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Sample records for bone matrix mineralization

  1. PTH(1-84) Administration in Hypoparathyroidism Transiently Reduces Bone Matrix Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; Bilezikian, John P; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rubin, Mishaela R

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hypoparathyroidism have low circulating parathyroid (PTH) levels and higher cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness. Treatment with PTH(1-84) was shown to increase abnormally low bone remodeling dynamics. In this work, we studied the effect of 1-year or 2-year PTH(1-84) treatment on cancellous and cortical bone mineralization density distribution (Cn.BMDD and Ct.BMDD) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in paired transiliac bone biopsy samples. The study cohort comprised 30 adult hypoparathyroid patients (14 treated for 1 year; 16 treated for 2 years). At baseline, Cn.BMDD was shifted to higher mineralization densities in both treatment groups (average degree of mineralization Cn.CaMean +3.9% and +2.7%, p mineralizing surface) was predictive for Cn.BMDD outcomes in the 1-year PTH(1-84) group, but not in the 2-year PTH(1-84) group. Our findings suggest higher baseline bone matrix mineralization consistent with the decreased bone turnover in hypoparathyroidism. PTH(1-84) treatment caused differential effects dependent on treatment duration that were consistent with the histomorphometric bone formation outcomes. The greater increase in bone formation during the first year of treatment was associated with a decrease in bone matrix mineralization, suggesting that PTH(1-84) exposure to the hypoparathyroid skeleton has the greatest effects on BMDD early in treatment.

  2. The effect of enamel matrix proteins and deproteinized bovine bone mineral on heterotopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Tonetti, Maurizio; Karring, Thorkild; Lang, Niklaus P

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the osteoinductive potential of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in the muscle of rats. Sixteen rats were used in this study. The animals were divided in three groups. Group A: a pouch was created in one of the pectoralis profundis muscles of the thorax of the rats and DBBM particles (Bio-Oss) were placed into the pouch. Healing: 60 days. Group B: a small pouch was created on both pectoralis profundis muscles at each side of the thorax midline. In one side, a mixture of EMD (Emdogain) mixed with DBBM was placed into one of the pouches, whereas in the contralateral side of the thorax the pouch was implanted with DBBM mixed with the propylene glycol alginate (PGA--carrier for enamel matrix proteins of EMD). Healing: 60 days. Group C: the same procedure as group B, but with a healing period of 120 days. Qualitative histological analysis of the results was performed. At 60 days, the histological appearance of the DBBM particles implanted alone was similar to that of the particles implanted together with EMD or PGA at both 60 and 120 days. The DBBM particles were encapsulated into a connective tissue stroma and an inflammatory infiltrate. At 120 days, the DBBM particles implanted together with EMD or PGA exhibited the presence of resorption lacunae in some cases. Intramuscular bone formation was not encountered in any group. The implantation of DBBM particles alone, combined with EMD or its carrier (PGA) failed to exhibit extraskeletal, bone-inductive properties.

  3. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  4. Influence of mineral phase in mineralization of a biocomposite containing chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash—in vitro study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krithiga Gunasekaran; Santhosh Kumar Baskar; Divya Sapphire Mohan; Thotapalli P Sastry

    2014-05-01

    A resorbable composite which acts as a active barrier in guided bone regeneration was fabricated using chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash. Its potential to form bone like apatite in simulated body fluid was assessed in this study. The mechanical strength of these composites was correlated with bone ash ratios and composites with better tensile strength were studied for their acellular bioactivity by incubating in simulated body fluid for 21 days. Composites without bone ash did not show acellular bioactivity which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. In case of biocomposites with bone ash, there was an increase in residual weight indicating the mineralization of the composite. The composite containing bone ash has shown the peaks related to phosphate vibrations in its Fourier-transform infrared spectrum. Scanning micrographs revealed formation of apatite like crystals on its surface. Ca/P ratio was found to be 1.7 which is nearer to that of natural bone. Thus, prepared composites can be used as resorbable biocomposite in maxillofacial and oral defects.

  5. Biomimetic Mineralization on a Macroporous Cellulose-Based Matrix for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biomimetic mineralization on a cellulose-based porous matrix with an improved biological profile. The cellulose matrix was precalcified using three methods: (i) cellulose samples were treated with a solution of calcium chloride and diammonium hydrogen phosphate; (ii) the carboxymethylated cellulose matrix was stored in a saturated calcium hydroxide solution; (iii) the cellulose matrix was mixed with a calcium silicate solution in order to introduce ...

  6. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation for three years in postmenopausal osteoporosis significantly alters bone mineral and organic matrix quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E P; Gamsjaeger, S; Hassler, N; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Stepan, J J; Pavo, I; Eriksen, E F; Klaushofer, K

    2017-02-01

    Prospective, controlled clinical trials in postmenopausal osteoporosis typically compare effects of an active drug with placebo in addition to vitamin D and calcium supplementation in both treatment arms. While clinical benefits are documented, the effect of this supplementation in the placebo arm and in clinical practice on bone material composition properties is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate these bone quality indices (specifically mineral/matrix, nanoporosity, glycosaminoglycan content, mineral maturity/crystallinity, and pyridinoline content) in patients that either received long-term vitamin D (400-1200IU) and calcium (1.0-1.5g) supplementation, or did not. We have analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy the bone forming trabecular surfaces of iliac crest in pre-treatment samples of a teriparatide study and the endpoint biopsies of the control arm obtained from the HORIZON trial. In general, the mineral/matrix ratio and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was higher while nanoporosity, (a surrogate for tissue water content), the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC) and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content was lower in patients without long-term supplementation. Moreover, all indices were significantly dependent on tissue age. In conclusion, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is associated with altered mineral and organic matrix properties.

  7. Pigment epithelium derived factor suppresses expression of Sost/Sclerostin by osteocytes: implication for its role in bone matrix mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Song, Na; Tombran-Tink, Joyce; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in Serpinf1 gene which encodes pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) lead to osteogenesis imperfecta type VI whose hallmark is defective mineralization. Mechanisms by which PEDF regulates matrix mineralization remain unknown. We examined effect of exogenous PEDF on expression of osteoblastic and osteocytic related genes and proteins in mineralizing osteoblast culture. Mineralizing human osteoblasts supplemented with exogenous PEDF for 14 days deposited 47% more mineral than cells cultured without PEDF. Analysis of selected gene expression by cells in mineralizing cultures supplemented with exogenous PEDF showed reduction in expression of Sclerostin (Sost) by 70%, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) by 75% and dentin matrix protein (DMP-1) by 20% at day 14 of culture. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX) expression was not affected. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation showed that sclerostin and MEPE synthesis by osteocytes were reduced by 50% and 60% respectively in mineralizing osteoblasts containing exogenous PEDF. Primary osteocytes exposed to PEDF also reduced synthesis of Sost/sclerostin by 50% within 24 h. For osteoblastic genes, Bone sialoprotein (BSP) was expressed at 75% higher by day 7 in cultures containing exogenous PEDF while Col1A1 expression remained high at all-time points. Total beta-catenin was increased in mineralizing osteoblastic cells suggesting increased Wnt activity. Taken together, the data indicate that PEDF suppressed expression of factors that inhibit mineralization while enhancing those that promote mineralization. The findings also suggest that PEDF may regulate Sost expression by osteocytes leading to enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and increased matrix mineralization.

  8. Biomimetic Mineralization on a Macroporous Cellulose-Based Matrix for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Petrauskaite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the biomimetic mineralization on a cellulose-based porous matrix with an improved biological profile. The cellulose matrix was precalcified using three methods: (i cellulose samples were treated with a solution of calcium chloride and diammonium hydrogen phosphate; (ii the carboxymethylated cellulose matrix was stored in a saturated calcium hydroxide solution; (iii the cellulose matrix was mixed with a calcium silicate solution in order to introduce silanol groups and to combine them with calcium ions. All the methods resulted in a mineralization of the cellulose surfaces after immersion in a simulated body fluid solution. Over a period of 14 days, the matrix was completely covered with hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite formation depended on functional groups on the matrix surface as well as on the precalcification method. The largest hydroxyapatite crystals were obtained on the carboxymethylated cellulose matrix treated with calcium hydroxide solution. The porous cellulose matrix was not cytotoxic, allowing the adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblastic cells. Comparatively, improved cell adhesion and growth rate were achieved on the mineralized cellulose matrices.

  9. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  10. Quantitative (31)P NMR spectroscopy and (1)H MRI measurements of bone mineral and matrix density differentiate metabolic bone diseases in rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haihui; Nazarian, Ara; Ackerman, Jerome L; Snyder, Brian D; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Hrovat, Mirko I; Dai, Guangping; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Wu, Yaotang

    2010-06-01

    In this study, bone mineral density (BMD) of normal (CON), ovariectomized (OVX), and partially nephrectomized (NFR) rats was measured by (31)P NMR spectroscopy; bone matrix density was measured by (1)H water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI); and the extent of bone mineralization (EBM) was obtained by the ratio of BMD/bone matrix density. The capability of these MR methods to distinguish the bone composition of the CON, OVX, and NFR groups was evaluated against chemical analysis (gravimetry). For cortical bone specimens, BMD of the CON and OVX groups was not significantly different; BMD of the NFR group was 22.1% (by (31)P NMR) and 17.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. For trabecular bone specimens, BMD of the OVX group was 40.5% (by (31)P NMR) and 24.6% (by gravimetry) lower than CON; BMD of the NFR group was 26.8% (by (31)P NMR) and 21.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. No significant change of cortical bone matrix density between CON and OVX was observed by WASPI or gravimetry; NFR cortical bone matrix density was 10.3% (by WASPI) and 13.9% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. OVX trabecular bone matrix density was 38.0% (by WASPI) and 30.8% (by gravimetry) lower than CON, while no significant change in NFR trabecular bone matrix density was observed by either method. The EBMs of OVX cortical and trabecular specimens were slightly higher than CON but not significantly different from CON. Importantly, EBMs of NFR cortical and trabecular specimens were 12.4% and 26.3% lower than CON by (31)P NMR/WASPI, respectively, and 4.0% and 11.9% lower by gravimetry. Histopathology showed evidence of osteoporosis in the OVX group and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (renal osteodystrophy) in the NFR group. These results demonstrate that the combined (31)P NMR/WASPI method is capable of discerning the difference in EBM between animals with osteoporosis and those with impaired bone mineralization.

  11. The effect of bone injury on extracellular matrix vesicle proliferation and mineral formation.

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    Sela, J; Schwartz, Z; Amir, D; Swain, L D; Boyan, B D

    1992-05-01

    Removal of tibial bone marrow in rats is followed by primary bone formation, resorption and marrow restitution. The first week of healing is characterized by partially calcified trabeculae. After 2 weeks, a higher degree of calcification and partial resorption are observed. The third week is characterized by massive resorption of the trabeculae, which are replaced in the fourth week by new bone marrow tissue. This model was used to study primary calcification. Transmission electron micrographs of the young bone revealed osteoblasts, matrix vesicles and calcified fronts. The different vesicular types were defined as 'empty', 'amorphous', 'crystal', and 'rupture'. The vesicles were studied on days 3, 6, 8, 12, 14, 18, 21, 23 and 28 after injury. The mean diameters of most vesicles ranged between 100.3 and 121.9 nm, and their mean distance from the calcified front was less than 976.6 nm. Vesicular density, calculated as number per 10 m2, increased on the eighth day and decreased from the fourteenth day onwards. Highest diameter values were recorded on the sixth day, and decreased onward. Vesicular distance from the calcified front decreased continuously. Distribution of vesicle number, diameter, and distance in each class showed that numbers of empty and amorphous vesicles decreased and of crystal and rupture increased throughout the experiment. Distances from the calcified front and vesicular diameters varied as follows: 'rupture', 'crystal', amorphous', and 'empty', the 'rupture' type being the closest to the front and of the largest diameter. The results confirm the hypothesis that the cell is responsible for the secretion of electron lucent vesicles that accumulate Ca and Pi to form amorphous calcium phosphate complexes that convert to hydroxyapatite. Crystal growth is followed by membrane rupture.

  12. Implications of combined ovariectomy and glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment on mineral, microarchitectural, biomechanical and matrix properties of rat bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Khassawna, Thaqif; Kampschulte, Marian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Huerter, Britta; Dürselen, Lutz; Faulenbach, Miriam; Heiss, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the deleterious side effects of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Since the condition is particularly aggressive in postmenopausal women who are on steroid therapy, in this study we have attempted to analyse the combined effect of glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment and cessation of oestrogen on rat bone. The dual aim was to generate osteoporotic bone status in a short time scale and to characterise the combination of glucocorticoid-postmenopausal osteoporotic conditions. Sprague Dawley rats (N = 42) were grouped randomly into three groups: untreated control, sham-operated and ovariectomized-steroid (OVX-Steroid) rats. Control animals were euthanized with no treatment [Month 0 (M0)], while sham and OVX-Steroid rats were monitored up to 1 month (M1) and 3 months (M3) post laparotomy/post OVX-Steroid treatment. Histology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical and mRNA expression analysis of collagenous, non-collagenous matrix proteins and osteoclast markers were examined. The study indicated enhanced osteoclastogenesis and significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the OVX-Steroid rats with Z-scores below -2.5, reduced torsional strength, reduced bone volume (BV/TV%), significantly enhanced trabecular separation (Tb.S), and less trabecular number (Tb.N) compared with sham rats. Osteoclast markers, cathepsin K and MMP 9 were upregulated along with Col1α1 and biglycan with no significant expression variation in fibronectin, MMP 14, LRP-5, Car II and TNC. These results show higher bone turnover with enhanced bone resorption accompanied with reduced torsional strength in OVX-Steroid rats; and these changes were attained within a short timeframe. This could be a useful model which mimics human postmenopausal osteoporosis that is associated with steroid therapy and could prove of value both in disease diagnosis and for testing generating and testing biological agents which could

  13. Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyagul, Sani; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2014-07-01

    Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H] thymidine incorporation assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization. In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  14. Decellularized bone matrix grafts for calvaria regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Diachina, Shannon; Lee, Yan Ting; Zhao, Lixing; Zou, Rui; Tang, Na; Han, Han; Chen, Xin; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Decellularization is a promising new method to prepare natural matrices for tissue regeneration. Successful decellularization has been reported using various tissues including skin, tendon, and cartilage, though studies using hard tissue such as bone are lacking. In this study, we aimed to define the optimal experimental parameters to decellularize natural bone matrix using 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.1% NH4OH. Then, the effects of decellularized bone matrix on rat mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, osteogenic gene expression, and osteogenic differentiations in a two-dimensional culture system were investigated. Decellularized bone was also evaluated with regard to cytotoxicity, biochemical, and mechanical characteristics in vitro. Evidence of complete decellularization was shown through hematoxylin and eosin staining and DNA measurements. Decellularized bone matrix displayed a cytocompatible property, conserved structure, mechanical strength, and mineral content comparable to natural bone. To study new bone formation, implantation of decellularized bone matrix particles seeded with rat mesenchymal stem cells was conducted using an orthotopic in vivo model. After 3 months post-implantation into a critical-sized defect in rat calvaria, new bone was formed around decellularized bone matrix particles and also merged with new bone between decellularized bone matrix particles. New bone formation was analyzed with micro computed tomography, mineral apposition rate, and histomorphometry. Decellularized bone matrix stimulated mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, achieving effective bone regeneration and thereby serving as a promising biological bone graft. PMID:28228929

  15. Dietary Zinc Reduces Osteoclast Resorption Activities and Increases Markers of Osteoblast Differentiation, Matrix Maturation, and Mineralization in the Long Bones of Growing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional influence of zinc (Zn) on markers of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) resorption and mineralization was investigated in growing rats. Thirty male weanling rats were randomly assigned to consume AIN-93G based diets containing 2.5, 5, 7.5, 15, or 30 µg Zn/g diet for 24 d. Femur Zn incre...

  16. Altered matrix mineralization in a case of a sclerosing osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Roschger, Andreas; Puchner, Stephan E; Dominkus, Martin; Sulzbacher, Irene; Windhager, Reinhard; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the tumor matrix mineralization of highly sclerotic osteosarcoma. We used quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) of a highly sclerosing osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia as well as adjacent normal bone of a 10-year-old girl following chemotherapy according to the EURAMOS-1 protocol. Data were compared to recently published normative reference data for young individuals. Backscattered electron imaging of the tumor region revealed a dense accumulation of mineralized tumor bone matrix (up to 90% of the medullar space). The BMDD was shifted tremendously towards higher matrix mineralization (CaMean +18.5%, CaPeak +22.5%, CaHigh +100 fold) compared to normal bone. Additionally the BMDD became much wider, indicating a higher heterogeneity in mineralization (CaWidth +40%). In contrast to lamellar bone, which mineralizes via a mineralization front, the mineralization of the tumor matrix starts by randomly distributed spots of mineral clusters fusing together to a highly mineralized non-lamellar bone matrix. We also found an altered BMDD of the patient's normal bone when compared with the reference BMDD of young individuals. In conclusion this high radiodensity region of the sclerosing sarcoma is not only due to the high amount of tumor matrix but also to its high mineralization density. Chemotherapy may lead to altered matrix mineralization of normal bone due to suppression of bone turnover. The mechanism of matrix mineralization in a sclerosing osteosarcoma warrants further studies.

  17. Mechanism of mineral formation in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H C

    1989-03-01

    The mechanism of mineral formation in bone is seen best where active new bone formation is occurring, e.g., in newly forming subperiosteal bone of the embryo, in the growing bone of young animals, and in healing rickets where the calcification process in osteoid is reactivated. A large body of ultrastructural evidence, using conventional and anhydrous methods for tissue preparation, has shown convincingly that extracellular matrix vesicles are present at or near the mineralization front in all of the above, and that these vesicles are the initial site of apatite mineral deposition. Thus bone resembles growth plate cartilage, predentin, and turkey tendon in having calcification initiated by matrix vesicles. Once the calcification cascade is begun, matrix vesicles are no longer needed to support mineralization and are consumed by the advancing mineralization front in which performed crystals serve as nuclei for the formation of new crystals. The rate of crystal proliferation is promoted by the availability of Ca2+, PO4(3-), and the presence of collagen, and retarded by naturally occurring inhibitors of mineralization such as proteoglycans and several noncollagenous calcium-binding proteins of bone including bone-Gla protein (osteocalcin), phosphoproteins, osteonectin, and alpha-2HS-glycoproteins. New electron microscopic immunocytochemical findings in our laboratory suggest that the origin of alkaline phosphatase-positive bone matrix vesicles is polarized to the mineral-facing side of osteoblasts and may be concentrated near the intercellular junctions of human embryonic osteoblasts.

  18. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. METHODS: 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched he...

  19. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  20. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation.

  1. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  2. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  3. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  4. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent-al-hoda Movahedi Najafabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Boron (B is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rd passage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 μg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and alkaline phosphatase (ALP as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results: Although 6 μg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion: Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture.

  5. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...

  6. Distinct actions of strontium on mineral formation in matrix vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechkoff, Géraldine; Radisson, Jacqueline; Bessueille, Laurence; Bouchekioua-Bouzaghou, Katia; Buchet, René

    2008-08-29

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) are involved in the initial step of mineralization in skeletal tissues and provide an easily model to analyze the hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Sr stimulates bone formation and its effect was tested on MVs. Sr(2+) (15-50 microM) in the mineralization medium containing MVs, 2 mM Ca(2+) and 3.42 mM P(i), retarded HA formation. Sr(2+) (1-5 mM) in the same medium-induced other types of mineral than HA and cancelled the ATP-, ADP- or PP(i)-induced retardation in the mineral formation. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of Sr(2+) at a low dose (15-50 microM) is rather an inhibitor of bone resorption than an activator of mineral formation, while at high Sr(2+) concentration (1-5 mM), mineral formation, especially other types of mineral than HA, is favored.

  7. Biomimetically Enhanced Demineralized Bone Matrix for Bone Regenerative Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Demineralized bone matrix (DBM is one of the most widely used bone graft materials in dentistry. However, the ability of DBM to reliably and predictably induce bone regeneration has always been a cause for concern. The quality of DBM varies greatly depending on several donor dependent factors and also manufacturing techniques. In order to standardize the quality and to enable reliable and predictable bone regeneration, we have generated a biomimetically-enhanced version of DBM (BE-DBM using clinical grade commercial DBM as a control. We have generated the BE-DBM by incorporating a cell-derived pro-osteogenic extracellular matrix (ECM within clinical grade DBM. In the present study, we have characterized the BE-DBM and evaluated its ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of human marrow derived stromal cells (HMSCs with respect to clinical grade commercial DBM. Our results indicate that the BE-DBM contains significantly more pro-osteogenic factors than DBM and enhances HMSC differentiation and mineralized matrix formation in vitro and in vivo. Based on our results, we envision that the BE-DBM has the potential to replace DBM as the bone graft material of choice.

  8. The effect of SDF-1α on low dose BMP-2 mediated bone regeneration by release from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix scaffolds in a murine critical size bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Langanke, Robert; Vater, Corina; Lee, Geoffrey; Niederlohmann, Eik; Sensenschmidt, Markus; Jacobi, Angela; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Muders, Michael; Rammelt, Stefan; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Goodman, Stuart B; Stiehler, Maik

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of critical size bone defects represents a challenge. The growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is clinically established but has potentially adverse effects when used at high doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate if stromal derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) and BMP-2 released from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix (MCM) scaffolds have a cumulative effect on bone regeneration. MCM scaffolds were functionalized with heparin, loaded with BMP-2 and/or SDF-1α and implanted into a murine critical size femoral bone defect (control group, low dose BMP-2 group, low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group, and high dose BMP-2 group). After 6 weeks, both the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (5.8 ± 0.6 mm³, p = 0.0479) and the high dose BMP-2 group (6.5 ± 0.7 mm³, p = 0.008) had a significantly increased regenerated bone volume compared to the control group (4.2 ± 0.5 mm³). There was a higher healing score in the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (median grade 8; Q1-Q3 7-9; p = 0.0357) than in the low dose BMP-2 group (7; Q1-Q3 5-9) histologically. This study showed that release of BMP-2 and SDF-1α from heparinized MCM scaffolds allows for the reduction of the applied BMP-2 concentration since SDF-1α seems to enhance the osteoinductive potential of BMP-2. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2126-2134, 2016.

  9. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials.

  10. The "love-hate" relationship between osteoclasts and bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are unique cells that destroy the mineralized matrix of the skeleton. There is a "love-hate" relationship between the osteoclasts and the bone matrix, whereby the osteoclast is stimulated by the contact with the matrix but, at the same time, it disrupts the matrix, which, in turn, counteracts this disruption by some of its components. The balance between these concerted events brings about bone resorption to be controlled and to contribute to bone tissue integrity and skeletal health. The matrix components released by osteoclasts are also involved in the local regulation of other bone cells and in the systemic control of organismal homeostasis. Disruption of this regulatory loop causes bone diseases, which may end up with either reduced or increased bone mass, often associated with poor bone quality. Expanding the knowledge on osteoclast-to-matrix interaction could help to counteract these diseases and improve the human bone health. In this article, we will present evidence of the physical, molecular and regulatory relationships between the osteoclasts and the mineralized matrix, discussing the underlying mechanisms as well as their pathologic alterations and potential targeting.

  11. Molecular packing in bone collagen fibrils prior to mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Benjamin; Zhou, Hong-Wen; Burger, Christian; Chu, Benjamin; Glimcher, Melvin J.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional packing of collagen molecules in bone collagen fibrils has been largely unknown because even in moderately mineralized bone tissues, the organic matrix structure is severely perturbed by the deposition of mineral crystals. During the past decades, the structure of tendon collagen (e.g. rat tail) --- a tissue that cannot mineralize in vivo, has been assumed to be representative for bone collagen fibrils. Small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis of the native, uncalcified intramuscular fish bone has revealed a new molecular packing scheme, significantly different from the quasi-hexagonal arrangement often found in tendons. The deduced structure in bone collagen fibrils indicates the presence of spatially discrete microfibrils, and an arrangement of intrafibrillar space to form ``channels'', which could accommodate crystals with dimensions typically found in bone apatite.

  12. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  13. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  14. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Buchet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM, or

  15. Localized tissue mineralization regulated by bone remodelling: A computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decco, Oscar; Adams, George; Cook, Richard B.; García Aznar, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Bone is a living tissue whose main mechanical function is to provide stiffness, strength and protection to the body. Both stiffness and strength depend on the mineralization of the organic matrix, which is constantly being remodelled by the coordinated action of the bone multicellular units (BMUs). Due to the dynamics of both remodelling and mineralization, each sample of bone is composed of structural units (osteons in cortical and packets in cancellous bone) created at different times, therefore presenting different levels of mineral content. In this work, a computational model is used to understand the feedback between the remodelling and the mineralization processes under different load conditions and bone porosities. This model considers that osteoclasts primarily resorb those parts of bone closer to the surface, which are younger and less mineralized than older inner ones. Under equilibrium loads, results show that bone volumes with both the highest and the lowest levels of porosity (cancellous and cortical respectively) tend to develop higher levels of mineral content compared to volumes with intermediate porosity, thus presenting higher material densities. In good agreement with recent experimental measurements, a boomerang-like pattern emerges when plotting apparent density at the tissue level versus material density at the bone material level. Overload and disuse states are studied too, resulting in a translation of the apparent–material density curve. Numerical results are discussed pointing to potential clinical applications. PMID:28306746

  16. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  17. Decreased bone tissue mineralization can partly explain subchondral sclerosis observed in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L G E; van Donkelaar, C C; van Rietbergen, B; Emans, P J; Ito, K

    2012-05-01

    For many years, pharmaceutical therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) were focused on cartilage. However, it has been theorized that bone changes such as increased bone volume fraction and decreased bone matrix mineralization may play an important role in the initiation and pathogenesis of OA as well. The mechanisms behind the bone changes are subject of debate, and a better understanding may help in the development of bone-targeting OA therapies. In the literature, the increase in bone volume fraction has been hypothesized to result from mechanoregulated bone adaptation in response to decreased mineralization. Furthermore, both changes in bone volume fraction and mineralization have been reported to be highest close to the cartilage, and bone volume fraction has been reported to be correlated with cartilage degeneration. These data indicate that cartilage degeneration, bone volume fraction, and bone matrix mineralization may be related in OA. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between cartilage degeneration, bone matrix mineralization and bone volume fraction at a local level. With microCT, we determined bone matrix mineralization and bone volume fraction as a function of distance from the cartilage in osteochondral plugs from human OA tibia plateaus with varying degrees of cartilage degeneration. In addition, we evaluated whether mechanoregulated bone adaptation in response to decreased bone matrix mineralization may be responsible for the increase in bone volume fraction observed in OA. For this purpose, we used the experimentally obtained mineralization data as input for bone adaptation simulations. We simulated the effect of mechanoregulated bone adaptation in response to different degrees of mineralization, and compared the simulation results to the experimental data. We found that local changes in subchondral bone mineralization and bone volume fraction only occurred underneath severely degenerated cartilage, indicating that bone

  18. MKP1-dependent PTH modulation of bone matrix mineralization in female mice is osteoblast maturation stage specific and involves P-ERK and P-p38 MAPKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Sampathi, Bharat Reddy; Sharma, Sonali; Datta, Tanuka; Das, Varsha; Abou-Samra, Abdul B; Datta, Nabanita S

    2013-03-01

    Limited information is available on the role of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1) signaling in osteoblasts. We have recently reported distinct roles for MKP1 during osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and skeletal responsiveness to parathyroid hormone (PTH). As MKP1 regulates the phosphorylation status of MAPKs, we investigated the involvement of P-ERK and P-p38 MAPKs in MKP1 knockout (KO) early and mature osteoblasts with respect to mineralization and PTH response. Calvarial osteoblasts from 9-14-week-old WT and MKP1 KO male and female mice were examined. Western blot analysis revealed downregulation and sustained expressions of P-ERK and P-p38 with PTH treatment in differentiated osteoblasts derived from KO males and females respectively. Exposure of early osteoblasts to p38 inhibitor, SB203580 (S), markedly inhibited mineralization in WT and KO osteoblasts from both genders as determined by von Kossa assay. In osteoblasts from males, ERK inhibitor U0126 (U), not p38 inhibitor (S), prevented the inhibitory effects of PTH on mineralization in early or mature osteoblasts. In osteoblasts from KO females, PTH sustained mineralization in early osteoblasts and decreased mineralization in mature cells. This effect of PTH was attenuated by S in early osteoblasts and by U in mature KO cells. Changes in matrix Gla protein expression with PTH in KO osteoblasts did not correlate with mineralization, indicative of MKP1-dependent additional mechanisms essential for PTH action on osteoblast mineralization. We conclude that PTH regulation of osteoblast mineralization in female mice is maturation stage specific and involves MKP1 modulation of P-ERK and P-p38 MAPKs.

  19. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P ....001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P

  20. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  1. Biomineralization of a Self-Assembled Extracellular Matrix for Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yizhi; Qin, Yi-Xian; DiMasi, Elaine; Ba, Xiaolan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Pernodet, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how biomineralization occurs in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone cells is crucial to the understanding of bone formation and the development of a successfully engineered bone tissue scaffold. It is still unclear how ECM mechanical properties affect protein-mineral interactions in early stages of bone mineralization. We investigated the longitudinal mineralization properties of MC3T3-E1 cells and the elastic modulus of their ECM using shear modulation force microscopy, sync...

  2. Osteocyte regulation of bone mineral: a little give and take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G J; Findlay, D M

    2012-08-01

    Osteocytes actively participate in almost every phase of mineral handling by bone. They regulate the mineralisation of osteoid during bone formation, and they are also a major RANKL-producing cell. Osteocytes are thus able to liberate bone mineral by regulating osteoclast differentiation and activity in response to a range of stimuli, including bone matrix damage, bone disuse and mechanical unloading, oestrogen deficiency, high-dose glucocorticoid and chemotherapeutic agents. At least some of these activities may be regulated by the osteocyte-secreted product, sclerostin. There is also mounting evidence that in addition to regulating phosphate homeostasis systemically, osteocytes contribute directly to calcium homeostasis in the mature skeleton. Osteocyte cell death and the local loss of control of bone mineralisation may be the cause of focal hypermineralisation of bone and osteopetrosis, as seen in aging and pathology. The sheer number of osteocytes in bone means that "a little give and take" in terms of regulation of bone mineral content translates into a powerful whole organism effect.

  3. Normal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, D.; R. Arumugam; Seilheimer, D.; Leblanc, A.; Ellis, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoporosis has been reported as a complication of cystic fibrosis (CF).
AIMS—To measure bone mineral density (BMD) in non-acutely ill adults and bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF.
METHODS—We analysed data from 28 adults and 13 children with CF. Corticosteroid use was minimal for the year prior to study in both groups. Dual x ray absorptiometry was used to measure total body and regional bone mineral density in adults. In children, whole body BMC was...

  4. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  5. Unique micro- and nano-scale mineralization pattern of human osteogenesis imperfecta type VI bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Schmidt, Ingo; Roschger, Paul; Roschger, Andreas; Glorieux, Francis H; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Rauch, Frank; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by mutation in genes involved in collagen synthesis and leading to increased bone fragility, low bone mass, impaired bone material properties and abnormally high bone matrix mineralization. Recessive OI type VI is caused by mutation in SERPINF1 leading to a loss-of-function of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a collagen-binding protein with potent antiangiogenic activity. Affected patients develop a severe OI phenotype with a striking histological characteristic, rare in other OI types, of an excess of osteoid tissue and prolonged mineralization lag time. To get insights into matrix mineralization, we evaluated biopsies from 9 affected children by quantitative and by high-resolution backscattered electron imaging and assessed bone mineralization density distribution. Thickness, shape and arrangement of mineral particles were measured in a subset of 4 patients by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. Typical calcium content in the bone matrix was found to be increased compared to controls, even exceeding values found previously in OI patients with collagen-gene mutations. A main characteristic however, is the coexistence of this highly mineralized bone matrix with seams showing abnormally low mineral content. Atypical collagen fibril organization was found in the perilacunar region of young osteocytes, suggesting a disturbance in the early steps of mineralization. These observations are consistent with the presence of a heterogeneous population of mineral particles with unusual size, shape and arrangement, especially in the region with lower mineral content. The majority of the particles in the highly mineralized bone areas were less disorganized, but smaller and more densely packed than in controls and in previously measured OI patients. These data suggest that the lack of PEDF impairs a proper osteoblast-osteocyte transition and consequently

  6. Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in fetuin-A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jong; Busse, Björn; Gupta, Himadri S; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W C; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix--a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth.

  7. Bone Formation is Affected by Matrix Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Mostafa, Ahmed Jenan; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Although previous evidence shows that the accumulation of AGEs in bone matrix may impose significant effects on bone cells, the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation in vivo is still poorly understood. To address this issue, this study used a unique rat model with autograft implant to investigate the in vivo response of bone formation to matrix AGEs. Fluorochrome biomarkers were sequentially injected into rats to label the dynamic bone formation in the presence of elevated levels of matrix AGEs. After sacrificing animals, dynamic histomorphometry was performed to determine mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralized surface per bone surface (MS/BS), and bone formation rate (BFR). Finally, nanoindentation tests were performed to assess mechanical properties of newly formed bone tissues. The results showed that MAR, MS/BS, and BFR were significantly reduced in the vicinity of implant cores with high concentration of matrix AGEs, suggesting that bone formation activities by osteoblasts were suppressed in the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In addition, MAR and BFR were found to be dependent on the surrounding environment of implant cores (i.e., cortical or trabecular tissues). Moreover, MS/BS and BFR were also dependent on how far the implant cores were away from the growth plate. These observations suggest that the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation is dependent on the biological milieu around the implants. Finally, nanoindentation test results indicated that the indentation modulus and hardness of newly formed bone tissues were not affected by the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In summary, high concentration of matrix AGEs may slow down the bone formation process in vivo, while imposing little effects on bone mineralization.

  8. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of МВМ in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  9. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  10. Skeletal growth after oral administration of demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Elorriaga, M; Marquínez, M; Larralde, J

    1993-03-01

    Oral administration of bone extracts obtained from bovine demineralized bone matrix to rats has a direct effect on bone metabolism, affecting bone proportions and some markers of bone formation such as bone malate dehydrogenase, serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin. Furthermore collagen deposition, bone protein synthesis and nucleic acids content were significantly increased by the treatment.

  11. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  12. Biomarkers: how detect life on mineral matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Teresa; Brucato, John Robert; Pucci, Amaranta; Baratta, Giuseppe; Branciamore, Sergio

    2012-07-01

    Life Marker Chip (LMC) is a bioanalytical instrument on board of the ESA Exomars mission to detect specific organic molecules that may be associated with life on Mars. Observation of possible biomarkers is critical for the understanding of prebiotic evolution and to detect signature of past and/or present life on other extraterrestrial body. Biomarkers usually are associated with mineral matrix, so it is necessary to investigate the nature of the interaction of organic molecules with minerals. Our approach is to combine physical-chemical analisys (adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, surface area measurement, etc.) with FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in order to clarify the kind of interaction at molecular level between biomarkers and minerals. In particular we focus our attention on nucleobases that are the precursor of genetic material (DNA, RNA) with several minerals (MgO, forsterite, TiO2, hydroxylapatite, olivine) that mimic extraterrestrial materials. A second objective was to investigate the desorption processes in order to optimize the experimental procedure for the detection of biomarkers in the contest of LMC. In this study we have evaluated the effect of several parameters such as sonication and temperature on the extraction efficiency. Moreover because the desorption process strongly depends on the chemical nature of organics and minerals and on their own interaction, we have also evaluated the capability of different solvent mixtures (water, methanol, etc.) with different polarity and the use of surfactant (Tween 80) to extract previously adsorbed biomolecules. The results obtained could contribute to improve the biomarker extraction procedure in the LMC experiment.

  13. Induction of Bone Matrix Protein Expression by Native Bone Matrix Proteins in C2C12 Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN-MING HU; SEAN A. F. PEEL; STEPHEN K. C. HO; GEORGE K. B. SANDOR; CAMERON M. L. CLOKIE

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of bone matrix protein (BMP) induced by bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in vitro. Methods Type I collagen, osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were detected by immunohistochemistry in C2C12 cultured from day 1 to day 28. Results The signaling of bone matrix protein expression became weaker except for type I collagen, OC and BSP after 5 days. Fourteen days after culture, the positive signaling of type I collagen, OPN, ON, OC, and BSP was gradually declined, and could be detected significantly as compared with that of the negative control on day 28. BMP assay showed that the Ikaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher in C2C12 culture than in the control during the 14-day culture. Also, total protein and DNA significantly increased during the 14-day culture. High levels of ALP were seen in preosteoblasts and osteoblsts in vivo and in differentiating ostcoblasts in vitro. ALP was well recognized as a marker reflecting osteoblastic activity. Conclusion Native bovine BMP induces conversion of myoblasts into osteoblasts, produces type 1 collagen, and plays significantly role in osteoinduction and bone matrix mineralization of C2C12 in vitro.

  14. Calcification preceding new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, K; Takagi, T

    1992-03-01

    Demineralized bone matrix gelatin (BMG) was implanted into the skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley (S.D.) rats, and histological changes were examined 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days later. Before bone formation, a specific calcification process was found in most of the BMG from day 5 and 7 after implantation. The heterotopic calcified sites were not always consistent with the sites of the alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that this calcification progresses without any cellular components, and we distinguished this type of calcification as "acellular mineral deposition" from the calcification which occurs in new bone formation. This "acellular mineral deposition" was first observed as small spherical calcified deposits in the BMG on day 7 after implantation; these deposits then gradually grew and fused with each other. Some multinucleated cells appeared near the site of calcification on day 7 after implantation, but osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells were scarcely observed around the calcified deposits in BMG until day 7. Vascularization was often observed near the "acellular mineral deposition" and the new bone formation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the calcified deposits in BMG were composed of hydroxyapatite, carbonateapatite and other calcium phosphate components, and that the first two components became prominent with time. It is believed that the "acellular mineral deposition" is due to the deposition of calcium and phosphate into the BMG by a process of heterogenic nucleation that does not involve osteoblasts or matrix vesicles. Bone formation induced by the BMG occurred after the "acellular mineral deposition." The experimental calcification shown in this paper seems a useful model for the study of biocalcification.

  15. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  16. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  17. Mineralized collagen scaffolds induce hMSC osteogenesis and matrix remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Daniel W; Caliari, Steven R; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-03-01

    Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering must be able to instruct cell behavior in the presence of the complex biophysical and biomolecular environments encountered in vivo. While soluble supplementation strategies have been identified to enhance osteogenesis, they are subject to significant diffusive loss in vivo or the need for frequent re-addition in vitro. This investigation therefore explored whether biophysical and biochemical properties of a mineralized collagen-GAG scaffold were sufficient to enhance human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) osteogenic differentiation and matrix remodeling in the absence of supplementation. We examined hMSC metabolic health, osteogenic and matrix gene expression profiles, as well as matrix remodeling and mineral formation as a function of scaffold mineral content. We found that scaffold mineral content enhanced long term hMSC metabolic activity relative to non-mineralized scaffolds. While osteogenic supplementation or exogenous BMP-2 could enhance some markers of hMSC osteogenesis in the mineralized scaffold, we found the mineralized scaffold was itself sufficient to induce osteogenic gene expression, matrix remodeling, and mineral formation. Given significant potential for unintended consequences with the use of mixed media formulations and potential for diffusive loss in vivo, these findings will inform the design of instructive biomaterials for regenerative repair of critical-sized bone defects, as well as for applications where non-uniform responses are required, such as in biomaterials to address spatially-graded interfaces between orthopedic tissues.

  18. Extracellular matrix mineralization in periodontal tissues: Noncollagenous matrix proteins, enzymes, and relationship to hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Marc D; Hoac, Betty; Addison, William N; Barros, Nilana M T; Millán, José L; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    As broadly demonstrated for the formation of a functional skeleton, proper mineralization of periodontal alveolar bone and teeth - where calcium phosphate crystals are deposited and grow within an extracellular matrix - is essential for dental function. Mineralization defects in tooth dentin and cementum of the periodontium invariably lead to a weak (soft or brittle) dentition in which teeth become loose and prone to infection and are lost prematurely. Mineralization of the extremities of periodontal ligament fibers (Sharpey's fibers) where they insert into tooth cementum and alveolar bone is also essential for the function of the tooth-suspensory apparatus in occlusion and mastication. Molecular determinants of mineralization in these tissues include mineral ion concentrations (phosphate and calcium), pyrophosphate, small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins and matrix vesicles. Amongst the enzymes important in regulating these mineralization determinants, two are discussed at length here, with clinical examples given, namely tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome. Inactivating mutations in these enzymes in humans and in mouse models lead to the soft bones and teeth characteristic of hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia, respectively, where the levels of local and systemic circulating mineralization determinants are perturbed. In X-linked hypophosphatemia, in addition to renal phosphate wasting causing low circulating phosphate levels, phosphorylated mineralization-regulating small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins, such as matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein and osteopontin, and the phosphorylated peptides proteolytically released from them, such as the acidic serine- and aspartate-rich-motif peptide, may accumulate locally to impair mineralization in this disease.

  19. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  20. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  1. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  2. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself.

  3. Solid state NMR study of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.

    1992-01-01

    In high field (9.4 T) CP MASS (cross polarization magic angle sample spinning) studies, in contrast to the scheme in the literature that infers the presence of minor constituents in spectra, we developed a new scheme to suppress the main part of the spectra to show the minor constituents. In order to perform in vivo solid state NMR studies, a double tuned two port surface coil probe was constructed. This probe is a modified version of the traditional Cross probe, which utilizes two 1/4 wave length 50 ohm transmission line, one with open ended and the other with shorted end, to isolate the high and low frequency circuits. The two resonance frequencies in Cross probe were proton and carbon. Our probe is designed to resonate at the proton and phosphorus frequencies, which are much closer to each other and hence more difficult to be tuned and matched simultaneously. Our approach to solve this problem is that instead of using standard 50 ohm transmission lines, we constructed a low capacity open end coaxial transmission line and low inductance shorted end coaxial transmission line. The Q of the phosphorus channel is high. We developed a short contact time cross polarization technique for non-MASS spectroscopy which reduces the signal of the major component of bone mineral to emphasize the minor component. By applying this technique on intact pork bone samples with our home made surface coil, we observed the wide line component, acid phosphate, for the first time. Hydroxyapatite, brushite and octacalcium are considered in the literature to be the model compounds for bone mineral. Cross polarization dynamics has been studied on hydroxyapatite and brushite, which yielded an NMR value for the distance between proton and phosphorus. One and two dimensional CP MASS spectroscopy of octacalcium phosphate were also studied, which revealed the different cross polarization rates and anisotropic channel shifts of acid phosphate and phosphate ions in octacalcium phosphate.

  4. Bone mineral density in patients on maintenance dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Csaba; Marton, Adrienn; Nemeth, Zsofia Klara; Mucsi, Istvan

    2010-09-01

    Disorders of bone and mineral metabolism affect almost all patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). High prevalence of decreased bone mineral density has been reported in this population; however, the role and diagnostic utility of bone density measurements are not well established. The incidence of bone fractures is high in patients with ESRD, but the association between fractures and bone density is not obvious. A recent meta-analysis suggested that decreased density at the radius might be associated with higher overall fracture risk. Changes in bone mineral density reflect several underlying pathological processes, such as vitamin D deficiency, estrogen deficiency and changes in bone turnover. The response of bone to these factors and processes is not uniform: it can vary in different compartments of the same bone or in different bones of the skeleton. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between the various types of bone. This may be possible by proper selection of the measurement site or using methods such as quantitative bone computed tomography. Previous studies used different methods and measured bone mineral density at diverse sites of the skeleton, which makes the comparison of their results very difficult. The association between changes in bone mineral metabolism and cardiovascular mortality is well known in ESRD patients. Studies also suggest that low bone density itself might be an indicator for high risk of cardiovascular events and poor overall outcome in this population. Some of the risk factors of low bone mineral density, such as vitamin D or estrogen deficiency, are potentially modifiable. Further studies are needed to elucidate if interventions modifying these risk factors will have an impact on clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the options for and problems of assessment of bone density and summarize the literature about factors associated with low bone density and its link to clinical outcomes in patients on

  5. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  6. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  7. Dichromatic absorptiometry of vertebral bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C R; Madsen, M

    1977-01-01

    A dichromatic photon absorptiometric technique for the in vivo measurement of the bone mineral of the spine is discussed. A high purity, high activity 153Gd source which has photons of predominantly 44 and 100 keV was used as the transmission source. The transmission scans were performed on a modified Ohio Nuclear whole body rectillinear scanner. The precision of four measurements on three individuals and three measurements on one individual over a one month period was 2.3% (coefficient of variation). The accuracy determined by measurements of phantoms with known concentrations of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solutions was 1.2% (standard error of estimate). This technique can be applied in most well equipped nuclear medicine departments.

  8. Biomineralization of a Self-Assembled Extracellular Matrix for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yizhi; DiMasi, Elaine; Ba, Xiaolan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Pernodet, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how biomineralization occurs in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone cells is crucial to the understanding of bone formation and the development of a successfully engineered bone tissue scaffold. It is still unclear how ECM mechanical properties affect protein-mineral interactions in early stages of bone mineralization. We investigated the longitudinal mineralization properties of MC3T3-E1 cells and the elastic modulus of their ECM using shear modulation force microscopy, synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The elastic modulus of the ECM fibers underwent significant changes for the mineralizing cells, which were not observed in the nonmineralizing cells. On substrates conducive to ECM network production, the elastic modulus of mineralizing cells increased at time points corresponding to mineral production, whereas that of the nonmineralizing cells did not vary over time. The presence of hydroxyapatite in mineralizing cells and the absence thereof in the nonmineralizing ones were confirmed by GIXD, and CLSM showed that a restructuring of actin occurred only for mineral-producing cells. These results show that the correct and complete development of the ECM network is required for osteoblasts to mineralize. This in turn requires a suitably prepared synthetic substrate for bone development to succeed in vitro. PMID:18759666

  9. Biomineralization of a Self-Assembled Extracellular Matrix for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizhi, M.; Yi-Xian, Q; DiMasi, E; Xiaolan, B; Rafailovich, M; Pernodet, N

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how biomineralization occurs in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone cells is crucial to the understanding of bone formation and the development of a successfully engineered bone tissue scaffold. It is still unclear how ECM mechanical properties affect protein-mineral interactions in early stages of bone mineralization. We investigated the longitudinal mineralization properties of MC3T3-E1 cells and the elastic modulus of their ECM using shear modulation force microscopy, synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The elastic modulus of the ECM fibers underwent significant changes for the mineralizing cells, which were not observed in the nonmineralizing cells. On substrates conducive to ECM network production, the elastic modulus of mineralizing cells increased at time points corresponding to mineral production, whereas that of the nonmineralizing cells did not vary over time. The presence of hydroxyapatite in mineralizing cells and the absence thereof in the nonmineralizing ones were confirmed by GIXD, and CLSM showed that a restructuring of actin occurred only for mineral-producing cells. These results show that the correct and complete development of the ECM network is required for osteoblasts to mineralize. This in turn requires a suitably prepared synthetic substrate for bone development to succeed in vitro.

  10. Tendon gradient mineralization for tendon to bone interface integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2013-11-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a "bone-to-bone" interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into five groups: (1) normal FDP tendon, (2) CaP (non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), (3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2 HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), (4) CaPFetuin (non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and (5) CaPEXTFetuin (extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 µm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction.

  11. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  12. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  13. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Ade, Peter; Marten, Berit; Weber, Petra; Timm, Wolfram; Açil, Yahya; Glüer, Claus-C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have shown positive effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on mineral absorption and metabolism and bone composition and architecture. These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride. A positive outcome of dietary prebiotics is promoted by a high dietary calcium content up to a threshold level and an optimum amount and composition of supplemented prebiotics. There might be an optimum composition of fructooligosaccharides with different chain lengths (synergy products). The efficacy of dietary prebiotics depends on chronological age, physiological age, menopausal status, and calcium absorption capacity. There is evidence for an independent probiotic effect on facilitating mineral absorption. Synbiotics, i.e., a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, can induce additional effects. Whether a low content of habitual NDO would augment the effect of dietary prebiotics or synbiotics remains to be studied. The underlying mechanisms are manifold: increased solubility of minerals because of increased bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids, which is promoted by the greater supply of substrate; an enlargement of the absorption surface by promoting proliferation of enterocytes mediated by bacterial fermentation products, predominantly lactate and butyrate; increased expression of calcium-binding proteins; improvement of gut health; degradation of mineral complexing phytic acid; release of bone-modulating factors such as phytoestrogens from foods; stabilization of the intestinal flora and ecology, also in the presence of antibiotics; stabilization of the intestinal mucus; and impact of modulating growth factors such as polyamines. In conclusion, prebiotics are the most promising but also best investigated substances with respect to a bone-health-promoting potential, compared with probiotics

  14. HBM Mice Have Altered Bone Matrix Composition and Improved Material Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ryan D; Mashiatulla, Maleeha; Acerbo, Alvin S; Almer, Jonathan D; Miller, Lisa M; Johnson, Mark L; Sumner, D Rick

    2016-10-01

    The G171V mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) leads to a high bone mass (HBM) phenotype. Studies using HBM transgenic mouse models have consistently found increased bone mass and whole-bone strength, but little attention has been paid to the composition of the bone matrix. The current study sought to determine if the cortical bone matrix composition differs in HBM and wild-type mice and to determine how much of the variance in bone material properties is explained by variance in matrix composition. Consistent with previous studies, HBM mice had greater cortical area, moment of inertia, ultimate force, bending stiffness, and energy to failure than wild-type animals. The increased energy to failure was primarily caused by a large increase in post-yield behavior, with no difference in pre-yield behavior. The HBM mice had increased mineral-to-matrix and collagen cross-link ratios, and decreased crystallinity, carbonate, and acid phosphate substitution as measured by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, but no differences in crystal length, intra-fibular strains, and mineral spacing compared to wild-type controls, as measured by X-ray scattering. The largest between genotype difference in material properties was a twofold increase in the modulus of toughness in HBM mice. Step-wise regression analyses showed that the specific matrix compositional parameters most closely associated with material properties varied between the wild-type and HBM genotypes. Although the mechanisms controlling the paradoxical combination of more mineralized yet tougher bone in HBM mice remain to be fully explained, the findings suggest that LRP5 represents a target to not only build bone mass but also to improve bone quality.

  15. Nanoporous Structure of Bone Matrix at Osteoporosis from Data of Atomic Force Microscopy and IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gaidash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that in an osteoporotic bone the fraction of nanosized pores decreases, the mineral phase amorphizes, hydrated shells around mineralized particles of the bone matrix thicken, and adhesion forces increase. This contributes to the formation of water clusters similar to bulk water clusters compared to the healthy bone tissue and leads to the accumulation of more viscous liquid with increased intermolecular interaction forces in the pores of the bone matrix. Given this, the rates of chemical reactions proceeding in the water phase of ultrathin channels of general parts of collagen fibrils decrease. Ultimately, nanopores of collagen-apatite interfaces lose, to a certain extent, the capability of catalyzing the hydroxyapatite crystallization.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  17. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  18. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D' Haese, Patrick C. [Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium); Van Hoof, Viviane O. [Department of Biochemistry, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Bohic, Sylvain [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l{sup -1} in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  19. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J S; Ding, M; Bednarz, P; van der Linden, J C; Mashiba, T; Hirano, T; Johnston, C C; Burr, D B; Hvid, I; Sumner, D R; Weinans, H

    2004-05-01

    Bisphosphonates are emerging as an important treatment for osteoporosis. But whether the reduced fracture risk associated with bisphosphonate treatment is due to increased bone mass, improved trabecular architecture and/or increased secondary mineralization of the calcified matrix remains unclear. We examined the effects of bisphosphonates on both the trabecular architecture and matrix properties of canine trabecular bone. Thirty-six beagles were divided into a control group and two treatment groups, one receiving risedronate and the other alendronate at 5-6 times the clinical dose for osteoporosis treatment. After one year, the dogs were killed, and samples from the first lumbar vertebrae were examined using a combination of micro-computed tomography, finite element modeling, and mechanical testing. By combining these methods, we examined the treatment effects on the calcified matrix and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage.

  20. Bone Mineral Density Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Characteristics of Bone Turnover Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Şahin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis, characterised with excessive new bone formation and calcification in spine and peripheral joints, causes osteoporosis which is a general component of inflammatory arthritis. Since is excessive bone formation affects bone mineral density, there are problems in diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis efforts made for finding the right diagnostic tool. Besides bone metabolism and turn-over in inflammatory diseases should be known in detail, because it has a place in diagnosis and follow-up. In this review, bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis, the importance and usage of bone turn-over parameters are discussed in the light of literature data.

  1. Nonenzymatic Glycation and Degree of Mineralization Are Higher in Bone From Fractured Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlay, Delphine; Armas, Laura A G; Gineyts, Evelyne; Akhter, Mohammed P; Recker, Robert R; Boivin, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy fractures are frequent complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (T1DM). Modifications of bone intrinsic composition might be a potential cause of fragility observed in diabetic subjects. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were found in numerous connective tissues from T1DM patients. However, whether AGEs are present at high levels in bone matrix from diabetic subjects is unknown. Moreover, whether elevated AGEs in the bone matrix impair mineralization has not been addressed in humans. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether bone matrix from fracturing and nonfracturing T1DM contained more AGEs than bone from healthy patients (CTL), and 2) to compare the degree of mineralization of bone and hardness between fracturing and nonfracturing T1DM versus CTL. We analyzed iliac crest bone biopsies from 5 fracturing T1DM patients, 5 nonfracturing T1DM patients, and 5 healthy subjects, all age- and sex-matched. AGEs (pentosidine) in bone matrix was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography separately in trabecular and cortical bone. The degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) was assessed by digitized microradiography, and mechanical properties by micro- and nanohardness tests. Trabecular bone from fracturing T1DM exhibited significantly higher levels of pentosidine than CTL (p = 0.04) and was more mineralized than nonfracturing T1DM (p = 0.04) and CTL (p = 0.04). Trabecular bone was not significantly different in pentosidine between nonfracturing T1DM and CTL. Cortical bone from nonfracturing T1DM was not significantly different from CTL. Positive correlations were found between HbA1c and pentosidine (r' = 0.79, p < 0.003) and between HbA1c and DMB (r' = 0.64, p < 0.02). Both modifications could lead to less flexible bone (reduced modulus of elasticity) and a tendency toward low-energy fractures in T1DM patients.

  2. Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

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    Nurgül Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine thechanges of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasisvulgaris.Methods: 33 patients, diagnosed with psoriasis vulgarisin Erciyes University, Medical School, Department of Dermatology,and 23 healthy subjects as control group wereincluded in this study. Lumbar and femur bone mineraldensity of all patients and control group were measured.Biochemical tests related to bone metabolism were performed.Results: We did not find statistically significant differencebetween patient and control groups’ bone mineral density.However, the lumbar spine t score of men, were found tobe significantly lower in the patient group than the controlgroup (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant differencein bone mineral density of women between thepatient and control groups. The effects on bone mineraldensity of disease period and using the topical corticosteroidswere not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study indicates that bone mineral densityof patients with psoriasis vulgaris was not differentfrom healthy subject.Key words: Psoriasis vulgaris, bone mineral density, osteoporosis

  3. Polyphosphates inhibit extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoac, Betty; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Millán, José Luis; McKee, Marc D

    2013-04-01

    Studies on various compounds of inorganic phosphate, as well as on organic phosphate added by post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, all demonstrate a central role for phosphate in biomineralization processes. Inorganic polyphosphates are chains of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds that can be up to hundreds of orthophosphates in length. The role of polyphosphates in mammalian systems, where they are ubiquitous in cells, tissues and bodily fluids, and are at particularly high levels in osteoblasts, is not well understood. In cell-free systems, polyphosphates inhibit hydroxyapatite nucleation, crystal formation and growth, and solubility. In animal studies, polyphosphate injections inhibit induced ectopic calcification. While recent work has proposed an integrated view of polyphosphate function in bone, little experimental data for bone are available. Here we demonstrate in osteoblast cultures producing an abundant collagenous matrix that normally show robust mineralization, that two polyphosphates (PolyP5 and PolyP65, polyphosphates of 5 and 65 phosphate residues in length) are potent mineralization inhibitors. Twelve-day MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures with added ascorbic acid (for collagen matrix assembly) and β-glycerophosphate (a source of phosphate for mineralization) were treated with either PolyP5 or PolyP65. Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification revealed that mineralization was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both polyphosphates, with complete mineralization inhibition at 10μM. Cell proliferation and collagen assembly were unaffected by polyphosphate treatment, indicating that polyphosphate inhibition of mineralization results not from cell and matrix effects but from direct inhibition of mineralization. This was confirmed by showing that PolyP5 and PolyP65 bound to synthetic hydroxyapatite in a concentration-dependent manner. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) efficiently hydrolyzed the two PolyPs as

  4. Changes in chemical composition of bone matrix in ovariectomized (OVX) rats detected by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Iimura, Tadahiro; Saitou, Takashi; Imamura, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a major bone disease that connotes the risk of fragility fractures resulting from alterations to bone quantity and/or quality to mechanical competence. Bone strength arises from both bone quantity and quality. Assessment of bone quality and bone quantity is important for prediction of fracture risk. In spite of the two factors contribute to maintain the bone strength, only one factor, bone mineral density is used to determine the bone strength in the current diagnosis of osteoporosis. On the other hand, there is no practical method to measure chemical composition of bone tissue including hydroxyapatite and collagen non-invasively. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to analyze chemical composition and material properties of bone matrix non-invasively. Here we demonstrated Raman spectroscopic analysis of the bone matrix in osteoporosis model rat. Ovariectomized (OVX) rat was made and the decalcified sections of tibias were analyzed by a Raman microscope. In the results, Raman bands of typical collagen appeared in the obtained spectra. Although the typical mineral bands at 960 cm-1 (Phosphate) was absent due to decalcified processing, we found that Raman peak intensities of amide I and C-C stretching bands were significantly different between OVX and sham-operated specimens. These differences on the Raman spectra were statistically compared by multivariate analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discrimination analysis (LDA). Our analyses suggest that amide I and C-C stretching bands can be related to stability of bone matrix which reflects bone quality.

  5. Effect of HIP/ribosomal protein L29 deficiency on mineral properties of murine bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloofman, Laura G; Verdelis, Kostas; Spevak, Lyudmila; Zayzafoon, Majd; Yamauchi, Mistuo; Opdenaker, Lynn M; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Boskey, Adele L; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B

    2010-07-01

    Mice lacking HIP/RPL29, a component of the ribosomal machinery, display increased bone fragility. To understand the effect of sub-efficient protein synthetic rates on mineralized tissue quality, we performed dynamic and static histomorphometry and examined the mineral properties of both bones and teeth in HIP/RPL29 knock-out mice using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). While loss of HIP/RPL29 consistently reduced total bone size, decreased mineral apposition rates were not significant, indicating that short stature is not primarily due to impaired osteoblast function. Interestingly, our microspectroscopic studies showed that a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking during maturation of HIP/RPL29-null bone precedes an overall enhancement in the relative extent of mineralization of both trabecular and cortical adult bones. This report provides strong genetic evidence that ribosomal insufficiency induces subtle organic matrix deficiencies which elevates calcification. Consistent with the HIP/RPL29-null bone phenotype, HIP/RPL29-deficient teeth also showed reduced geometric properties accompanied with relative increased mineral densities of both dentin and enamel. Increased mineralization associated with enhanced tissue fragility related to imperfection in organic phase microstructure evokes defects seen in matrix protein-related bone and tooth diseases. Thus, HIP/RPL29 mice constitute a new genetic model for studying the contribution of global protein synthesis in the establishment of organic and inorganic phases in mineral tissues.

  6. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  7. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  8. Biomarkers of bone and mineral metabolism following bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Kang, Moo Il

    2009-01-01

    The loss of bone mass often occurs after patients undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The rapid impairment of bone formation and the increase in bone resorption, as mirrored by the biochemical markers of bone turnover, might play a role in this bone loss, and especially during the immediate post-BMT period. The possible direct causes for this paradoxical uncoupling are exposure to immunosuppressants, hypogonadism, the changes of cytokines, the changes of the bone growth factors, and the damage to the osteoprogenitor cells because of myeloablative therapy. In this chapter, we discuss the general aspects of post-BMT bone loss with a peculiar focus on the remodeling imbalance of bone and its relation to the use of immunosuppressants and the changes of sex hormones, growth factors, and cytokines.

  9. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  10. Relationships between serum osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yi; SHEN Lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) have been shown to play a role in bone metabolism by degrading the bone matrix. The present study was undertaken to compare OPG and MMP-2 with bone mineral density and three markers (alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium and phosphorus) in postmenopausal women in Wuhan.Methods Serum OPG, MMP-2, and AKP of 78 Chinese postmenopausal women aged 48 to 65 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bone mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and serum calcium and phosphorus were measured by auto biochemical analysis.Results Serum OPG and MMP-2 concentrations were significantly higher in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis ((127.6±6.3) ng/L; (1388±121) μg/L)) than those in age-matched normal controls ((72.3±2.4) ng/L; (1126±141) μg/L,P<0.01). Negative relationships were found between serum OPG, MMP-2 levels and bone mineral density in osteoporotic women. Adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), the correlation of MMP-2 with bone mineral density of the neck of the femur disappeared. In osteoporotic women, negative correlations between OPG, MMP-2 levels and serum calcium were found (r=-0.216; r=-0.269, P<0.05), but positive correlations between OPG and serum AKP, serum phosphorus (r=0.235; r=0.124, P<0.05).Conclusions Significant correlations exist between serum OPG, MMP-2 levels and bone metabolism in high bone turnover of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The concentrations of serum OPG and MMP-2 increase possibly as a concomitant event in the high bone turnover state, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therefore serum OPG and MMP-2 could be used as indicators for the bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  11. Bone mineral status in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Amy; Ringelheim, Julie; Feldman, Henry A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2007-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by a deficiency in an adrenal enzyme resulting in alterations in cortisol and aldosterone production. Bone status is affected by chronic glucocorticoid therapy and excess androgen exposure in children with CAH. This cross-sectional study enrolled participants with 21-hydroxylase deficiency from a pediatric referral center. Bone mineral density in the participants was normal when compared to age, gender and ethnicity adjusted standards, with respect to chronological age or bone age. Lean body mass was positively correlated with bone mineral content (BMC), independent of fat mass (p bone status may be explained by the differential effects of glucocorticoids on growing bone, beneficial androgen effects, or other disease specific factors.

  12. The mechanical consequences of mineralization in embryonic bone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.J.M.; Donkelaar, C.C. van; Jepsen, K.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Weinans, H.; Burger, E.H.; Huiskes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mineralization on the mechanical properties of embryonic bone rudiments. For this purpose, four-point bending experiments were performed on unmineralized and mineralized embryonic mouse ribs at 16 and 17 days of gestational age. Young's modulus

  13. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency.......Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  14. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with nanocr......The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  15. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength.

  16. Assessment of bone mineral status in children with Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-ßeta, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone minerali...

  17. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior toward the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials.

  18. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  19. Response Of Mineralizing And Non-Mineralizing Bone Cells To Fluid Flow: An In Vitro Model For Mechanotransruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren A.

    2004-01-01

    osteoblasts, including increased proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and production of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and osteopontin. Several proteins have been implicated in osteoblastic mechanotransduction including Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). We will characterize relative levels of each protein in mineralizing or non-mineralizing MC3T3 osteoblastic cells that have been exposed to fluid flow compared to non-fluid flow using immunofluorescent staining and two- photon laser microscopy as well as western blotting. Because calcium-mediated pathways are important in osteoblastic signaling, we will transfect MC3T3 cells with cameleon probes for Ca2+ containing YFP and CFP. Results will be analyzed using FRET/FLIM to study differential release of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing matrix mineralization. In addition, we plan to conduct several microarray experiments to determine differential gene expression in MC3T3 cells in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing mineralization.

  20. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified......Bisphosphonates are emerging as an important treatment for osteoporosis. But whether the reduced fracture risk associated with bisphosphonate treatment is due to increased bone mass, improved trabecular architecture and/or increased secondary mineralization of the calcified matrix remains unclear....... We examined the effects of bisphosphonates on both the trabecular architecture and matrix properties of canine trabecular bone. Thirty-six beagles were divided into a control group and two treatment groups, one receiving risedronate and the other alendronate at 5-6 times the clinical dose...

  1. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  2. Transient precursor strategy in mineral formation of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Steve

    2006-09-01

    The strategy in biomineralization of initially depositing a less ordered mineral and then transforming it into a more crystalline mature phase is probably widespread among invertebrates. The report in this issue by N.J. Crane, V. Popescu, M.D. Morris, P. Steenhuis, M.A. Ignelzi, Raman spectroscopic evidence for octacalcium phosphate and other mineral species deposited during intramembraneous mineralization. Bone (In press), using micro-Raman spectroscopy to study early mineral deposits in mice calvaria, provides strong evidence that the transient precursor strategy also occurs in vertebrates.

  3. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  4. Ultrastructural studies on the origin and structure of matrix vesicles in bone of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Atkin, I; Levy, J

    1980-01-01

    Tibiae of young rats were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to study the origin and structure of matrix vesicles in periosteal bone. SEM studies have shown that periosteal osteoblasts have elongated processes with globular structures of 0.1 micron in diameter attached to the cell surface and processes. Similar structures were found to cover the inner surface of osteoblastic lacunae. The SEM studies have further shown that in the periosteal surface (forming bone) the above-described globules once mineralized, aggregated to form larger, nonhomogeneous mineralized spherules in which, by proper treatment with NaOCl, hydroxyapatite crystals could be exposed. Endosteal osteoblasts had fewer processes, devoid of the globular structures. Similarly, osteocytic and osteoclastic processes, although elongated and numberous, were not covered by the globular structures. In the matrix, collagen fibers of forming bone were randomly orientated, while in the deeper areas of bone they formed bundles with a longitudinal orientation. TEM studies have shown that the structures found on the osteoblastic surface and in the matrix are membrane-bound matrix vesicles which seem to be formed by budding from cell processes. Preformed membrane-bound vesicles were also observed by TEM inside sections of osteoblastic processes. These vesicles resembled the extracellular matrix vesicles in size and shape, thus giving the impression that at least some of the matrix vesicles are preformed cellular structures. While comparing SEM with TEM, it can be conducted that in bone, as in cartilage, matrix vesicles which probably serve as the initial locus of calcification, are formed directly by osteoblasts.

  5. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  6. EXERCISE AND BONE MINERAL ACCRUAL IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

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    Melonie Burrows

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease causing an increase in morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. Indeed, there has been a large emphasis on the prevention of osteoporosis through the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood and adolescence. The prepubertal human skeleton is sensitive to the mechanical stimulation elicited by exercise and there is increasing evidence that regular weight-bearing exercise is an effective strategy for enhancing bone mineral throughout growth. Physical activity or participation in sports needs to start at prepubertal ages and be maintained through pubertal development to obtain the maximal peak bone mass achievable. High strain eliciting sports like gymnastics, or participation in sports or weight bearing physical activity like soccer, are strongly recommended to increase peak bone mass. Many other factors also influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet and endocrine status. However, this review article will focus solely on the effects of physical activity and exercise providing a summary of current knowledge on the interplay between activity, exercise and bone mass development during growth. Due to the selection bias and other confounding factors inherent in cross-sectional studies, longitudinal and intervention studies only will be reviewed for they provide a greater opportunity to examine the influence of mechanical loading on bone mineral accretion over time

  7. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  8. A primary phosphorus-deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Owen, M A G; Fontanillas, R; Soenens, M; McGurk, C; Obach, A

    2016-02-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar.

  9. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced a

  10. Bone Mineral Density, PCB, PCQ and PCDF in Yusho

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 俊朗; 中野, 治郎; 枡田, 智子; 徳田, 昌紘; 榊原, 淳; 片岡, 英樹; 沖田, 実

    2009-01-01

    We measured bone mineral density of the distal end of radius with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum Ca, serum P, blood PCB level, blood PCQ level and blood PCDF level in Yusho. As a result, the osteoporosis group ( or = 70% and < 80% of YAM BMD), 16.1%, ...

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

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    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  12. Demineralized Bone Matrix Scaffolds Modified by CBD-SDF-1α Promote Bone Regeneration via Recruiting Endogenous Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajia; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Liang, Hui; Shi, Qin; Li, Xiaoran; Chen, Yanyan; Zhuang, Yan; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-10-07

    The reconstruction of bone usually depends on substitute transplantation, which has drawbacks including the limited bone substitutes available, comorbidity, immune rejection, and limited endogenous bone regeneration. Here, we constructed a functionalized bone substitute by combining application of the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and collagen-binding stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (CBD-SDF-1α). DBM was a poriferous and biodegradable bone substitute, derived from bovine bone and consisting mainly of collagen. CBD-SDF-1α could bind to collagen and be controllably released from the DBM to mobilize stem cells. In a rat femur defect model, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could efficiently mobilize CD34(+) and c-kit(+) endogenous stem cells homing to the injured site at 3 days after implantation. According to the data from micro-CT, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could help the bone defects rejoin with mineralization accumulated and bone volume expanded. Interestingly, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteopontin (OPN) were highly expressed in CBD-SDF-1α group at an early time after implantation, while osteocalcin (OCN) was more expanded. H&E and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffold group had more osteoblasts and that the bone defect rejoined earlier. The ultimate strength of the regenerated bone was investigated by three-point bending, showing that the CBD-SDF-1α group had superior strength. In conclusion, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could promote bone regeneration by recruiting endogenous stem cells.

  13. Identification of novel regulators of osteoblast matrix mineralization by time series transcriptional profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Katherine Ann; Zhu, Dongxing; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Bone mineralization is a carefully orchestrated process, regulated by a number of promoters and inhibitors that function to ensure effective hydroxyapatite formation. Here we sought to identify new regulators of this process through a time series microarray analysis of mineralising primary osteoblast cultures over a 27 day culture period. To our knowledge this is the first microarray study investigating murine calvarial osteoblasts cultured under conditions that permit both physiological extracellular matrix mineralization through the formation of discrete nodules and the terminal differentiation of osteoblasts into osteocytes. RT-qPCR was used to validate and expand the microarray findings. We demonstrate the significant up-regulation of >6,000 genes during the osteoblast mineralization process, the highest-ranked differentially expressed genes of which were those dominated by members of the PPAR-γ signalling pathway, namely Adipoq, Cd36 and Fabp4. Furthermore, we show that the inhibition of this signalling pathway promotes matrix mineralisation in these primary osteoblast cultures. We also identify Cilp, Phex, Trb3, Sox11, and Psat1 as novel regulators of matrix mineralization. Further studies examining the precise function of the identified genes and their interactions will advance our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning biomineralization.

  14. Impairment of mineralization by metavanadate and decavanadate solutions in a fish bone-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiago, Daniel M; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M Leonor; Aureliano, Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Vanadium, a trace metal known to accumulate in bone and to mimic insulin, has been shown to regulate mammalian bone formation using in vitro and in vivo systems. In the present work, short- and long-term effects of metavanadate (containing monomeric, dimeric, tetrameric and pentameric vanadate species) and decavanadate (containing decameric vanadate species) solutions on the mineralization of a fish bone-derived cell line (VSa13) were studied and compared to that of insulin. After 2 h of incubation with vanadate (10 microM in monomeric vanadate), metavanadate exhibited higher accumulation rates than decavanadate (6.85 +/- 0.40 versus 3.95 +/- 0.10 microg V/g of protein, respectively) in fish VSa13 cells and was also shown to be less toxic when applied for short periods. In longer treatments with both metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, similar effects were promoted: stimulation of cell proliferation and strong impairment (75%) of extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. The effect of both vanadate solutions (5 microM in monomeric vanadate), on ECM mineralization was increased in the presence of insulin (10 nM). It is concluded that chronic treatment with both vanadate solutions stimulated fish VSa13 cells proliferation and prevented ECM mineralization. Newly developed VSa13 fish cells appeared to be appropriate in the characterization of vanadate effects on vertebrate bone formation, representing a good alternative to mammalian systems.

  15. Murine metapodophalangeal sesamoid bones: morphology and potential means of mineralization underlying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Lowder, Elizabeth M; Jacquet, Robin D; Landis, William J

    2010-05-01

    Normal murine metapodophalangeal sesamoid bones, closely associated with tendons, were examined in terms of their structure and mineralization with reference to their potential function following crystal deposition. This study utilized radiography, whole mount staining, histology, and conventional electron microscopy to establish a maturation timeline of mineral formation in 1- to 6-week-old metapodophalangeal sesamoids from CD-1 mice. An intimate cellular and structural relationship was documented in more detail than previously described between the sesamoid bone, tendon, and fibrocartilage enthesis at the metapodophalangeal joint. Sesamoid calcification began in 1-week lateral sesamoids of the murine metacarpophalangeal joint of the second digit. All sesamoids were completely calcified by 4 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy of 2-week metacarpophalangeal sesamoids revealed extensive Type I collagen in the associated tendon and fibrocartilage insertion sites and Type II collagen and proteoglycan networks in the interior of the sesamoid. No extracellular matrix vesicles were documented. The results demonstrate that murine sesamoid bones consist of cartilage elaborated by chondrocytes that predominantly synthesize and secrete Type II collagen and proteoglycan. Type II collagen and proteoglycans appear responsible for the onset and progression of mineral formation in this tissue. These data contribute to new understanding of the biochemistry, ultrastructure, and mineralization of sesamoids in relation to other bones and calcifying cartilage and tendon of vertebrates. They also reflect on the potentially important but currently uncertain function of sesamoids as serving as a fulcrum point along a tendon, foreshortening its length and altering advantageously its biomechanical properties with respect to tendon-muscle interaction.

  16. Bone mineral imaging using a digital magnification mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Fukai; Tokumori, Kenji; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Arimura, Hidetaka; Morishita, Junji; Ohki, Masafumi

    2008-03-01

    The measurement of bone mineral content is important for diagnosis of demineralization diseases such as osteoporosis. A reliable method of obtaining bone mineral images using a digital magnification mammography system has been developed. The full-field digital phase contrast mammography (PCM) system, which has a molybdenum target of 0.1mm focal spot size, was used with 1.75 x magnification. We have performed several phantom experiments using aluminum step wedges (0.2 mm - 6.0 mm in thickness) and a bone mineral standard phantom composed of calcium carbonate and polyurethane (CaCO 3 concentration: 26.7 - 939.0 mg/cm 3) within a water or Lucite phantom. X-ray spectra on the exposure field are measured using a CdTe detector for evaluation of heel effect. From the equations of x-ray attenuation and the thickness of the subjects, quantitative images of both components were obtained. The quantitative images of the two components were obtained for different tube voltages of 24 kV to 39 kV. The relative accuracy was less than 2.5% for the entire aluminum thickness of 0.5 to 6.0 mm at 5 cm water thickness. Accuracy of bone mineral thickness was within 3.5% for 5cm water phantom. The magnified quantitative images of a hand phantom significantly increased the visibility of fine structures of bones. The digital magnification mammography system is useful not only for measurement of bone mineral content, but also high-resolution quantitative imaging of trabecular structure.

  17. 1Alpha,25-(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeckel, V J; Alves, R D A M; Swagemakers, S M A; Eijken, M; Chiba, H; van der Eerden, B C J; van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2010-11-01

    1Alpha,25-dihydroxyitamin D(3) (1,25D3) deficiency leads to impaired bone mineralization. We used the human pre-osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO, which forms within 19 days of culture an extracellular matrix that starts to mineralize around day 12, to examine the mechanism by which 1,25D3 regulates osteoblasts and directly stimulates mineralization. Time phase studies showed that 1,25D3 treatment prior to the onset of mineralization, rather than during mineralization led to accelerated and enhanced mineralization. This is supported by the observation of unaltered stimulation by 1,25D3 even when osteoblasts were devitalized just prior to onset of mineralization and after 1,25D3 treatment. Gene Chip expression profiling identified the pre-mineralization and mineralization phase as two strongly distinctive transcriptional periods with only 0.6% overlap of genes regulated by 1,25D3. In neither phase 1,25D3 significantly altered expression of extracellular matrix genes. 1,25D3 significantly accelerated the production of mature matrix vesicles (MVs) in the pre-mineralization. Duration rather than timing determined the extent of the 1,25D3 effect. We propose the concept that besides indirect effects via intestinal calcium uptake 1,25D3 directly accelerates osteoblast-mediated mineralization via increased production of mature MVs in the period prior to mineralization. The accelerated deposition of mature MVs leads to an earlier onset and higher rate of mineralization. These effects are independent of changes in extracellular matrix protein composition. These data on 1,25D3, mineralization, and MV biology add new insights into the role of 1,25D3 in bone metabolism and emphasize the importance of MVs in bone and maintaining bone health and strength by optimal mineralization status.

  18. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  19. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    sites (12%-13%, corresponding to about 1.0-1.5 SD), and extrapolation suggested reverse order of the rates of diminution thereafter (forearm > AP > LAT). When bone mineral content of the entire L3 vertebra (tBMC) was measured in vivo, AP tBMC could account for only 67% of the variation in LAT t...

  20. Bone Mineral Density Reduction Following Irradiation of Brain Tumors

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Total body bone mineral density (TBBMD was measured by X-ray absorptiometry in 46 brain tumor patients aged from 3.8 to 28.7 years (mean 14.9 y at a mean of 6.4 y (range 1.4-14.8 y after end of treatment for brain tumor.

  1. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  2. Peroxidase Enzymes Regulate Collagen Biosynthesis and Matrix Mineralization by Cultured Human Osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Shoubridge, Alexandra J; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Liapis, Vasilios; Zysk, Aneta; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The early recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of bone fracture and trauma is a critical determinant in successful fracture healing. Released by infiltrating inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, whose functional involvement in bone repair has mainly been studied in the context of providing a mechanism for oxidative defense against invading microorganisms. We report here novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes have the capacity to stimulate osteoblastic cells to secrete collagen I protein and generate a mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured osteoblasts show that peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl hydroxylase-dependent manner, which does not require ascorbic acid. Our studies demonstrate that osteoblasts rapidly bind and internalize both MPO and EPO, and the catalytic activity of these peroxidase enzymes is essential to support collagen I biosynthesis and subsequent release of collagen by osteoblasts. We show that EPO is capable of regulating osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization in culture, suggesting that peroxidase enzymes may play an important role not only in normal bone repair, but also in the progression of pathological states where infiltrating inflammatory cells are known to deposit peroxidases.

  3. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  4. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

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    Rubenbauer Bianka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM. Methods and results From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10 or DBM-augmentation (n = 10. At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014. Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group and 41.2 months (DBM-group. All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20% whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146. No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20% (p = 0.146. Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326. However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031. Conclusion With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160

  5. The influence of MicroRNA-150 in Osteoblast Matrix Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Ling; Liu, Hao-Zhi; Zhang, Zhen-Chun; Zhao, Huan-Li; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Yan; Yao, Jian-Hua; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of miR-150 expression on osteoblast matrix mineralization and its mechanisms. The mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 was used as an in vitro model of bone formation. On the fifth day of mineralization, transfection experiments using agomiR-150, agomiR-NC, antagomiR-150 antagomiR-NC, and mock groups were set up to test the effects of miR-150 in MC3T3-E1 model. The mRNA and protein levels of OC, ALP, type I collagen, and OPN were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Matrix mineralization was detected by alizarin red S (ARS) staining and flow cytometry was employed to quantify apoptosis in each group. RT-PCR and Western blot were applied to detect the expression of target gene MMP14. Our results demonstrated that the endogenous expression levels of miR-150, OC, ALP, type I collagen, and OPN in MC3T3-E1 cells increased steadily. Exogenous expressions of agomiR-150 and antagomiR-150 can significantly up-/down-regulate, respectively, the expression level of miR-150 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Compared with the mock group, higher expression levels of OC, ALP, type I collagen, and OPN mRNA were observed in the agomiR-150 group, while lower mRNA expression levels of OC, ALP, type I collagen, and OPN were found in the antagomiR-150 group. Based on these results, potential miR-150 targeted genes are discussed. Our results showed that miR-150 supports the osteoblastic phenotype related to osteoblast function and bone mineralization. Thus, miR-150 may have potential therapeutic applications in promoting bone formation in certain disease settings, such as in osteoporosis and in elderly patients.

  6. 1α,25-(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J. Woeckel (Viola); R.D.A.M. Alves (Rodrigo); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); H.J.M. Eijken (Marco); H. Chiba (Hideki); B.C.J. van der Eerden (Bram); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstract1α,25-dihydroxyitamin D3 (1,25D3) deficiency leads to impaired bone mineralization. We used the human pre-osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO, which forms within 19 days of culture an extracellular matrix that starts to mineralize around day 12, to examine the mechanism by which 1,25D3 regulat

  7. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  8. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

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    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  9. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Dosa, Laura; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7 ± 3.8 years) KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT). Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p < 0.005) and BTT (p < 0.0005) z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p < 0.0001) and significantly lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.0001), osteocalcin (p < 0.05), and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p < 0.005). Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages. PMID:27413371

  10. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  11. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

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    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  12. Characterization of mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Biraja P; Silva, Emilio; Van Vliet, Krystyn; Gibson, Lorna J

    2008-05-01

    Mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds designed for bone regeneration have been synthesized via triple co-precipitation in the absence of a titrant phase. Here, we characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of these newly developed scaffolds with 50 and 75 wt.% mineral content. The 50 wt.% scaffold had an equiaxed pore structure with isotropic mechanical properties and a Ca-P-rich mineral phase comprised of brushite; the 75 wt.% scaffold had a bilayer structure with a pore size varying in the through-thickness direction and a mineral phase comprised of 67% brushite and 33 wt.% monetite. The compressive stress-strain response of the scaffolds was characteristic of low-density open-cell foams with distinct linear elastic, collapse plateau and densification regimes. The elastic modulus and strength of individual struts within the scaffolds were measured using an atomic force microscopy cantilevered beam-bending technique and compared with the composite response under indentation and unconfined compression. Cellular solids models, using the measured strut properties, overestimated the overall mechanical properties for the scaffolds; the discrepancy arises from defects such as disconnected pore walls within the scaffold. As the scaffold stiffness and strength decreased with increasing overall mineral content and were less than that of natural, mineralized collagen scaffolds, these microstructural/mechanical relations will be used to further improve scaffold design for bone regeneration applications.

  13. Dentin extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins: comparison to bone ECM and contribution to dynamics of dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William T; Brunn, Jan C; Qin, Chunlin

    2003-01-01

    Dentinogenesis involves the initial odontoblastic synthesis of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) and predentin that is converted to dentin when the collagen fibrils become mineralized. Since the width of predentin is rather uniform, we postulate that extracellular events regulate dentinogenesis. Similarly, osteogenesis involves an initial unmineralized osteoid that is mineralized and converted to bone. To gain insights into these two processes, we compared ECM proteins in bone with those in dentin, focusing upon the sialic acid (SA)-rich proteins. We observed qualitative similarities between the SA-rich proteins, but distinct differences in the amounts of osteopontin (OPN) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). OPN, a predominant protein in bone, was found in much smaller amounts in dentin. Conversely, DSP was abundant in dentin ECM, but found sparingly in bone. Molecular cloning experiments indicate that coding sequences for DSP and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) are found on the same mRNA. We believe that the initial form of the precursor protein DSPP is inactive in influencing the mineralization process and that it must be activated by cleavage of peptide bonds in conserved regions. Thus, unknown proteinases would act on DSPP, possibly at the mineralization front, and liberate active DPP, which plays an initiation and regulatory role in the formation of apatite crystals. This post-translational processing reaction would represent an important control point in dentinogenesis. Recently, we identified uncleaved DSPP in dentin extracts, which should allow us to test portions of our hypothesis.

  14. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  15. Spine fusion using cell matrix composites enriched in bone marrow-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschler, George F; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting.

  16. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Patients Receiving Anticonvulsant Drugs

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    Kadir Yıldırım

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine possible effects of anticonvulsant drugs on bone mineral density. Twenty two patients with epilepsy who have been receiving anticonvulsant drugs and also 22 healthy controls were included in the study. The average age was 28.9 ± 8.9 years in the patients group and 30.5 ± 6.9 years in the control group. The average drug receiving time was 6.45 ± 4.2 years. At baseline ESR, hemogram, urine deoxypiridinoline (DPD, routine biochemical and hormonal values were determined in both groups. Lumbar spine and left femur bone mineral density (BMD values were determined with hologic 2000 DEXA. In the statistical analysis, urine DPD levels in the patient group were significantly higher than control group (p0.05. Lumbar spine and left femur BMD values were significantly decreased in patients group (respectively p<0.01, p<0.001. We determined that in the patients using anticonvulsant drugs there was an increase in bone resorption and this effect was more evident in cortical bone than trabecular bone.

  18. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  19. Bone induction by composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and deminiralized bone matrix in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinholt, E.M.; Solheim, E. (Institute for Surgical Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo (Norway)); Bang, G. (Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, University of Bergen (Norway)); Sudmann, E. (Hagavik Orthopedic Hospital, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1991-01-01

    A composite of a local, sustained, drug-release system, Alzamer bioerodible polyorthoester, and demineralized bone-matrix (DBM) particles implanted in the abdominal muscle of 89 Wistar rats induced cartilage and bone formation at the same rate as DBM when evaluated histologically and by {sup 85}Sr uptake. The composite implant was technically easier to use than DBM alone. (author).

  20. Bone induction by composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and demineralized bone matrix in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E; Bang, G

    1991-01-01

    A composite of a local, sustained, drug-release system, Alzamer bioerodible polyorthoester, and demineralized bone-matrix (DBM) particles implanted in the abdominal muscle of 89 Wistar rats induced cartilage and bone formation at the same rate as DBM when evaluated histologically and by 85Sr uptake...

  1. Validation of a simple and fast method to quantify in vitro mineralization with fluorescent probes used in molecular imaging of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moester, Martiene J C; Schoeman, Monique A E; Oudshoorn, Ineke B; van Beusekom, Mara M; Mol, Isabel M; Kaijzel, Eric L; Löwik, Clemens W G M; de Rooij, Karien E

    2014-01-01

    Alizarin Red S staining is the standard method to indicate and quantify matrix mineralization during differentiation of osteoblast cultures. KS483 cells are multipotent mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells that can differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts and are a well-characterized model for the study of bone formation. Matrix mineralization is the last step of differentiation of bone cells and is therefore a very important outcome measure in bone research. Fluorescently labelled calcium chelating agents, e.g. BoneTag and OsteoSense, are currently used for in vivo imaging of bone. The aim of the present study was to validate these probes for fast and simple detection and quantification of in vitro matrix mineralization by KS483 cells and thus enabling high-throughput screening experiments. KS483 cells were cultured under osteogenic conditions in the presence of compounds that either stimulate or inhibit osteoblast differentiation and thereby matrix mineralization. After 21 days of differentiation, fluorescence of stained cultures was quantified with a near-infrared imager and compared to Alizarin Red S quantification. Fluorescence of both probes closely correlated to Alizarin Red S staining in both inhibiting and stimulating conditions. In addition, both compounds displayed specificity for mineralized nodules. We therefore conclude that this method of quantification of bone mineralization using fluorescent compounds is a good alternative for the Alizarin Red S staining.

  2. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  3. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  4. Mechanism of de novo mineral formation by matrix vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthier, R E

    1989-01-01

    Matrix vesicles (MV) induce mineralization by compartmentalization of ion accumulation and crystal nucleation within membrane-enclosed extracellular microstructures. MV derive from cell surface microvilli by processes that cause selective enrichment of specific proteins, enzymes, lipids, and electrolytes. Incubated in synthetic cartilage lymph (SCL), MV accumulate Ca2+ and Pi, inducing mineral formation in a sequence of stages that can be altered by specific affectors. Rapid uptake of mineral ions by MV precedes formation of the first crystalline phase, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which later converts to apatite (HAP). Early uptake of Ca2+ and Pi by MV is pH and protease sensitive, and is stimulated by o-phenanthroline (OP), a Zn2+ chelator. Recent studies reveal that a quantitatively major group of MV proteins bind to Ca2+ with high affinity in a lipid-dependent manner. These MV proteins appear to be involved in transport and accumulation of Ca2+ and Pi by MV, and may catalyze nucleation of the first mineral phase.

  5. Quantification of bone mineral density to define osteoporosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M; Mandal, S K; Sengupta, S; Arshad, M; Singh, M M

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis centers on assessment of bone mass and quality. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines to assess bone status in laboratory animals and unsuitability of use of T-/Z-scores meant for clinical application in animal studies, most investigators involved in new drug research and development employ clinical biomarkers and kits to assess bone turnover rate and portray change in bone mineral density (BMD) as percentage of increase/decrease, making comparative assessment of the effect highly impractical. This study proposes threshold boundaries of BMD (rT-score) in colony-bred Sprague-Dawley rats, distinct from those used clinically. Boundaries were obtained keeping fixed Type-I error (alpha=0.025). Femur neck was considered best for defining bone status using BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Findings demonstrate that BMD-1.96 and <-0.80 rT-score as osteopenia. Performance of boundaries to ascertain bone status was examined through simulation under different physiological/ hormonal states viz. estrogen deficiency, ageing, estrus cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.98 obtained using BMD of femur neck, being close to unity, shows excellent ability of the proposed rT-score to effectively identify osteoporosis. Further studies using certain hierarchical measures of bone quality such as histomorphometry, mechanical testing etc. could supplement these findings. Since, unlike humans, most laboratory animals including rats only exhibit osteopenia and do not fracture their bones, the proposed thresholds are intended to serve as categorical tools to define bone quality and not to predict fracture risk.

  6. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  7. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sumru Özel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T s...

  8. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  9. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

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    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  10. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

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    Andreas O. Parashis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  11. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  12. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  14. [Bone mineral density, PCB, PCQ and PCDF in Yusho].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshiro; Nakano, Jiro; Masuda, Tomoko; Tokuda, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Atsushi; Kataoka, Hideki; Okita, Minoru

    2009-05-01

    We measured bone mineral density of the distal end of radius with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum Ca, serum P, blood PCB level, blood PCQ level and blood PCDF level in Yusho. As a result, the osteoporosis group ( or = 70% and or = 80% of YAM BMD) group was 76.8%. Also, 42.3% of all female tested subjects observed in osteoporosis group. The moderate group, 19.2%, the normal group was 38.5%. There was no difference in PCB blood level, PCQ, PCDF for men and women in osteoporosis group, moderate group, and in the normal group. Serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen increased in the male osteoporosis group, but serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase did not change. This study was inconclusive since the results did not determine the influence that PCB, PCQ, PCDF gave to bone density and bone metabolism.

  15. Bone matrix calcification during embryonic and postembryonic rat calvarial development assessed by SEM-EDX spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy.

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    Henmi, Akiko; Okata, Hiroshi; Anada, Takahisa; Yoshinari, Mariko; Mikami, Yasuto; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasano, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bone mineral is constituted of biological hydroxyapatite crystals. In developing bone, the mineral crystal matures and the Ca/P ratio increases. However, how an increase in the Ca/P ratio is involved in maturation of the crystal is not known. The relationships among organic components and mineral changes are also unclear. The study was designed to investigate the process of calcification during rat calvarial bone development. Calcification was evaluated by analyzing the atomic distribution and concentration of Ca, P, and C with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and changes in the crystal structure with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Histological analysis showed that rat calvarial bone formation started around embryonic day 16. The areas of Ca and P expanded, matching the region of the developing bone matrix, whereas the area of C became localized around bone. X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis showed that the amorphous-like structure of the minerals at embryonic day 16 gradually transformed into poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite, whereas the proportion of mineral to protein increased until postnatal week 6. FTIR analysis also showed that crystallization of hydroxyapatite started around embryonic day 20, by which time SEM-EDX spectroscopy showed that the Ca/P ratio had increased and the C/Ca and C/P ratios had decreased significantly. The study suggests that the Ca/P molar ratio increases and the proportion of organic components such as proteins of the bone matrix decreases during the early stage of calcification, whereas crystal maturation continues throughout embryonic and postembryonic bone development.

  16. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  17. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  18. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Hua-Ling Ruan; Yi Lia Min Zhang; Chang-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism.Methods:A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other.Results:In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis.

  19. Contribution of matrix vesicles and alkaline phosphatase to ectopic bone formation

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    Ciancaglini P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Endochondral calcification involves the participation of matrix vesicles (MVs, but it remains unclear whether calcification ectopically induced by implants of demineralized bone matrix also proceeds via MVs. Ectopic bone formation was induced by implanting rat demineralized diaphyseal bone matrix into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of Wistar rats and was examined histologically and biochemically. Budding of MVs from chondrocytes was observed to serve as nucleation sites for mineralization during induced ectopic osteogenesis, presenting a diameter with Gaussian distribution with a median of 306 ± 103 nm. While the role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP during mineralization involves hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi, it is unclear how the microenvironment of MV may affect the ability of TNAP to hydrolyze the variety of substrates present at sites of mineralization. We show that the implants contain high levels of TNAP capable of hydrolyzing p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP, ATP and PPi. The catalytic properties of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored, polidocanol-solubilized and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-released TNAP were compared using pNPP, ATP and PPi as substrates. While the enzymatic efficiency (k cat/Km remained comparable between polidocanol-solubilized and membrane-bound TNAP for all three substrates, the k cat/Km for the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized enzyme increased approximately 108-, 56-, and 556-fold for pNPP, ATP and PPi, respectively, compared to the membrane-bound enzyme. Our data are consistent with the involvement of MVs during ectopic calcification and also suggest that the location of TNAP on the membrane of MVs may play a role in determining substrate selectivity in this micro-compartment.

  20. Synthetic nacre by predesigned matrix-directed mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li-Bo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Yao, Hong-Bin; Liu, Lei; Cölfen, Helmut; Liu, Gang; Chen, Si-Ming; Li, Shi-Kuo; Yan, You-Xian; Liu, Yang-Yi; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Although biomimetic designs are expected to play a key role in exploring future structural materials, facile fabrication of bulk biomimetic materials under ambient conditions remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a mesoscale “assembly-and-mineralization” approach inspired by the natural process in mollusks to fabricate bulk synthetic nacre that highly resembles both the chemical composition and the hierarchical structure of natural nacre. The millimeter-thick synthetic nacre consists of alternating organic layers and aragonite platelet layers (91 weight percent) and exhibits good ultimate strength and fracture toughness. This predesigned matrix-directed mineralization method represents a rational strategy for the preparation of robust composite materials with hierarchically ordered structures, where various constituents are adaptable, including brittle and heat-labile materials.

  1. Serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

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    Lie T. Merijanti Susanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since high bone turnover is associated with decreased bone mass, biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict fractures in elderly women, particulary those involving trabecular bone, and use of a combination of bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers may improve fracture prediction. The serum levels of osteocalcin constitute a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. Compared to imaging techniques, assays for osteocalcin are safe, noninvasive and easily performed. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women in South Jakarta from February to April 2010. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric characteristics, serum osteocalcin levels and BMD. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the left distal radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean serum osteocalcin was 28.99 ± 10.02 ng/ml. The Pearson correlation test on all subjects indicated a significant inverse correlation between serum osteocalcin and femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.29; p=0.034. By arranging the data into tertiles, a significant association was found in non-obese subjects between mean femoral neck BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.036. The Tukey posthoc multiple comparison test showed a significant mean difference in femoral neck BMD between the lowest and the highest tertiles of osteocalcin serum concentrations (p=0.028. Maintenance of body weight is important for maintaining BMD in postmenopausal women.

  2. Mechanisms of Bone Mineralization and Effects of Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The data suggest that PTH and PKC inhibit nodule formation, and that alternative energy sources are utilized by osteoblasts in the process of mineralization. The conditions and techniques to grow, fix, photograph, and measure bone mineralization in vitro were defined. The results are presently in preliminary form and require further assessment as follows; quantitate the surface area of nodules + treatments via computer-aided image analysis; use PTH + inhibitors of signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of nodule formation; determine how protein kinase C is involved as a promotor of nodule formation; cell proliferation vs. cell death affected by modulation of signal transduction (i.e., PTH, enzyme inhibitors and activators); identify mRNA induced or decreased in response to PTH and signaling modulators that encode proteins that regulate cell morphology, proliferation, and nodule formation. Therefore, several follow-up studies between the laboratories at NASA-Ames Research Center and my laboratory at the University of Illinois have been initiated.

  3. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  4. Photothermal tomography for the functional and structural evaluation, and early mineral loss monitoring in bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas; Wang, Xueding; Feng, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Salient features of a new non-ionizing bone diagnostics technique, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT), exhibiting optical-grade contrast and capable of resolving the trabecular network in three dimensions through the cortical region with and without a soft-tissue overlayer are presented. The absolute nature and early demineralization-detection capability of a marker called thermal wave occupation index, estimated using the proposed modality, have been established. Selective imaging of regions of a specific mineral density range has been demonstrated in a mouse femur. The method is maximum-permissible-exposure compatible. In a matrix of bone and soft-tissue a depth range of ~3.8 mm has been achieved, which can be increased through instrumental and modulation waveform optimization. Furthermore, photoacoustic microscopy, a comparable modality with TC-PCT, has been used to resolve the trabecular structure and for comparison with the photothermal tomography.

  5. Bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    Sušić Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well known that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA as a chronic inflammatory disease with onset during the childhood, beside other complication, can lead to bone metabolism disturbance and osteoporosis. Objective. To assess bone mineral density (BMD in children with JIA and to identify factors playing role in bone mineral disturbance. Methods. Seventy-five patients (26 male and 49 female average disease duration 7.2 (2.4-16.8 years, and 73 age matched healthy control subjects (29 male and 44 female participated in the study. Mean age of the groups was about 14.5 years. BMD was determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA of the lumbar spine (L2-L4. For further analysis we used the absolute value of BMD, expressed as g/cm2, Z score expressed as SD (relative value as standard deviation decline of normal BMD values of referent Italian population with identical age and gender, bone mineral content (BMC as g/cm, and corrected BMD - BMDv as g/cm3. Results. Z score in the group of patients was significantly lower (-1.02±1.6 in comparison to the control group (-0.09±1.4; p<0.001. BMD, BMDv and BMC were also statistically lower in patients with JIA. The lowest Z score was found in patients with systemic onset (-2.63 SD. Z score showed a statistically significant positive correlation with arthritis course (polyarticular course had lower Z score, body mass index and standard deviation score for height and weight. Statistically significant negative correlation was detected in regard to Z score and glucocorticoid (GC treatment duration, GC cumulative dose, number of joints with limited range of motion, radiological stage and functional class. Conclusion. The results showed a decreased BMD in patients with JIA in comparison to the control group. Systemic onset, polyarthritis, longer treatment with GC and higher cumulative dosage, as well as higher damage level (functional status and radiological stage are factors playing negative role

  6. Bone Mineral Density Evaluation in Four Different Occupational Groups

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    Mustafa Turgut Yıldızgören

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD and to discuss the potential risk factors for osteoporosis in four different occupational groups. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 males who were admitted to our clinics for their periodic occupational controls and 40 healthy subjects were included. Demographic features of the participants were recorded. BMD was evaluated by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA from lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur. Results: Participants were mainly from the following four occupational groups; accumulator manufacturers (n=30, 21.4%, painting workers (n=30, 21.4%, welders (n=15, 10.7%, and quartz miners (n=25, 17.9% sectors. In addition, there were 40 healthy subjects (28.6%. Compared with the control group, femoral neck T-scores (p=0.023 and Z-scores (p=0.031 were significantly lower in miners. L2-L4 BMD values were significantly lower in accumulator manufacturers (p=0.041 and quartz miners (p=0.022 as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Workers in the accumulator and mining sectors had lower BMD than control subjects. Clinicians should keep in mind occupational risk factors related with chemical exposure for osteoporosis while questioning osteoporosis risk factors. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 19-22

  7. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

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    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  8. Microscale Material Properties of Bone and the Mineralized Tissues of the Intervertebral Disc-Vertebral Body Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, Rachel C.

    The objective of this dissertation is to understand the influences of material structure on the properties, function and failure of biological connective tissues. Biological interfaces are becoming an increasingly studied system within mechanics and tissue engineering as a model for attaching dissimilar materials. The elastic modulus of bone (≈ 20 GPa) and cartilage (≈ 0.1-1 MPa) differ over orders of magnitude, which should intuitively create high stress concentrations and failure at the interface. Yet, these natural interface systems rarely fail in vivo, and the mechanism by which loads are transferred between tissues has not yet been established. Tissue quality is one major contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone and cartilage, and is defined by properties such as collagen orientation, mineral volume fraction, porosity and tissue geometry. These properties have yet to be established at the bone-cartilage interface in the spine, and the lack of quantitative data on material microstructure and behavior limits treatments and tissue engineering construct design. In this dissertation, second harmonic generation imaging, quantitative backscattered scanning electron imaging and nanoindentation are combined to characterize micrometer scale tissue quality and modulus in both bone and calcified cartilage. These techniques are utilized to: 1) determine the hierarchical micrometer to millimeter scale properties of lamellar bone, 2) quantify changes throughout development and aging at the human intervertebral disc-vertebral body junction, and 3) explore compressive fractures at this interface. This work is the first to provide quantitative data on the mineral volume fraction, collagen orientation and modulus from the same, undecalcified sections of tissue to corroborate tissue structure and mineralization and describe quantitative parameters of the interface. The principal findings from this work indicate that the underlying matrix, or collagen, organization in

  9. Altered distributions of bone tissue mineral and collagen properties in women with fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Xiang; Lloyd, Ashley A; Burket, Jayme C; Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Donnelly, Eve

    2016-03-01

    Heterogeneity of bone tissue properties is emerging as a potential indicator of altered bone quality in pathologic tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of tissue properties in women with and without histories of fragility fractures using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging. We extended a prior study that examined the relationship of the mean FTIR properties to fracture risk by analyzing in detail the widths and the tails of the distributions of FTIR properties in biopsies from fracture and non-fracture cohorts. The mineral and matrix properties of cortical and trabecular iliac crest tissue were compared in biopsies from women with a history of fragility fracture (+Fx; n=21, age: mean 54±SD 15y) and with no history of fragility fracture (-Fx; n=12, age: 57±5y). A subset of the patients included in the -Fx group were taking estrogen-plus-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (-Fx+HRT n=8, age: 58±5y) and were analyzed separately from patients with no history of HRT (-Fx-HRT n=4, age: 56±7y). When the FTIR parameter mean values were examined by treatment group, the trabecular tissue of -Fx-HRT patients had a lower mineral:matrix ratio (M:M) and collagen maturity (XLR) than that of -Fx+HRT patients (-22% M:M, -18% XLR) and +Fx patients (-17% M:M, -18% XLR). Across multiple FTIR parameters, tissue from the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail (5th percentile) values than that from the -Fx+HRT or +Fx groups. In trabecular collagen maturity and crystallinity (XST), the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail values than those in the -Fx+HRT group (-16% XLR, -5% XST) and the +Fx group (-17% XLR, -7% XST). The relatively low values of trabecular mineral:matrix ratio and collagen maturity and smaller low-tail values of collagen maturity and crystallinity observed in the -Fx-HRT group are characteristic of younger tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the presence of newly formed tissue that includes small/imperfect crystals

  10. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  11. Control of in vivo mineral bone cement degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Britta; Geffers, Martha; Ignatius, Anita; Gbureck, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The current study aimed to prevent the formation of hydroxyapatite reprecipitates in brushite-forming biocements by minimizing the availability of free Ca(2+) ions in the cement matrix. This was achieved by both maximizing the degree of cement setting to avoid unreacted, calcium-rich cement raw materials which can deliver Ca(2+) directly to the cement matrix after dissolution, and by a reduction in porosity to reduce Ca(2+) diffusion into the set cement matrix. In addition, a biocement based on the formation of the magnesium phosphate mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) was tested, which should prevent the formation of low-solubility hydroxyapatite reprecipitates due to the high magnesium content. Different porosity levels were fabricated by altering the powder-to-liquid ratio at which the cements were mixed and the materials were implanted into mechanically unloaded femoral defects in sheep for up to 10 months. While the higher-porosity brushite cement quantitatively transformed into crystalline octacalcium phosphate after 10 months, slowing down cement resorption, a lower-porosity brushite cement modification was found to be chemically stable with the absence of reprecipitate formation and minor cement resorption from the implant surface. In contrast, struvite-forming cements were much more degradable due to the absence of mineral reprecipitates and a nearly quantitative cement degradation was found after 10 months of implantation.

  12. Chloride–hydrogen antiporters ClC-3 and ClC-5 drive osteoblast mineralization and regulate fine-structure bone patterning in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouture, Quitterie C; Nelson, Deborah J; Robinson, Lisa J; Liu, Li; Tourkova, Irina; Schlesinger, Paul H; Blair, Harry C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblasts form an epithelium-like layer with tight junctions separating bone matrix from extracellular fluid. During mineral deposition, calcium and phosphate precipitation in hydroxyapatite liberates 0.8 mole of H+ per mole Ca+2. Thus, acid export is needed for mineral formation. We examined ion transport supporting osteoblast vectorial mineral deposition. Previously we established that Na/H exchangers 1 and 6 are highly expressed at secretory osteoblast basolateral surfaces and neutralize massive acid loads. The Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1), a pdz-organizing protein, occurs at mineralizing osteoblast basolateral surfaces. We hypothesized that high-capacity proton transport from matrix into osteoblast cytosol must exist to support acid transcytosis for mineral deposition. Gene screening in mineralizing osteoblasts showed dramatic expression of chloride–proton antiporters ClC-3 and ClC-5. Antibody localization showed that ClC-3 and ClC-5 occur at the apical secretory surface facing the bone matrix and in membranes of buried osteocytes. Surprisingly, the Clcn3−/− mouse has only mildly disordered mineralization. However, Clcn3−/− osteoblasts have large compensatory increases in ClC-5 expression. Clcn3−/− osteoblasts mineralize in vitro in a striking and novel trabecular pattern; wild-type osteoblasts form bone nodules. In mesenchymal stem cells from Clcn3−/− mice, lentiviral ClC-5 shRNA created Clcn3−/−, ClC-5 knockdown cells, validated by western blot and PCR. Osteoblasts from these cells produced no mineral under conditions where wild-type or Clcn3−/− cells mineralize well. We conclude that regulated acid export, mediated by chloride–proton exchange, is essential to drive normal bone mineralization, and that CLC transporters also regulate fine patterning of bone. PMID:26603451

  13. The association between metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, hip bone geometry and fracture risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L. Oei (Ling); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG), femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men part

  14. Proteoliposomes as matrix vesicles' biomimetics to study the initiation of skeletal mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Simão

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralize their extracellular matrix by promoting the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA seed crystals in the sheltered interior of membrane-limited matrix vesicles (MVs. Ion transporters control the availability of phosphate and calcium needed for HA deposition. The lipidic microenvironment in which MV-associated enzymes and transporters function plays a crucial physiological role and must be taken into account when attempting to elucidate their interplay during the initiation of biomineralization. In this short mini-review, we discuss the potential use of proteoliposome systems as chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived MVs biomimetics, as a means of reconstituting a phospholipid microenvironment in a manner that recapitulates the native functional MV microenvironment. Such a system can be used to elucidate the interplay of MV enzymes during catalysis of biomineralization substrates and in modulating in vitro calcification. As such, the enzymatic defects associated with disease-causing mutations in MV enzymes could be studied in an artificial vesicular environment that better mimics their in vivo biological milieu. These artificial systems could also be used for the screening of small molecule compounds able to modulate the activity of MV enzymes for potential therapeutic uses. Such a nanovesicular system could also prove useful for the repair/treatment of craniofacial and other skeletal defects and to facilitate the mineralization of titanium-based tooth implants.

  15. Azelnidipine inhibits Msx2-dependent osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Iso, Tatsuya; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active and regulated process that is similar to bone formation. While calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been shown to improve outcomes in atherosclerotic vascular disease, it remains unknown whether CCBs have an effect on the process of vascular calcification. Here we investigated whether CCBs inhibit osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by Msx2, a key factor of vascular calcification. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were transduced with adenovirus expressing MSX2 and were treated with 3 distinct CCBs. Azelnidipine, a dihydropyridine subclass of CCBs, significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Msx2-overexpressed HASMCs, whereas verapamil and diltiazem had no effect. Furthermore, azelnidipine, but not verapamil and diltiazem, significantly decreased matrix mineralization of Msx2-overexpressing HASMCs. Azelnidipine significantly attenuated the induction of ALP gene expression by Msx2, a key transcription factor in osteogenesis, while it did not reduce enzymatic activity of ALP. Furthermore, azelnidipine inhibited the ability of Msx2 to activate the ALP gene, but had no effect on Notch-induced Msx2 expression. Given that L-type calcium channels are equally blocked by these CCBs, our results suggest that azelnidipine inhibits the Msx2-dependent process of vascular calcification by mechanisms other than inhibition of calcium channel activity.

  16. Reduced bone mineral density in men after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anijar J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD of 30 heart transplant (HT recipients to that of 31 chronic heart failure (CHF patients waiting for transplantation and to determine their biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormone levels. The BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were also obtained. The mean age of the two groups did not differ significantly. Mean time of transplantation was 25.4 ± 21.1 months (6 to 88 months. Except for the albumin levels, which were significantly higher, and magnesium levels, which were significantly lower in HT patients when compared to CHF patients, all other biochemical parameters and hormone levels were within the normal range and similar in the two groups. Both groups had lower BMD of the spine and proximal femur compared to young healthy adults. However, the mean BMD of HT patients was significantly lower than in CHF patients at all sites studied. Bone mass did not correlate with time after transplantation or cumulative dose of cyclosporine A. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the cumulative dose of prednisone. These data suggest that bone loss occurs in HT patients mainly due to the use of corticosteroids and that in 30% of the patients it can be present before transplantation. It seems that cyclosporine A may also play a role in this loss.

  17. Bioinspired, biomimetic, double-enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone regeneration with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A.; Łapa, Agata; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels are popular materials for tissue regeneration. Incorporation of biologically active substances, e.g. enzymes, is straightforward. Hydrogel mineralization is desirable for bone regeneration. Here, hydrogels of Gellan Gum (GG), a biocompatible polysaccharide, were mineralized biomimetical...

  18. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-02-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: (1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC[sub TB]/LBM), (2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, (3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and (4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC[sub TB]/LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author).

  19. Physicomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of a demineralized bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Ratushnyak, A. S.; Chebodaeva, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the results of a study of physicomechanical properties of a demineralized bone matrix of human cancellous and compact bones. A demineralized cancellous bone was shown to have the best characteristics of a porous system for colonization of matrices by cells. The ultimate stress and elasticity modulus of samples of demineralized femoral heads isolated in primary hip replacement was demonstrated to vary in wide ranges. The elasticity modulus ranged from 50 to 250 MPa, and the tensile strength varied from 1.1 to 5.5 MPa. Microhardness measurements by the recovered indentation method were not possible because of the viscoelastic properties of a bone material. To study the piezoelectric properties of samples, a measuring system was developed that comprised a measuring chamber with contact electrodes, a system for controlled sample loading, an amplifier-converter unit, and signal recording and processing software. The measurement results were used to determine the dependence of the signal amplitude on the dynamic deformation characteristics. The findings are discussed in terms of the relationship between the mechanical and electrical properties and the structure of the organic bone component.

  20. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  1. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  3. Protein and mineral characterisation of rendered meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, M; Penkman, K E H; Wess, T J; Reaney, S; Collins, M J

    2012-10-01

    We report the characterisation of meat and bone meal (MBM) standards (Set B-EFPRA) derived from cattle, sheep, pig and chicken, each rendered at four different temperatures (133, 137, 141 and 145 °C). The standards, prepared for an EU programme STRATFEED (to develop new methodologies for the detection and quantification of illegal addition of mammalian tissues in feeding stuffs), have been widely circulated and used to assess a range of methods for identification of the species composition of MBM. The overall state of mineral alteration and protein preservation as a function of temperature was monitored using small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS), amino acid composition and racemization analyses. Progressive increases in protein damage and mineral alteration in chicken and cattle standards was observed. In the case of sheep and pig, there was greater damage to the proteins and alteration of the minerals at the lowest treatment temperature (133 °C), suggesting that the thermal treatments must have been compromised in some way. This problem has probably impacted upon the numerous studies which tested methods against these heat treatments. We use protein mass spectrometric methods to explore if thermostable proteins could be used to identify rendered MBM. In more thermally altered samples, so-called 'thermostable' proteins such as osteocalcin which has been proposed as a ideal target to speciate MBM were no longer detectable, but the structural protein type I collagen could be used to differentiate all four species, even in the most thermally altered samples.

  4. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  5. In vivo study of extracellular matrix coating enhancing fixation of the pedicle screw-bone's interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-min; ZHANG Xing-yi; XU Chuan-jie; ZHU Xiao-min; WANG Jun; LIU Yi

    2011-01-01

    Background Based on in vivo research on the effect of the coating of the extracellular matrix composition of pedicle screws on the conduction and induction of bone formation in young sheep,the aim of this study was to investigate the application of coated pedicle screws in sheep with scoliosis whose spines are under constant development.Methods Four groups of pedicle screws were randomly implanted into bilateral L2-L5 pedicles of 2.5- to 3-month-old sheep.A static experiment was performed on one side and a loading test was performed on the other side by implanting connecting rods at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 segments.The changes in the force on the coated screws and the combination of the surface of the coated screws with the surrounding bone in the growth process of young sheep's spines with aging were observed.After 3 months,the lumbar vertebrae with the screws were removed and examined by micro-CT,histological,and biomechanical analyses.Results Under nonloading conditions,there is bone formation around the surfaces of coated screws.The bone forming on the surface of collagen/chondroitin sulfate/hydroxyapatite coating of pedicle screws is the most,the one of the collagen / chondrcitin sulfate coating and hydroxyapatite coating is followed,and no significant difference between the two groups.In terms of the trabecular bone morphology parameters of the region of interest around the surface of the pedicle screws,such as bone mineral content,bone mineral density,tissue mineral content,tissue bone mineral density,bone volume fraction,and connection density,those associated with collagen/chondroitin sulfate/hydroxyapatite coatings are largest and those unassociated with coatings are smallest.Under nonloading conditions,the pullout strength of the collagen/chondroitin sulfate/hydroxyapatite-coated screws was largest,and that of the uncoated screws was minimal (P <0.01).Under loading conditions,the maximum pullout strength of each group of pedicle screws was less than that

  6. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  7. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  8. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  9. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Pham, Thu Trang; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Finch, Sarah L; El Hayek, Jessy; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between vitamin D status, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and markers of calcium homeostasis in preschool-aged children. Children (n=488; age range: 1.8-6.0 y) were randomly recruited from Montreal. The distal forearm was scanned using a peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar PIXI; GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). A subset (n=81) had clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (cDXA) scans (Hologic 4500A Discovery Series) of lumbar spine (LS) 1-4, whole body, and ultradistal forearm. All were assessed for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone concentrations (Liaison; Diasorin), ionized calcium (ABL80 FLEX; Radiometer Medical A/S), and dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes by survey. Age (p75 nmol/L positively associated with forearm and whole body BMC and aBMD (p<0.036). Sun index related to (p<0.029) cDXA forearm and LS 1-4 BMC and whole-body aBMD. Nutrient intakes did not relate to BMC or aBMD. In conclusion, higher vitamin D status is linked to higher BMC and aBMD of forearm and whole body in preschool-aged children.

  10. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation.

  11. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  12. Risk factors for developing mineral bone disease in phenylketonuric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Bóveda, M Dolores; Leis, María R; Mera, Antonio; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fernández-Lorenzo, José R; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2013-03-01

    There is a compromised bone mass in phenylketonuria patients compared with normal population, but the mechanisms responsible are still a matter of investigation. In addition, tetrahydrobiopterin therapy is a new option for a significant proportion of these patients and the prevalence of mineral bone disease (MBD) in these patients is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study including 43 phenylketonuric patients. Bone densitometry, nutritional assessment, physical activity questionnaire, biochemical parameters, and molecular study were performed in all patients. Patients were stratified by phenotype, age and type of treatment. The MBD prevalence in phenylketonuria was 14%. Osteopenic and osteoporotic (n=6 patients) had an average daily natural protein intake significantly lower than the remaining (n=37) patients with PKU (14.33 ± 8.95 g vs 21.25 ± 20.85 g). Besides, a lower body mass index was found. There were no statistical differences in physical activity level, calcium, phosphorus and fat intake, and in phenylalanine, vitamin D, paratohormone, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid blood levels. Mutational spectrum was found in up to 30 different PAH genotypes and no relationship was established among genotype and development of MBD. None of the twelve phenylketonuric patients treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (27.9%), for an average of 7.1 years, developed MBD. Natural protein intake and blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were significantly higher while calcium intake was lower in these patients. This study shows that the decrease in natural protein intake can play an important role in MBD development in phenylketonuric patients. Therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin allows a more relaxed protein diet, which is associated with better bone mass.

  13. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  14. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, fracture and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely prescribed simple analgesic and antipyretic. It exerts its effects via cyclooxygenase and endocannabinoid pathways, which may affect signalling in bone cells and hence influence bone metabolism. Given the high rates of paracetamol use in the community and the evidence linking its mechanism of action to bone metabolism, we aimed to investigate the association between paracetamol use, fracture, and bone mineral density (BMD) in women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Cases (n = 569) were women aged ≥ 50 years identified from radiological reports as having sustained a fracture between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 775) were women without fracture recruited from the same region during this period. BMD was measured at the spine, hip, total body and forearm using dual energy absorptiometry. Medication use, medical history and lifestyle factors were self-reported. There were 69 (12.1%) paracetamol users among the cases and 63 (8.1%) among the controls. Paracetamol use increased the odds for fracture (OR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.24, p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMD at the spine, total hip and forearm did not confound the association. However, incorporating total body BMD into the model attenuated the association (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14, p = 0.051). Further adjustment for age, weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, calcium intake, medication use, medical conditions, falls and previous fracture did not explain the association. These data suggest that paracetamol use is a risk factor for fracture, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  15. Impaired Vestibular Function and Low Bone Mineral Density: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Anson, Eric; du Lac, Sascha; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that experimentally induced vestibular ablation leads to a decrease in bone mineral density, through mechanisms mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of bone mineral density is a common and potentially morbid condition that occurs with aging, and we sought to investigate whether vestibular loss is associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. We evaluated this question in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a large, prospective cohort study managed by the National Institute on Aging (N = 389). Vestibular function was assessed with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), a measure of saccular function. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In two-way t test analysis, we observed that individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density. In adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, we observed that older individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density, specifically in weight-bearing hip and lower extremity bones. These results suggest that the vestibular system may contribute to bone homeostasis in older adults, notably of the weight-bearing hip bones at greatest risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further longitudinal analysis of vestibular function and bone mineral density in humans is needed to characterize this relationship and investigate the potential confounding effect of physical activity.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  17. [Mineral phase and protein matrix status of rat bony tissue after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhonchukov, A A; Desiatnichenko, K S; Tigranian, R A; Komissarova, N A

    1982-01-01

    The major parameters of the mineral component and protein matrix of bones were investigated in 30 rats flown onboard Cosmos-1129. Postflight, the content of calcium decreased by 7.8%, that of phosphorus diminished by 11.8%, the Ca/P ratio increased by 5.9%, the content of collagen diminished by 14.7% and that of non-collagenous proteins by 45.7% and the content of sialic and hexuronic acids increased by 36.2% and 14.6%, respectively, as compared to the vivarium controls. The paper discusses the role of EDTA-and HCl-protein extracts, soluble and poorly soluble calcium fractions, protein-Ca-phosphate complex, sialic and hexuronic acids in the mechanism of calcium binding by the bone organic matrix.

  18. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases.

  19. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals.

  20. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss® has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter were formed in a white rabbit model and then implanted or not (controls with Bio-Oss® or BMP-2/Bio-Oss®. The Bio-Oss® and BMP-2/Bio-Oss® groups had significantly greater new bone areas (expressed as percentages of augmented areas than the non-implanted controls at four and eight weeks after surgery, and the BMP-2/Bio-Oss® group (16.50 ± 2.87 (n = 6 had significantly greater new bone areas than the Bio-Oss® group (9.43 ± 3.73 (n = 6 at four weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2 treated heparinized Bio-Oss® markedly enhances bone regeneration.

  1. Effect of unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on bone mineral content and density of rat's mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladizesky, M G; Cutrera, R A; Boggio, V; Mautalen, C; Cardinali, D P

    2000-01-14

    To assess the effect of a local sympathectomy on bone metabolism, the effect of a unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (Gx) on growth and bone mineral content and density of the ipsi- and contralateral mandibles was examined in female rats. A significant increase in the hemi-mandibular bone ipsilateral to Gx was found as compared to the contralateral, sham-operated side 30 days, but not 15 days, after surgery. Bone mineral content of the hemi-mandibular bones was significantly lower in the side ipsilateral to Gx in the group of rats killed on the 30th day after surgery. Since no difference in areas between innervated and denervated hemi-mandibles was found, bone mineral density was also significantly lower in the hemi-mandible ipsilateral to Gx. The results further support that a regional sympathectomy causes qualitative alterations in bone modeling and remodeling, leading to bone resorption.

  2. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was -0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was -0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  3. Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alonso Garcia Alves Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was −0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was −0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.. Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P=0.004 for total body and P=0.003 for lumbar spine. One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  4. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  5. Potential Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Repatriated Prisoners of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    be determined. Captivity in a prisoner of war (POW) or concentration camp is associated with multiple risk factors for bone loss such as dietary ...adult primiparous Göttengen miniature pigs : effects on bone mineral and mineral metabolism . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007 ; 293: E385

  6. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  7. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  8. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  9. Intramuscular neridronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Bertoldo, Francesco; Sartori, Leonardo; Di Munno, Ombretta; Filipponi, Paolo; Marcocci, Claudio; Frediani, Bruno; Palummeri, Ernesto; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Costi, Daniele; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-11-01

    Compliance to osteoporosis treatment with oral bisphosphonates is very poor. Intermittent intravenous bisphosphonate is a useful alternative, but this route is not readily available. Neridronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that can be given intramuscularly (IM), was tested in a phase 2 clinical trial in 188 postmenopausal osteoporotic women randomized to IM treatment with 25 mg neridronate every 2 weeks, neridronate 12.5 or 25 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo. All patients received calcium and vitamin D supplements. The patients were treated over 12 months with 2-year posttreatment follow-up. After 12-month treatment, all three doses were associated with significant bone mineral density (BMD) increases at both the total hip and spine. A significant dose-response relationship over the three doses was observed for the BMD changes at the total hip but not at the spine. Bone alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly by 40-55% in neridronate-treated patients, with an insignificant dose-response relationship. Serum type I collagen C-telopeptide decreased by 58-79%, with a significant dose-response relationship (P < 0.05). Two years after treatment discontinuation, BMD declined by 1-2% in each dose group, with values still significantly higher than baseline at both the spine and the total hip. Bone turnover markers progressively increased after treatment discontinuation, and on the second year of follow-up the values were significantly higher than pretreatment baseline. The results of this study indicate that IM neridronate might be of value for patients intolerant to oral bisphosphonates and unwilling or unable to undergo intravenous infusion of bisphosphonates.

  10. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

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    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  11. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  12. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  13. Influence of Particle Size of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on New Bone Formation and Implant Stability after Simultaneous Sinus Floor Elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Aaboe, Merete; Janner, Simone F M;

    2013-01-01

    Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE).......Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE)....

  14. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desouki, M. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jurayyan, N. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (``superscan``) in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm{sup 2}(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm {sup 2}(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body com...

  16. The Effect of Acupuncture on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳钢; 王玲玲; 王东岩; 卓铁军; 申志祥

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory that the kidney is in charge of the bone, the authors carried out a study on the effect of acupuncture on bone mineral density in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated by the method of reinforcing the kidney to strengthen the bone, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows.

  17. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe George; Hosahithlu K Ganesh; Shrikrishna Acharya; Tushar R Bandgar; Vyankatesh Shivane; Anjana Karvat; Shobna J Bhatia; Samir Shah; Padmavathy S Menon; Nalini Shah

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, 9 female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism ( n = 37), hepatitis B ( n = 25) and hepatitis C ( n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level.

  18. The effect of long-term acidifying feeding on digesta organic acids, mineral balance, and bone mineralization in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Højberg, Ole; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects...... (P dietary supplementation of BA and the replacement of CaCO3 with CaCl2 affected the nutrient balances of P and Ca. Mineral concentration and total mineral density of metacarpal III bones was reduced both by BA...... of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium...

  19. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  20. Lathyrism-induced alterations in collagen cross-links influence the mechanical properties of bone material without affecting the mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E.P.; Tatakis, D.N.; Robins, S.; Fratzl, P.; Manjubala, I.; Zoehrer, R.; Gamsjaeger, S.; Buchinger, B.; Roschger, A.; Phipps, R.; Boskey, A.L.; Dall'Ara, E.; Varga, P.; Zysset, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Roschger, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a rat animal model of lathyrism was employed to decipher whether anatomically confined alterations in collagen cross-links are sufficient to influence the mechanical properties of whole bone. Animal experiments were performed under an ethics committee approved protocol. Sixty-four female (47 day old) rats of equivalent weights were divided into four groups (16 per group): Controls were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.6% calcium and 0.6% phosphorus for 2 or 4 weeks and β-APN treated animals were fed additionally with β-aminopropionitrile (0.1% dry weight). At the end of this period the rats in the four groups were sacrificed, and L2–L6 vertebra were collected. Collagen cross-links were determined by both biochemical and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI)) analyses. Mineral content and distribution (BMDD) were determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and mineral maturity/crystallinity by FTIRI techniques. Micro-CT was used to describe the architectural properties. Mechanical performance of whole bone as well as of bone matrix material was tested by vertebral compression tests and by nano-indentation, respectively. The data of the present study indicate that β-APN treatment changed whole vertebra properties compared to non-treated rats, including collagen cross-links pattern, trabecular bone volume to tissue ratio and trabecular thickness, which were all decreased (p < 0.05). Further, compression tests revealed a significant negative impact of β-APN treatment on maximal force to failure and energy to failure, while stiffness was not influenced. Bone mineral density distribution (BMDD) was not altered either. At the material level, β-APN treated rats exhibited increased Pyd/Divalent cross-link ratios in areas confined to a newly formed bone. Moreover, nano-indentation experiments showed that the E-modulus and hardness were reduced only in newly formed bone areas under the influence

  1. Assessment of bone mineral density by DXA and the trabecular microarchitecture of the calcaneum by texture analysis in pre- and postmenopausal women in the evaluation of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanithi R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo evaluation of trabecular bone structure could be useful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis for the characterization of therapeutic response and understanding the role of parameters other than bone mineral density (BMD in defining skeletal status. This study was made to evaluate changes taking place in the trabecular architecture of bone with age and menopausal status in women. The findings are compared with the femoral neck bone as well as the trochantar bone mineral density determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, which is a standard reference test for evaluation of osteoporosis. Seventy females were recruited for the study, 25 pre-menopausal (mean age ± SD: 39.4 ± 3.8 and 45 postmenopausal (mean age ± SD: 57.9 ± 7.9 women. The right femoral neck bone mineral density was measured for them by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. For the same individuals, lateral view radiographs of the right calcaneum were taken as well. The radiographs were digitized and the region of interest (ROI of 256 x 256 pixels was selected, the run-length matrix was computed for calculating seven parameters [Table 1] and the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform of the image was calculated. Using the FFT, the power spectral density (PSD was derived and the root mean square (RMS value was determined. Our results confirm that age has a significant influence on the texture of the trabecular bone and bone mineral density.

  2. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  3. In Vitro Mineralization of an Osteoid-Like Dense Collagen Construct for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Benedetto

    The aim of this doctoral research was to design and evaluate strategies to rapidly achieve an acellular mineralization of an osteoid-like dense collagen gel for potential applications in bone regeneration. It was hypothesized that the collagen fibrillar density (CFD) affects the microenvironment and the physical properties of the framework of collagen gels. To test this hypothesis, and as a first objective, the mineralization of collagen gel sheets, rolls and strips with increasing CFDs was investigated in vitro in simulated body fluid (SBF). Collagen gels with physiologically relevant CFDs (14.1 wt%) led to greater extent of mineralization (12 dry wt% at day 14 in SBF), when compared to highly hydrated gels. Chemical characterization confirmed this mineral phase to be CHA, which significantly increased the gel apparent modulus and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Surprisingly, CFD also affected the electrostatic properties of collagen gel, as investigated by quantifying the extent of anionic and cationic dyes bound to collagen gels with different CFDs. It was therefore proposed that the increase in gel CFD led to a more physiological microenvironment, resulting in a higher number of fibril-to-fibril contact points and an increase in charge concentration, which facilitated the mineral formation and validated the proposed osteoid model. As a second objective, the mineralization of dense collagen (DC) gels with physiologically relevant CFD (14.1 wt%) was enhanced and accelerated by mimicking the role of anionic non collagenous proteins (NCPs) in the native osteoid, which act as CHA nucleators. Two strategies were implemented: first, the influence of collagen fibrillization pH on the extent of DC gel mineralization was investigated. Since the collagen molecule is slightly positively charged at physiological pH (isoelectric point at pH 7.8), it was hypothesized that it would be more negatively charged if formed in an alkaline environment, i.e., above its isoelectric

  4. Genetic determinants of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral densities and bone microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD, not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD, trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878 followed by replication (n = 1,052 identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10⁻¹⁴; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10⁻¹²; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10⁻¹⁰; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10⁻⁹. The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500 followed by replication (n = 1,022 identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10⁻⁹. High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729. rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.93 and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735 are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose

  5. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  6. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  7. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  8. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  9. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  10. Azanitrile Cathepsin K Inhibitors: Effects on Cell Toxicity, Osteoblast-Induced Mineralization and Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yuan Ren

    Full Text Available The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK, abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is responsible for the degradation of bone matrix proteins, including collagen type 1. Thus, CatK is an attractive target for new anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapies, but the wider effects of CatK inhibitors on bone cells also need to be evaluated to assess their effects on bone. Therefore, we selected, among a series of synthetized isothiosemicarbazides, two molecules which are highly selective CatK inhibitors (CKIs to test their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.Cell viability upon treatment of CKIs were was assayed on human osteoblast-like Saos-2, mouse monocyte cell line RAW 264.7 and mature mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow. Osteoblast-induced mineralization in Saos-2 cells and in mouse primary osteoblasts from calvaria, with or without CKIs,; were was monitored by Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, while osteoclast-induced bone resorption was performed on bovine slices.Treatments with two CKIs, CKI-8 and CKI-13 in human osteoblast-like Saos-2, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with RANKL and mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow stimulated with RANKL and MCSF were found not to be toxic at doses of up to 100 nM. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, CKI-8 did not inhibit osteoblast-induced mineralization in mouse primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. However, CKI-13 led to a reduction in mineralization of around 40% at 10-100 nM concentrations in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells while it did not in primary cells. After a 48-hour incubation, both CKI-8 and CKI-13 decreased bone resorption on bovine bone slices. CKI-13 was more efficient than the commercial inhibitor E-64 in inhibiting bone resorption induced by osteoclasts on bovine bone slices. Both CKI-8 and CKI-13 created smaller bone resorption pits on bovine bone slices, suggesting that the mobility of osteoclasts was slowed

  11. Determinants of ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties: effects of architecture, mineralization, and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, C M; Spence, C A; Vance, J L; Christopherson, G T; Patel, B; Turner, A S; Divine, G W; Fyhrie, D P

    2004-09-01

    Significant decreases in ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties (specifically, stress-rate sensitivity, and damping efficiency) are associated with three years of ovariectomy and are particularly evident at higher frequencies [Proc. Orthop. Res. Soc. 27 (2002) 89]. It is unclear what materials or architectural features of bone are responsible for either the viscoelastic properties themselves, or for the changes in those properties that were observed with estrogen depletion. In this study, we examined the relationship between these viscoelastic mechanical properties and features involving bone architecture (BV/TV), materials parameters (ash density, %mineralization), and histologic evidence of remodeling (%remodeled, cement line interface). The extent of mineralization was inversely proportional to the material's efficiency in damping stress oscillations. The damping characteristics of bone material from ovariectomized animals were significantly more sensitive to variation in mineralization than was bone from control animals. At low frequencies (6 Hz or less), increased histologic evidence of remodeling was positively correlated with increased damping efficiency. However, the dramatic decreases in stress-rate sensitivity that accompanied 3-year ovariectomy were seen throughout the bone structure and occurred even in areas with little or no secondary Haversian remodeling as well as in areas of complete remodeling. Taken together, these data suggest that, while the mineral component may modify the viscoelastic behavior of bone, the basic mechanism underlying bone viscoelastic behavior, and of the changes in that behavior with estrogen depletion, reside in a non-mineral component of the bone that can be significantly altered in the absence of secondary remodeling.

  12. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  13. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    The present paper was focused on the development of a new method of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) fabrication via a chemical treatment of a native bone tissue. Particular attention was paid to the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of native bones, sterility, and biological performance in vivo using the syngeneic heterotopic and orthotopic implantation models. The obtained data indicated that after a chemical decellularization treatment in 4% aqueous sodium chlorite, no noticeable signs of the erosion of compact cortical bone surface or destruction of trabeculae of spongy bone in spinal channel were observed. The histological studies showed that the chemical treatment resulted in the decellularization of both bone and cartilage tissues. The DECM samples demonstrated no signs of chemical and biological degradation in vivo. Thorough structural characterization revealed that after decellularization, the mineral frame retained its integrity with the organic phase; however clotting and destruction of organic molecules and fibers were observed. FTIR studies revealed several structural changes associated with the destruction of organic molecules, although all organic components typical of intact bone were preserved. The decellularization-induced structural changes in the collagen constituent resulted changed the deformation under compression mechanism: from the major fracture by crack propagation throughout the sample to the predominantly brittle fracture. Although the mechanical properties of radius bones subjected to decellularization were observed to degrade, the mechanical properties of ulna bones in compression and humerus bones in bending remained unchanged. The compressive strength of both the intact and decellularized ulna bones was 125-130 MPa and the flexural strength of humerus bones was 156 and 145 MPa for the intact and decellularized samples, respectively. These results open new avenues for the use of DECM samples as

  14. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...

  15. Changes in the degree of mineralization with osteoporosis and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschger, Paul; Misof, Barbara; Paschalis, Eleftherios; Fratzl, Peter; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or the occurrence of fragility fractures. The majority of patients, however, have also abnormally low bone matrix mineralization. The latter is indicative of alterations in bone turnover rates and/or in kinetics of mineral accumulation within the newly formed bone matrix. Osteoporosis therapies can alter the bone matrix mineralization according to their action on bone turnover and/or mineralization kinetics. Antiresorptives, including the most widely used bisphosphonates, reduce the bone turnover rate resulting in a decrease in heterogeneity and an increase in the degree of mineralization toward to or even beyond normal values. Anabolic agents increase the bone volume and the amount of newly formed bone resulting in a likely transient decrease in mean degree and homogeneity of mineralization. Hence, the measurement of bone matrix mineralization is a sensitive tool to evaluate the response to therapy.

  16. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  17. Serum estradiol levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women are at high risk of disease, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, malignancies, dementia and osteoporosis. This is due to decreased levels of estrogen/estradiol, produced mainly in the ovaries, leading to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, which is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum estradiol levels and BMD in postmenopausal women. The study, which was of cross-sectional design, involved 184 postmenopausal women meeting the inclusion criteria, viz. healthy postmenopausal women aged between 47 and 60 years having taken no hormonal medications in the previous 3 years. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, including BMD and serum estradiol levels. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the distal radius by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA instrument. The mean serum estradiol concentration was 7.54 ± 4.65 pg/ml, while in 49.5% of the subjects the estradiol concentration was £ 5 pg/ml. In postmenopausal women with estradiol concentrations of > 5 pg/ml, a significant positive relationship was found between BMD and the T-scores for the femoral neck. Thus the higher the serum estradiol levels, the higher the BMD values for femoral neck region. In conclusion, the results of this study point to estradiol levels as a major factor in determining the BMD values in postmenopausal women.

  18. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  19. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  20. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, pexercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, pexercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, pExercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  1. The Construction and Investigation of PLGA Artificial Bone by Biomimetic Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHENG Qixin; WANG Jinguang; WANG yuntao; HAO Jie

    2005-01-01

    To modify the surface property of poly lactide co-glycolide (PLGA) by biomimetic mineralization to construct a new kind of artificial bone. PLGA films and 3 diamensional (3-D) porous scaffolds hydrolyzed in alkaline solution were minerilized in SBF for 14 days. The morphology and composition of the mineral grown on PLGA were analyzed with SEM, FTIR and XRD. The porosity of the scaffolds was detected by using the liquid displacement method. The compressive strength of the scaffolds was detected by using a Shimadzu universal mechanic tester. An obvious mineral coating was detected on the surface of films and scaffolds. The main component of the mineral was carbonated hydroxyapatite (HA) similar to the major mineral component of bone tissues. The porosity of the un-mineralized and mineralized porous scaffolds was (84.86±8.52) % and (79.70±7.70) % respectively. The compressive strength was 0. 784±0. 156 N/mm2 in un-mineralized 3-D porous PLGA and 0. 858±0. 145 N/mm2 in mineralized 3-D porous PLGA. There were no significant differences between the mineralized and un-mineralized scaffolds (P>0. 05) in porosity and biomechanics. Biomimetic mineralization is a suitable method to construct artificial bone.

  2. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  3. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  4. Tantalum coating on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Christine J.; Brammer, Karla S. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Noh, Kunbae [Corporate Research Institute, Cheil Industries, Inc., Gocheon-Dong, Uiwang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 437-711 (Korea, Republic of); Johnston, Gary [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Jin, Sungho, E-mail: jin@ucsd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ∼ 30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. - Highlights: • A TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface structure was coated with tantalum. • Osteoblast cell response was compared between the tantalum coated and as-formed TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface. • We observed superior rates of bone matrix mineralization and osteoblast maturation on the tantalum coated nanotube surface.

  5. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  6. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS and ...

  7. Effect of Progressive Locomotor Treadmill Compared to Conventional Training on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Remodeling in Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Mobarake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The decrease in bone mass in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons increases the risk factors for fractures. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of progressive locomotor treadmill training (LT on muscle mass, bone mineral density, and bone remodeling in paraplegia patients. Methods The subjects investigated in this research included seventeen paraplegic spinal cord injured persons who were divided randomly into two groups: LT group (n = 10 and conventional exercise group (n = 7. The exercise training protocol was performed during 12 weeks, 3 days a week, 60 minutes a session. LT included 15 minutes warm-up on stationary bike plus 45 minutes LT with 50 percent body-weight support and finally 10 minutes cool-down as an adjunct to a conventional physiotherapy program. 10 percent loading weight was added per week for LT. Conventional exercise training incorporated 15 minutes warm-up plus 45 minutes over-ground training such as stretch exercise and resistance training. Results The obtained results showed that there were significant differences in serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P < 0.001, osteocalcin levels (P = 0.003, bone mineral content (BMC of the femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral density (BMD of femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral content (BMC of the lumbar spine (P < 0.001, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.000 between LT and conventional exercise regimes. Conclusions LT training, in addition to improvement of motor function and reduction of bone loss, can be prescribed as an effective exercise intervention for the treatment of osteoporosis in incomplete spinal cord injured persons.

  8. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  9. The bone matrix protein secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24): bone metabolism regulator and starting material for biotherapeutic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Samuel S; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Tian, Haijun; Francis, Timothy; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) is a bone matrix protein that appears to be derived primarily from the liver and delivered to other tissues in a protective complex. A significant role in bone growth and turnover is suggested by genetic studies that associate the gene locus (SPP2) with bone mineral density and bone quality. The function of this protein in the normal bone environment is unknown but clues are given by the fact that Spp24, or proteolytic products of Spp24, bind cytokines of the TGF-β superfamily and also activate intracellular signaling pathways. Several potential biotherapeutics have been engineered from this protein including materials that enhance BMP-induced bone healing and, on the other hand, materials that inhibit BMPs in clinical situations where this is called for such as reducing BMP-induced inflammation and inhibiting tumors dependent on BMP autocrine systems. As understanding of the structure and function of this protein increases, more opportunities for rationally developed therapeutics will become apparent.

  10. Collagen osteoid-like model allows kinetic gene expression studies of non-collagenous proteins in relation with mineral development to understand bone biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvent, Jérémie; Nassif, Nadine; Helary, Christophe; Azaïs, Thierry; Sire, Jean-Yves; Guille, Marie Madeleine Giraud

    2013-01-01

    Among persisting questions on bone calcification, a major one is the link between protein expression and mineral deposition. A cell culture system is here proposed opening new integrative studies on biomineralization, improving our knowledge on the role played by non-collagenous proteins in bone. This experimental in vitro model consisted in human primary osteoblasts cultured for 60 days at the surface of a 3D collagen scaffold mimicking an osteoid matrix. Various techniques were used to analyze the results at the cellular and molecular level (adhesion and viability tests, histology and electron microscopy, RT- and qPCR) and to characterize the mineral phase (histological staining, EDX, ATG, SAED and RMN). On long term cultures human bone cells seeded on the osteoid-like matrix displayed a clear osteoblast phenotype as revealed by the osteoblast-like morphology, expression of specific protein such as alkaline phosphatase and expression of eight genes classically considered as osteoblast markers, including BGLAP, COL1A1, and BMP2. Von Kossa and alizarine red allowed us to identify divalent calcium ions at the surface of the matrix, EDX revealed the correct Ca/P ratio, and SAED showed the apatite crystal diffraction pattern. In addition RMN led to the conclusion that contaminant phases were absent and that the hydration state of the mineral was similar to fresh bone. A temporal correlation was established between quantified gene expression of DMP1 and IBSP, and the presence of hydroxyapatite, confirming the contribution of these proteins to the mineralization process. In parallel a difference was observed in the expression pattern of SPP1 and BGLAP, which questioned their attributed role in the literature. The present model opens new experimental possibilities to study spatio-temporal relations between bone cells, dense collagen scaffolds, NCPs and hydroxyapatite mineral deposition. It also emphasizes the importance of high collagen density environment in bone cell

  11. Bone mineral disorder in chronic kidney disease: Klotho and FGF23; cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova Villanueva, Laura; Sánchez González, Carmen; Sánchez Tomero, José Antonio; Aguilera, Abelardo; Ortega Junco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular factors are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Bone mineral metabolism disorders and inflammation are pathological conditions that involve increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. The cardiovascular risk involvement of bone mineral metabolism classical biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, vitamin D and PTH is well known. The newest markers, FGF23 and klotho, could also be implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study ...

  13. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  14. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  15. Osteomimicry of mammary adenocarcinoma cells in vitro; increased expression of bone matrix proteins and proliferation within a 3D collagen environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Cox

    Full Text Available Bone is the most common site of metastasis for breast cancer, however the reasons for this remain unclear. We hypothesise that under certain conditions mammary cells possess osteomimetic capabilities that may allow them to adapt to, and flourish within, the bone microenvironment. Mammary cells are known to calcify within breast tissue and we have recently reported a novel in vitro model of mammary mineralization using murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1 cells. In this study, the osteomimetic properties of the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line and the conditions required to induce mineralization were characterized extensively. It was found that exogenous organic phosphate and inorganic phosphate induce mineralization in a dose dependent manner in 4T1 cells. Ascorbic acid and dexamethasone alone have no effect. 4T1 cells also show enhanced mineralization in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the presence of phosphate supplemented media. The expression of several bone matrix proteins were monitored throughout the process of mineralization and increased expression of collagen type 1 and bone sialoprotein were detected, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we have shown for the first time that 3D collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds, bioengineered to represent the bone microenvironment, are capable of supporting the growth and mineralization of 4T1 adenocarcinoma cells. These 3D scaffolds represent a novel model system for the study of mammary mineralization and bone metastasis. This work demonstrates that mammary cells are capable of osteomimicry, which may ultimately contribute to their ability to preferentially metastasize to, survive within and colonize the bone microenvironment.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  17. Influence of basal energy expenditure and body composition on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Aparecida Bezerra Quirino,1 João Modesto-Filho,2 Sancha Helena de Lima Vale,3 Camila Xavier Alves,3 Lúcia Dantas Leite,4 José Brandão-Neto51Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 3Postgraduate Health Science Program, 4Department of Nutrition, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index, body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of a sample of 50 women, with minimum time since menopause between 1 and 10 years. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2–L4, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure were measured by bioimpedance.Results: The mean age of the women was 51.49 ± 3.86 years and time since menopause was 3.50 ± 2.59 years. Significant negative correlations were found between chronological age and lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric bone mineral density. In regard to time since menopause, we also observed significant negative correlations with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle. The following significant positive correlations were recorded: body mass index with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; fat mass with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; lean mass with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter; and basal energy expenditure with bone mineral density at all sites assessed. On the other hand, the multiple linear regression model showed that: 20.2% of bone mineral density variability at the lumbar spine is related to lean mass and time since

  18. Effect of Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Peri-and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dinç

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the determinants of osteoporosis in elderly, nutritional factors play a significant role. In a cross-sectional study the effects of several nutritional factors on bone mineral density were investigated in 44 women aged over 40 years. Nineteen premenopausal and twenty five postmenopausal women were enrolled the study. Subjects were instructed to keep seven-day nutritional record. Bone mineral density measurements were performed with DXA, and laboratory investigations related to bone metabolism were undertaken. Daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were analysed by a nutritional analysis program. The associations between daily dietary intakes of this nutritional components and bone mineral density were investigated. The daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were not correlated significantly with lumbar and hip bone mineral density. Lumbar bone mineral density was correlated with age. There was no significant association between daily protein or sodium intake and urinary calcium excretion. The results suggest that the manifestation of osteoporosis in women is influenced to a greater extent by age and years since menopause than by the distribution of nutritional factors in normal mixed diet. However, further studies with larger series are essential to evaluate the role of dietary composition on the manifestation of osteoporosis and bone metabolism.

  19. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  20. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28⩾3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (⩽10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Results: Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (−0.7%), (p = 0.015). Conclusion: In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:18408246

  1. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  2. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  3. Application of new optical coherence elastography to monitor the mineralization processing in bone tissue engineering constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guangying; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Yang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Generation of functional tissue in vitro through tissue engineering technique is a promising direction to repair and replace malfunctioned organ and tissue in the modern medicine for various diseases which could not been treated well by conventional therapy. Similar to the embryo development, the generation of tissue in vitro is a highly dynamic processing. Obtaining the feedback of the processing real time is highly demanded. In this study, a new methodology has been explored aiming to monitor the morphological and mechanical property alteration of bone tissue engineering constructs simultaneously. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) equipped with a LDS V201 permanent magnet shaker and a modulated acoustic radiation force (ARF) to provide a vibration signal, has been used for the real time and non-destructive monitoring. A phantom construct system has been used to optimize the measurement conditions in which agar hydrogel with concentration from 0, 0.75 to 2% with/without hydroxyappatite particles have been injected to 3D porous poly (lactic acid) scaffolds to simulate the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and mineralized ECM. The structural and elastography images of the constructs have clearly demonstrated the linear relation with the increased mechanical property versus the increase of agar concentration within the pores of the scaffolds. The MG63 bone cells seeded in the scaffolds and cultured for 4 weeks have been monitored by the established protocol exhibiting the increased mechanical strength in the pore wall where the ECM or mineralized ECM was assumed to be formed in comparison to empty pores. This study confirms that OCE-ARF could become a valuable tool in regenerative medicine to assess the biological events during in vitro culture and conditioning.

  4. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  5. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bon...

  6. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.c, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.u [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  7. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, U K; Við Streym, S; Mosekilde, L

    2012-01-01

    In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone l...

  8. Thenar muscle blood flow and bone mineral in the forearms of lumberjacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, P; Alhava, E M; Valtola, J

    1975-02-01

    Forty lumberjacks who had used a chain saw for 0-20 years and who had no general disease affecting the bones were studied by measuring the thenar muscle blood flow of both hands by the 133-Xe local clearance method. Bone mineral in the left forearm in the region of cancellous and cortical bone was assessed by the 241-Am gamma ray attenuation method. Virbration was found to decrease the blood flow in the saw-bearing left hand compared with the right hand of the lumberjacks. The bone mineral density (g/vm-3) was lower in the forearm bones of the lumberjacks than in controls of the same age with healthy bones. Moreover the poorer the thenar muscle blood flow, the greater was the decrease in the mineral density of the distal radius. Measurement of the mineral density of the forearm bones by the gramma ray attenuation method can be used for early detection of bone lesions in traumatic vasospastic disease.

  9. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  10. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  11. The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) localize differently in the compartments of dentin and growth plate of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Izabela; Cowan, Cameron; Svoboda, Kathy; Butler, William T; D'Souza, Rena; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-02-01

    Multiple studies have shown that dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential for bone and dentin mineralization. After post-translational proteolytic cleavage, DMP1 exists within the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin as an NH2-terminal fragment, a COOH-terminal fragment, and the proteoglycan form of the NH2-terminal fragment (DMP1-PG). To begin to assess the biological function of each fragment, we evaluated the distribution of both fragments in the rat tooth and bone using antibodies specific to the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal regions of DMP1 and confocal microscopy. In rat first molar organs, the NH2-terminal fragment localized to predentin, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment was mainly restricted to mineralized dentin. In the growth plate of bone, the NH2-terminal fragment appeared in the proliferation and hypertrophic zones, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment occupied the ossification zone. Forster resonance energy transfer analysis showed colocalization of both fragments of DMP1 in odontoblasts and predentin, as well as hypertrophic chondrocytes within the growth plates of bone. The biochemical analysis of bovine teeth showed that predentin is rich in DMP1-PG, whereas mineralized dentin primarily contains the COOH-terminal fragment. We conclude that the differential patterns of expression of NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of DMP1 reflect their potentially distinct roles in the biomineralization of dentin and bone matrices.

  12. Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, N.M.B.K.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Everts, V.; Mulder, L.; Grünheid, T.; Bank, R.A.; Zentner, A.; Eijden, T.M.G.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is an important constituent of bone, and it has been suggested that changes in collagen and mineral properties of bone are interrelated during growth. The aim of this study was to quantify age-related changes in collagen properties and the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). The DMB in

  13. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic.

  14. Bone Marrow Concentrate and Bovine Bone Mineral for Sinus Floor Augmentation : A Controlled, Randomized, Single-Blinded Clinical and Histological Trial-Per-Protocol Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Rickert, Daniela; Gutwald, Ralf; Nagursky, Heiner; Oshima, Toshiyuki; Xavier, Samuel P.; Christmann, Johannes; Kurz, Patrick; Menne, Dieter; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Wagner, Wilfried; Koch, Felix P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of substituting autogenous bone (AB) by bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). Both AB and BMAC were tested in combination with a bovine bone mineral (BBM) for their ability of new bone formation (NBF) in a multicentric, randomized, c

  15. Effects of demineralized bone matrix and a 'Ricinus communis' polymer on bone regeneration: a histological study in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano Filho, José R; Andrade, Emanuel S S; Albergaria-Barbosa, José R; Camargo, Igor B; Garcia, Robson R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to histologically analyze the effects of bovine and human demineralized bone matrix and a Ricinus communis polymer on the bone regeneration process. Two surgical bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria, one on the right and the other on the left side of the parietal suture. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups. In Group I, the experimental defect was treated with bovine demineralized bone matrix, Group II with human demineralized bone matrix, and in Group III, the experimental cavity was treated with polyurethane resin derived from Ricinus communis oil. The control defects were filled with the animals' own blood. The animals were sacrificed after 7 and 15 weeks. Histological analysis revealed that in all groups (control and experimental), bone regeneration increased with time. The least time required for bone regeneration was noted in the control group, with a substantial decrease in the thickness of the defect. All materials proved to be biologically compatible, but polyurethane resorbed more slowly and demonstrated considerably better results than the demineralized bone matrices.

  16. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  17. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  18. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  19. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  20. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  1. Correlation of Serum Leptin Level with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Chinese Adolescent Dancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; YAN LAN; JING HU; YAN-HUA YANG; QIAN ZHANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate plasma leptin concentrations in adolescent female dancers and to determine whether leptin has some effects on their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. Methods Sixty dancers aged 15-17 years and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two bone turnover markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRACP), were determined by ELISA. Results The dancers had a lower fat mass and a lower leptin level than the controls, while they had a relatively higher BMD of the total body and legs after adjustment for BMI and age. The levels of bone resorption and formation of markers were higher in the dancers than in the controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, body weight, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. In dancers, Leptin was positively correlated with the BMD of the total body and the left leg. However, after adjustment for BMI, no correlation of serum leptin concentrations with BMD values was found in either dancers or controls. Nor correlation was found between leptin and bone turnover markers after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion The leptin profile is different between the controls and the dancers with a lower BMI and a lower fat mass. Circulating plasma leptin level depends on BMI and is not a direct determinant of BMD in Chinese adolescent dancers.

  2. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Physical Activity Level in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Monemi Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study purposed to investigate the relationship between physical activity level and bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly of Amirkola in northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was part of a proposal to assess the situation of the elderly in Amirkola (AHAP (Amirkola Health and Ageing Project conducted on 1113 elderly individuals (616 males and 497 females in Amirkola city. Physical activity was measured using a standard questionnaire of physical activity in the elderly (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly. Mineral bone mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spines, and vitamin D levels were measured in morning blood samples. T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and linear regression tests were used to analyze data. The mean physical activity of women (118.6±55.5 was higher than that of men (110.3±71.1 (p=0.035. This study found a significant positive relationship between total physical activity and femur bone mineral density (p=0.001 and r=0.101, but this association was not significant in lumbar spines (p=0.597 and r=0.016, though bone mineral density increased in both areas with increased physical activity (p=0.098. A significant inverse relationship between age and physical activity (p=0.001 and between age and bone mineral density (p=0.001 was observed. Analyzing the influencing variables using the linear regression model indicated physical activity, age, and BMI had significant relationships with bone mineral density in the femur, but neither vitamin D nor calcium played a role. Given the positive correlation between bone mineral density and physical activity, it can be concluded that low intensity weight-bearing activities carried out in compliance with safety rules may be suitable for the elderly.

  3. Mechanism of mobilization of bone mineral by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brommage, R.; Neuman, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism(s) by which 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/(1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ promotes the mobilization of bone mineral, calvarial lactate production, and mineral solubility were studied in an in vitro incubation system. The calvairae were obtained from neonatal mice, some of which were previously injected with 20 ng of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. In live bones 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ mobilized bone mineral as evidenced by the increased release of both calcium and phosphate into the medium throughout 48 h of incubation. When examined as a function of incubation time and the interval between injection and incubation, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ did not affect lactate production. Apparently, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ does not mobilize skeletal mineral through a lactate-mediated pH gradient mechanism. Over 4 days of incubation, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/-treated calvariae supported higher buffer levels of calcium and phosphate in the absence of cellular metabolism, indicating the solubility of bone mineral was increased by 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ treatment. Because the effects of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were observed in nonvital bone, a pump mechanism cannot fully explain the 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/-induced transfer of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. These findings suggest that a mechanism involving an increase in bone mineral solubility, presumably mediated through a mineral solubilizer(s), is at least partially responsible for the skeletal actions of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/.

  4. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  5. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  6. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  7. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  8. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  9. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment...

  10. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  11. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  12. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  13. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  14. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  15. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsisi HF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hany Farid Eid Morsy Elsisi,1 Gihan Samir Mohamed Mousa,1 Mohamed Taher Mahmoud ELdesoky2 1Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, 2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background and purpose: Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF or circuit weight training (CWT on short-run basis (after 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT (n=15 each group. The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4 and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05. But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. Keywords: magnetic field, circuit weight training, bone mineral density, elderly women, bone mineral content, bone mass

  16. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  17. Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; McKee, Marc D; Lanske, Beate

    2014-03-01

    Excessive FGF23 has been identified as a pivotal phosphaturic factor leading to renal phosphate-wasting and the subsequent development of rickets and osteomalacia. In contrast, loss of FGF23 in mice (Fgf23(-/-) ) leads to high serum phosphate, calcium, and 1,25-vitamin D levels, resulting in early lethality attributable to severe ectopic soft-tissue calcifications and organ failure. Paradoxically, Fgf23(-/-) mice exhibit a severe defect in skeletal mineralization despite high levels of systemic mineral ions and abundant ectopic mineralization, an abnormality that remains largely unexplained. Through use of in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and immunogold labeling coupled with electron microscopy of bone samples, we discovered that expression and accumulation of osteopontin (Opn/OPN) was markedly increased in Fgf23(-/-) mice. These results were confirmed by qPCR analyses of Fgf23(-/-) bones and ELISA measurements of serum OPN. To investigate whether elevated OPN levels were contributing to the bone mineralization defect in Fgf23(-/-) mice, we generated Fgf23(-/-) /Opn(-/-) double-knockout mice (DKO). Biochemical analyses showed that the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia observed in Fgf23(-/-) mice remained unchanged in DKO mice; however, micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed a significant improvement in total mineralized bone volume. The severe osteoidosis was markedly reduced and a normal mineral apposition rate was present in DKO mice, indicating that increased OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice are at least in part responsible for the osteomalacia. Moreover, the increased OPN levels were significantly decreased upon lowering serum phosphate by feeding a low-phosphate diet or after deletion of NaPi2a, indicating that phosphate levels contribute in part to the high OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice. In summary, our results suggest that increased OPN is an important pathogenic factor mediating the mineralization defect and the

  18. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  19. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  20. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use.

  1. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  2. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  3. Quantitative regulation of bone-mimetic, oriented collagen/apatite matrix structure depends on the degree of osteoblast alignment on oriented collagen substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugaki, Aira; Isobe, Yoshihiro; Saku, Taro; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Bone tissue has a specific anisotropic morphology derived from collagen fiber alignment and the related apatite crystal orientation as a bone quality index. However, the precise mechanism of cellular regulation of the crystallographic orientation of apatite has not been clarified. In this study, anisotropic construction of cell-produced mineralized matrix in vitro was established by initiating organized cellular alignment and subsequent oriented bone-like matrix (collagen/apatite) production. The oriented collagen substrates with three anisotropic levels were prepared by a hydrodynamic method. Primary osteoblasts were cultured on the fabricated substrates until mineralized matrix formation is confirmed. Osteoblast alignment was successfully regulated by the level of substrate collagen orientation, with preferential alignment along the direction of the collagen fibers. Notably, both fibrous orientation of newly synthesized collagen matrix and c-axis of produced apatite crystals showed preferential orientation along the cell direction. Because the degree of anisotropy of the deposited apatite crystals showed dependency on the directional distribution of osteoblasts cultured on the oriented collagen substrates, the cell orientation determines the crystallographic anisotropy of produced apatite crystals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy, even the alignment of apatite crystals, is controllable by varying the degree of osteoblast alignment via regulating the level of substrate orientation.

  4. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  5. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  6. Nanometeric hydroxyapatite in situ formed in demineralized bone matrix by electrochemical technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-da; WANG Yuan-ling; CAI Hao-xi; CAO Yin

    2001-01-01

    @@ To prepare biomimic bone materials, some thick meshes of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), which are the interest work of collagen fibrils, have been prepared in normal way, and calcium phosphate of nanometeric apatite-li.ke was introduced into these mesh works with aqueous calcium and phosphate salt solution by means of the electrochemical technique at room temperature.

  7. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pcontemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (Pdance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  8. Cardiovascular risk and mineral bone disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Hagen; Jeske, Susann; Schmitz, Karin; Warncke, Gert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has been coined recently to highlight that the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism is a major contributor to vascular calcification and finally cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by clinical, biochemical and/or histological findings, i.e. i) biochemical alterations in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and their key player parathyroid hormone (PTH), Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), klotho and vitamin-D, ii) the occurrence of vascular and/or soft tissue calcification, and iii) an abnormal bone structure and/or turnover. Apart from the combined and synergistic action of "traditional" and uremia-related risk factors, promoters and inhibitors of calcification have to be considered as well. This review will focus on the disturbed mineral metabolism as the triggering force behind distortion of vascular integrity and cardiovascular malfunction in CKD patients.

  9. Cardiovascular Risk and Mineral Bone Disorder in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Staude

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has been coined recently to highlight that the disturbed mineral and bone metabolism is a major contributor to vascular calcification and finally cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by clinical, biochemical and/or histological findings, i.e. i biochemical alterations in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and their key player parathyroid hormone (PTH, Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23, klotho and vitamin-D, ii the occurrence of vascular and/or soft tissue calcification, and iii an abnormal bone structure and/or turnover. Apart from the combined and synergistic action of "traditional" and uremia-related risk factors, promoters and inhibitors of calcification have to be considered as well. This review will focus on the disturbed mineral metabolism as the triggering force behind distortion of vascular integrity and cardiovascular malfunction in CKD patients.

  10. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Matrix Minerals in the Tagish Lake Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Kasama, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Tachikawa, O.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the Tagish Lake matrix minerals by TEM. The result shows similarities to CIs (and CRs) and differences from CMs, but its heterogeneity (e.g., carbonate abundance, saponite/serpentine ratio) suggests its complex history. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Use of a matrix for apexification procedure with mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatavkar Roheet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This articles describes a technique for placement of a matrix barrier prior to use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA as an artificial root-end barrier. The technique also demonstrates the use of a delivery system utilizing large-bore needles for the predictable and precise placement of the barrier materials at the apex of the tooth.

  12. Effect of Wearing Style on Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Gökçe Kutsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most important public health problems as a result of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, muscle pain disease, muscle weakness and increased risk of falls and fracture. Outfitting style effects the synthesis and blood levels of vitamin D. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of outfitting style on blood vitamin D and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five female patients who were diagnosed with osteoporosis were included in our study. These women were divided into two groups according to their clothing habits as veiled and unveiled. Data of all patients about menopause, exposure to sun light, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry results, blood calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and osteoporosis treatment were recorded. Results: We found 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was significantly low in women with veiled dressing style (17,0±7,9 ng/ml in veiled and 33.9±22.0 ng/ml in unveiled patients, p<0.001. There was statistically significant correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and femur neck Z-scores, femur total bone mineral density, femur total T-score L1-L4 bone mineral density, femur neck bone mineral density for different seasons (p<0.05. Conclusion: Postmenopausal osteoporotic veiled women are more prone to vitamin D deficiency than unveiled women. Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is accompanying further decrease in bone mineral density. Despite low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in veiled postmenopausal osteoporotic women, there is not direct correlation between wearing style and bone mineral density. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:85-8

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess....

  14. Bone resorption and mineral excretion in rats during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, C. E.; Adachi, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Bone resorption was measured directly in flight and synchronous control rats during COSMOS 1129. Continuous tracer administration techniques were used, with replacement of dietary calcium with isotopically enriched Ca-40 and measurement by neutron activation analysis of the Ca-48 released by the skeleton. There is no large change in bone resorption in rats at the end of 20 days of spaceflight as has been found for bone formation. Based on the time course of changes, the measured 20-25 percent decrease in resorption is probably secondary to a decrease in total body calcium turnover. The excretion of sodium, potassium, and zinc all increase during flight, sodium and potassium to a level four to five times control values.

  15. Dietary carbohydrates and fat influence radiographic bone mineral content of growing foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Lawrence, L A; Kronfeld, D S; Cooper, W L; Sklan, D J; Dascanio, J J; Harris, P A

    1999-12-01

    Hydrolyzable carbohydrate intake in horse diets may become excessive when rapidly growing pastures are supplemented with grain-based concentrates. The substitution of fat and fiber for hydrolyzable carbohydrate in concentrates has been explored in exercising horses but not in young, growing horses. Our objective was to compare bone development in foals that were fed pasture and concentrates rich in sugar and starch (corn, molasses) or fat and fiber (corn oil, beet pulp, soybean hulls, oat straw). Forty foals were examined, 20 each in 1994 and 1995. In each year, 10 mares and their foals were fed a corn and molasses supplement (SS) and 10 others were fed a corn oil and fiber supplement (FF). The concentrates were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous, and mineral content was balanced to complement the pastures and meet or exceed NRC requirements. Dorsopalmar radiographs were taken of the left third metacarpal monthly from birth to weaning and then every other month until 1 yr of age. Bone density was estimated using imaging software and an aluminum stepwedge. Radiographic examination indicated differences in medial, lateral, and central bone mineral content of the metacarpal III. Bone mineral content increased with age, and a plateau was observed during winter. Bone mineral content was lower in weanlings and yearlings fed the FF supplement than in those fed SS. Subjective clinical leg evaluations indicated differences in physitis, joint effusion, and angular and flexural limb deformities in response to age, and possibly to season. Regression analysis indicated positive relationships between bone mineral content and body weight, age, and body measurements. Nutrient and chemical interactions, such as the binding of calcium by fat and fiber, may alter the availability of elements necessary for bone development.

  16. Evolution of the vertebrate bone matrix: an expression analysis of the network forming collagen paralogues in amphibian osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Daniel; Hanna, Patricia; Munoz, David; Espinoza, Javier; Torrejon, Marcela; Sachs, Laurent; Buisine, Nicolas; Oulion, Silvan; Escriva, Hector; Marcellini, Sylvain

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of vertebrates is closely associated to the evolution of mineralized bone tissue. However, the molecular basis underlying the origin and subsequent diversification of the skeletal mineralized matrix is still poorly understood. One efficient way to tackle this issue is to compare the expression, between vertebrate species, of osteoblastic genes coding for bone matrix proteins. In this work, we have focused on the evolution of the network forming collagen family which contains the Col8a1, Col8a2, and Col10a1 genes. Both phylogeny and synteny reveal that these three paralogues are vertebrate-specific and derive from two independent duplications in the vertebrate lineage. To shed light on the evolution of this family, we have analyzed the osteoblastic expression of the network forming collagens in endochondral and intramembraneous skeletal elements of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. Remarkably, we find that amphibian osteoblasts express Col10a1, a gene strongly expressed in osteoblasts in actinopterygians but not in amniotes. In addition, while Col8a1 is known to be robustly expressed in mammalian osteoblasts, the expression levels of its amphibian orthologue are dramatically reduced. Our work reveals that while a skeletal expression of network forming collagen members is widespread throughout vertebrates, osteoblasts from divergent vertebrate lineages express different combinations of network forming collagen paralogues.

  17. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  18. The role of bone in CKD-mediated mineral and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouzam, Nadine M; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and vascular calcifications start early in the course of CKD. Based on the growing body of evidence that alterations of bone and mineral metabolism and the therapies designed to treat the skeletal consequences of CKD are linked to cardiovascular calcifications, the Kidney Disease, Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group redefined renal osteodystrophy as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, and this newly defined disorder is now known as "chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)". Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived protein, is the first biochemical abnormality to be associated with CKD-MBD, and high FGF23 levels correlate with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that bone is central to both initiating and perpetuating the abnormal mineral metabolism and vascular disease in CKD. The current standard therapies for CKD-MBD affect FGF23 levels differently; non-calcium-based binders with or without concurrent use of dietary phosphate restriction reduce FGF23 levels, while calcium-based binders seem to either increase or have no effect on FGF23 levels. Active vitamin D sterols increase FGF23 levels, whereas therapy with calcimimetics decreases FGF23 levels. Thus, the appropriate therapy that will minimize the rise in FGF23 and prevent cardiovascular morbidity remains to be defined.

  19. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Leveille, S.G.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Koepsell, T. D.; Beresford, S. A.; BELLE, G.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between dietary vitamin C and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study using retrospective diet and vitamin supplement data. SETTING: The Seattle area of Washington State. PARTICIPANTS: Screenees for a clinical trial of a drug to prevent osteoporotic fractures; 1892 women aged 55-80 years who had hip bone densitometry and osteoporosis risk factor information. MAIN RESULTS: Mean energy adjusted...

  20. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  1. A novel 3-D mineralized tumor model to study breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth P Pathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with advanced breast cancer, but the role of the bone mineral hydroxyapatite (HA in this process remains unclear. We have developed a novel mineralized 3-D tumor model and have employed this culture system to systematically investigate the pro-metastatic role of HA under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were cultured within non-mineralized or mineralized polymeric scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming-particulate leaching technique. Tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of pro-osteoclastic interleukin-8 (IL-8 was increased in mineralized tumor models as compared to non-mineralized tumor models, and IL-8 secretion was more pronounced for bone-specific MDA-MB231 subpopulations relative to lung-specific breast cancer cells. These differences were pathologically significant as conditioned media collected from mineralized tumor models promoted osteoclastogenesis in an IL-8 dependent manner. Finally, drug testing and signaling studies with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta confirmed the clinical relevance of our culture system and revealed that breast cancer cell behavior is broadly affected by HA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that HA promotes features associated with the neoplastic and metastatic growth of breast carcinoma cells in bone and that IL-8 may play an important role in this process. The developed mineralized tumor models may help to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may ultimately enable more efficacious therapy of patients with advanced breast cancer.

  2. Mechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility Improvement of Vertebroplasty PMMA Bone Cements by Incorporating Mineralized Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jiang Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cement is a commonly used bone adhesive and filling material in percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty surgeries. However, PMMA bone cements have been reported to cause some severe complications, such as secondary fracture of adjacent vertebral bodies, and loosening or even dislodgement of the set PMMA bone cement, due to the over-high elastic modulus and poor osteointegration ability of the PMMA. In this study, mineralized collagen (MC with biomimetic microstructure and good osteogenic activity was added to commercially available PMMA bone cement products, in order to improve both the mechanical properties and the cytocompatibility. As the compressive strength of the modified bone cements remained well, the compressive elastic modulus could be significantly down-regulated by the MC, so as to reduce the pressure on the adjacent vertebral bodies. Meanwhile, the adhesion and proliferation of pre-osteoblasts on the modified bone cements were improved compared with cells on those unmodified, such result is beneficial for a good osteointegration formation between the bone cement and the host bone tissue in clinical applications. Moreover, the modification of the PMMA bone cements by adding MC did not significantly influence the injectability and processing times of the cement.

  3. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  4. STUDY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS IN HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvapandian Kirubaharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Vitamin D metabolites participate in the regulation of calcium homoeostasis and bone metabolism. Severe and prolonged vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly and may lead to development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone loss, for which reason it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis. AIM To determine the relationships between serum 25 (OH D, bone mineral density, and serum calcium and phosphorus in 50 postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study with a total of 50 healthy women aged over 50 years with amenorrhoea for 12 months were included. None of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Measurements of bone mineral density were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Analysis of serum levels of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were done. RESULTS There exists an inverse correlation between BMD and 25(OH D levels (r = - 0.127, p>0.05 and that between 25 (OH D and phosphate levels among postmenopausal women (r = -0.167, p >0.05, which is not significant. No significant difference exists in the serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase between vitamin D insufficient & deficient persons (p >0.05. CONCLUSION Elevated levels of serum 25(OH D were associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased bone turnover, but it was insignificant.

  5. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  6. Matrix Vesicle Enzyme Activity and Phospholipid Content in Endosteal Bone Following Implantation of Osseointegrating and Non-Osseointegrating Implant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    matrix vesicles (Schwartz et al., 1990a; Boyan et al., 1988; Peress et al., 1974) and is intimately associated with mineral formation as the principle...directly related to the process of primary mineral formation in tissues adjacent to osseointegrating and non- integrating materials. Of particular...Evans, L. 1981. Mechanisms of mineral formation by matrix vesicles. In: Matrix Vesicles, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Matrix Vesicles. Ascenci, A., Bonucci, D

  7. Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix Bone Fracture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hum Y. Chai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently doctors in orthopedic wards inspect the bone x-ray images according to their experience and knowledge in bone fracture analysis. Manual examination of x-rays has multitude drawbacks. The process is time-consuming and subjective. Approach: Since detection of fractures is an important orthopedics and radiologic problem and therefore a Computer Aided Detection(CAD system should be developed to improve the scenario. In this study, a fracture detection CAD based on GLCM recognition could improve the current manual inspection of x-ray images system. The GLCM for fracture and non-fracture bone is computed and analysis is made. Features of Homogeneity, contrast, energy, correlation are calculated to classify the fractured bone. Results: 30 images of femur fractures have been tested, the result shows that the CAD system can differentiate the x-ray bone into fractured and nonfractured femur. The accuracy obtained from the system is 86.67. Conclusion: The CAD system is proved to be effective in classifying the digital radiograph of bone fracture. However the accuracy rate is not perfect, the performance of this system can be further improved using multiple features of GLCM and future works can be done on classifying the bone into different degree of fracture specifically.

  8. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  9. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  11. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurstegge Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. Methods We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery. Results The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. Conclusion The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.

  12. Bone regeneration with osteogenically enhanced mesenchymal stem cells and their extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bret H; McCarley, Matthew R; Krause, Ulf; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Froese, Jeremiah J; McNeill, Eoin P; Chaput, Christopher D; Sampson, H Wayne; Gregory, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    Although bone has remarkable regenerative capacity, about 10% of long bone fractures and 25% to 40% of vertebral fusion procedures fail to heal. In such instances, a scaffold is employed to bridge the lesion and accommodate osteoprogenitors. Although synthetic bone scaffolds mimic some of the characteristics of bone matrix, their effectiveness can vary because of biological incompatibility. Herein, we demonstrate that a composite prepared with osteogenically enhanced mesenchymal stem cells (OEhMSCs) and their extracellular matrix (ECM) has an unprecedented capacity for the repair of critical-sized defects of murine femora. Furthermore, OEhMSCs do not cause lymphocyte activation, and ECM/OEhMSC composites retain their in vivo efficacy after cryopreservation. Finally, we show that attachment to the ECM by OEhMSCs stimulates the production of osteogenic and angiogenic factors. These data demonstrate that composites of OEhMSCs and their ECM could be utilized in the place of autologous bone graft for complex orthopedic reconstructions.

  13. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  14. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD. The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as 3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.

  15. Human Bone Matrix Changes During Deep Saturation Dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    agreement notwithstanding, much remains unknown about its pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment . DON is currently disqualifying for U.S. Navy divers...recourse for symptomatic treatment is surgical joint replacement.7 The principal mechanism of bone injury is generally accepted to be bubble formation...urine concentrations of Ntx have been demonstrated in bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary hyperthyroidism , and Paget’s disease. Also

  16. Effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Feng Qian; Ping Cao; Shuan Liu; Hong-Ping Yang; Ming-Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures.Methods:A total of 120 patients with primary osteoporosis were included in this study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=60). Control group received consistent treatment, observation group received individualized regular anti-osteoporosis treatment, and then the differences in bone mineral density, bone metabolism, trace elements, oxidative stress, fracture incidence, and so on were compared between two groups of patients 1 year after treatment.Results:Absolute BMD value of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; serum bone formation indexes ALP, BGP, PⅠNP and PⅠCP content were higher than those of control group; serum bone resorption indexesβ-CTX, sRANKL, TRACP, BAP and DPD content were lower than those of control group; serum trace elements iron and zinc content were higher than those of control group while calcium content was lower than that of control group; serum AOPP and MAOA content of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC content were significantly higher than those of control group;fracture incidence was significantly lower than that of control group during treatment.Conclusions:The regular anti-osteoporosis treatment can increase bone mineral density, optimize the overall condition and reduce the incidence of long-term fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis.

  17. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  18. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  19. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University School of Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: spinelee@snu.ac.kr [Research and Development Center, CGBio Inc., Seong-Nam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  20. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Cancer Survivorship, Memphis, TN (United States); Shelso, John [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Memphis, TN (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P = 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  1. Densidade mineral óssea de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade Bone mineral density in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobayashi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a densidade óssea como fator concomitante da obesidade em adolescentes pós-púberes, controlando outras variáveis que possam interferir nessa relação. MÉTODOS: Estudo com 83 sobrepesos e obesos (IMC > P85 e 89 não obesos (P5 OBJECTIVE: to study bone density as a concomitant factor for obesity in post-pubertal adolescents, controlling for other variables that may interfere in such a relation. METHODS: Study comprising 83 overweight and obese adolescents (BMI > P85 and 89 non obese ones (P5 < BMI < P85. Cases and controls were selected out of 1,420 students (aged 14-19 from a public school in the city of São Paulo. The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-L4 in g/cm² was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR™ DPX-L. The variable bone density was dichotomized using 1.194 g/cm² as cutoff point. Bivariate analyses were conducted considering the prevalence of overweight and obesity followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression according to a hierarchical conceptual model. RESULTS: The prevalence of bone density above the median was twice more frequent among cases (69.3% than among controls (32.1%. In the bivariate analysis such prevalence resulted in an odds ratio (OR of 4.78. The logistic regression model showed that the association between obesity and mineral density is yet more intense with an OR of 6.65 after the control of variables related to sedentary lifestyle and intake of milk and dairy products. CONCLUSION: Obese and overweight adolescents in the final stages of sexual maturity presented higher bone mineral density in relation to their normal-weight counterparts; however, cohort studies will be necessary to evaluate the influence of such characteristic on bone resistance in adulthood and, consequently, on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis at older ages.

  2. A pilot study on the impact of body composition on bone and mineral metabolism in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María C; Parisi, Muriel S; Díaz, Sergio P; Mastaglia, Silvina R; Deferrari, Juan M; Seijo, Mariana; Bagur, Alicia; Micheli, Federico; Oliveri, Beatriz

    2007-08-01

    The impact of body composition on bone and mineral metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) was evaluated. Body fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by DXA in 22 PD patients and 104 controls. Female patients exhibited reduced body mass index, fat mass, and BMD compared to controls (p<0.05). Significant positive correlation was found between 25 OHD levels and BMC. Diminished bone mass in women with PD was found to be associated with alterations in body composition and low 25 OHD levels.

  3. Mineralization, biodegradation, and drug release behavior of gelatin/apatite composite microspheres for bone regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Jo, J.; Wang, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Jansen, J.A.; Tabata, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin microspheres are well-known for their capacity to release growth factors in a controlled manner, but gelatin microspheres do not calcify in the absence of so-called bioactive substances that induce deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone mineral. This study has investigated if CaP nanocry

  4. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  5. Predictors of bone mineral density in patients with Sheehan′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan′s syndrome is a leading cause of panhypopituitarism.It is associated with osdteoporosis due to a number of factors like gonadal and growth hormone deficiency; and other factors.In our study, 58 % of patients had osteopenia and 37% had osteoporosis at lumbar spine. Duration of illness had a significant inverse relationship with bone mineral density.

  6. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77 con

  7. Pharmacogenetic risk factors for altered bone mineral density and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet); R.D. van Beek (Robert Diederik); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground This study investigates pharmacogenetic risk factors for bone mineral (apparent) density (BM(A)D) and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia Design and Methods We determined the influence of SNPs in 4 genes (vitamin-D receptor (VDR: BsmI/ApaI/TaqI and Cdx-2

  8. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  9. Uric acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: the link lies within the fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirro, M; Mannarino, M R; Bianconi, V; De Vuono, S; Sahebkar, A; Bagaglia, F; Franceschini, L; Scarponi, A M; Mannarino, E; Merriman, T

    2017-03-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Fat accumulation is linked to SUA and BMD, thus possibly explaining the mixed results. We found that adiposity drives part of the association between SUA and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: a Bridge Between Bone Minerals and Renal Volume Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer Kor

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the interaction between the phosphate-regulating hormone Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) as key player in bone-mineral homeostasis and renal volume handling, mainly in the context of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). First, we elaborate on the ro

  13. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  14. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  15. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  16. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  17. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 1...

  18. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 5

  19. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  20. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  1. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  2. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  3. Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketul C. Popat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic tissue scaffolds have a high potential impact for patients experiencing osteogenesis imperfecta. Using electrospinning, tissue scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (HAp/PCL composite nanofibers were fabricated with two different HAp concentrations—1% and 10% of the solid scaffold weight. After physico-chemical scaffold characterization, rat bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on the composite scaffolds in maintenance medium and then in osteogenic medium. Quantitative PCR, colorimetric assays, immunofluorescent labeling, and electron microscopy measured osteogenic cell responses to the HAp/PCL scaffolds. In maintenance conditions, both Hap/PCL scaffolds and control scaffolds supported cell colonization through seven days with minor differences. In osteogenic conditions, the 10% HAp scaffolds exhibited significantly increased ALP assay levels at week 3, consistent with previous reports. However, qPCR analysis demonstrated an overall decrease in bone matrix-associated genes on Hap/PCL scaffolds. Osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescent microscopy revealed a trend that both mineralized scaffolds had greater amounts of both proteins, though qPCR results indicated the opposite trend for osteopontin. Additionally, type I collagen expression decreased on HAp scaffolds. These results indicate that cells are sensitive to minor changes in mineral content within nanofibers, even at just 1% w/w, and elucidating the sensing mechanism may lead to optimized osteogenic scaffold designs.

  4. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  5. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  6. Aluminum and iron can be deposited in the calcified matrix of bone exostoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Moukoko, Didier; Henric, Nicolas; Steiger, Vincent; Le Nay, Patrick; Frin, Jean-Marie; De Bodman, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Exostosis (or osteochondroma) is the most common benign bone tumor encountered in children and adults. Exostoses may occur as solitary or multiple tumors (in the autosomal syndromes of hereditary multiple exostoses). Exostoses are composed of cortical and medullary bone covered by an overlying hyaline cartilage cap. We have searched iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) in the matrix of cortical and trabecular bone of 30 patients with exostosis. Al(3+) and Fe(3+) are two cations which can substitute calcium in the hydroxyapatite crystals of the bone matrix. The bone samples were removed surgically and were studied undecalcified. Perls' Prussian blue staining (for Fe) and solochrome azurine B (for Al) were used on the histological sections of the tumors. Al(3+) was detected histochemically in 21/30 patients as linear bands deposited by the osteoblasts. Fe(3+) was detected in 10 out of these 21 patients as linear bands in the same locations. Fe(3+) and Al(3+) were not identified in the bone matrix of a control group of 20 osteoporotic patients. Energy X-ray Dispersive Spectrometry failed to identify Fe and Al in bone of these tumors due to the low sensitivity of the method. Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry identified them but the concentrations were very low. Histochemistry appears a very sensitive method for Fe(3+) and Al(3+) in bone.The presence of these two metals in the exostoses advocates for a disturbed metabolism of osteoblasts which can deposit these metals into the bone matrix, similar to which is observed in case of hemochromatosis with Fe(3+).

  7. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  8. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  10. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction. We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, M A; Ribeiro, H J; Valverde, T M; Sousa, B R; Martins-Júnior, P A; Mendes, R M; Ladeira, L O; Resende, R R; Kitten, G T; Ferreira, A J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs) on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction). We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  12. A proteinaceous organic matrix regulates carbonate mineral production in the marine teleost intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L.; Lemoine, Christophe M. R.; Pelin, Adrian; Corradi, Nicolas; Warren, Wesley C.; Grosell, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Marine teleost fish produce CaCO3 in their intestine as part of their osmoregulatory strategy. This precipitation is critical for rehydration and survival of the largest vertebrate group on earth, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reaction are unknown. Here, we isolate and characterize an organic matrix associated with the intestinal precipitates produced by Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Toadfish precipitates were purified using two different methods, and the associated organic matrix was extracted. Greater than 150 proteins were identified in the isolated matrix by mass spectrometry and subsequent database searching using an O. beta transcriptomic sequence library produced here. Many of the identified proteins were enriched in the matrix compared to the intestinal fluid, and three showed no substantial homology to any previously characterized protein in the NCBI database. To test the functionality of the isolated matrix, a micro-modified in vitro calcification assay was designed, which revealed that low concentrations of isolated matrix substantially promoted CaCO3 production, where high concentrations showed an inhibitory effect. High concentrations of matrix also decreased the incorporation of magnesium into the forming mineral, potentially providing an explanation for the variability in magnesium content observed in precipitates produced by different fish species.

  13. A proteinaceous organic matrix regulates carbonate mineral production in the marine teleost intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L.; LeMoine, Christophe M. R.; Pelin, Adrian; Corradi, Nicolas; Warren, Wesley C.; Grosell, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Marine teleost fish produce CaCO3 in their intestine as part of their osmoregulatory strategy. This precipitation is critical for rehydration and survival of the largest vertebrate group on earth, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reaction are unknown. Here, we isolate and characterize an organic matrix associated with the intestinal precipitates produced by Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Toadfish precipitates were purified using two different methods, and the associated organic matrix was extracted. Greater than 150 proteins were identified in the isolated matrix by mass spectrometry and subsequent database searching using an O. beta transcriptomic sequence library produced here. Many of the identified proteins were enriched in the matrix compared to the intestinal fluid, and three showed no substantial homology to any previously characterized protein in the NCBI database. To test the functionality of the isolated matrix, a micro-modified in vitro calcification assay was designed, which revealed that low concentrations of isolated matrix substantially promoted CaCO3 production, where high concentrations showed an inhibitory effect. High concentrations of matrix also decreased the incorporation of magnesium into the forming mineral, potentially providing an explanation for the variability in magnesium content observed in precipitates produced by different fish species. PMID:27694946

  14. Minerals and vitamins in bone health: the potential value of dietary enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Guéguen, Léon; Palacios, Cristina; Shearer, Martin J; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-06-01

    Nutrition is important to bone health, and a number of minerals and vitamins have been identified as playing a potential role in the prevention of bone diseases, particularly osteoporosis. Despite this, there is currently no consensus on maximum levels to allow in food or as dietary supplements. The benefits of supplementation of populations at risk of osteoporosis with Ca and vitamin D are well established. Prolonged supplementation of Ca and vitamin D in elderly has been shown to prevent bone loss, and in some intervention studies to prevent fragility fractures. Although P is essential to bone health, the average intake is considered to be more than sufficient and supplementation could raise intake to adverse levels. The role of vitamin K in bone health is less well defined, though it may enhance the actions of Ca and vitamin D. Sr administered in pharmacological doses as the ranelate salt was shown to prevent fragility fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, there is no hard evidence that supplementation with Sr salts would be beneficial in the general population. Mg is a nutrient implicated in bone quality, but the benefit of supplementation via foodstuffs remains to be established. A consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health should balance the risks, for example, exposure of vulnerable populations to values close to maximal tolerated doses, against evidence for benefits from randomised clinical trials, such as those for Ca and vitamin D. Feedback from community studies should direct further investigations and help formulate a consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health.

  15. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  16. Laser-Sintered Constructs with Bio-inspired Porosity and Surface Micro/Nano-Roughness Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales. 2D solid disks and low, medium and high porosity (LP, MP, and HP) 3D constructs based on a human trabecular bone template were laser sintered from Ti-6Al-4V powder and further processed to have micro- and nanoscale roughness. hMSCs exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation and local factor production on all 3D porous constructs compared to 2D surfaces, which was sustained for 9 days without use of exogenous factors. hMSCs cultured for 8 weeks on MP constructs in osteogenic medium (OM), OM supplemented with BMP2 or collagen-coated MP constructs in OM exhibited bone-like extracellular matrix mineralization. Use of bio-inspired porosity for the 3D architecture of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs beyond surface roughness alone. This study suggests that a 3D architecture may enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants in vivo.

  17. Extracellular matrix mineralization promotes E11/gp38 glycoprotein expression and drives osteocytic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Matthew; Loveridge, Nigel; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Farquharson, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts which reside in a mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM). The factors that regulate this differentiation process are unknown. We have investigated whether ECM mineralization could promote osteocyte formation. To do this we have utilised MLO-A5 pre-osteocyte-like cells and western blotting and comparative RT-PCR to examine whether the expression of osteocyte-selective markers is elevated concurrently with the onset of ECM mineralization. Secondly, if mineralization of the ECM is indeed a driver of osteocyte formation, we reasoned that impairment of ECM mineralization would result in a reversible inhibition of osteocyte formation. Supplementation of MLO-A5 cell cultures with ascorbic acid and phosphate promoted progressive ECM mineralization as well as temporally associated increases in expression of the osteocyte-selective markers, E11/gp38 glycoprotein and sclerostin. Consistent with a primary role for ECM mineralization in osteocyte formation, we also found that inhibition of ECM mineralization, by omitting phosphate or adding sodium pyrophosphate, a recognized inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, resulted in a 15-fold decrease in mineral deposition that was closely accompanied by lower expression of E11 and other osteocyte markers such as Dmp1, Cd44 and Sost whilst expression of osteoblast markers Ocn and Col1a increased. To rule out the possibility that such restriction of ECM mineralization may produce an irreversible modification in osteoblast behaviour to limit E11 expression and osteocytogenesis, we also measured the capacity of MLO-A5 cells to re-enter the osteocyte differentiation programme. We found that the mineralisation process was re-initiated and closely allied to increased expression of E11 protein after re-administration of phosphate or omission of sodium pyrophosphate, indicating an ECM mineralization-induced restoration in osteocyte formation. These results emphasise the importance of cell

  18. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    2002-01-01

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked a

  19. Regulacin de la mineralizacin sea por factores inorgnicos y peptdicos Regulation of Bone Mineralization by inorganic and peptide factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L Negri

    2011-10-01

    osteoctico perilacunar.Orthotopic mineralization begins with the production of matrix vesicles that are produced by polarized budding of the surface of condrocytes, osteoblasts and odontoblasts. It occurs in two steps: The first one is the formation of hydroxiapatite crystals within the matrix vesicles, followed by the propagation of the hydroxiapatite crystals through the membrane vesicle into the extra cellular matrix. In the regulation of orthotopic mineralization, apart from tissue-specific cells, a great number of enzymes, inorganic and peptide factors participate, that have complex interactions among them. Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi antagonizes the ability of phosphate (Pi to crystallize with calcium and to form hydroxiapatite, thus suppressing its propagation. For the normal mineralization to continue, an adjusted balance of the extra cellular Pi and PPi levels is needed. Three molecules have been identified that have a central role in the regulation of extra cellular PPi levels: tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, which hydrolyzes PPi, the nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1, which generates PPi from triphosphate nucleosides, and the multiple-steps transmembrane protein ANK which transfers PPi from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. There are, in turn, two SIBLING proteins called DMP1 and MEPE that regulate mineralization. The expression of DMP1 by the osteocyte is dramatically induced in response to mechanical loading increasing bone mineralization. MEPE protein contains a protease resistant motif called ASARM, which is believed to be the candidate for the mineralization inhibitor (minhibin. Osteopontin is another mineralization inhibitor in its phosphorilated form and its secretion is markedly reduced in knockout mice for NPP1. Present data seem to support the hypothesis that these molecules could be the translators of bone strain and participate in the regulation of mineralization of the perilacunar osteocytic space.

  20. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured......Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...

  1. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D are important for fat and bone metabolism but the intake is declining in Western societies with a potential deleterious effect on growth and bone health. Dietary PUFA composition favors the intake of omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) compared to omega-3 (n-3 PUFA......). Hormones (eicosanoids) from n-6 PUFA induce fat cell differentiation and an intake high in n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA is hypothesized to inhibit differentiation and hypertrophy of adipose cells and subsequently the risk for obesity. Identification of dietary components with effects on fat tissue growth...... is increasing in many Western societies. Bone mineral accrual in childhood influences later bone health and optimization may be preventive against the development of demineralizing skeletal disorders. The purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate the association between n-3 PUFA in breastmilk and BMI...

  2. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment...... with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  3. Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health

  4. Vitamin D status and its relationship with bone mineral density in a healthy Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Khashayar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Considering the controversial results regarding the relationship between vitamin D levels and bone mineral density in different populations, the present study was designed to evaluate this correlation in a healthy Iranian population. METHODS: Using a random cluster sample of apparently healthy men and women, this multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out among 4450 individuals living in urban areas of five major cities in Iran. Bone mineral density (BMD values at different sites were analyzed along with the serum levels of 25(OHD and PTH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to estimate the main effects, through comparing the mean values of these markers based on the bone mineral density status of the study group in each sex. RESULTS: 25(OHD levels were inversely correlated with BMD values at total hip (r = -0.062 in men and r = -0.057 in women and spine (r = -0.076 in men and r = -0.107 in women. After adjusting the data for age, the inverse correlation was no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Serum 25(OHD levels are inversely correlated with bone mass values in both sexes.

  5. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

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    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  6. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  7. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Cuenca-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group, hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct. During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5. Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT, histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70% than for mineral scaffold alone (22% and hybrid constructs (35%. The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft. Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored

  8. Evaluation of posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep using mineral scaffolds seeded with cultured bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-López, María D; Andrades, José A; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-12-16

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4-L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  9. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone-PDL-cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; Schuck, Jim; Webb, Samuel; Landis, William; Ho, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone and PDL-cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between tooth and bone, mineral formation and resorbing events at the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, AFM-based nanoindentation technique, and were correlated with histochemical stains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogenous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey’s fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III - 1240 cm−1) to inorganic (phosphate - 960 cm−1) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL-bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft-hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the physicochemical properties of tissues per se, and consequently the overall biomechanics of the bone

  10. Crosstalk of osteoblast and osteoclast precursors on mineralized collagen--towards an in vitro model for bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, A; Thieme, S; Domaschke, H; Springer, A; Rösen-Wolff, A; Gelinsky, M

    2010-12-01

    Bone remodeling and, therefore, integration of implant materials require the coordinated regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity. This is why the in vitro evaluation of biomaterials for bone regeneration should involve not only the analysis of osteoblast differentiation but also the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts. In the present study, we applied a material made of mineralized collagen I that mimics extracellular bone matrix to establish a culture system, which allows the cocultivation of human monocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which were differentiated into osteoclast-like cells and osteoblasts, respectively. Both cell types were cultivated on membrane-like structures from mineralized collagen. Transwell inserts were used to spatially separate the cell types but allowed exchange of soluble factors. The osteoclastogenesis and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated by analysis of gene expression, determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Furthermore, cell morphology was studied using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Osteogenically induced hMSC showed an increased specific ALP activity as well as increased gene expression of gene coding for alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), when cocultivated with differentiating osteoclasts. Adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs was suppressed by the presence of osteoclasts as indicated by a major decrease in adipocyte cell number and a decrease in gene expression of adipogenic markers. The formation of multinucleated osteoclasts seems to be decreased in the presence of osteogenically induced hMSC as indicated by electron microscopic evaluation and determination of TRAP activity. However, gene expression of osteoclast markers was not decreased in coculture with osteogenically induced hMSC.

  11. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

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    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-01-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.

  12. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-12-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.

  13. Relationships between serum Omentin-1 levels and bone mineral density in older men with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Xin-Lan Zhao; Bin Liao; Ai-Ping Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between serum Omentin-1 levels and the presence of osteoporosis in older men. Methods: Serum Omentin-1, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 45 older men with osteoporosis or 45 older men without osteoporosis (65e70 years old). Results: Omentin-1 levels were increased in older men with osteoporosis, and the differences remained significant after con-trolling for fat mass. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMD. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, Omentin-1, lean mass, but not fat mass, were independent predictors of BMD for the combined group. Significant negative correlations between Omentin-1 and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and bone cross-linked N-telopeptides of typeⅠcollagen (NTX) were found. Omentin-1 was also independently associated with BMD and bone turnover markers in older men with osteoporosis and control groups that were considered separately. Conclusions: Omentin-1 is an independent predictor of BMD in older men with osteoporosis, and it is negatively correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. It is suggested that Omentin-1 may exert a negative effect on bone mass through the regulation of the osteoblast differentiation in the older men with osteoporosis.

  14. Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J

    1999-01-01

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....

  15. Evaluation of bone mineral density in urban girls of Kawar-Fars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Jeddi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal bone structure is formed in childhood and adolescence. Any problem of bone formation at these stages will lead to significant osteoporosis and its complications in adulthood. Genetic factors are the most important factors in skeletal development. This study aimed to evaluate the bone mineral density and it's interfering factors in Iranian girls of Kawar of Fars. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 235 healthy girls of Kawar of Fars aged 9-18 years old participated and they underwent Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scanning of lumbar spine, femoral neck and total body. The LMS method was applied to calculate smoothed BMC, BMD and BMAD for age related centiles. Results: Maximum accretion of BMC and BMD was at ages of 11 to 13 and according to 3rd, 25th, 50th, 75th and 97th percentile, BMC and BMD of all sites were increasing with a rather fixed rate up to the age of 15 and then after it increased very slowly. Conclusion: This study is the first study for normative data of BMC and BMD of Iranian girls and showed that BMC accretion of these girls was slower, but BMD accretion was greater than the girls of the other parts of the world. Absolute amount of bone mineral content in Iranian girls was lower than Indian, Lebanese and Asian girls of USA. Also weight and puberty were the two most important factors efficacious on BMD of the Iranian girls (of Kawar. Further research to evaluate the evolution of bone mineral density in Iranian children and adolescents is needed to identify the reasons for the significant differences in bone density values between our Iranian population and their Asian counterparts.

  16. Bone Mineralization in Rhythmic Gymnasts Entering Puberty: Associations with Jumping Performance and Body Composition Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    This study examined bone mineral density (BMD) accrual in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition over the 3-year period. Whole body (WB) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jumps for 15 s (RJ15s) were assessed in 25 rhythmic gymnasts and 25 untrained controls at baseline and after 3-year period. The changes over this period were calculated (Δ scores). Pubertal maturation over the 3-year period was slower in rhythmic gymnasts compared to untrained controls, while no difference in bone age development was seen. WB BMD increased similarly in both groups, while the increase in FN BMD was higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with untrained controls. In rhythmic gymnasts, baseline FFM was the most significant predictor of ΔWB BMD explaining 19.2% of the variability, while baseline RJ15s was the most significant predictor of ΔFN BMD explaining 18.5% of the variability. In untrained controls, baseline FM explained 51.8 and 18.9% of the variability in ΔWB BMD and ΔFN BMD, respectively. In conclusion, mechanical loading of high-intensity athletic activity had beneficial effect on BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts and may have counterbalanced such negative factors on bone development as slower pubertal maturation and lower body FM. Baseline FFM and repeated jumps test performance were related to BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts, while baseline FM was related to BMD accrual in untrained controls. Key points Sudy examined bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition. Jumping performance and fat free mass values predicted bone mineral accrual in rhythmic gymnasts. Fat mass predicted bone mineral accrual in untrained control girls

  17. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  18. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoso, Laura [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: laurag@ebd.csic.es; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: pedalv@ugr.es; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro A.B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: anava@ugr.es; Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Mateo@uclm.es; Hiraldo, Fernando [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: hiraldo@ebd.csic.es; Donazar, Jose Antonio [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: donazar@ebd.csic.es

    2009-02-15

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

  19. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  20. Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Nop M B K; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Everts, Vincent; Mulder, Lars; Grünheid, Thorsten; Bank, Ruud A; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

    2010-04-01

    Collagen is an important constituent of bone, and it has been suggested that changes in collagen and mineral properties of bone are interrelated during growth. The aim of this study was to quantify age-related changes in collagen properties and the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). The DMB in cancellous and cortical bone samples from the mandibular condyle of 35 female pigs aged 0-100 weeks was determined using micro-computed tomography. Subsequently, the amount of collagen and the number of pentosidine (Pen), hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links were quantified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of collagen increased with age in cancellous bone but remained unchanged in cortical bone. The number of Pen and LP cross-links decreased in both bone types. In contrast, the number of HP cross-links decreased only in cancellous bone. The sum of the number of HP and LP cross-links decreased with age in cancellous bone only. The DMB increased in cancellous and cortical bone. It was concluded that the largest changes in the number of mature collagen cross-links and the mineralization in porcine cancellous and cortical bone take place before the age of 40 weeks. The low number of mature cross-links after this age suggests that the bone turnover rate continues to be high and thereby prevents the development of mature cross-links.

  1. Implants of polyanionic collagen matrix in bone defects of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues; Santos, Arnaldo Rodrigues; Goissis, Gilberto; Genari, Selma C

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in the development of biomaterials that could be used in the repair of bone defects. Collagen matrix (CM) has the advantage that it can be modified chemically to improve its mechanical properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three-dimensional membranes of native or anionic (submitted to alkaline treatment for 48 or 96 h) collagen matrix on the consolidation of osteoporosis bone fractures resulting from the gonadal hormone alterations caused by ovariectomy in rats subjected to hormone replacement therapy. The animals received the implants 4 months after ovariectomy and were sacrificed 8 weeks after implantation of the membranes into 4-mm wide bone defects created in the distal third of the femur with a surgical bur. Macroscopic analysis revealed the absence of pathological alterations in the implanted areas, suggesting that the material was biocompatible. Microscopic analysis showed a lower amount of bone ingrowth in the areas receiving the native membrane compared to the bone defects filled with the anionic membranes. In ovariectomized animals receiving anionic membranes, a delay in bone regeneration was observed mainly in animals not subjected to hormone replacement therapy. We conclude that anionic membranes treated with alkaline solution for 48 and 96 h presented better results in terms of bone ingrowth.

  2. Low dose pioglitazone does not affect bone formation and resorption markers or bone mineral density in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirella, E; Mavrakanas, T; Rager, O; Tsartsalis, S; Kallaras, K; Kokkas, B; Mironidou-Tzouveleki, M

    2012-04-01

    Our study aims to investigate the effect of a low-dose pioglitazone regimen on bone mineral density and bone formation-resorption markers in control and diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-diabetic controls, control rats receiving pioglitazone (3 mg/kg), streptozocin-treated diabetic rats (50 mg/kg), diabetic rats treated with pioglitazone (3 mg/kg). The duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Diabetes in our rats was associated with weight loss, increased urinary calcium excretion and reduced plasma osteocalcin levels. Diabetes mellitus did not affect bone mineral density. Pioglitazone administration had no impact on bone formation and resorption markers levels and did not modify bone mineral density in the four studied groups. Pioglitazone at the 3 mg/kg dose was not associated with significant skeletal complications in our experimental model.

  3. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  4. Bone Mineral Densitometry Findings of Children with Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of Celiac Disease (CD on children’s bone is the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD. Osteoporosis is a consequence of this decrease and usually manifests in adult ages. Studies in CD patients generally show that bone density of these patients can be different at the same ages for the same duration of disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age and bone mineral density of CD patients at first diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ninety one patients (M/F: 36/55; age range: 3-16; mean age: 9.6±3.5 with diagnosis of CD were included in the study. BMD survey from L1-L4 lumbar spine and total hip of the patients was evaluated at presentation. We evaluated the patients in 3 groups according to their ages: Group 1: pre-school (3-7 years old, Group 2: elementary school (8-11 years old and Group 3: adolescent (12-16 years old. Results were compared using Student’s t test and correlation analysis. Results: The mean disease duration of the patients was 16.4±16.3 months. Mean height and weight of the patients were 124.8±17.9 cm and 27±9.3 kg, respectively and height and weight of 37 patients were in ≤ 3. percentile according to age. The BMD values of both lumbar spine and total hip and Z-scores of lumbar region were in mild correlation with age (r>0.5. There was significant difference between mean ages of patients with low bone mass for chronological age and normal bone densitometry values (p<0.05. There were 27, 36 and 28 patients in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. The difference between mean BMD values of these groups were statistically significant (p<0.05. The mean values of lumbar Z- scores of patients were -1.08±1.27, -1.42±1, -1.86±1.14, respectively for these three groups. Conclusion: Bone mineral densities of CD patients in childhood were lower in elder children at the time of diagnosis. This confirms the opinion that the diagnosis at earlier age results better treatment

  5. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    ), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexacyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene] and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds. To ensure that the BMD value in skull represented the mineral status of the skeletal system in general, we compared BMD values in femur...... and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p PBDE period (1892.......04) and SigmaCHL (p PBDE in subadults were also found (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the strong correlative relationships suggest that disruption of the bone mineral composition in East Greenland polar...

  6. Utility of tricalcium phosphate and osteogenic matrix cellsheet constructs for bone defect reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the effects of transplanting osteogenicmatrix cell sheets and beta-tricalcium phosphate(TCP) constructs on bone formation in bone defects.METHODS: Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were preparedfrom bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), anda porous TCP ceramic was used as a scaffold. Threeexperimental groups were prepared, comprised of TCPscaffolds (1) seeded with BMSCs; (2) wrapped withosteogenic matrix cell sheets; or (3) both. Constructswere implanted into a femoral defect model in rats andbone growth was evaluated by radiography, histology,biochemistry, and mechanical testing after 8 wk.RESULTS: In bone defects, constructs implanted withcell sheets showed callus formation with segmental or continuous bone formation at 8 wk, in contrast toTCP seeded with BMSCs, which resulted in bone nonunion.Wrapping TCP constructs with osteogenic matrixcell sheets increased their osteogenic potential andresulting bone formation, compared with conventionalbone tissue engineering TCP scaffolds seeded withBMSCs. The compressive stiffness (mean ± SD) valueswere 225.0 ± 95.7, 30.0 ± 11.5, and 26.3 ± 10.6MPa for BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuousbone formation, BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs withsegmental bone formation, and BMSC/TCP constructs,respectively. The compressive stiffness of BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation wassignificantly higher than those with segmental boneformation and BMSC/TCP constructs.CONCLUSION: This technique is an improvementover current methods, such as TCP substitution, andis useful for hard tissue reconstruction and inducingearlier bone union in defects.

  7. The effect of weight bearing on bone mineral density and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Choi, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The present study aims to explore the effect of weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twelve children with CP of functional level of gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) V and 6 healthy children (control group) were included in the study. Participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to measure the BMD of the femur and full-length anteroposterior radiography to measure the bone length of the femur and tibia at baseline and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A with programmed standing exercises and assisted standing for more than 2 hours a day, more than 5 days a week; and group B with conventional physiotherapy with a standing program for 20 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week. Results: A 6-month follow-up showed significantly increased BMD on the femur neck in the control group. Although the changes in BMD were not significant in both groups, group A demonstrated an increased trend of BMD, whereas group B showed a decreased trend. Bone length was significantly increased in all 3 groups at the 6-month follow-up. Although this increase was not significant, the change in bone length was greatest in the control group. The smallest changes were observed in group B. Conclusions: Weight bearing exercise may play an important role in increasing or maintaining BMD in children with CP and is also expected to promote bone growth. Programmed standing may be used as an effective treatment method to increase BMD in children with CP. However, further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up period are required to reveal further information on the benefit of weight bearing exercise and to develop a detailed program. PMID:28272197

  8. The Effect of Bioceramic Composite Extracellular Matrixes Used to Repair Bone Deficiency on Relevant Blood Biochemical Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    At the base of experimental animal model construction of bone defect in New Zealand rabbit, the promoting repair effect of bioactive ceramics on bone defect as well as its machanism was studied through testing body mineral elements, enzymes related to bone morphogenetic proteins and some biochemical indexes. Refering to some documents, materials of TCP, CHA and HA were combined and TCP/BMP/ TCP-β1 and CHA/BMP/ TCP-β1, HA/BMP/ TCP-β1 composite materials were made. All kinds of them were implanted into the radial defect site of rabbit, respectively. The chosen blood indexes (Ca, P, ALP, GGT, AST, ALT, TPA, BUN and Cr) were tested by colorimetry, speed rate and bromocresol green testing methods. No abnormal effects were found in any animal after operation. Serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP were increased with the length of time in all groups of the three kinds of composite material, mixed material and pure materials. The increases in composite material groups were more significant ( P <0.05). Comparison of the three kinds of material showed TCP > CHA > HA. There was a tendency of increased TPA and decreased BUN with the length of time. There was no significant difference between the composite material groups and pure material group (P >0.05). The three kinds of bioactive ceramics composed of extracellular matrix could increase the serum concentrations of Ca and P and activity of ALP after being implanted into defect bone and showed some repairing capacity. This provided a new area of machanism study of bone defect repair by biomaterials.

  9. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  10. Aluminum and bone: Review of new clinical circumstances associated with Al(3+) deposition in the calcified matrix of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Bizot, P; Mabilleau, G; Hubert, L

    2016-06-01

    Several decades ago, aluminum encephalopathy associated with osteomalacia has been recognized as the major complication of chronic renal failure in dialyzed patients. Removal of aluminum from the dialysate has led to a disappearance of the disease. However, aluminum deposit occurs in the hydroxyapatite of the bone matrix in some clinical circumstances that are presented in this review. We have encountered aluminum in bone in patients with an increased intestinal permeability (coeliac disease), or in the case of prolonged administration of aluminum anti-acid drugs. A colocalisation of aluminum with iron was also noted in cases of hemochromatosis and sickle cell anemia. Aluminium was also identified in a series of patients with exostosis, a frequent benign bone tumor. Corrosion of prosthetic implants composed of grade V titanium (TA6V is an alloy containing 6% aluminum and 4% vanadium) was also observed in a series of hip or knee revisions. Aluminum can be identified in undecalcified bone matrix stained by solochrome azurine, a highly specific stain allowing the detection of 0.03 atomic %. Colocalization of aluminum and iron does not seem to be the fruit of chance but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Histochemistry is superior to spectroscopic analyses (EDS and WDS in scanning electron microscopy).

  11. Silicon supplementation improves the bone mineral density of calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats by reducing bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Chung, Yoon-Sok

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism parameters relative to calcium (Ca) intake levels in ovariectomized rats. A total of 72 female Wistar rats (6 weeks) were ovariectomized (OVX) and divided into six groups, and Si (500 mg of Si per kilogram of feed) was or was not administered with diets containing various levels of Ca (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.5%) for 10 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) Ca-deficient group (0.1% Ca), (2) Ca-deficient with Si supplementation group, (3) adequate Ca group (0.5% Ca), (4) adequate Ca with Si supplementation group, (5) high Ca group (1.5% Ca), and (6) high Ca with Si supplementation group. Si supplementation significantly increased the BMD of the femur and tibia in Ca-deficient OVX rats, while no change was observed with Si supplementation in the BMD of the spine, femur, and tibia in the adequate and high Ca groups. Serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were not affected by Si supplementation or Ca intake levels. C-telopeptide type I collagen levels were significantly decreased as a result of Si supplementation in Ca-deficient OVX rats. In summary, Si supplementation produced positive effects on bone mineral density in Ca-deficient OVX rats by reducing bone resorption. Therefore, Si supplementation may also prove to be helpful in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women whose calcium intake is insufficient.

  12. [Bone mineral density disminution post Roux-Y bypass surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapietro, Karin; Massardo, Teresa; Riffo, Andrea; Díaz, Emma; Araya, A Verónica; Adjemian, Daniela; Montesinos, Gustavo; Castro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía bariátrica tiene complicaciones metabólicas importantes como la pérdida de masa ósea. Objetivo: Evaluar la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) posterior a by-pass gástrico en Y de Roux (BPYR) en pacientes con indicación de suplemento estándar de calcio y vitamina D. Método: En pacientes con BPYR por obesidad mórbida, 76 mujeres y 22 hombres de diversa edad, con instrucción nutricional, suplemento de calcio y vitamina D, se midió la DMO en columna lumbar y caderas con densitómetro radiológico de doble haz 2 a 3 años post-cirugía. Veinte mujeres fueron seguidas con DMO hasta 54 meses en promedio. Según criterios de Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), se comparó con población control joven y de su edad según sexo, evaluando osteopenia y osteoporosis. Resultados: Hubo correlación negativa de DMO con edad; positiva de DMO con índice de masa corporal y con exceso de peso preoperatorio. En mujeres menores de 45 años, se observó disminución de DMO en 26,8%, sin casos de osteoporosis y en 65,7% en las mayores de 45 años (p = 0,0011), correspondiendo a 45,7% de osteopenia y 20% de osteoporosis, predominantemente en columna lumbar. El subgrupo de mujeres con mayor seguimiento, presentó disminución progresiva de DMO, especialmente en cadera izquierda. En hombres se observó 36% de osteopenia y 14% de osteoporosis. Conclusión: Pacientes de ambos sexos y diversa edad, despues de un BPYR, presentaron osteopenia y osteoporosis, a pesar de suplemento precoz de calcio y vitamina D. Consideramos importante medir DMO seriada, individualizando terapias y controlando factores de riesgo.

  13. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density According to the Biochemical Variable Markers in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Radiology, Woosuk University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol; Song, Woon Heung [Shinheung College University, Uijungbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers. We evaluated the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spines of 998(male 568, female 430) persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk University Hospital from September 2007 to March 2008 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. Results of BMD are different in terms of biochemical markers. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. Degree of osteoporosis increases with age. A steep decrease of BMD can be found in postmenopausal women who have low level of female hormone. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors that can reduce BMD values for prevention of problems by osteoporosis. In essence, research on factors related to other biochemical markers must be studied continuously.

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient......, with its associated increased fracture risk, vascular calcification, and accelerated mortality fracture risk. Peritoneal dialysis, however, bears a lower risk than hemodialysis (HD). The approach to CKD-MBD prophylaxis and treatment in the elderly PD patient is similar to other CKD patients, with some...... important differences. Avoidance of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperparathyroidism is important, as in other CKD groups, and is generally easier to attain. Calcium-free phosphate binders are recommended for normocalcemic and hypercalcemic patients. Normalization of vitamin D levels to > 75 nmol...

  15. The levels of bone turnover markers 25(OH)D and PTH and their relationship with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in a suburban district in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C; Qiao, J; Li, S S; Yu, W J; He, J W; Fu, W Z; Zhang, Z L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and investigated relationships between them and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in China suburban district. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 25.03 % at lumbar spine and 6.23 % at femoral neck, and BTMs were negatively correlated with BMDs.

  16. Evidence of associations between feto-maternal vitamin D status, cord parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and newborn whole body bone mineral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose...

  17. Hip bone mineral density, bone turnover and risk of fracture in patients on long-term suppressive L-thyroxine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijckmann, AC; Huijberts, MSP; Geusens, P; de Vries, J; Menheere, PPCA; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Untreated hyperthyroidism and treatment with high doses of thyroid hormone are associated with osteoporosis. However, their effect on bone turnover, their contribution to bone mineral density (BMD) in the context of other clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and the prevalence of verteb

  18. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    mechanical properties in the glucocorticoid-2. In conclusion, 7 months glucocorticoid treatment with malnutrition had significant impact on cortical microarchitecture of sheep femur midshaft. These changes occurred particularly 3 months after the glucocorticoid cessation suggesting a delayed effect......The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory...

  19. Correlates of Bone Mineral Density and Sagittal Spinal Balance in the Aged

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and sagittal spinal balance in the Korean elderly population. Methods The retrospective study included subjects aged 60 years and above, who had whole-spine lateral radiography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) within a year's gap between each other. Sagittal vertical axis (SVA) for evaluation of sagittal spinal balance and five spinopelvic parameters were measured through radiography. The presence of compr...

  20. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone formation: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathe, F.; Junker, R.; Chesnutt, B.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the question, if and to what extent enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) [EMD]) promotes the regeneration of bone. The influence of combinations with other biomaterials was additionally evaluated. Twenty histomorphometric studies were included in this systematic revi

  1. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  2. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    Full Text Available Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group. At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed

  3. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Hargis, Billy M; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (pBacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are currently being evaluated.

  4. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reix, Philippe; Bellon, Gabriel [Hopital Femme Mere Enfant, Service de Pediatrie, Pneumologie, Allergologie, Mucoviscidose, Bron (France); Braillon, Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service d' Imagerie Foetale et Pediatrique, Bron (France)

    2010-03-15

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 {+-} 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94{+-}0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  5. Mutifactorial analysis of risk factors for reduced bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah A Bartram; Robert T Peaston; David J Rawlings; David Walshaw; Roger M Francis; Nick P Thompson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in a cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to identify the relative significance of risk factors for osteoporosis.METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight unselected patients (92 M, 166 F) with CD were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine and hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and bone resorption by measuring urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD)and N-telopeptide (NTX).RESULTS: Between 11.6%-13.6% patients were osteoporotic (T score < -2.5) at the lumbar spine and/or hip. NTX levels were significantly higher in the patients with osteoporosis (P < 0.05) but BSAP and DPD levels were not significantly different. Independent risk factors for osteoporosis at either the lumbar spine or hip were a low body mass index (P < 0.001), increasing corticosteroid use (P < 0.005), and male sex (P < 0.01).These factors combined accounted for 23% and 37% of the reduction in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip respectively.CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that osteoporosis is common in patients with CD and suggest that increased bone resorption is the mechanism responsible for the bone loss. However, less than half of the reduction in BMD can be attributed to risk factors such as corticosteroid use and low BMI and therefore remains unexplained.

  6. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

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    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  7. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  8. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  9. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

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    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels in relation to Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density: A Case-Control Study

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    Jing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate serum chemerin levels in patients with osteoporosis and healthy controls and to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods. An age- and gender-matched case-control study was conducted. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and BMD. Results. There were 93 patients included in the osteoporosis group and 93 matched controls. Serum chemerin level was significantly higher in patients with osteoporosis (87.27±5.80 ng/mL than patients in control (71.13±5.12 ng/mL (P<0.01. There was a negative correlation between femoral bone mineral density and chemerin in both groups (R=-0.395, P<0.01 in osteoporosis group; R=-0.680, P<0.01 in control and also a negative correlation between lumbar bone mineral density with chemerin in both groups (R=-0.306, P<0.01 in osteoporosis group; R=-0.362, P<0.01 in control. Conclusions. Patients with osteoporosis presented a higher level of serum chemerin, which witnessed an inverse correlation with BMD. Further studies are needed to explore the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.

  11. Evaluation of Clinical Decision Rules for Bone Mineral Density Testing among White Women

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    Michael E. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is a devastating, insidious disease that causes skeletal fragility. Half of women will suffer osteoporotic fractures during their lifetimes. Many fractures occur needlessly, because of inattentiveness to assessment, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Study Purpose. Study Purpose. To evaluate the discriminatory performance of clinical decision rules to determine the need to undergo bone mineral density testing. Methods. A nationally representative sample from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey consisted of 14,060 subjects who completed surveys, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and bone mineral density exams. Multivariable linear regression tested the correlation of covariates that composed the clinical decision rules with bone mineral density. Results. Increased age and decreased weight were variables in the final regression models for each gender and race/ethnicity. Among the indices, the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, which is composed of age and weight, performed best for White women. Study Implications. These results have implications for the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool performed best and is inexpensive and the least time consuming to implement.

  12. The impact of alendronate on bone mineral density of osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei-Meybodi, Hamidreza; Rashidi, Negin; Montazeri, Mahdi; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Khashayar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the real life therapeutic effects of weekly doses of alendronate in treating a group of osteoporotic patients in Iran. The present historical cohort was conducted on patients who had undergone two or more bone mineral densitometry within an interval of 1.5-2 years in Shariati Hospital bone mineral density department between 2002 and 2010.patients were asked by phone about consumption of alendronate. The mean increase in the BMD values at different sites was calculated. There was a significant increase in the body mass index (BMI) values of both the individuals taking alendronate and the control group (P<0.001). Taking the weekly dosage of the drug was associated with a 7.67% increase in the BMD values at the femoral neck, 8.68% at the total hip, and 3.17% at the lumbar spine. Moreover, our results showed a significant difference between the height decline in the two groups (alendronate taking: 0.7±2.4 vs. control: -0.7±2.6, P<0.001). Comparing the results of the present study with that of previous ones revealed the drug is beneficial in improving bone mineral density in Iranians; as well alendronate is more effective in Iranian postmenopausal women when compared with the Americans.

  13. The impact of alendronate on bone mineral density of osteoporotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Aghaei-Meybodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the real life therapeutic effects of weekly doses of alendronate in treating a group of osteoporotic patients in Iran. The present historical cohort was conducted on patients who had undergone two or more bone mineral densitometry within an interval of 1.5-2 years in Shariati Hospital bone mineral density department between 2002 and 2010.patients were asked by phone about consumption of alendronate. The mean increase in the BMD values at different sites was calculated. There was a significant increase in the body mass index (BMI values of both the individuals taking alendronate and the control group (P<0.001. Taking the weekly dosage of the drug was associated with a 7.67% increase in the BMD values at the femoral neck, 8.68% at the total hip, and 3.17% at the lumbar spine. Moreover, our results showed a significant difference between the height decline in the two groups (alendronate taking: 0.7±2.4 vs. control: -0.7±2.6, P<0.001. Comparing the results of the present study with that of previous ones revealed the drug is beneficial in improving bone mineral density in Iranians; as well alendronate is more effective in Iranian postmenopausal women when compared with the Americans.

  14. How Osteoblasts Sense their Environment: Integrin-Extracellular Matrix Interactions and Mechanical Loading of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Osteoblasts are the cells responsible for forming and replacing bone throughout life. We know that mechanical stimulation through weight-bearing at I gravity on Earth is needed to maintain healthy bone, and that osteoblasts play a critical role in that process. Over the last 9 years in my laboratory at NASA ARC, we have studied the regulation of osteoblast function by interactions between the extracellular matrix and die cell. Using a cell culture approach, we defined the repertoire of adhesion receptors, called integrins, which are expressed on the osteoblast surface, as well as specific extracellular matrix proteins, which are needed for cellular differentiation and survival. We are now extending these observations to determine if integrin signaling is involved in the skeletal responses to disuse and recovery from disuse using the rodent model of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. Together, our cell culture and animal studies are providing new insight into the regulation of osteoblast function in bone.

  15. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  16. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  17. Inverse correlation between fibrinogen and bone mineral density in women: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic factors may be involved in bone health. The present preliminary study investigated the association between plasma fibrinogen and bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. A significant inverse correlation between fibrinogen and BMD was observed (correlation coefficient = -0.42, p high level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than in that with a low level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and in the subgroup with a high level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (an oxidative stress marker) than in that with a low level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites. Thus, fibrinogen may be a possible marker of BMD in this population. More studies on the associations among hemostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone metabolism are warranted in the clinical setting.

  18. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination

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    Yong Jun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry.

  19. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

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    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  20. Effect of dietary calcium: Phosphorus ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal calcium absorption in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshihara, Moyuru; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal Ca absorption in ovariectomized (OVX) rat models of osteoporosis and sham-operated rats. Thirty 12-wk-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of OVX rats and three groups of sham rats. Thirty days after the adaptation period, OVX rats and sham rats were fed a diet formulated Ca:P, 1:0.5, 1:1 or 1:2 (each diet containing 0.5% Ca), respectively for 42 d. In both sham and OVX rats, serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, was increased by decreasing Ca:P ratio (1:2). In contrast, rats fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet (dietary P restriction) suppressed the increased serum parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline, and increased Ca absorption in both sham and OVX rats compared to the Ca:P = 1:1 and 1:2 diets. Especially, in OVX rats, the decreased bone mineral density of the fifth lumbar was also suppressed when rats were fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet. These results indicated that the elevation of dietary Ca:P ratio may inhibit bone loss and increase intestinal Ca absorption in OVX rats.

  1. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

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    Somayeh Amiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study includes 1125 subjects (aged 20- 72 years randomly selected by cluster sampling in Bushehr, who participated in general project of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The participants were categorized based on degree of tea consumption: high tea drinkers (more than 4 cups of tea per day and low tea drinkers (equal or less than 4 cups of tea per day.Results: In high tea drinkers, mean score for bone density was significantly higher in neck and total femur. But this difference in isolated groups (according to sex, age and both of them was not seen.Conclusion: The result of this study indicates on a direct relationship between tea drinking and increasing of bone mineral density. Moreover, it shows the prevalence of osteoporosis is lower in people who have a regular daily habit of tea consumption

  2. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

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    A. Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp., as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%. Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed.

  3. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

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    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  4. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerni, H.; González, D.; Bagur, A.; Oliveri, B.; Farías, V.; Maffei, L.; Mansur, J. L.; Larroudé, M. S.; Pavlove, M. M.; Karlsbrum, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp.), as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%). Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed. PMID:27579211

  5. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  6. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

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    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  7. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-06-01

    In this study, 18 female skeletally mature sheep were randomly allocated into three groups of six each. Group 1 (glucocorticoid-1) received prednisolone treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, five times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (glucocorticoid-2) received the same treatment regime followed by observation of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group. Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between the groups, while there was a trend towards decreasing bending mechanical properties in the glucocorticoid-2 group. In conclusion, 7 months of glucocorticoid treatment with malnutrition had a significant impact on the cortical microarchitecture of the sheep femur midshaft. These observed changes occurred 3 months afte