy volunteers underwent three 4-hour meal tolerance tests (small carbohydrate [CH]-rich meal, large CH-rich meal, and fat-rich meal). Non-model-based and model-based estimates of beta-cell function and incremental areas under the curve of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP were calculated. Mixed models and Friedman tests were used to test for differences in meal responses. The large CH-rich meal and fat-rich meal resulted in a slightly larger insulin response as compared with the small CH-rich meal and led to a slightly shorter period of hyperglycemia, but only in healthy subjects. Model-based insulin secretion estimates did not show pronounced differences between meals. Both in healthy individuals and in those with diabetes, more CH resulted in higher GLP-1 release. In contrast with the other meals, GIP release was still rising 2 hours after the fat-rich meal. The initial glucagon response was stimulated by the large CH-rich meal, whereas the fat-rich meal induced a late glucagon response. Fat preferentially stimulates GIP secretion, whereas CH stimulates GLP-1 secretion. Differences in meal size and composition led to differences in insulin and incretin responses but not to differences in postprandial glucose levels of the well-controlled patients with diabetes. PMID:19846181

  4. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights

    OpenAIRE

    Marciani, Luca; Pritchard, S E; Hellier-Woods, C.; Costigan, C; Hoad, C L; Gowland, P. A.; Spiller, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Postprandial bloating is a common symptom in patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Whole meal bread (WMB) often aggravates such symptoms though the mechanisms are unclear. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the intragastric fate of a WMB meal (11% bran) compared with a rice pudding (RP) meal. Subjects/Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers completed this randomised crossover study. They fasted overnight and after an initial MRI scan consu...

  5. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferriday

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12 attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i video-recordings of the mouth and (ii real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24 consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert. When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  6. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  7. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G.; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L.; Mercer Moss, Felix J.; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  8. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  9. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  10. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

    2014-04-01

    Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (Pnutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

  11. Postprandial insulin action relies on meal composition and hepatic parasympathetics: dependency on glucose and amino acids: Meal, parasympathetics & insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo A; Gaspar, Joana M; Lamarão, Iva; Lautt, W Wayne; Macedo, M Paula

    2016-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) increases following a meal. Meal composition affects postprandial glucose disposal but still remains unclear which nutrients and mechanisms are involved. We hypothesized that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids stimulate hepatic parasympathetic nerves, potentiating insulin action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 h fasted and anesthetized. Two series of experiments were performed. (A) IS was assessed before and after liquid test meal administration (10 ml.kg(-1), intraenteric): glucose + amino acids + lipids (GAL, n=6); glucose (n=5); amino acids (n=5); lipids (n=3); glucose + amino acids (GA, n=9); amino acids + lipids (n=3); and glucose + lipids (n=4). (B) Separately, fasted animals were submitted to hepatic parasympathetic denervation (DEN); IS was assessed before and after GAL (n=4) or GA administration (n=4). (A) Both GAL and GA induced significant insulin sensitization. GAL increased IS from 97.9±6.2 mg glucose/kg bw (fasting) to 225.4±18.3 mg glucose/kg bw (Pmeals potentiated IS. (B) GAL and GA did not induce a significant insulin sensitization in DEN animal. To achieve maximal insulin sensitization following a meal, it is required that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids trigger a vagal reflex that involves hepatic parasympathetic nerves. PMID:26410344

  12. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  13. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  14. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  15. A consumer trial to assess the acceptability of an irradiated chilled ready meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and seven consumers assessed the sensory quality of a chilled irradiated (2 kGy) and non-irradiated ready meal, consisting of beef and gravy, Yorkshire pudding, carrot, broccoli and roast potato 4 days after treatment. The irradiated meal was moderately to very acceptable and was not significantly different to the non-irradiated meal. The beef and gravy component of the meal was most liked by consumers. Appearance and aroma appeared to be more important than flavour of texture in the overall assessment of the meals. (Author)

  16. Forty days of free school meals as a tool for introducing market-based healthy school meal systems in 35 Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck, Nenna Maria; Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2011-01-01

    for data collection was semi-structured, qualitative interviews. Results: The main results from a systematic examination of the 35 participating schools show that the systems were mainly organized with external suppliers, and only a few of the 35 schools succeeded in establishing a user-paid school...... meal system afterwards. Conclusions: The established meal systems contained a lack of embedding factors, which is pointed to as one of the main challenges to a user-financed school meal system. The experiences of these 35 participating schools show that a period of free school meals is not a...

  17. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  18. Productive performance of broiler chicks fed rations containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the feed efficiency (FE) (feed intake/body weight gain), energy efficiency (EE) (metabolizable energy intake/body weight gain), total protein efficiency (TPE) (body weight gain/protein intake), metabolized energy (ME) and body weight gain and in the biological aspects of the digestive organs by broiler chicks during different periods of age (14-21 days: 3 weeks, 21-28 days: 4 weeks, 28-35 days: 5 weeks, 35-42 days: 6 weeks) were evaluated in 5 groups fed on experimental diets containing irradiated meat (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy). the results showed that no significant (p0.05) with age (comparing ages 5 and 6 weeks with 3 and 4 weeks) No significant (p<0.05) differences were noticed in FE, EE and TPE between the ages 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significant increase (p.0.05) in ME values for the age 6 weeks compared to 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the ME values between the ages 4 and 5 weeks. (author)

  19. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a...... soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P < 0.05) in sunfl ower meal, and the SID of Met and Val were lowest (P < 0.05) in lupine. These results imply soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower...... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  20. Bone strength: more than just bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The following bone density measurements have limited utility in determining bone strength because they do not include bone quality: microarchitecture, mineralization, ability to repair damage, collagen structure, crystal size, or marrow composition. Patients with kidney disease have poor bone quality. Newman et al. now describe beneficial effects with raloxifene in an animal model of progressive kidney disease. These biomechanical measurements will be important in the development of medications to decrease fractures in patients. PMID:26759040

  1. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  2. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus; Kristensen, L.; Jensen, M.; Sørensen, S.S.; Purslow, P.P.; Skibsted, L.H.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2003-01-01

    cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC. The meals were extrinsically labeled with Fe-55 or Fe-59. Iron absorption was determined...

  3. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  4. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  5. The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, R C; Zykus, A; Luhovyy, B L; Nunez, M F; Wong, C L; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low glycaemic foods; however, their effect on satiation is unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of an ad libitum pulse meal on food intake (FI), appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after a test meal (4 h later) and on FI at the test meal. Males (n 24, 22·8 kg/m2) received one of four treatments or control. The pulse treatments contained pasta and tomato sauce and 44 % of energy from: (1) chickpeas, (2) lentils, (3) navy beans or (4) yellow peas. The control was pasta and tomato sauce (pasta and sauce). FI (satiation) was measured at the treatment meal (0-20 min) and at an ad libitum pizza meal 4 h later. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. At the treatment meal, lentils led to lower FI compared to chickpeas and pasta and sauce, whereas navy beans led to lower FI compared to chickpeas. Also, lentils led to lower cumulative FI compared to pasta and sauce. All pulses led to lower BG peak and cumulative area under the curve (AUC; 0-340 min); however, only chickpeas, lentils and navy beans reduced pre-pizza meal BG AUC (0-260 min) relative to pasta and sauce. Chickpeas led to lower post-pizza meal BG AUC (260-340 min) compared to navy beans and yellow peas. Consumption of pulses in a high-glycaemic meal contributes to earlier satiation, lower BG following the meal and after a later meal, but these effects are specific to pulse type and cannot be explained by their glycaemic properties alone. PMID:22054112

  6. Traceability of animal meals in Japanese quail eggs using the technique of 13C e 15N* stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen by the technique of carbon-13 (13C and nitrogen-15 (15N stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%. After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.

  7. STATUS OF FISH MEAL AVAILABLE FOR POULTRY RATIONS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KHATOON, N. Q. HANIF AND N. MALIK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 184 samples of fish meal were assayed for proximate composition, pepsin digestibility, salt, acid insoluble ash and chromium. The samples were categorized into four groups A, B, C and D on the basis of their crude protein contents which ranged from 55-60, 50-55, 45-50 and 40-45% for four groups, respectively. Group A contained 12.50% samples, 46.20% samples were in group B, 29.89% in group C and 11.41% were in group D. The results showed a variation in nutrient composition among samples. An inverse relationship was observed between fat, ash, pepsin digestibility, chromium and crude protein contents of fish meal. All the samples were adulterated with slightly higher levels of sand and salt than recommended.

  8. Nucleus accumbens GLP-1 receptors influence meal size and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M; Diaz, Ryan; Gallo, Lindsay; Panagos, Alyssa; Kay, Kristen; Williams, Diana L

    2013-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neuronal projection to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) contributes to food intake control. To investigate the role of endogenous stimulation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in NAcC, we examined the effects of the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) (Ex9) on meal pattern and microstructure of ingestive behavior in rats. Intra-NAcC Ex9 treatment selectively increased meal size relative to vehicle in rats consuming 0.25 M sucrose solution or sweetened condensed milk. Microstructural analysis revealed effects of NAcC Ex9 on initial lick rate and the size and duration of licking bursts in rats consuming 0.1 or 0.25 M sucrose, suggesting that blockade of NAcC GLP-1R increases palatability. Because NAcC Ex9 did not affect licking for nonnutritive saccharin (0.1%), we suggest that the presence of nutrients in the gut may be required for endogenous stimulation of NAcC GLP-1R. Consistent with this, we also found that the meal size-suppressive effects of intragastric nutrient infusion were attenuated by NAcC delivery of Ex9 at a dose that had no effect when delivered alone. Analysis of licking patterns revealed that NAcC Ex9 did not reverse intragastric nutrient-induced suppression of burst number but rather blunted the effect of nutrient infusion on meal size primarily by increasing the size and duration of licking bursts. Together, our results suggest that NAcC Ex9 influences taste evaluation. We conclude that GLP-1 released in NAcC in response to gastrointestinal nutrients reduces the hedonic value of food. PMID:23612998

  9. Web application for rating subsidized students meals providers

    OpenAIRE

    PREMRN, ANDREJ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis describes the development of a web application for rating subsidized students meals providers. It describes development technologies and tools used, required functionality, development process and final functionality of the application. We also focused on responsive web design, so that the application can also be used on smart handheld devices. While developing we focused on Node.js platform enriched with Express.js framework and other web technologies such as: Jade, Bootstrap and ...

  10. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Astra Spalvēna

    2011-01-01

    The object of this paper is to examine the contemporary wedding meal in Latvia, focusing on one particular social group of well situated young couples who choose fine dining restaurants or rented venues for their wedding celebrations because they considered restaurant weddings more elaborate and modern. The desire to embrace a modern lifestyle is the way in which to obtain a new identity in a rapidly changing post-socialist world. The aim of present research is to reveal how different tradi...

  11. Employer Subsidized Meals and FAFH Consumption in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Zhijing; Seale, James Jr.; Bai, Junfei; Thomas I. Wahl

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates factors influencing household decisions on food away from home (FAFH) consumption with special interest given to the effects of employer subsidized meals on FAFH consumption. Using data from a new urban food consumption survey and collected by the Center for Chinese Agriculture Policy from 2009 to 2012 in 10 cities, a double-hurdle model is utilized to estimate the demand for FAFH as a whole and by type of facility (restaurant, fast-food outlet, and other facilities). ...

  12. Organic school meal systems – towards a more sustainable nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Nölting, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and health problems related to life style alarm European governments. The interest in school meals as a lever for change is increasing because young people reside longer in public institutions and their often unsatisfactory eating patterns might be counterbalanced by healthy school food. Organic food contributes to sustainable nutrition, and hence is an interesting starting point for healthier menus and food education. The research project ‘innovative Public Organic food Pro...

  13. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  14. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  15. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  16. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  17. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  18. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  19. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The object of this paper is to examine the contemporary wedding meal in Latvia, focusing on one particular social group of well situated young couples who choose fine dining restaurants or rented venues for their wedding celebrations because they considered restaurant weddings more elaborate and modern. The desire to embrace a modern lifestyle is the way in which to obtain a new identity in a rapidly changing post-socialist world. The aim of present research is to reveal how different traditions intertwine in the wedding meal - new or borrowed, with ancient and national or Soviet traditions. While followers of a modern lifestyle are emphasising a challenge to traditions, it is nevertheless the wedding meal and symbolic practices connected with it that indicates a more or less intentional respect for tradition. I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole. 

  20. Phenotypic resonance from a single meal in an insectivorous lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Manuel; Aragón, Pedro

    2013-07-22

    Environmental variations are usually thought to require a nonanecdotal intensity or duration to have major effects on individuals and evolutionary outputs. However, environmental variations of weak intensity and short duration could be of major importance when they influence key targets or critical stages. Because conditions experienced early in life can be critical determinants of life history trajectories, especially early nutrition, we tested this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating the first meal of life in the lizard Zootoca vivipara. The species is a live-bearing lizard without parental care, and it consumes small arthropods. Neonates face a great challenge in acquiring their first meal, as is the case in many species that develop skills through learning to capture live prey. We show that this single meal had an overall and long-lasting impact. Effects on dispersal arose within 10 days, and we found effects 1-2 months later on growth, recapture probability, and juvenile survival. Interestingly, we detected effects on reproduction up to 2 years later. Such a "phenotypic resonance" reveals that the influence of small and ephemeral events should not be neglected by evolutionary biologists. PMID:23831289

  1. Blunting post-meal glucose surges in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Elsamma

    2016-06-10

    Worldwide, the morbidity and mortality associated with non-communicable diseases have been climbing steadily - with costs aggressively keeping pace. This letter highlights a decidedly low-cost way to address the challenges posed by diabetes. High levels of postprandial blood glucose are disproportionately linked to much of the microvascular damage which, in the end, leads to macrovascular complications and organ failures. Systematically controlling post-meal glucose surges is a critical element of overall glycemic management in diabetes. Diet, exercise and medications form a triad of variables that individuals engaged in diabetes self-management may manipulate to achieve their targeted glucose levels. As a rule, diabetes patients in developing countries as well as those living in the pockets of poverty in the western world cannot afford special diets, medications, glucometers and supplies, lab tests and office visits. Exercise is the one option that is readily accessible to all. Decades of research in laboratory settings, viewed holistically, have established that light to moderate aerobic exercise for up to 60 min starting 30 min after the first bite into a meal can blunt the ensuing glucose surge effectively. Moderate resistance exercise, moderate endurance exercise or a combination of the two, practiced post-meal has also been found to improve many cardio-metabolic markers: Glucose, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and markers of oxidative stress. On the other hand, pre-breakfast exercise and high-intensity exercise in general have been decidedly counterproductive. PMID:27326346

  2. Evaluation of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal as partial replacements for soybean meal and corn in diets for pond raised hybrid catfish Ictalurus punctatus I. furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the use of corn gluten feed (CGF) and cottonseed meal (CSM) to partially replace soybean meal and corn in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, Ictalurus punctatus × I. furcatus. Five 28% protein diets containing various combinations of CGF and CSM were evaluated. Fingerling hybr...

  3. Are Family Meals as Good for Youth as We Think They Are? A Review of the Literature on Family Meals as They Pertain to Adolescent Risk Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeer, Margie R.; Ballard, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Regular family meals have been shown to reduce adolescents' engagement in various risk behaviors. In this article, we comprehensively examine the literature to review the association between family meals and eight adolescent risk outcomes: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other drugs; aggressive and/or violent behaviors; poor school performance;…

  4. A simple labeled test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Keita; Tanabe, Satoshi; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Saigenji, Katsunori (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-10-01

    We developed a simple test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying. Preparation of a test meal for routine clinical use in institutions should be as simple as possible. The newly developed test meal consists of instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m and does not require the use of cooking utensils. The test meal was given with drinking water (180 ml) to healthy adult volunteers (6 men, 34.5[+-]2.2 years old) and gastric emptying was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes after the end of the meal, and results were compared with those derived without drinking water. The emptying pattern of the test meal with water exhibited an exponential pattern typical of a liquid meal, and that without water formed a linear pattern after an initial lag phase in keeping with gastric emptying of a solid meal. In addition, the test meal was given to 11 patients of diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4[+-]4.5 years old), and gastric emptying was measured. At each period evaluated, emptying was significantly slower in diabetic gastroparesis than in healthy controls (6 men, 1 woman, 32.1[+-]3.0 years old). These results show that the test meal is reliable and applicable to the clinical assessment of gastric emptying, while fulfilling the need for simplicity. (author).

  5. A simple labeled test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a simple test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying. Preparation of a test meal for routine clinical use in institutions should be as simple as possible. The newly developed test meal consists of instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m and does not require the use of cooking utensils. The test meal was given with drinking water (180 ml) to healthy adult volunteers (6 men, 34.5±2.2 years old) and gastric emptying was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes after the end of the meal, and results were compared with those derived without drinking water. The emptying pattern of the test meal with water exhibited an exponential pattern typical of a liquid meal, and that without water formed a linear pattern after an initial lag phase in keeping with gastric emptying of a solid meal. In addition, the test meal was given to 11 patients of diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4±4.5 years old), and gastric emptying was measured. At each period evaluated, emptying was significantly slower in diabetic gastroparesis than in healthy controls (6 men, 1 woman, 32.1±3.0 years old). These results show that the test meal is reliable and applicable to the clinical assessment of gastric emptying, while fulfilling the need for simplicity. (author)

  6. Indices for the assessment of nutritional quality of meals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulho, B M; Pot, G K; Sarti, F M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesise information on indices developed to evaluate nutritional quality of meals. A strategy for systematic search of the literature was developed using keywords related to assessment of meal quality. Databases searched included ScienceDirect, PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, Scopus, Cochrane, Embase and Google Scholar. The literature search resulted in seven different meal quality indices. Each article was analysed in order to identify the following items: authors, country, year, study design, population characteristics, type of meal evaluated, dietary assessment method, characteristics evaluated (nutrients or food items), score range, index components, nutritional references, correlations performed, validation and relationship with an outcome (if existing). Two studies developed instruments to assess the quality of breakfast, three analysed lunch, one evaluated dinner and one was applied to all types of meals and snacks. All meal quality indices reviewed were based on the evaluation of presence or absence of food groups and relative contributions of nutrients, according to food-based guidelines or nutrient references, adapting the daily dietary recommendations to one specific meal. Most of the indices included three items as components for meal quality assessment: (I) total fat or some specific type of fat, (II) fruits and vegetables and (III) cereals or whole grains. This systematic review indicates aspects that need further research, particularly the numerous approaches to assessing meals considering different foods and nutrients, and the need for validation studies of meal indices. PMID:27045960

  7. The Processing Technology of Feather Meal and Its Use as a Protein Source in Ruminant Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Feather meal protein contains high level of keratin, which consists of 14% disulphide cystine, therefore feather meal protein is difficult to be digested by proteolytic enzymes. Feather meal must be processed before being used in the ration, because the digestibility of unprocessed feather meal is very low (5.8%. There are four processing methods of feather meal, i.e. physical, chemical, enzymatic and microbiological. The aim of these processings is to alleviate or break down the bonds in the keratin such as disulphide, ionic, ester and hydrogen bonds. Processed feather meal is known as hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM. Although the processing methods of feather meal produce different quality of HFM, the utilization of HFM in ruminant ration results in a better response than conventional protein resources. HFM has higher level of crude protein content (74 – 92%, rumen undegradable protein (70% and post rumiral digestibility (57 – 78% than soybean meal has. The utilization of HFM in ration up to 8% of dry matter can substitute soybean meal and the use of 2 – 3% HFM improved milk production in dairy cow and daily gain in sheep and cattle.

  8. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  9. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:25990454

  10. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Beck, Anne Marie; Leedo, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects....... Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch...... meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen...

  11. Bone resorption is decreased postprandially by intestinal factors and glucagon-like peptide-2 is a possible candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Gottschalck, Ida B;

    2007-01-01

    -bowel syndrome (SBS) or total gastrectomy in order to elucidate whether the signal for the meal-induced reduction of bone resorption is initiated from the stomach or the intestine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bone resorption was assessed from the serum concentration of collagen type I C-telopeptide cross-links (s...... and gastrectomy patients. GLP-2 concentrations increased significantly in all groups with the exception of the SBS plus colectomy group. CONCLUSIONS: An intestinal factor is responsible for the postprandial reduction in bone resorption, and our findings are compatible with such a function for GLP-2....

  12. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  13. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  14. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CaO AND P2O5 OF BONE ASH UPON THE REACTIVITY AND THE BURNABILITY OF CEMENT RAW MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMÁŠ IFKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of CaO and P2O5 upon the reactivity of cement raw meal was investigated in this paper. Ash of bone meal containing Ca3(PO42 - 3CaO·P2O5 was used as the source of P2O5. Two series of samples with different content of the ash of bone meal were prepared. In the first series, the ash of bone was added into cement raw meal. The second series of samples were prepared by considering ash as one of CaO sources. Therefore, the total content of CaO in cement raw meal was kept constant, while the amount of P2O5 increased. These different series of samples were investigated by analyzing free lime content in the clinkers. The XRD analysis and Electron Micro Probe Analyzer analysis of the clinkers were also carried out. Two parameters were used to characterize the reactivity of cement raw meal: content of free lime and Burnability Index (BI calculated from free lime content in both series of samples burnt at 1350 ºC, 1400 ºC, 1450 ºC and 1500 ºC. According to the first parameter, P2O5 content that drastically makes worse the reactivity of cement raw meal was found at 1.11 wt.% in the first series, while this limit has reached 1.52 wt.% in the second one. According to the BI, the limit of P2O5 was found at 1.42 wt. % in the first series and 1, 61 wt.% in the second one. Furthermore, EPMA has demonstrated the presence of P2O5 in both calcium silicate phases forming thus solid solutions.

  16. Associations between meal complexity and social context in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahma, Nina; Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari;

    2014-01-01

    contributes to the discussion about the ongoing changes by examining the relation between meal complexity, sociability and the duration of meals in contemporary Nordic societies. We examine the differences in meal complexity between four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, focusing on two...... main meals, lunch and dinner. The analysis builds on the concept of eating system, examining the effect sociability has on meal complexity. In the end we ask whether complexity can better be explained by social context, or if it, rather, results from social differentiation. The data (N=8248) are drawn...... from the Food in Nordic Everyday Life survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in 2012. The Finns and Swedes typically had two hot meals a day, whereas the Danes and Norwegians only had one. Moreover, the differences in the complexity were the greatest in hot dinners, the Danes and the...

  17. Pharmacokinetic Characterization and Bioavailability of Strawberry Anthocyanins Relative to Meal Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amandeep K; Huang, Yancui; Xiao, Di; Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-06-22

    Plasma strawberry anthocyanins were characterized in overweight (BMI: 26 ± 2 kg/m(2)) adults (n = 14) on the basis of meal timing. At each visit, subjects ingested three study drinks: two control and one strawberry drink. A strawberry drink was given at either 2 h before the breakfast meal (BM), with the meal (WM), or 2 h after the meal (AM), and control drinks were given at the alternative time points. Plasma anthocyanins and their metabolic conjugates were assessed hourly for 10 h using a triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometer. Maximum concentrations (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC), and bioavailability of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins determined from the main conjugated metabolite (pelargonidin glucuronide) were greater when a strawberry drink was consumed 2 h before the meal (BM) compared to consumption WM or AM (p strawberry consumption relative to a meal impacts anthocyanin pharmacokinetic variables. PMID:27255121

  18. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  19. Automatic Meal Inspection System Using LBP-HF Feature for Central Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Min Jiang; Ho-Hsin Lee; Cheng-Chang Lien; Chun-Feng Tai; Pi-Chun Chu; Ting-Wei Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent and automatic meal inspection system which can be applied to the meal inspection for the application of central kitchen automation. The diet specifically designed for the patients are required with providing personalized diet such as low sodium intake or some necessary food. Hence, the proposed system can benefit the inspection process that is often performed manually. In the proposed system, firstly, the meal box can be detected and located automatically wi...

  20. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Wardle, J

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demo...

  1. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches. PMID:26994738

  2. Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rat...

  3. Meat meals. Industrialists go to the rescue; Farines animales. Les industriels a la rescousse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.F.; Desfilhes, Ph.; Rouaud, P.O.

    2000-12-01

    With the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, the French public authorities are exploring all possible ways to eliminate the meat meals that accumulate in storage sites. These meals can be considered as fuel substitutes and cement companies, big energy consuming industries (Usinor, Saint-Gobain, Pechiney, paper industries etc..), and incinerating facilities for district heating are experimenting some solutions to their elimination. However, the incineration of meat meals can become an additional source of pollution, in particular of dioxins. (J.S.)

  4. Performance of broiler chicken fed physically and chemically treated jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed meal

    OpenAIRE

    Tiurma Pasaribu; E Wina; B. Tangendjaja; S. Iskandar

    2009-01-01

    Jatropha seed meal which is a by-product of biofuel is rich in protein. Its utilization as feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds. An experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production to evaluate the effect of jatropha seed meal on broiler performance. Jatropha seed meals were treated physically, chemically or their combination to reduce or eliminate the anti nutritive and toxic compounds. Then, the inclusion ...

  5. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification) and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old) were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replicati...

  6. Nutritive value of fermented coconut meal in ration of laying ducks with various phosphorous levels

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiment was conducted to improve the utilization of coconut meal in poultry ration . A bioprocess (fermentation) approach was adopted. Coconut meal was fermented followed by an enzymatic process at room temperature or 50 OC.The nutritive value of the fermented products was determined chemically. Product with the highest nutritive value was then used for a feeding trial to study the interaction effect between dietary levels of fermented coconut meal and phosphorous l...

  7. Bio-based materials from crambe and carinata industrial oilseed meals

    OpenAIRE

    Newson, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based plastics are considered as a new route for valorisation of oilseed meal from the industrial oil crops Crambe abyssinia (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) as they cannot be used for animal feed or human food. To convert oilseed meals into protein-based plastic films compression moulding was used with varying processing temperature, chemical additives and protein extraction conditions. Twin screw extrusion was utilized to make films from blends of crambe meal and wheat glut...

  8. Studies of fish meal in aquafeeds%鱼粉在水产饲料中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 解绶启; 刘建康

    2004-01-01

    As a main protein source in aquafeeds, fish meal has been extensively studied. Fish sources, freshness, processing temperature, lipid quality and microbiological index are five main aspects of the evaluation of fish meal quality. This paper reviewed the researches on fish meal including the evaluation of fish meal quality, the use of fishmeal and the environmental problems. Biogenic amine is the main potential toxin in decomposed fish meal including mainly histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine and most studies showed that they could affect the fish growth performance and health. The determination of protein digestibility of fish meal includes pepsin-digestion method, animal test, capillary electrophoresis, etc. The content of phosphorus in fish meal and its utilization can introduce pollution to water bodies and the use of alternative protein and improvement of utilization of fish meal can help to reduce the pollution from fish meal.

  9. Non-heme iron availability of usual and improved meals from selected regions in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of non-heme iron in 12 usual and 12 improved meals from four selected regions in the Philippines was determined using in-vitro radiochemical method. Geometric mean values of 5.8 and 6.4% non-heme iron availability were obtained from one-day usual meals and meals improved to correct nutritional deficiencies, respectively. Comparison between usual and improved meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for each region showed significant differences in non-heme iron availability for breakfast (Central Luzon, P.05). (author). 26 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-07-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT.

  11. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with α-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT

  12. Improving the provision of meals in hospital. The patients' viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Nick; Hartwell, Heather; Morgan, Michael

    2010-02-01

    This study examines the provision of hospital meals from the patients' viewpoint, with the aim of improving hospital food service. Patients were approached in early 2008 in a National Health Service hospital in the South of England and invited to comment on the good and bad aspects of eating in hospital. Comments were collected in an abbreviated "key word" format which incurred the minimum of bias and allowed emergent themes to be analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Seven main themes emerged, of which "food" and "choice" were mentioned most frequently, but had a low ratio (1.8 and 1.7, respectively) of approving over disapproving comments. The next most mentioned theme, "service staff", showed the highest approving/disapproving ratio (4.8) overall. Less frequent themes were: "meals and lifestyle", "timing and routine", "service quality" and "food quantity". These data, together with qualitative analysis of the responses showed patients' views of hospital food to be positive, on the whole meeting or surpassing their expectations. However, these expectations were low, the experience of eating in hospital contrasted unfavourably with home, and the meals were at best a distraction from the rigours of hospital treatment. Service staff were positively regarded because they offered an important opportunity for "normal" discourse with a non-medical person. On the basis of the findings, changes are recommended in the management of service staff, menus, food presentation, nutritional intake and patients' lifestyle. Of these, the first is likely to have most impact on the experience and viewpoint of hospital patients. PMID:19857535

  13. Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 μCi) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 μCi) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences

  14. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    OpenAIRE

    M Anaeto; LC Adighibe

    2011-01-01

    The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM) as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds i...

  15. The Second-Meal Phenomenon in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Ana; Gerrard, Jean; Taylor, Roy

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In health, the rise in glucose after lunch is less if breakfast is eaten. We evaluated the second-meal effect in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Metabolic changes after lunch in eight obese type 2 diabetic subjects were compared on 3 days: breakfast eaten, no breakfast, and no breakfast but intravenous arginine 1 h before lunch. RESULTS Despite comparable insulin levels, the rise in plasma glucose after lunch was considerably less if breakfast had been eaten (0.68 ± 1.4...

  16. STS-34 crewmembers eat meal on OV-104's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers, on their first space flight, appear to enjoy mealtime in a zero-gravity environment. They are Pilot Michael J. McCulley and Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker. The two, who were in the 1984 class of NASA astronauts, balance their meal trays and attempt to eat in an area of Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck that pays tribute to their astronaut roots. The 'maggot' decal or insignia has direct reference to the group. During the flight, the two made former Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, now JSC Deputy Director, an honorary member of the 1984 class. Weitz's flight suit portrait hangs on the galley facing.

  17. Jane Austen and the significance of the meal : the contribution of food and meal descriptions to character development in Jane Austen's novels.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates Jane Austen s references to food and meals in her novels, and how these references can participate in developing her characters. The characters are of paramount importance in this kind of novel, and the more information we have about them, the better we can understand their actions and comments, and hence the novel. The reader is often too carried away with the actions and conversations which these meals frame to notice that the meal itself is often used as a tool, an...

  18. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  19. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  20. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  1. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  2. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  3. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  4. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  5. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. PMID:25127937

  6. Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. PMID

  7. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  8. Eating disorders and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  9. Bone densitometry and osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to provide a perspective on the current status of bone densitometry and its relevance to osteoporosis diagnosis and management. Therefore, this book will give the reader an introduction to the nature of osteoporosis, its pathophysiology and epidemiology, and the clinical consequences of performing bone densitometry. Aside from standard bone densitometry, newer technologies such as quantitative ultrasound techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and bone structure analysis are discussed in the context of diagnosing osteoporosis. (orig.)

  10. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  11. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  12. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  13. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  14. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anaeto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds in the control group was significantly (p<0.05 different from those fed the CRM diets. The average weight gain of layers receiving up to 50% CRM was similar to the control birds, but significantly different from layers fed 75 and 100% CRM. No mortality was recorded. Egg production per hen per day and average egg weight were significantly different (p<0.05 for birds consuming more than 50% CRM in T4 and T5. Layer feed ration was made cheaper by the replacement of maize with cassava root meal in the diets.

  15. Finishing the family meal. The interactional organisation of satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurier, Eric; Wiggins, Sally

    2011-02-01

    This paper provides an extended review of psychological, sociological and interactional research on mealtimes and satiety (fullness), arguing for a focus on how fullness and finishing a meal is interactionally achieved. Drawing on three specimen data fragments from contrasting family settings, routinely used resources for pursuing completion and expressing satiety are described. We show how checks on completion are tailored to children according to their age, the intimate knowledge family members have of one another and attuned to contingencies, such as, whether there is a further course to be offered. Equally, that in teaching children how to eat together with others, the family also transmits and transforms all manner of other eating practices such as how to comply, or not, with requests to finish. A central aim of the article is to complement the many studies of satiety that have explained its physiological aspects by providing the familial logics that are expressed in bringing the meal to a close. We offer a suggestive analysis, based on conversation analytic principles, to illustrate our argument and to provide a starting point for further work in this field. Where bodies of work have previously used mealtimes as a convenient setting for accessing other social practices, this article turns its focus back toward the tasks of dining together. PMID:21095211

  16. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.;

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on the protein and energy metabolism of pigs from weaning to a live weight of 80 kg. FOur litters with four castrated male pigs in each litter were used. The litters were divided into two...... blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...... by inclusion level of BPM. Retention of energy was 620 (BP0), 696 (BP5), 613 (BP10) and 664 kJ/kg0.75 per day (BP15), the differences among diets being non-significant. The N-free respiratory quotient was similar on all diets. It was concluded that the overall protein and energy metabolism in growing pigs were...

  17. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  18. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  19. Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Decontamination of salmonella from the coastal fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination fo salmonellae from fish meal samples by irradiation which 60Co γ ray was examined. Sixteen strains of Salmonella were used. A composite fish meal sample was prepared by mixing with different coastal meals, and after radiation sterilization at a dose of 20 kGy 60Co γ ray, which was employed as the salmonella-free meal sample. D10 values of test strains determined in buffered saline were found to range from 0.08 to 0.36 kGy, and inactivation factors at a dose of 1 kGy ranged from 102.8 to 1013. D10 values of test strains determined in the salmonella-free meal sample ranged from 0.59 to 1.64 kGy, and the inactivation factors at a dose of 10 kGy were found to range from 106.1 to 1017. Interestingly the D10 values of salmonellae determined in fish meal samples were 10 times as much compared with those determined in buffered saline. From the commercial aspects of coastal fish meal production, destruction of salmonellae in fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation was found to be much more practical than other methods such as dry heating and ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  1. Travel Guide to Healthy School Meals: School Menu Planning to Meet Our Children's Nutritional Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    In 1994, Congress passed the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, requiring that Child Nutrition Programs comply with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and meet nutrient standards. In 1995, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued new regulations to define how the Dietary Guidelines would be applied to school meals, called the…

  2. School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense…

  3. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina; Grunow, M.; Løje, Hanne; Risum, Jørgen; Wang, Y.; Johansson, Gine Ørnholt

    2013-01-01

    An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation of the m....... Existing food legislation complies with the suggested approaches....

  4. 26 CFR 1.119-1 - Meals and lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quality of utilities such as water, sewers or other waste disposal facilities, electricity, or heat. The... required to furnish meals and lodging to the employee at the camp site in order to carry on the..., but the employee can furnish his own meal by bringing his lunch. The amount of compensation which...

  5. Consumer segmentation as a means to investigate emotional associations to meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers naturally associate emotions to meal occasions and understanding these can advance knowledge of food-related behaviours and attitudes. The present study used an online survey to investigate the emotional associations that people have with recalled meals: 'memorable' (MM) and 'routine' e

  6. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  7. Social inequalities in young children's meal skipping behaviors: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); H. Raat (Hein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Regular meal consumption is considered an important aspect of a healthy diet. While ample evidence shows social inequalities in breakfast skipping among adolescents, little is known about social inequalities in breakfast skipping and skipping of other meals among young school

  8. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current trends suggest increasing world-wide demand for convenience foods such as prepared meals and those that require minimum preparation before consumption. In Ghana, the trend is the same with ready-to-eat or prepared meals mostly sold in the informal sector, playing a major role in meeting the nutritional needs of the people these meals are prepared on daily basis as in most developing countries. With increasing urbanization and rapid adoption of refrigeration for food preservation in developing countries, the demand for such foods in supermarkets should be expected. Over 90% of ready-to-eat meals prepared in Ghana are marketed under ambient conditions and have shelf-life of less than 12 hours. However, there are a few caterers who prepare cook-chill meals using hygienic and preventative approach (e.g. HACCP) in order to enhance the safety of their meals. Preliminary investigations have demonstrated that these cook-chill meals are potential sources of pathogenic bacteria and have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks. There is therefore the need to ensure the safety of ready-to-eat meals through effective processing such as irradiation

  9. Middle school student perceptions of school lunch following revised federal school meal guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed student perceptions of school meals under the new federal meal patterns for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Student feedback is instrumental in developing strategies to increase and maintain NSLP participation, satisfaction, and ultimately provide students with a health...

  10. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  11. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  12. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: III. Effects on acute-phase and thyroid responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen halter-trained Angus steers were ranked by initial BW (average 191 ± 2.1 kg), and assigned (d 0) to receive supplements containing (as-fed basis): 1) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO); and 2) 70% corn, 28% camelina meal, and 2% mineral mix (CAM). Treatments were offered in...

  13. Walking just after a meal seems to be more effective for weight loss than waiting for one hour to walk after a meal

    OpenAIRE

    Hijikata Y; Yamada S

    2011-01-01

    Yasuyo Hijikata, Seika YamadaToyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, JapanAbstract: There is a belief that walking just after a meal causes fatigue, stomach ache, and other types of discomfort. However, the author and one volunteer participant had no such negative reactions, and found that walking just after a meal was more effective for weight loss than waiting one hour after eating before walking. For people who do not experience abdominal pain, fatigue, or other discomfort when walking just after a...

  14. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana C. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I. Yossa-Perdomo; Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting o...

  15. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  16. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  17. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financialsupport are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne; Andersen, Strodel;

    2009-01-01

    worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options. Furthermore, the present study suggests a positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options. Conclusions: Among the selected variables studied, workforce gender, company size and...

  18. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl;

    2009-01-01

    worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options Furthermore, the present study suggest.,, I positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options Conclusions Among the selected variables Studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate...

  19. Gastrin release in fistula dogs with solid compared to nutrient and nonnutrient liquid meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschowitz, B I

    1983-08-01

    Using conscious gastric fistula dogs, gastrin release stimulated by a 360-g meat-based solid meal was compared to that stimulated by two isocaloric (1 kcal/g), hypertonic (approximately 700 mosm/kg) nutrient liquids (Sustacal and Vivonex) and by two nonnutrient, hypotonic (60 mosm/kg) liquids (mannitol and coffee). Serum gastrin levels were measured at 15- to 30-min intervals over 120 min. Without a meal, serum gastrin levels remained stable. Effectiveness in stimulating gastrin release was coffee = mannitol less than Sustacal = Vivonex less than solid food; 2-hr integrated gastrin responses were 1.2, 2.6, 4.3, 5.6, and 12.2 ng/ml/min, respectively. The greater gastrin responses produced by nutrient liquids and meat meals could be explained by slower emptying and delayed acidification of gastric contents. We conclude that solid meals are preferable to liquid meals in studies of antral gastrin release. PMID:6409571

  20. Away-from-home meals: Prevalence and characteristics in a metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to characterize away-from-home meals. Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional study measured dietary intake by administering 24-hour recalls by telephone. Away-from-home breakfast, lunch, and dinner were described and characterized according to the foods that contribute most to the intake of energy, fat, sodium, and added sugar per meal. Results: f the 834 respondents, 24% had had at least one meal away from home. The average energy intake per away-from-home meal was 628 kcal (±101 kcal, about 35% of the average daily intake for this population. Meals contained both healthy foods, such as rice, beans, and fish, and unhealthy foods, such as soft drinks, snacks, sandwiches, and pizza. Conclusion: Individuals who ate away from home had worse diets. However, the presence of healthy foods indicates a possibility of improvement if purposeful programmatic actions are taken.

  1. Effect of different drinks on the absorption of non-heme iron from composite meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Rossander, L

    1982-04-01

    A study was made on the effect of various drinks on the absorption on non-heme iron. The drinks were taken with standard meals composed of a hamburger, string beans and mashed potatoes. In each series identical meals were served to the same subject either with water or with the drink under study, labelling the meals with two different radio-iron isotopes. A reduction in iron absorption was seen when serving tea (62 per cent) or coffee (35 per cent) with the meals. Orange juice increased the iron absorption (85 per cent). Pure alcohol and wine increased only slightly the percentage absorbed. Wine often has a high iron content, which increased significantly the amount of iron absorbed (three times). Milk and beer have no significant effect. Coca-Cola increased only slightly the absorption. The present studies clearly shows that the choice of drink drunk with a meal can markedly affect the absorption of non-heme iron. PMID:6896705

  2. Bone stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications

  3. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Enghardt Barberi, Heléne; Becker, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children’s energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce.Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children’s nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommenda...

  4. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Black soldier fly larvae meal(Hermetia illucens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced black soldier fly larvae (Hermeti illucens) meal in growing piglets. The use of Hermetia meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of Hermetia meal for pigs is in progress. Two batches of Hermetia meal arrived from Switzerland (FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture). In batch 1, fa...

  5. Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel. Methods We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Ch...

  6. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-01-01

    Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish) collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. ...

  7. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  8. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  9. Outbreak of listeriosis caused by infected beef meat from a meals-on-wheels delivery in Denmark 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, B; Larsson, J T; Lisby, M;

    2011-01-01

    isolates from other Danish patients. Seven out of eight patients had received a meal with beef from the same meals-on-wheels delivery catering company 3 weeks prior to onset of disease. Two patients died of their infection. Large-scale delivery of precooked meals to a vulnerable population represents...

  10. Molasses blocks containing wheat pollard and soybean meal as a supplement for growing buffaloes consuming freshly harvested native forages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses blocks containing wheat pollard and soybean meal as a supplement for growing buffaloes consuming freshly harvested native forages. A study was undertaken to evaluate a molasses block supplement for growing buffaloes fed a basal died of freshly harvested native forage (53% digestibility, 11% crude protein). The molasses blocks ( 24% crude protein) consisted of molasses (32%), wheat pollard (23%), lime (13%), soybean meal (11%), bone meal (9%), other mineral (8%), and urea (4%). Four female buffaloes with the initial weight of 230-308 kilo gram (kg) were given one of four dietary treatments during each of 4 experimental period in Latin square design. All animals were offered freshly harvested grass ad libitum. During each period, 4 buffaloes were given a molasses block at the amount of 0 (diet A), 375 (diet B), 500 (diet C) and 750 gram/day (g/d) (diet D) respectively. It was found that the total dry matter, digestible energy and crude protein of the buffaloes consuming molasses block were higher than those of control and their intake of forage also tended to be higher although the differences were not statistically significant. Ammonia and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration in rumen fluid increased with increasing level of block intake, being 90, 159, 179 and 220 mg N/l and 86.3, 87,3, 89,9, and 96,7 mM/l for diets A, B, C and D, respectively. Net microbial synthesis rate, determined in vitro using P-32, was 68% higher when the buffaloes were supplemented with molasses blocks than when they consuming only forage. Protozoal and pH of rumen contents did not differ between diets viz in the range of 6.55-6.73. The buffaloes lost live-weight of 150 g/d when fed only fresh forage, while the buffaloes fed forage plus molasses blocks appeared to be more efficient in using digestible energy and gained average weight of 330 g/d. Live weight gain tended to increase with increasing levels of intake of the blocks, but the increase were not statistically

  11. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  12. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  13. Oral cholecystography: Is the fatty meal always necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our study we have collected 1000 consecutive cases of oral cholecystographic opacification of the gall-bladder and common bile duct; occasionally a complimentary intra-venous cholangiography had also been carried out. In 360 cases there was disease of the gall-bladder or a faint opacification of the gall-bladder. In 640 cases, the gall-bladder looked normal and among these cases the common bile duct was abnormal in only three cases, which is a rate of 0,47%. Therefore the fatty meal after oral cholecystography should not be done in each case but only if there is a presumptive diagnosis of pancreatic disease, if there is pancreatic calcification, or if surgery has been previously performed on the biliary tract or duodenum. (orig.)

  14. Oral cholecystography: Is the fatty meal always necessary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Burger, G.; Senot, P.; Claudon, M.

    1980-01-01

    In our study we have collected 1000 consecutive cases of oral cholecystographic opacification of the gall-bladder and common bile duct; occasionally a complimentary intra-venous cholangiography had also been carried out. In 360 cases there was disease of the gall-bladder or a faint opacification of the gall-bladder. In 640 cases, the gall-bladder looked normal and among these cases the common bile duct was abnormal in only three cases, which is a rate of 0,47%. Therefore the fatty meal after oral cholecystography should not be done in each case but only if there is a presumptive diagnosis of pancreatic disease, if there is pancreatic calcification, or if surgery has been previously performed on the biliary tract or duodenum.

  15. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t1/2). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography

  16. What do patients value in the hospital meal experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Heather J; Shepherd, Paula A; Edwards, John S A; Johns, Nick

    2016-01-01

    A number of previous studies have reported on the aspects of hospital food service that patients value, but usually as a secondary finding, and not generally based upon patient-centred approaches. This study employed a questionnaire produced ab initio from interviews with patients and hospital staff, the data from which were subjected to factor and cluster analysis, in order to identify and prioritise the factors that contribute to the meal experience empirically. The most important factors, food and service were as identified by other authors. In decreasing order of importance were social, personal and situational factors. The results confirm that improving the quality of the food and the efficiency with which it reaches the patients remain the most important objectives of hospital food service. PMID:26408943

  17. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

  18. Autophagy-A free meal in sickness-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Gustav; Loos, Ben; Nell, Theo; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the immune system is metabolically costly, yet a hallmark of an infection is a reduction in appetite with a subsequent reduction in metabolite provision. What is the functional value of decreasing nutrient intake when an infection imposes large demands on metabolic parameters? Here, we propose that sickness-associated anorexia (SAA) upregulates the ancient process of autophagy systemically, thereby profoundly controlling not only immune- but also nonimmune-competent cells. This allows an advanced impact on the resolution of an infection through direct pathogen killing, enhancement of epitope presentation and the contribution toward the clearance of noxious factors. By rendering a 'free meal,' autophagy is thus most fundamentally harnessed during an anorexic response in order to promote both host tolerance and resistance. These findings strongly suggest a reassessment of numerous SAA-related clinical applications and a re-evaluation of current efforts in patient care. PMID:27050464

  19. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t1/2). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  20. Meal-contingent intestinal lymph sampling from awake, unrestrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Myrtha; Dai, Yunting; Tso, Patrick; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2012-06-15

    Standard procedures for intestinal lymph collection involve continuous, quantitative drainage of the lymph fluid in anesthetized or restrained animals that are often euthanized within 48 h. We here describe a novel technique for the nonocclusive cannulation of the major intestinal lymph duct in rats that allows for repetitive in vivo sampling of intestinal lymph from unrestrained, awake, and ad libitum-fed animals. The distinctive feature of this novel technique is that a 5- to 7-mm long piece of Vialon tubing (OD/ID: 0.8/0.7 mm) with a small hole in its wall is first implanted into the major intestinal lymph duct for stabilization. The tapered tip (OD: ≈0.1 mm) of the catheter is then inserted into the hole of the tubing and fixed in place with a polyamid suture and a drop of tissue glue. In our hands, catheters implanted this way remain patent for up to 6 wk after surgery. In an initial experiment we collected lymph from six adult rats before (0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, and 180 min (120 μl, each) after the onset of isocaloric (12.5 kcal) low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) test meals and measured active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Intestinal lymphatic GLP-1 concentration increased (P < 0.05) from ≈4 pmol/l (0 min) to a peak of 33 ± 6 (means ± SE) or 22 ± 4 pmol/l at 15 (HF) or 30 min (LF) after meal onset and gradually returned to baseline levels by 180 min. With this new technique fewer animals are required to generate physiologically relevant data for various aspects of gastrointestinal physiology that involve the lymphatic system. Furthermore, the advantage of this system is that the animal can act as its own control when the effect of different experimental protocols is tested. PMID:22513747

  1. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the change of life style of people in developed and developing countries, there is an increased economic growth of prepared meals. In Thailand, there is a dynamic growth of market for chilled prepared meals because of the growth of food services in supermarkets and convenient stores. However, the shelf-life for ready-to-eat chilled food including chilled prepared meals is quite short and sometimes insufficient to meet market requirements and it is implicated in a number of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Irradiation could provide a potential to improve the microbiological safety and extend the shelf-life of chilled prepared meals. Therefore, the study about the possibility to use irradiation for extending shelf-life and ensure microbiological safety of chilled prepared meals should be conducted. Also, information relevant to the application of food safety control system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be gathered to ensure more safety of the irradiated prepared meals. Many traditional Thai dishes are popular in Thai restaurants over the world. Thai dishes are normally composed of herb and spicy with different types of meat. All dishes are eaten along with rice. Aromatic rice is the most preference for Thai consumers and foreigners. Thai spicy basil rice dish with selected meat such as chicken is selected as a prepared meal in this study due to its popularity and feasibility of commercial production

  2. Rapeseed meal in the diet of common carp reared in heated waters. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diets based on fish meal or barley meal as controls, and rapeseed meal were fed to common carp for approximately 3 months. Rapeseed meals differed due to processing and contained variable amounts of goitrogenic glucosinolate. Radioiodine Na 125I was injected intraperitoneally and radioactivity measured in different tissues. It was found that thyroid centres in kidney accumulated the major part of the administred 125I. Kidneys from fish fed high glucosinolate rapeseed meal (HRM) retained 37.3% of the isotope, a significant higher percentage than from the fish meal (27.45%) or barley meal (10.5%) fed fish. Thyroid centres in the pharyngeal region invariably retained 1.16-2.41% of the 125I. In kidney extracts from fish fed HRM diet, 98.3% of the 125I radioactivity was found in the sulfosalicyclic acid precipitate in comparison to 89.7% in those from low glucosinolate rapeseed based diet. Kidney thyroid cell heights were slightly larger in all rapeseed fed groups when compared to control fish; otherwise kidney thyroid tissue appeared normal. (orig.)

  3. Consumers' health-related motive orientations and ready meal consumption behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeroms, Nele; Verbeke, Wim; Van Kenhove, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Based on a multidimensional perspective on the meaning of health, this study explores associations between consumers' health-related motive orientations (HRMO) and ready meal consumption behaviour. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 1934 Flemish consumers through an on-line survey. The respondents rated 45 health statements referring to people's motives for pursuing health. The survey also assessed information on several aspects of ready meal consumption, i.e. consumption frequency, beliefs and attitudes toward ready meals and ready meal buying criteria. Based on a two-step cluster analysis, we identified five distinct subgroups in the sample, according to their HRMO: health is about energy (Energetic Experimenters), emotional well-being/enjoying life (Harmonious Enjoyers), social responsibility/physical well-being (Normative Carers), achievement/outward appearance (Conscious Experts) and autonomy (Rationalists). Ready meal consumption patterns differed between these segments, with Energetic Experimenters and Conscious Experts showing significantly more positive attitudes, stronger beliefs and both higher penetration and consumption frequency related to ready meals, compared to Harmonious Enjoyers, Normative Carers and Rationalists. These findings may relate to the individualistic versus altruistic health orientation perspective of the identified segments, and are valuable in the context of improving consumer-oriented product development, positioning and marketing of ready meals. PMID:18656508

  4. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  5. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  6. Extraction, characterization of components, and potential thermoplastic applications of camelina meal grafted with vinyl monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Jin, Enqi; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Xue; Yang, Yiqi

    2012-05-16

    Camelina meal contains oil, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used to develop value-added bioproducts. In addition to containing valuable polymers, coproducts generated during the production of biofuels are inexpensive and renewable. Camelina is a preferred oilseed crop for biodiesel production because camelina is easier to grow and provides better yields. In this research, the components in camelina meal were extracted and studied for their composition, structure, and properties. The potential of using the camelina meal to develop thermoplastics was also studied by grafting various vinyl monomers. Oil (19%) extracted from camelina meal could be useful for food and fuel applications, and proteins and cellulose in camelina meal could be useful in the development of films, fibers, and thermoplastics. Thermoplastic films developed from grafted camelina meal had excellent wet tensile properties, unlike thermoplastics developed from other biopolymers. Camelina meal grafted with butylmethacrylate (BMA) had high dry and wet tensile strengths of 53.7 and 17.3 MPa, respectively. PMID:22540881

  7. The School Meal System and School-Based Nutrition Education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Taejung

    2015-01-01

    Since the school meal was first served in Korea in 1953, there have been many changes, particularly during the last decade. Recently, the representative features of the school meal system became free school meals for all pupils in elementary school and a nutrition teacher system in schools. These policies were suggested to implement more and more the educational role of the school meal. The rate of schools serving school meals reached 100% as of 2013, and 99.6% students eat a school meal each school day. Nutrition teachers were assigned to schools from 2007, and 4,704 (47.9%) nutrition teachers of all nutrition employees were employed in schools as of 2013. At present, various nutrition education materials are being development by local education offices and government agencies, and various education activities are being implemented spiritedly. The ultimate goal of school meals and school-based nutrition education are as follows: 1) improvement of the health of students; 2) promotion of the traditional Korean diet; and 3) extension of opportunities for a healthier dietary life. PMID:26598874

  8. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  9. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  10. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  11. Bone fractures after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Evers, J.L.H.; Glasier, A.; Negri, Eva; Papapoulos, Socrates E; Ralston, Stuart H; Rizzoli, Rene; Baird, D T; Collins, J.; G. Benagiano; P.G. Crosignani; La Vecchia, C.; Volpe, A

    2010-01-01

    Every year 30% of individuals above age 65 fall, and falls are the principal cause of bone fractures. To reduce fracture incidence requires both prevention of falls and maintenance of bone strength.PubMed searches were performed, for studies of the epidemiology of fractures, bone physiology, endocrine effects, osteoporosis measurement, genetics, prevention and effectiveness. Topic summaries were presented to the Workshop Group and omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion.Ageing ...

  12. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  13. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  14. The effect of fish meal replacement by soyabean products on fish growth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, James

    2009-12-01

    Meta-analysis was applied to quantify the effect of replacement of fish meal by soyabean products in diets on fish growth. Measurement of growth in different units among studies required the use of a standardised effect size (Hedges' d). From a total of ninety-nine studies concentrating on fish meal replacement by defatted soyabean meal, 53 % were eliminated due to, among others, absence of a fish meal control diet (n 18), or no statistical differences or measurement of dispersion (n 6) indicated. Replacement of 4 to 40 % fish meal by soyabean meal (inclusion levels of 71-366 g/kg) resulted in a mean effect size of - 0.1142 (95 % CI - 0.4665, 0.2382) obtained in forty-eight comparisons evaluated with seventeen different fish species. However, at higher fish meal replacement levels the 95 % CI calculated for combined effect sizes did not overlap with zero. With soya protein concentrate replacing 25 to 100 % of fish meal in diets for seven fish species, methionine supplementation (mean - 2.4373 (95 % CI - 3.9004, - 0.9742); n 10) did not have a substantial influence on the magnitude of cumulative effect sizes relative to no supplementation (mean - 2.7306 (95 % CI - 3.7991, - 1.6620); n 16). Information on other soyabean products (full-fat soyabeans, soya flour) used as protein sources in fish diets was found as too limited for analysis and definite conclusions. The present study contributes by putting a numerical value to the magnitude of growth differences in fish when replacing dietary fish meal by soyabean products. PMID:20003609

  15. Are food-related perceptions associated with meal portion size decisions? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michelle; Stancu, Violeta; Dean, Moira; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Gibney, Eileen R; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a comprehensive model of meal portion size determinants consisting of sociodemographic, psychological and food-related variables, whilst controlling for hunger and thirst. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data collected in 2075 participants from the Island of Ireland (IoI) and Denmark (DK), eight separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between food-related variables and meal portion size (i.e. pizza, vegetable soup, chicken salad and a pork meal) within each country. Stepwise regressions were run with physiological control measures (hunger and thirst) entered in the first step, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, body mass index (BMI)) in the second step; psychological variables (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, general health interest (GHI)) in the third step and food-related variables (expected fillingness, liking, expected healthfulness, food familiarity) in the fourth step. Sociodemographic variables accounted for 2-19% of the variance in meal portion sizes; psychological variables explained an additional 3-8%; and food-related variables explained an additional 2-12%. When all four variable groups were included in the regression models, liking and sometimes expected healthfulness was positively associated with meal portion size. The strongest association was for liking, which was statistically significant in both countries for all meal types. Whilst expected healthfulness was not associated with pizza portion size in either country, it was positively associated with meals that have a healthier image (vegetable soup; chicken salad and in IoI, the pork meal). In conclusion, after considering sociodemographic and psychological variables, and the food-related variables of liking and expected healthfulness, there may be little merit in manipulating the satiating power, at least of these type of meals, to maintain or promote weight

  16. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features. PMID:26563274

  17. Enzyme effects on extruded diets for dogs with soybean meal as a substitute for poultry by-product meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortola, L; Souza, N G; Zaine, L; Gomes, M O S; Matheus, L F O; Vasconcellos, R S; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    The effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation on kibble diets for dogs formulated with soybean meal (SBM) as a substitute for poultry by-product meal (PM) was investigated on nutrient digestibility, fermentation products formation, post-prandial urea response and selected faecal bacteria counts. Two kibble diets with similar compositions were used in two trials: PM-based diet (28.9% of PM; soybean hulls as a fibre source) and SBM-based diet (29.9% of SBM). In experiment 1, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0, without enzyme addition; SBM-1, covered after extrusion with 7500 U protease/kg and 45 U cellulase/kg; and SBM-2, covered with 15,000 U protease/kg and 90 U cellulase/kg. In experiment 2, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0; SBM-1, covered with 140 U protease/kg; 8 U cellulase/kg, 800 U pectinase/kg, 60 U phytase/kg, 40 U betaglucanase/kg and 20 U xylanase/kg; and SMB-2, covered with 700 U protease/kg, 40 U cellulase/kg, 4000 U pectinase/kg, 300 U phytase/kg, 200 U betaglucanase/kg and 100 U xylanase/kg. Each experiment followed a block design with six dogs per diet. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts (p 0.05). SBM consumption resulted in increased faecal moisture and production (p urea was verified in dogs fed SBM (p urea concentration (p = 0.06). Although with similar digestibility, SBM shows a worse utilization of absorbed amino acids than the PM. Soybean oligosaccharides can beneficially change gut fermentation product formation. Enzymes can increase the gut fermentation activity and improve the SBM proteic value. PMID:23639016

  18. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  19. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  20. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  1. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED PALM KERNEL MEAL AND FERMENTED COPRA MEAL PROTEINS AS SUBSTITUTE FOR SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN IN LAYING HENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F DAIRO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and ten (210 laying hens of Black Harco breed at 37 weeks in lay were fed experimental layer diets, in which fermented palm kernel meal (PKM and copra meal (CM were used independently to substitute for soybean meal (SBM on protein content basis at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%, to give seven treatments in a completely randomized design feeding trial that lasted 12 weeks. Performance characteristics and some haematological indices were evaluated in this study. Fermentation for seven days increased the crude protein of PKM (from 20.04% to 23.42% and that of CM (from 19.63% to 23.11%. The crude fibre of the fermented PKM and CM decreased (from 15.47% to 12.44 % and 16.00% to 11.63% respectively. The feed intake (FI was significantly highest (P<0.05 for laying hens fed 75% PKM substitution for SBM (126.06g but lowest for those on 25% CM (115.02g. Birds fed 75% PKM had the highest (P<0.05 body weight gain (1.73g while those on 25% CM recorded the lowest (1.50g. Hen-day production was significantly highest (P<0.05 in the control group (72.42% but similar with the values of 69.37%, 70.35% and 69.53% recorded by laying hens fed diets containing 50% PKM, 25% CM and 75% CM respectively. Hens fed 50% CM had the highest egg shape index (0.68 while those on 75% PKM recorded the lowest value of 0.65. The control diet had the highest feed cost per kilogramme (kg (N57.99 while 75% CM had the lowest (N46.51. Feed cost per number of egg produced was highest (P<0.05 in the control (N1.78 and similar with the values obtained for laying hens fed CM at 25%, 50% and 75% which are N1.80, N1.79 and N1.74 respectively. The compared values of PKM and CM at corresponding levels of substitution using t-test indicated significant increase (P<0.05 in FI for PKM at all levels of substitution for SBM (121.74g at 25%, 126.56g at 50% and 126.06g at 75% over the values of 115.02g, 121.18g and 124.96g for the respective dietary substitution levels of CM at 25%, 50% and 75%. Body

  2. Processing of soybean meal into concentrates and testing for Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show how the soybean meal is processed into the feed concentrate andhow the GMO content is tested when the soybean meal is accepted in the feed concentrate factory.Design/methodology/approach: After acceptance of the soybean meal the analysis for the protein and moisturecontend is made by the use of Inframatic. The average monthly sample is sent to an external laboratory for testingfor GMO content. According to the regulations the GMO content must not e...

  3. PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COTTONSEED MEAL WITH AND WITHOUT FERROUS SULPHATE IN MALE JAPANESE QUAILS (COTURNIX JAPONICA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. ANWAR, M. Z. KHAN, I. JAVED, A. KHAN AND M. K. SALEEMI

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the toxic effects of cottonseed meal in Japanese quails. A totalof 84 male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) of 40 days of age were randomly divided into seven equalgroups (A to G). Group A was fed on control diet, while three isonitric and isocaloric experimental feedsprepared by replacing soybean meal with varying proportions of cottonseed meal (CSM) were offered togroups B and C (13% CSM), D and E (27% CSM) and F and G (41% CSM). Feeds of groups C, E...

  4. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of Participant-Driven-Photo-Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2014-01-01

    A patients’ hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients’ hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines...... this with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards participated...

  5. SIGNIFICANCE OF CONSUMER CULTURE AND LIFESTYLE FOR CONSUMPTION OF READY MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Shweta

    2006-01-01

    Ready meals are fully cooked and ready to eat with a shelf life that ranges from few months to 3 years. They are one of the fastest growing areas of the food market in both developed and developing countries. A demand of ready meals is growing continuously everywhere including U.K. Especially the popularity of Indian dishes, chicken tikka masala etc. provides most of the inspiration for the ready meals that form the bulk of the retail market, as well as for cooking sauces. Though the demand ...

  6. Let's Go! School Nutrition Workgroups: Regional Partnerships for Improving School Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Heidi L; Vine, Jackie; Rogers, Victoria W

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a regional approach for improving the nutritional quality of school meals and increasing the selection of healthier foods. Let's Go! is a childhood obesity prevention program that establishes regional workgroups to develop innovative solutions to improve school meal programs. Let's Go! fosters collaborative decision making, specifically addressing the feasibility of proposed strategies, differences in school environments, and level of readiness for change. This approach led to 77 schools achieving the HealthierUS School Challenge and 130 schools implementing Smarter Lunchrooms techniques in school year 2011-2012. Communities nationwide could use a similar approach to improve school meals. PMID:25656712

  7. Is Meal Frequency Associated with Mental Distress and Violent Behaviors in Children and Adolescents? the CASPIAN IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between meal frequency with mental distress and violent behavior among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: The participants of this national study were 14,880 Iranian students with 6 to 18 years of age. They were selected from urban and rural regions of Iran by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data were obtained about demographic information, mental distress, violent behaviors and meal frequency by the questionnaire of the World Health Organization-Global School-based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS. Results: The response rate was 90.6%. The participants who were categorized as the group eating 3 meals per week significantly experienced less mental distress than those who were categorized as consuming 2 meals and one/no meal per week (P-value < 0.05. The min rate of violent behaviors was observed among participants who were classified as consuming 3 meals group and the max rate in one/no meal group. Participants who were categorized as consuming one/ no meal and 2 meals per week had higher risk of mental distress and violent behaviors compared with those whom consumed 3 meals per week. Conclusions: Meal skipping was significantly associated with mental problems and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents and this association was independent of known confounders.

  8. Is Meal Frequency Associated with Mental Distress and Violent Behaviors in Children and Adolescents? the CASPIAN IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between meal frequency with mental distress and violent behavior among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: The participants of this national study were 14,880 Iranian students with 6 to 18 years of age. They were selected from urban and rural regions of Iran by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data were obtained about demographic information, mental distress, violent behaviors and meal frequency by the questionnaire of the World Health Organization-Global School-based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS. Results: The response rate was 90.6%. The participants who were categorized as the group eating 3 meals per week significantly experienced less mental distress than those who were categorized as consuming 2 meals and one/no meal per week (P-value < 0.05. The min rate of violent behaviors was observed among participants who were classified as consuming 3 meals group and the max rate in one/no meal group. Participants who were categorized as consuming one/ no meal and 2 meals per week had higher risk of mental distress and violent behaviors compared with those whom consumed 3 meals per week. Conclusions: Meal skipping was significantly associated with mental problems and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents and this association was independent of known confounders.

  9. Walking just after a meal seems to be more effective for weight loss than waiting for one hour to walk after a meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijikata Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata, Seika YamadaToyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, JapanAbstract: There is a belief that walking just after a meal causes fatigue, stomach ache, and other types of discomfort. However, the author and one volunteer participant had no such negative reactions, and found that walking just after a meal was more effective for weight loss than waiting one hour after eating before walking. For people who do not experience abdominal pain, fatigue, or other discomfort when walking just after a meal, walking at a brisk speed for 30 minutes as soon as possible just after lunch and dinner leads to more weight loss than does walking for 30 minutes beginning one hour after a meal has been consumed. The author lost nearly 3 kg and a volunteer participant lost nearly 1.5 kg during one month of walking just after lunch and dinner. The author walked at a brisk pace, while the volunteer walked at a stroll. We repeated the preliminary experiment twice, between April and early May 2002, and once between August and September 2006, and obtained the same results.Keywords: walking after meal, hyperglycemia, weight loss 

  10. Short communication: Short-term changes in stocking density did not alter meal characteristics of lactating Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R A; Grant, R J; Krawczel, P D

    2016-08-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effect of short-term increases in stocking density and milking on meal duration, meal frequency, and time between meals and to determine the bioequivalence of different meal criterions in a competitive environment. Forty-eight Holstein dairy cows were allotted to 1 of 4 groups (n=12 per group). Stocking density treatments of 100 (one cow per freestall and headlock), 113, 131, and 142% were assigned to groups using a 4×4 Latin square with treatments imposed for 14-d periods. On d 11 of each period, feeding time was recorded for 24h using 10-min scan samples from direct observation. Meals were defined as repeated observations of eating with a maximum of 20, 30, or 40min of not eating between observations constituting the same meal. A new meal was established when a cow was observed feeding and then not feeding for greater than 2 (20min), 3 (30min), or 4 (40min) observations. To evaluate diurnal effects, the 24-h period of data was divided into 8-h intervals (based on milking time); morning (0400-1200h), afternoon (1200-2000h), and night (2000-0400h). Feed delivery occurred daily at 0430h, with feed pushed up throughout the day. A mixed linear model was used to determine the effect of stocking density and time of day on meals per day, meals per hour, meal duration, time between meals, and meal duration 2h before and after milking. Regardless of stocking density, meal duration, meal frequency, meals per hour, and time between meals did not differ. Regardless of stocking density, mean meal duration was longer during the morning and afternoon compared with night. Meal duration was also greater after milking compared with before milking, regardless of stocking density. These results suggest meal length decreased throughout the day, relative to feed delivery, with periodic increases in length due to return from milking. Meals per hour, meal duration before and after milking, and meal frequency established bioequivalence for the

  11. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  12. Test of multielement analysis of bone samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and anti-Compton spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAA and anti-Compton spectrometry has been employed in the analysis of test bone samples. Validity and accuracy of the method were checked by the use of two biological reference materials procured from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) and the International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria (IAEA). NIST 1486 Bone Meal (ca. 200-800 mg) and A-11 Milk Powder (ca. 200-600 mg) samples were irradiated in the 100 kW TRIGA Mainz reactor. Concentrations of 13 elements in both biological reference materials have been determined and were found in good agreement with the certified and provisional values. (author)

  13. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  18. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  19. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  20. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  1. Radiation-sensitivities and DNA homology of radiation-resistant. Acinetobacter strains isolated from ingredient of animal feeds such as fish meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven typical strains belonging to genus Acinetobacter were isolated from fish meals and bone meals. Guanin + cytosine contents of DNA of these strains were ranged to be 41 to 45%. Many taxonomic characteristics of strains of F1, F14, F50, B4 and J5 were similar to A. radioresistens FO-1, and DNA homology values were obtained to be 71 to 92% compared with 100% of A. radioresistens FO-1. On the contrary, strains of J16 and J22 had similar characteristics with A. calcoaceticus ATCC23055 and also each DNA homology values were obtained to be 37% compared with A. radioresistens FO-1. Their D10 values of strains F1, F14, F50, B4 and J5 in gamma-rays under air-equilibrium were also obtained to be 0.60 to 1.70 kGy as similar radiation-resistance with 1.70 kGy of A. radioresistens FO-1. However, D10 values of J16 and J22 were obtained to be 0.35 kGy as similar to 0.12 kGy of A. calcoaceticus ATCC23055. (author)

  2. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  3. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  4. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the quality of fish meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of soybean meal were exposed to electron beam with dosage levels of 0, .083, 1.56, 2.30, 4.93, 7.84 kGy, to evaluate the efficacy of electron beam for decontamination as well as the effect of electron beam irradiation on feeding quality of fish meal. The results showed that the total numbers of aerobic bacteria were reduced to 600 CFU/g and fungi inhibited to 0.05). Volatile basic nitrogen enhanced by electron beam irradiation (p0.05). Total acidity value unchanged by irradiation, but peroxide value was decreased as the dosage increased (p<0.05). It was concluded that the irradiation dosage of 1.56 ∼ 7.84 kGy was very effective for microbial decontamination of fish meal, and did not adversely affect the nutritional quality of fish meal. (authors)

  6. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (nutritional quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling. PMID:25442542

  7. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    Behavior in School-aged Children in 2010. The study includes schoolchildren in three age groups, 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds from a random sample of schools, participation rate 86.3%, n=4922. Socioeconomic position was measured by parents’ occupational social class. Breakfast, lunch and evening meal...... consumption were measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than...... adolescents from high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate...

  8. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134...... for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption.......) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals...

  9. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of participant-driven-photo-elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2013-01-01

    A patients’ hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients’ hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines this...... with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards...... participated in an open-ended interview. Two inductive analytical approaches were selected to assess the patients’ reflections on their hospital meal experiences. First, the interview transcripts were analysed using the Semiotic Analysis approach using qualitative data analysis software NVivo 9. Second, the 91...

  10. Metabolic impacts of altering meal frequency and timing - Does when we eat matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy T; Heilbronn, Leonie K

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to rise throughout the developed world, as a result of positive energy balance and reduced physical activity. At present, there is still a perception within the general community, and amongst some nutritionists, that eating multiple small meals spaced throughout the day is beneficial for weight control and metabolic health. However, intervention trials do not generally support the epidemiological evidence, and data is emerging to suggest that increasing the fasting period between meals may beneficially impact body weight and metabolic health. To date, this evidence is of short term duration, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that meal timing must also be considered if we are to ensure optimal health benefits in response to this dietary pattern. The purpose of this review is to summate the existing human literature on modifying meal frequency and timing on body weight control, appetite regulation, energy expenditure, and metabolic health under conditions of energy balance, restriction and surplus. PMID:26226640

  11. The normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses applications of the bone scan. It is the most frequently performed nuclear medicine investigation, the commonest indication being the detection of occult metastases, for which purpose the entire skeleton should be imaged. For other purposes it is often adequate to examine only part of the skeleton. The amount of isotope taken up at any site depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on bone mass. The scintigraphic appearance therefore does not necessarily correlate with the radiographic one; however, as there is a relationship between the rate at which bone is replaced and the quantity of bone which is present at any point, the two appearances are not entirely unrelated. Recognition of abnormality is based on a detailed knowledge of normal scintigraphic appearances

  12. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  13. Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, C. L.; Parker, H.; Hudders, N.; Costigan, C.; Cox, E. F.; Perkins, A. C.; Blackshaw, P. E.; Marciani, L.; Spiller, R. C.; Fox, M. R.; Gowland, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    MRI can assess multiple gastric functions without ionizing radiation. However, time consuming image acquisition and analysis of gastric volume data, plus confounding of gastric emptying measurements by gastric secretions mixed with the test meal have limited its use to research centres. This study presents an MRI acquisition protocol and analysis algorithm suitable for the clinical measurement of gastric volume and secretion volume. Reproducibility of gastric volume measurements was assessed using data from 10 healthy volunteers following a liquid test meal with rapid MRI acquisition within one breath-hold and semi-automated analysis. Dilution of the ingested meal with gastric secretion was estimated using a respiratory-triggered T1 mapping protocol. Accuracy of the secretion volume measurements was assessed using data from 24 healthy volunteers following a mixed (liquid/solid) test meal with MRI meal volumes compared to data acquired using gamma scintigraphy (GS) on the same subjects studied on a separate study day. The mean ± SD coefficient of variance between 3 observers for both total gastric contents (including meal, secretions and air) and just the gastric contents (meal and secretion only) was 3  ±  2% at large gastric volumes (>200 ml). Mean ± SD secretion volumes post meal ingestion were 64  ±  51 ml and 110  ±  40 ml at 15 and 75 min, respectively. Comparison with GS meal volumes, showed that MRI meal only volume (after correction for secretion volume) were similar to GS, with a linear regression gradient ± std err of 1.06  ±  0.10 and intercept -11  ±  24 ml. In conclusion, (i) rapid volume acquisition and respiratory triggered T1 mapping removed the requirement to image during prolonged breath-holds (ii) semi-automatic analysis greatly reduced the time required to derive measurements and (iii) correction for secretion volumes provided accurate assessment of gastric meal volumes and emptying. Together these features

  14. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  15. Bone scanning in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bone scanning in osteoporosis a diagnosis of osteoporosis most often follows fracture, and clearly this should be confirmed by x-ray. The bone scan therefore does not have an important role to play in the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. While the exact mechanism by which the 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates localize in the skeleton is not fully understood, it is believed that they adsorb onto bone surfaces most probably via the calcium of hydroxyapatite crystals. Because the major factors that affect adsorption are osteoblastic activity and to a lesser extent skeletal vascularity, it is apparent that a bone scan image presents a functional display of skeletal metabolic activity. However, osteoporosis is a disorder in which gradual change in bone mass may occur over many years and, in keeping with this minor imbalance in skeletal metabolism, the bone scan appearances are usually normal. However, the scan images may appear of poor quality because of relatively low bone uptake of tracer with, on occasion, a washed-out pattern of activity in the axial and appendicular bone. It has been suggested that such a pattern occurs in severe or end-stage osteoporosis caused by markedly reduced osteoblastic activity. If kyphosis is observed on the bone scan or if there appears to be loss of spinal height with proximity of ribs to each other or increased closeness of rib cage to pelvis, then appearances suggest vertebral collapse and would be in keeping with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Such evidence is, however, indirect and in practice a bone scan is an extremely unreliable means of diagnosing osteoporosis

  16. Determination of microbiological characteristics of several kinds of ready-to-eat meals presented for consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şenses - Ergül; Havva Sarı; Sevinç Ertaş; Umut Berberoğlu; Yıldırım Cesaretli; Hasan Irmak

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION[|]In this study, determination of microbiological quality of several kinds of ready-to-eat meals and their risk in means of foodborne infections, were aimed.[¤]METHODS[|]Total of 666 ready-to-eat meals available for consumption, were examined. These products were examined in means of the parameters; Salmonella spp. (TS EN ISO 6579), Listeria monocytogenes (TS EN ISO 11290-1), Escherichia coli O157 (TS EN ISO 16654), thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. (TS EN...

  17. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen international ready meals prepared under the approved hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan and two Ghanaian ready meals, waakye (co-boiled rice and cowpeas served with gravy, minimally processed vegetable salad, hydrated gari, fried fish and macaroni) and jollof rice (rice cooked in tomato sauce and served with gravy and beef tripe), were investigated with the view to enhancing microbiological safety and extending shelf life under chilled conditions. The microbiological count of the complete waakye meal exceeded the microbiological standard. The microbiological counts on meals prepared under the HACCP plan and the jollof rice meals were within the microbiological standards. The D10 values for potential pathogens on waakye were 0.271 kGy for Escherichia coli, 0.325 kGy for Salmonella aureus and 0.440 kGy for Salmonella spp. while the D10 values on jollof rice meal were 0.173 kGy, 0.260 kGy and 0.285 kGy, respectively. Challenge tests with the pathogens on one of the HACCP meals (poached chicken) or jollof rice suggested that the 3 kGy dose was sufficient for the elimination of the pathogens to ensure the microbiological safety of the meals and extended their shelf life under chilled storage for 28 days without significant effects on their sensory quality. Doses of 1 and 2 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the rice and chicken/gravy but boiled carrots were unable to withstand a dose of more than 1 kGy. (author)

  18. Mussel meal diets to growing/finishing pigs: influence on performance and carcass quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenbeck, A.; M Neil; lundeheim, N.; Andersson, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel meal has potential as an alternative protein source for pig since it has high portein content and a balanced Amino acid pattern. Mussels are good filterers of Water and an effective Tool to clean Waters from nitrogen and phosphorus. Using mussel meal as feedstuff in animal production could close the aro-aqua nutrient cycle, bringing nutrients back from the Water to the agro-ecosystem. Session 26 - Theatre 7.

  19. Use of low-dose irradiation to enhance the safety and quality of chilled ready meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for 'cook-chill' ready meals has expanded significantly during the past ten years. This specific category of food has been defined as a catering system based on the full cooking of food followed by fast chilling and storage in controlled temperature conditions (0-3 deg. C) and subsequent thorough re-heating before consumption. Such meals cover a wide range of commodities including meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pasta and desserts and are used at home by consumers and by the catering industry for use, for example, as hospital meals or meals-on-wheels. These products have a relatively short shelf-life with a recommended maximum shelf-life of 5 days at 0-3 deg. C including the day of cooking. In addition, there are other concerns with regard to microbiological quality, reduced sensory quality and decreased nutritive value. It has been suggested that low-dose irradiation could be used to extend the shelf-life of these products while at the same time reducing the risk of food poisoning. Research carried out at QUB and DARD has readily demonstrated that the safety and shelf-life of chilled ready meals consisting of meat (chicken, beef or pork) and certain vegetables (e.g. broccoli, carrots and roast potatoes) can be enhanced by irradiation doses of 2 or 3 kGy without having a detrimental effect on sensory or nutritional quality. To date, investigations have been limited to such traditional meals with no research being carried out on the more popular ready meals such as lasagna, cottage pies, curries, etc. which have a relatively short shelf-life upon purchase. It is therefore the objective of this work program to investigate the effect of low-dose irradiation (1-5 kGy) on the microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality of these meals and to determine if their overall quality can be enhanced

  20. Irradiation to ensure the safety and quality of home style prepared meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of irradiation as a method to ensure microbiological safety and extend the shelf-life of traditionally prepared meals stored under refrigeration and chilled condition. This study will support and give more valuable information on the food security and food safety of home style prepared meals in particular for traditional produce for local government approval for irradiated foods in Indonesia

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological and organoleptic quality of ready prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of five food borne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) to irradiation in the components of a roast beef meal (beef, gravy, cauliflower with white sauce, roast potatoes and mashed potatoes) was compared. The D10 values ranged from 0.17 to 0.65 kGy, depending on the organism and plating medium. When irradiated in gravy, the pathogens generally had lower D10 values than in any of the other four components. In a subsequent study, the effect of irradiation (2 and 3 kGy) on the microbiological and sensory quality of the roast beef meals was assessed at intervals during 15 days of storage at 2-3 deg. C. A dose of 2 kGy was beneficial in improving the microbial quality of the meals, but sensory profiling techniques, using a trained panel of assessors, showed that there were significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meal components during storage. The changes were most apparent in the cauliflower and potato components, and most often occurred in the colour, appearance and textural attributes tested. As these changes could have a limiting effect on the shelf-life of the meals, the suitability of other vegetables for inclusion in such irradiated meals was investigated. Irradiation and chilled storage of carrots and broccoli did not significantly affect the sensory quality when compared with the non-irradiated controls. A consumer trial of the roast beef meal (beef, gravy, roast potatoes, broccoli and carrots) found that irradiation (2 kGy) did not significantly affect the sensory quality. It was concluded that irradiation could be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of certain chilled meals without significantly affecting the organoleptic quality. (author)

  2. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelović Sanja; Torović Ljilja; Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana; Novaković Budimka; Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl) in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner) and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kinderg...

  3. Relationships of adolescent's dietary habits with personality traits and food neophobia according to family meal frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon; Cho, Wookyoun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHOD For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, person...

  4. Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Intestinal Morphology of Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    X.L. Ding; Wu, D.; Qian, K.; K. Zhan; Liu, H. J.; L.M. Li; Xu, F. Z.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was performed to compare the effects of fermented soybean meal (fermented with Bacillus licheniformis D-1, FSBM) and Soybean Meal (SBM) on performance, serum biochemical parameters and intestinal morphology of laying hens. About 288, 29 weeks old laying hens were randomly allocated into 2 dietary treatments, 4 replicate groups of 36 laying hens each from 29-39 weeks of age. One treatment received the basal diet (containing 22.8% SBM) as control and the other treatment received...

  5. Changes in leucine kinetics during meal absorption: effects of dietary leucine availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body leucine and α/-ketoisocaproate (KIC) metabolism were estimated in mature dogs fed a complete meal, a meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids, and a meal devoid of all amino acids. Using a constant infusion of [4,5-3H]leucine and α-[1-14C]ketoisocaproate (KIC), combined with dietary [5,5,5-2H3]leucine, the rate of whole-body proteolysis, protein synthesis, leucine oxidation, and interconversion leucine and KIC were estimated along with the rate of leucine absorption. Digestion of the complete meal resulted in a decrease in the rate of endogenous proteolysis, a small increase in the estimated rate of leucine entering protein, and a twofold increase in the rate of leucine oxidation. Ingestion of either the meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids or devoid of all amino acids resulted in a decrease in estimates of whole-body rates of proteolysis and protein synthesis, decreased leucine oxidation, and a decrease in the interconversion of leucine and KIC. The decrease in whole-body proteolysis was closely associated with the rise in plasma insulin concentrations following meal ingestion. Together these data suggest that the transition from tissue metabolism to anabolism is the result, at least in part, of decreased whole-body proteolysis. This meal-related decrease in proteolysis is independent of the dietary amino acid composition or content. In contrast, the rate of protein synthesis was sustained only when the meal complete in all amino acids was provided, indicating an overriding control of protein synthesis by amino acid availability

  6. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  7. Soybean meal-based adhesive reinforced with cellulose nano-whiskers

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Gao,; Jianzhang Li; Sheldon Q. Shi; Kaiwen Liang; Xiumei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose nano-whiskers were used to enhance the performance of soybean meal-based adhesive. Soybean meal flour, cellulose nano-whiskers (CNW), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used to develop different adhesive formulations. The effect of adhesive components on water resistance of the adhesive was measured on the three-ply plywood (three cycle soak test). The viscosity and solid content of the adhesive were measured. The cross section of the cured adhesives was eva...

  8. Associations Between Weight Change and Meal Frequency, Breakfast Consumption, and Alcohol Intake in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Tricia Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight gain in college subjects is associated with meal frequency, breakfast consumption, breakfast type, and alcohol intake over one year of college. Secondary aims were to determine whether BMI and body fat percent are associated with breakfast consumption and type as well as meal frequency. Design: A longitudinal observational study. Health history, work schedule and sleep patterns were recorded. Subjects fasted overnight and height, weight, skin fold...

  9. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  10. Regional blood flow in rats after a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Z; Wickler, S J; Stern, J S; Horwitz, B A

    1984-07-01

    It was previously observed that a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal results in increased in vitro thermic activity of brown adipose tissue. In the present study, we have examined whether such a meal increases the in vivo thermic activity, estimated from measurement of the rate of blood flow. With radioactively labeled microspheres, blood flows into brown fat and several other tissues were determined in meal-deprived (n = 11) and meal-fed (n = 11) rats. The microspheres were injected into the heart of anesthetized animals about 2-2.5 h after the test meal, one injection in the resting state and one during maximal norepinephrine stimulation. In the resting state, blood flow per gram tissue more than doubled in the brown fat (P less than 0.05) and was increased more than 50% in the heart (P less than 0.01) of the fed group. Blood flows into liver and retroperitoneal white fat were reduced by 40 (P less than 0.01) and 30%, respectively, in the fed group. During norepinephrine infusion, significant meal-associated increases in blood flow were evident only in brown fat (P less than 0.05) and the soleus muscle (P less than 0.05), whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant meal-associated changes in norepinephrine-stimulated blood flow were found in the other tissues examined (i.e., heart, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles, kidneys, white fat, spleen, and adrenals). Our in vivo data thus support the view that brown fat plays a role in the thermic effect of a meal. PMID:6742226

  11. Effect of inclusion of key foods on in vitro iron bioaccessibility in composite meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2016-04-01

    The in vitro bioaccessibility of iron in context to fortification of key foods to cereal based diets was studied to optimize the meals for enhanced iron bioaccessibility to meet the needs of vegetarian and non-vegetarian adult women. Four individual food items and thirty six composite meals were selected to represent a wide spectrum of meal ingredients. The four individual foods: chapati, rice, dal and saag were choosen on the basis of data reported on meal pattern of surveyed households of north India. The basic meals were then fortified with key food ingredients which may influence in vitro iron bioaccessibility. Eight selected key foods were salad, orange, lemonade, milk, curd, chicken, egg and tea. The results revealed that inclusion of 200 g of chicken, 135 g of salad and 120 g of orange to the basic meals of rice or chapati with either dal or saag enhanced iron bioaccessibility by 1.6 fold to 5.0 fold; 5.2 to 28.9 % and 4.7 to 10.7 %, respectively. The best enhancer of iron absorption for vegetarians was lemonade (250 ml) which resulted in 70.2 and 61.0 % increase of in vitro bioaccessibility of iron to the rice based meals with dal and saag, respectively. The inclusion of lemonade resulted in 1.3 fold increase in iron bioaccessibility in chapati based meals. The major inhibitors of iron bioaccessibility were egg and tea, the percent reduction caused by egg being 16.1 to 50.2 % while by tea, it was between 21.5 to 55.3 %. The study recommends that those vulnerable to iron deficiency should be encouraged to increase overall intake of iron from iron rich foods. The increase should be coupled with efforts to combine appropriate foods in the diet to enhance the bioaccessibility of iron and reduce inhibitory factors. PMID:27413231

  12. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participa...

  13. Glycaemic Responses to Corn Meals in Type 2 Diabetics and Non-Diabetic Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola Dada; Anthonia Ogbera; Sunday Ogundele; Olufemi Fasanmade; Augustine Ohwovoriole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary modification in association with life style changes is important in the management of the diabetes. Cereals account for as much as 77% of total caloric consumption in most African diets. Corn which is the largest cultivated cereal crop in Nigeria is prepared as a meal in many forms. The objective of this study was to assess the glycaemic responses to different preparations of corn meals. Material and Method: The design was a quasi-experimental with a total of 32 participan...

  14. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Cristina de Faria; João Carlos Bouzas Marins; Gustavo Antônio de Oliveira; Samuel de Souza Sales; Fernando Fonseca dos Reis; Juscélia Cristina Pereira; Luciana Moreira Lima

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI) and low GI (LGI), and two were performed in th...

  15. Nutritional characteristics of camelina meal for 3-week-old broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Kim, J I; Chapple, C; Adeola, O

    2015-03-01

    Limited information on nutritional characteristics on camelina meal for broiler chickens limits its use in diets of broiler chickens. The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of 2 different camelina meal (CM1 and CM2) samples for 3-wk-old broiler chickens using the regression method and to determine glucosinolate compounds in the camelina meal samples. The CM1 and CM2 were incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at 3 levels (0, 100, or 200 g/kg) by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. These 5 diets (reference diet, and 100 and 200 g/kg camelina meal from each of CM1 and CM2) were fed to 320 male Ross 708 broilers from d 21 to 28 post hatching with 8 birds per cage and 8 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Excreta were collected twice daily from d 25 to 28, and jejunal digesta and ileal digesta from the Meckel's diverticulum to approximately 2 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction were collected on d 28. The total glucosinolate content for CM1 and CM2 were 24.2 and 22.7 nmol/mg, respectively. Jejunal digesta viscosity was linearly increased (Pcamelina meal levels. There were linear effects (Pcamelina meal by broiler chickens is low and the high viscosity observed in jejunal digesta as well as the total glucosinolate in camelina meal may have contributed to the poor energy and nitrogen utilization. PMID:25701205

  16. Preference-based segmentation : a study of food category and meal preferences among Vietnamese teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thi Hoa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of preference-based segmentation for a broad array of meals and food categories in the context of teenagers in Vietnam. A convenience sample of 413 Vietnamese teenagers in secondary and high schools provided an evaluation on the preference of 30 items of food categories and 36 common meals was collected based on structured questionnaires and then used as inputs for the analyses. A five-cluster solution for the food category segmentati...

  17. Effect of replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on growth, hematology, antioxidant enzymes activity and expression for juvenile grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qingmei; Wen, Xiaobo; Han, Chunyan; Li, Haobo; Xie, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth and health of grass carp. Four isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 16.64, 32.73 and 48.94% of CSM, respectively, as replacements of 0, 35, 68 and 100% of SBM were fed to fish (initial body weight 7.14 ± 0.75 g/fish) in triplicate aquaria twice daily. The results indicated that fish fed diet containing 16.64% CSM as a replacement of 35% of SBM was not affected in wei...

  18. The effect of thawing and storage temperature on the microbial quality of commercial frozen ready meals and experimental reduced salt frozen ready meals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effect of thawing at 4ºC or ambient temperature (~20ºC) on the indigenous microflora of commercial regular salt (0.6-1.3% w/w) frozen ready meals was investigated. In a separate trial, the microbial quality of regular salt frozen ready meals was compared with reformulated reduced salt (0.2-0.54%, w/w) counterparts stored at 4ºC, 10ºC or ambient temperature over 8 days. All samples were analysed for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and sporeforming bacteria, Pseudomonas,...

  19. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs

  1. Novel Insulin Delivery Profiles for Mixed Meals for Sensor-Augmented Pump and Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Asavari; Lee, Joon Bok; Dassau, Eyal; Doyle, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining euglycemia for people with type 1 diabetes is highly challenging, and variations in glucose absorption rates with meal composition require meal type specific insulin delivery profiles for optimal blood glucose control. Traditional basal/bolus therapy is not fully optimized for meals of varied fat contents. Thus, regimens for low- and high-fat meals were developed to improve current insulin pump therapy. Simulations of meals with varied fat content demonstrably replicated published...

  2. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes. - Highlights: ► Celiac disease is an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins. ► Irradiation is an useful method to increase the food shelf life. ► Sensory analysis is applied in the improvement of the quality of foods.

  3. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the...... forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.......15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows...

  4. Automatic Meal Inspection System Using LBP-HF Feature for Central Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Min Jiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent and automatic meal inspection system which can be applied to the meal inspection for the application of central kitchen automation. The diet specifically designed for the patients are required with providing personalized diet such as low sodium intake or some necessary food. Hence, the proposed system can benefit the inspection process that is often performed manually. In the proposed system, firstly, the meal box can be detected and located automatically with the vision-based method and then all the food ingredients can be identified by using the color and LBP-HF texture features. Secondly, the quantity for each of food ingredient is estimated by using the image depth information. The experimental results show that the meal inspection accuracy can approach 80%, meal inspection efficiency can reach1200ms, and the food quantity accuracy is about 90%. The proposed system is expected to increase the capacity of meal supply over 50% and be helpful to the dietician in the hospital for saving the time in the diet inspection process.

  5. Measuring the impact of classmates on children’s liking of school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Vassard, Ditte; Havn, Louis N.;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how children respond to a new type of school meal and ask whether classmates affect meal evaluations. The study is part of a school meal intervention which tested health effects of the New Nordic Diet. Over two separate three-month periods 834 pupils (age 8–11) from 9...... schools (46 classes) were given either meals based on the Nordic diet or their usual packed lunch. The children rated their regular lunch packs and the Nordic meals on a five-point smiley scale when they reported their lunch intake. Ratings were done at home by the child, alone or with the help of a...... parent. The results show that the classmates influenced children’s ranking of a new type of school meal but did not influence rankings of familiar lunch packs. These results are important not only because they add to our knowledge of the social dimension of liking, but also because they show that we...

  6. A high-glycemic meal pattern elicited increased subjective appetite sensations in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Visalakshi; Lee, Jung-Sheng; Nowak, Janice K; Pohle, Rachael J; Nyrop, Jessica E; Leddy, John J; Pelkman, Christine L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of variations in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on subjective satiety in overweight and obese women. We altered the ingestion rate of a glucose beverage to model the postprandial effects of high- and low-glycemic meals. Fourteen women were tested in a within-subjects' design with two conditions: (1) Rapid, with a large glucose beverage consumed with breakfast and lunch and (2) Slow, with the same volume of glucose beverage consumed in eight portions (one with each meal, and the remaining seven at 20-min intervals after each meal). Meals were identical in the two conditions. Subjective appetitive sensations were measured with visual analog scales before and after meals, and hourly after each meal until 5 pm. Serum glucose and insulin were measured at similar time points. Subjects reported higher ratings of hunger and prospective consumption in the Rapid versus Slow condition at 4h after breakfast and several hours after lunch. Serum glucose was more strongly correlated with the appetitive ratings in the Rapid than the Slow condition, and explained more of the variance (20-31%) than insulin (2-4%). The results of this study support the glucostatic theory linking dynamic changes in blood glucose with appetitive sensations. PMID:17714828

  7. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of participant-driven-photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent E; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2014-04-01

    A patients' hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients' hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines this with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards participated in an open-ended interview. Two inductive analytical approaches were selected to assess the patients' reflections on their hospital meal experiences. First, the interview transcripts were analysed using the Semiotic Analysis approach using qualitative data analysis software NVivo 9. Second, the 91 produced photographs and the participants' engagement with the photographs were analysed by means of a Reflexive Content Analysis. The study found that PDPE is a research method that can be used for expanding the conceptualisation of hospital meal experiences, revealing the significance of the meal context, materiality and memories beyond food per se. PMID:24370354

  8. An ordinary mixed meal transiently impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, M; Fugmann, A; Karlström, B; Berne, C; Lithell, H; Lind, L

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an ordinary mixed meal on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Ten young healthy volunteers were given a mixed meal (minced meat sauce with rice, 900 kcal, 34% of the energy content was fat). In the fasting state, at 60 and 120 min after the start of the meal, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelium-independent vasodilation were evaluated by local infusion of metacholine (4 microg min (-1)) and sodium nitroprusside (10 microg min (-1)) in the brachial artery. Blood flow in the forearm was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation decreased from 15.4 +/- 3.3 (mean +/- SD) at fasting to 13.7 +/- 3.5 mL min (-1) (100 mL tissue)-1 (P < 0.01) 60 min after feeding, but had returned to the fasting level at 120 min. At 60 min, but not in the fasting state, the serum level of free fatty acids was inversely related to endothelium-dependent vasodilation (r=-0.74, P < 0.05), although no significant net changes in FFA levels were seen. Endothelium-independent vasodilation was not affected by the mixed meal. No similar attenuations in endothelium-dependent vasodilation were seen during control meals. In conclusion, an ordinary mixed meal transiently attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Free fatty acids may be involved in this effect on endothelial function. PMID:11442450

  9. Utilization of Jatropha curcas Seed Meal and its Limitation as Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternatives to solve the problem of less fossil energy is to utilize plant as a new source of energy, i.e Jatropha curcas, known as physic nut. This plant has been promoted as a source of energy as its seed contains high level of oil which can be used as biodiesel. The meal produced after pressing the seed will become a by product which contains high level of protein but also contains several anti nutritive factors or toxic compounds. This causes a problem to utilize this seed meal for animal feed. This paper descibes the nutritional quality and anti nutritive factors of jatropha seed meal, detoxification of jatropha seed meal and its utilization as feed ingredient and the problem of its utilization. Jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient has to go through a combination process of detoxification. There is a need to find a cheap and easy detoxification technology to produce a safe and high nutritional quality of jatropha seed meal for animal.

  10. Use of soybean cake replacing soybean meal in diets of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for soybean cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by soybean cake. Diets were formulated with 12.5% CP, respecting the forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60.Tifton-85 hay was used as forage and the concentrate was formulated with corn, soybean meal, soybean cake and vitamin mineral supplement. Five crossbred lambs castrated, with average weight of 33.7 ± 5.8 kg were used and distributed in a Latin Square 5 × 5. No differences in intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrate, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients. Increased linearly in ether extract intake by replacing protein from soybean meal by soybean cake in the diet but with no changes in the digestibility of this component. The nitrogen balance, nitrogen content fecal and urinary retained were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by soybeans cake in diets. For the index pH and concentration of ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid did not differ between diets. It was concluded that the soybean cake can be used as an alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  11. In vivo evaluation of iron bioavailability in some Nigerian peasant meals by haemoglobin regeneration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, U F; Ifon, E T; Umoh, I B; Eka, O U

    1993-07-01

    The bioavailability of iron in three different rural Nigerian peasant meals was studied. The meals were: pounded yam (Discorea spp) with 'afia efere'--(plain soup); 'ekpang nkukwo'--grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa Schott) and cocoyam leaves with pepper and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) with water leaf (Talinum triangulare). Analyses of the meals showed the protein content to range from 8.58 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g DM to 11.38 +/- 0.08/100g DM. Iron content ranged from 17.50 +/- 2.50 mg/100 DM to 23.94 +/- 3.56 mg/100g DM. The rehabilitation of mildly anaemic rats with test meals showed the percentage of the ingested iron utilised for haemoglobin synthesis as: 48.08 +/- 0.51 pc; 18.09 +/- 0.41 pc; 19.09 +/- 0.36 pc for the test diets respectively and 60.80 +/- 0.22 pc for the control group. A comparison of the utilization of iron between the test and the control groups showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the test and the control groups. The low level of iron enhancers in the meals has been suggested as the possible cause of the marginal level of iron availability from the meals to the test animals. PMID:8205607

  12. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  13. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro methods for determining availability of iron from meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made between in vitro and human and rat in vivo methods for estimating food iron availability. Complex meals formulated to replicate meals used by Cook and Monsen (Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29:859) in human iron availability trials were used in the comparison. The meals were prepared by substituting pork, fish, cheese, egg, liver, or chicken for beef in two basic test meals and were evaluated for iron availability using in vitro and rat in vivo methods. When the criterion for comparison was the ability to show statistically significant differences between iron availability in the various meals, there was substantial agreement between the in vitro and human in vivo methods. There was less agreement between the human in vivo and the rat in vivo and between the in vivo and the rat in vivo and between the in vitro and the rat in vivo methods. Correlation analysis indicated significant agreement between in vitro and human in vivo methods. Correlation between the rat in vivo and human in vivo methods were also significant but correlations between the in vitro and rat in vivo methods were less significant and, in some cases, not significant. The comparison supports the contention that the in vitro method allows a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate estimation of nonheme iron availability in complex meals

  14. The significance of the serum CG level of 2 hours after meal in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the liver condition of hyperthyroid patients with different course of disease, the levels of serum CG over night fasting and of 2 hours after meal in 132 hyperthyroid patients and 50 normal persons were measured by RIA. Hyperthyroid patients were divided into 3 groups by their different course of disease. For normal persons and the group whose course of disease within half year there was no significant difference in CG levels of fasting and 2 hours after meal. For the group whose course of disease in period of 0.5-2 years the CG level of 2 hours after meal were over the normal range (P<0.01), but no difference was found in CG level of fasting. For the group whose course of disease over 2 years, the CG levels of fasting and 2 hours after meal were all over the normal range (P<0.01, P<0.001), CG level of the 2 hours after meal was much higher. The results suggested that CG level measured 2 hours after meal was more sensitive than that after over night fasting in hyperthyroid patients with hepatocellular damage, and the damage degree paralleled to their courses of disease

  15. Postprandial gallbladder emptying is related to intestinal motility at the time of meal ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N; Pedersen, S A;

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of meal-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy individuals are subject to wide variation. We hypothesized that some of the observed variation might relate to ingestion of the meal during different phases of the migrating motor complex (MMC). Recording of gastrointestinal...... pressure was combined with scintigraphic recording of bile kinetics during infusion of 99mTc-HIDA. The material consisted of 12 healthy men. Group 1 (n = 6) had a fat-rich meal in phase I, and group 2 (n = 6) had the meal in a phase II. With the end of the meal ingestion as zero, the following results...... emerged. The subjects in group 1 had a median (range) lag period before beginning of gallbladder emptying of 13.5 (9.0-22.5) min. In group 2 gallbladder emptying began during the meal ingestion in four subjects, and the median lag period was 0 min (minimum, -9.0; maximum, 13.5 (p = 0.02)). The median...

  16. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  17. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding. PMID:26633322

  18. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  19. Influence of cottonseed meal on vanadium toxicity and 48vanadium distribution in body tissues of laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens of two commercial White Leghorn strains were fed diets representing a complete factorial arrangement of 0, 3, or 6 ppm vanadium (V) from dicalcium phosphate and 0 or 5% cottonseed meal (CSM). Test diets were fed for 4 consecutive weeks beginning when hens were 25, 40, 62, or 76 weeks old. After each 4-week treatment period, all hens were fed a diet containing no added V or CSM. Albumen quality (Haugh units) was determined on eggs produced on Days 6 and 7 of each week of feeding the test diets. Three ppm V caused a slight decrease in Haugh units, while 6 ppm V reduced Haugh unit score (HU) by 6 to 15 units when fed to hens 29, 44, or 80 weeks old. The relative influence of V on HU of eggs from 66-week-old hens was less pronounced. The inclusion of 5% CSM in the diet counteracted most of the adverse effects of V on egg quality, irrespective of strain of hens. Egg production and egg weight were not affected by V or CSM. In a second experiment, hens fed diets containing no V + no CSM, 6 ppm V + no CSM, no V + 5% CSM, or 6 ppm V + 5% CSM were given 110 microCi of 48V by oral capsule. Greatest concentrations of 48V were found in bone, kidney, liver, and magnum. Little 48V was detected in whites, and none was found in yolks of eggs produced 2 days after 48V dose

  20. Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Z S; Hall, W G; Pappas, T N; Schiffman, S S

    1993-03-01

    The effects of meal sensory properties (tasty vs. bland) and nutrient composition [high-CHO (carbohydrate) vs. high-FAT] on hunger ratings, blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA), taste perception, and subsequent food intake, were studied in human subjects. Aspartame and vanilla were used to augment meal palatability, yielding four isocaloric liquid meals: bland-FAT, tasty-FAT, bland-CHO, tasty-CHO. Normal-weight, nondieting young adults consumed each of the meals for breakfast on separate days. The main finding was that tasty versions of high-FAT and high-CHO meals were more satiating than nutritionally identical bland meals, as indicated by a greater decrease in hunger ratings following the tasty meals. Changes in blood glucose and FFA were related to meal nutrient composition, but not to meal sensory properties. High-CHO meals tended to be more satiating than high-FAT meals. Consumption of each of the meals produced a similar decrease in pleasantness ratings of food-related tastes. Intake of carbohydrates was significantly higher at a self-selected lunch 5.25 h following a tasty breakfast. These findings indicate that hunger is decreased to a greater extent by meals flavored with aspartame and vanilla relative to nutritionally identical, unflavored meals. The satiety-enhancing effect of oral stimulation was found for both high-FAT and high-CHO meals. PMID:8451323