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Sample records for bone matrix mineralization

  1. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  2. Bone Regeneration Mediated by Biomimetic Mineralization of a Nanofiber Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Alvaro; Geng, Yanbiao; Henrikson, Karl; Aparicio, Conrado; Stock, Stuart; Satcher, Robert L.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid bone regeneration within a three-dimensional defect without the use of bone grafts, exogenous growth factors, or cells remains a major challenge. We report here on the use of self-assembling peptide nanostructured gels to promote bone regeneration that have the capacity to mineralize in biomimetic fashion. The main molecular design was the use of phosphoserine residues in the sequence of a peptide amphiphile known to nucleate hydroxyapatite crystals on the surfaces of nanofibers. We tes...

  3. Exercise Alters Mineral and Matrix Composition in the Absence of Adding New Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, David H.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Golcuk, Kurtulus; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bone are dictated by its amount, distribution and ‘quality’. The composition of the mineral and matrix phases is integral to defining ‘bone quality’. Exercise can potentially increase resistance to fracture, yet the effects of exercise on skeletal fragility, and how alterations in fragility are modulated by the amount, distribution and composition of bone, are unknown. In this investigation, the effects of exercise on the size, composition, mechanical properties a...

  4. Influence of mineral phase in mineralization of a biocomposite containing chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash—in vitro study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krithiga Gunasekaran; Santhosh Kumar Baskar; Divya Sapphire Mohan; Thotapalli P Sastry

    2014-05-01

    A resorbable composite which acts as a active barrier in guided bone regeneration was fabricated using chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash. Its potential to form bone like apatite in simulated body fluid was assessed in this study. The mechanical strength of these composites was correlated with bone ash ratios and composites with better tensile strength were studied for their acellular bioactivity by incubating in simulated body fluid for 21 days. Composites without bone ash did not show acellular bioactivity which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. In case of biocomposites with bone ash, there was an increase in residual weight indicating the mineralization of the composite. The composite containing bone ash has shown the peaks related to phosphate vibrations in its Fourier-transform infrared spectrum. Scanning micrographs revealed formation of apatite like crystals on its surface. Ca/P ratio was found to be 1.7 which is nearer to that of natural bone. Thus, prepared composites can be used as resorbable biocomposite in maxillofacial and oral defects.

  5. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuanyu; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla A; Diekwisch, Thomas Gh; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Matrix molecules such as the enamel-related calcium-binding phosphoprotein ameloblastin (AMBN) are expressed in multiple tissues, including teeth, bones, and cartilage. Here we have asked whether AMBN is of functional importance for timely long bone development and, if so, how it exerts its function related to osteogenesis. Adolescent AMBN-deficient mice (AMBN(Δ5-6) ) suffered from a 33% to 38% reduction in femur length and an 8.4% shorter trunk spinal column when compared with WT controls, whereas there was no difference between adult animals. On a cellular level, AMBN truncation resulted in a shortened growth plate and a 41% to 49% reduction in the number of proliferating tibia chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from AMBN mutant mice displayed defects in proliferation and differentiation potential as well as cytoskeleton organization. Osteogenesis-related growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and BMP7, were also significantly (46% to 73%) reduced in AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Addition of exogenous AMBN restored cytoskeleton structures in AMBN mutant BMSCs and resulted in a dramatic 400% to 600% increase in BMP2, BMP7, and Col1A expression. Block of RhoA diminished the effect of AMBN on osteogenic growth factor and matrix protein gene expression. Addition of exogenous BMP7 and IGF1 rescued the proliferation and differentiation potential of AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Confirming the effects of AMBN on long bone growth, back-crossing of mutant mice with full-length AMBN overexpressors resulted in a complete rescue of AMBN(Δ5-6) bone defects. Together, these data indicate that AMBN affects extracellular matrix production and cell adhesion properties in the long bone growth plate, resulting in altered cytoskeletal dynamics, increased osteogenesis-related gene expression, as well as osteoblast and chondrocyte proliferation. We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the

  6. Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peizhi; Xu, Jiadi; Morris, Michael; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David

    2009-02-01

    We report the use of quantum dots (Qdots) as strain gages in the study of bone biomechanics using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have developed solid state NMR sample cells for investigation of deformations of bone tissue components at loads up to several Mega Pascal. The size constraints of the NMR instrumentation limit the bone specimen diameter and length to be no greater than 2-3 mm and 30 mm respectively. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR experiments require the use of non-metallic apparatus that can be rotated at kilohertz rates. These experimental constraints preclude the use of standard biomechanical measurement systems. In this paper we explore the use of quantum dot center of gravity measurement as a strain gage technology consistent with the constraints of solid state NMR. We use Qdots that bind calcium (625 nm emission) and collagen (705 nm emission) for measurement of strain in these components. Compressive loads are applied to a specimen in a cell through a fine pitch screw turned with a mini-torque wrench. Displacement is measured as changes in the positions of arrays of quantum dots on the surface of a specimen. Arrays are created by spotting the specimen with dilute suspensions of Qdots. Mineral labeling is achieved with 705 nm carboxylated dots and matrix labeling with 565 nm quantum dots conjugated to collagen I antibodies. After each load increment the new positions of the quantum dots are measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in Qdot center of gravity as a function of applied load can be measured with submicron accuracy.

  7. Histological analysis of cells and matrix mineralization of new bone tissue induced in rabbit femur bones by Mg-Zr based biodegradable implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragamouni, Sravanthi; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Mushahary, Dolly; Nemani, Harishankar; Pande, Gopal

    2013-09-01

    The biological efficacy of bone inducing implant materials in situ can be assessed effectively by performing histological analysis. We studied the peri-implant bone regeneration around two types of biodegradable magnesium-zirconium alloys, Mg-5Zr and Mg-Zr-2Sr, using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in the femur of New Zealand White strain rabbits. Our study includes three animal groups: (a) Mg-5Zr, (b) Mg-Zr-2Sr and (c) control. In each group three animals were used and in groups 'a' and 'b' the respective alloys were implanted in cavities made at the distal ends of the femur; control animals were left without implants to observe natural bone healing. Qualitative assessment of the cellularity and matrix mineralization events of the newly formed bone tissue was done at three months after implantation by histological methods in methyl methacrylate embedded tissue without decalcifying the bone. Quantitative mineral content and density of the new bone (NB) were evaluated by the statistical analysis of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data obtained from three animals in each experimental group. Based on our analysis we conclude that Mg-Zr-2Sr alloy showed better osseointegration of the newly formed bone with the implant surface. Our methodology of studying peri-implant osteoinduction of degradable implants using low temperature methyl methacrylate embedding resin can be useful as a general method for determining the bio-efficacy of implant materials. PMID:23628266

  8. Socket Preservation Therapy with Acellular Dermal Matrix and Mineralized Bone Allograft After Tooth Extraction in Humans: A Clinical and Histomorphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Patricia Garani; Muglia, Valdir Antonio; Reino, Danilo Maeda; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Moraes Grisi, Marcio Fernando; de Souza, Sergio Luís; Taba, Mario; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; de Almeida, Adriana G; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze through clinical and histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without mineralized bone allograft (AB) on bone formation in human alveoli after a 6- to 8-month healing period. A total of 19 patients in need of extraction of the maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus AB) or to the control group (ADM only). Clinical and histomorphometric measurements and histologic analysis were recorded 6 to 8 months after ridge preservation procedures. Clinical parameters and amount of mineralized and nonmineralized tissue were measured and analyzed. In the clinical measurements, the test group showed reduced bone loss in the buccopalatal dimension after 6 to 8 months (intragroup analysis P acellular dermal matrix in association with mineralized bone allograft reduced alveolar bone loss in the anterior maxillae both in height and width after a follow-up period of 6 to 8 months. PMID:26901306

  9. Dietary Zinc Reduces Osteoclast Resorption Activities and Increases Markers of Osteoblast Differentiation, Matrix Maturation, and Mineralization in the Long Bones of Growing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional influence of zinc (Zn) on markers of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) resorption and mineralization was investigated in growing rats. Thirty male weanling rats were randomly assigned to consume AIN-93G based diets containing 2.5, 5, 7.5, 15, or 30 µg Zn/g diet for 24 d. Femur Zn incre...

  10. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  11. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  12. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding ...

  13. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  14. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  15. Instrumented fusion of thoracolumbar fracture with type I mineralized collagen matrix combined with autogenous bone marrow as a bone graft substitute: a four-case report

    OpenAIRE

    Faundez, Antonio; Taylor, Sofia; Kaelin, André

    2006-01-01

    In order to avoid the morbidity from autogenous bone harvesting, bone graft substitutes are being used more frequently in spinal surgery. There is indirect radiological evidence that bone graft substitutes are efficacious in humans. The purpose of this four-case study was to visually, manually, and histologically assess the quality of a fusion mass produced by a collagen hydroxyapatite scaffold impregnated with autologous bone marrow aspirate for posterolateral fusion. Four patients sustained...

  16. Histomorphometry and Bone Matrix Mineralization Before and After Bisphosphonate Treatment in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Paired Transiliac Biopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; McMillan, Hugh J; Ma, Jinhui; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder causing progressive muscle weakness. To prolong independent ambulation, DMD patients are treated with glucocorticoids, which, in turn, can increase bone fragility. In a cohort with vertebral fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate (iv BP) therapy stabilized vertebrae and reduced back pain. To characterize the effects of glucocorticoid therapy and bisphosphonate treatment on bone tissue and material properties, paired transiliac biopsy samples (before and after on average 2.4 years of iv BP) from 9 boys with DMD were studied for histomorphometry and bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and compared to reference values. Before iv BP, the boys had low cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and cortical thickness (Ct.Wi) (both on average 56% of the healthy average, p < 0.001 versus reference), and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) in the lower normal range (on average 74% of the healthy average). The average degree of mineralization of cancellous (Cn.CaMean) and cortical compartments (Ct.CaMean) was 21.48 (20.70, 21.90) wt% and 20.42 (19.32, 21.64) wt%, respectively (median [25th, 75th percentiles]), which was not different from reference. After iv BP, BV/TV and Ct.Wi were, on average, unchanged. However, at the individual patient level, BV/TV Z-scores increased in 2, remained unchanged in 4, and declined in 3 patients. Additionally, on average, MS/BS decreased (-85%, p < 0.001), Cn.CaMean (+2.7%) increased, whereas the heterogeneity of cancellous (Cn.CaWidth -19%) and cortical bone mineralization (Ct.CaWidth -8%, all p < 0.05) decreased versus baseline. The changes in bone mineralization are consistent with the antiresorptive action of iv BP. At the same time, our observations point to the need for novel therapies with less or absent bone turnover suppression, including the fact that bone turnover was low even before bisphosphonate therapy, that bone turnover declined further (as expected) with treatment

  17. The effect of SDF-1α on low dose BMP-2 mediated bone regeneration by release from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix scaffolds in a murine critical size bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Langanke, Robert; Vater, Corina; Lee, Geoffrey; Niederlohmann, Eik; Sensenschmidt, Markus; Jacobi, Angela; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Muders, Michael; Rammelt, Stefan; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Goodman, Stuart B; Stiehler, Maik

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of critical size bone defects represents a challenge. The growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is clinically established but has potentially adverse effects when used at high doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate if stromal derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) and BMP-2 released from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix (MCM) scaffolds have a cumulative effect on bone regeneration. MCM scaffolds were functionalized with heparin, loaded with BMP-2 and/or SDF-1α and implanted into a murine critical size femoral bone defect (control group, low dose BMP-2 group, low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group, and high dose BMP-2 group). After 6 weeks, both the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (5.8 ± 0.6 mm³, p = 0.0479) and the high dose BMP-2 group (6.5 ± 0.7 mm³, p = 0.008) had a significantly increased regenerated bone volume compared to the control group (4.2 ± 0.5 mm³). There was a higher healing score in the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (median grade 8; Q1-Q3 7-9; p = 0.0357) than in the low dose BMP-2 group (7; Q1-Q3 5-9) histologically. This study showed that release of BMP-2 and SDF-1α from heparinized MCM scaffolds allows for the reduction of the applied BMP-2 concentration since SDF-1α seems to enhance the osteoinductive potential of BMP-2. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2126-2134, 2016. PMID:27060915

  18. Distinct actions of strontium on mineral formation in matrix vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) are involved in the initial step of mineralization in skeletal tissues and provide an easily model to analyze the hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Sr stimulates bone formation and its effect was tested on MVs. Sr2+ (15-50 μM) in the mineralization medium containing MVs, 2 mM Ca2+ and 3.42 mM Pi, retarded HA formation. Sr2+ (1-5 mM) in the same medium-induced other types of mineral than HA and cancelled the ATP-, ADP- or PPi-induced retardation in the mineral formation. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of Sr2+ at a low dose (15-50 μM) is rather an inhibitor of bone resorption than an activator of mineral formation, while at high Sr2+ concentration (1-5 mM), mineral formation, especially other types of mineral than HA, is favored

  19. Inter-species variation in bone mineral

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a complex heterogeneous composite material with organic and inorganic components. The inorganic component; bone mineral, is a poorly crystalline, non-stoichiometric form of calcium hydroxylapatite. A model for the general structure and composition of bone mineral has been established within the literature. However, the nature and extent of variation in bone mineral composition and structure has, to date, been poorly understood. This situation also applies to the general response of bo...

  20. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials. PMID:26851341

  1. In Vivo Ectopic Bone Formation by Devitalized Mineralized Stem Cell Carriers Produced Under Mineralizing Culture Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Gregory; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro–generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in...

  2. Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) Is a New Bone Renal Hormone and Vascularization Modulator

    OpenAIRE

    David, Valentin; Martin, Aline; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S N

    2009-01-01

    Increased matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression occurs in several phosphate and bone-mineral metabolic disorders. To resolve whether MEPE plays a role, we created a murine model overexpressing MEPE protein (MEPE tgn) in bone. MEPE tgn mice displayed a growth and mineralization defect with altered bone-renal vascularization that persisted to adulthood. The growth mineralization defect was due to a decrease in bone remodeling, and MEPE tgn mice were resistant to diet-induce...

  3. Studies on three matrix molecules in bone and dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Ulrika

    2003-01-01

    The biomineralization of bone and dentin is a complex and dynamic process, involving the formation of an organic framework in which mineral crystals are deposited. The noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) of the organic phase play a central role in the extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and mineralization regulation. To facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms of biomineralization, it is crucial to expand our knowledge regarding the functions of the NCPs in this process...

  4. Influence of Experimental Dehydration on Structural Characteristics of Bone Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Husak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer structure of bone tissue, the mineral bases of it is bioapatite, provides wide spectrum of mechanical and physiological properties. Water is also a significant component of bone matrix, which ensures relation between internal and external environment and transports nutrients from extracellular matrix to the cells. Violation of the water content and its ratio in extracellular and cellular sectors may change structure and function of the mineral component of bone. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine the structure of bioapatite in case of water imbalance. The experiment was conducted on laboratory rats, which modeled a heavy degree of water deficiency. X-Ray diffraction was applied to samples bioapatite pelvic bone, annealed at 200 °C and 900 °C. The research results demonstrate the high level of β-tricalcium-magnesium-phosphate as bone mineral component in conditions of experimental dehydration, which formed after burning in 900 °C. It testifies a significant calcium deficiency in the original apatite. The relatively high level of microstrain in the mineral component of experimental group indicates the dominant role of heterovalent substitutions in the crystal lattice (Na+ or K+ → Са2+ which is confirmed by lower content of magnesium in β-tricalcium-magnesium-phosphate after specimen’s annealing in 900 °C.

  5. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  6. Radiological safety of bone mineral densitometry equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease leading to increased risk of bone fractures. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) is a well accepted clinical tool for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. There are several different modalities for BMD such as Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, Radiographic Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computerized Tomography. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is now well established as the method of choice for osteoporosis assessment. This study was conducted to assess the radiation dose to patients and staff from the standard scan modes

  7. Matrix--mineral relationships in enamel tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnhead, R W

    1979-03-01

    A personal view of vertebrate enamels and their matrix-mineral relationships is given by first considering enamel types and speculating on the nature, distribution, formation and role of enamel protein. Not all the work consulted is mentioned in the text. The additional works are, however, included in the list of references. PMID:283133

  8. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong-Eun; Yun, Ye-Rang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Yang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Wall, Ivan B; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-07-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctional and structurally-stable biomatrices. The hybrid protein, integrated homogeneously with collagen fibrillar networks, preserved structural stability over a month. Biological efficacy of the hybrid matrix was proven onto tethered surface of biopolymer porous scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem cells quickly anchored to the hybrid matrix, forming focal adhesions, and substantially conformed to cytoskeletal extensions, benefited from the fibronectin adhesive domains. Cells achieved high proliferative capacity to reach confluence rapidly and switched to a mature and osteogenic phenotype more effectively, resulting in greater osteogenic matrix syntheses and mineralization, driven by the engineered osteocalcin. The hybrid biomimetic matrix significantly improved in vivo bone formation in calvarial defects over 6 weeks. Based on the series of stimulated biological responses in vitro and in vivo the novel hybrid proteinaceous composition will be potentially useful as stem cell interfacing matrices for osteogenesis and bone regeneration. PMID:25934278

  9. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of МВМ in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  10. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments

  11. Mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweesedt, Pahnwat T; Disthabanchong, Sinee

    2015-12-24

    After successful kidney transplantation, accumulated waste products and electrolytes are excreted and regulatory hormones return to normal levels. Despite the improvement in mineral metabolites and mineral regulating hormones after kidney transplantation, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism continues to present in most patients. During the first 3 mo, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone levels decrease rapidly in association with an increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Renal phosphate excretion resumes and serum calcium, if elevated before, returns toward normal levels. FGF-23 excess during the first 3-12 mo results in exaggerated renal phosphate loss and hypophosphatemia occurs in some patients. After 1 year, FGF-23 and serum phosphate return to normal levels but persistent hyperparathyroidism remains in some patients. The progression of vascular calcification also attenuates. High dose corticosteroid and persistent hyperparathyroidism are the most important factors influencing abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in long-term kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Bone loss occurs at a highest rate during the first 6-12 mo after transplantation. Measurement of bone mineral density is recommended in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min. The use of active vitamin D with or without bisphosphonate is effective in preventing early post-transplant bone loss. Steroid withdrawal regimen is also beneficial in preservation of bone mass in long-term. Calcimimetic is an alternative therapy to parathyroidectomy in KT recipients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. If parathyroidectomy is required, subtotal to near total parathyroidectomy is recommended. Performing parathyroidectomy during the waiting period prior to transplantation is also preferred in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism associated with hypercalcemia. PMID:26722650

  12. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  13. The mineralization of bone tissue: a forgotten dimension in osteoporosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, G; Meunier, P J

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis treatment should not only prevent the loss of bone tissue, not interfere with apatite and avoid bone mineral changes at the crystal level, but should also increase the mechanical resistance of bone and thus protect the skeleton against new fractures. Mineral substance is crystallized as nonstoichiometric carbonated apatite ionic crystals of small size and extended specific surface. Consequently, they have a very large interface with extracellular fluids, and numerous interactions between ions from the extracellular fluid and ions constituting apatite crystals are thus possible. It is generally agreed that bone strength depends on the bone matrix volume and the microarchitectural distribution of this volume, while the degree of mineralization of bone tissue is almost never mentioned as a determinant of bone strength. We now have evidence that the degree of mineralization of bone tissue strongly influences not only the mechanical resistance of bones but also the bone mineral density. In adult bone, our model is based on the impact of changes in the bone remodeling rate on the degree of mineralization of bone tissue. The purpose of this paper is to report the main results concerning the interactions of strontium (Sr) with bone mineral in animals and in osteoporotic women treated with strontium ranelate (SR). These studies aimed to evaluate using X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and computerized quantitative contact microradiography: (1) the relative calcium and Sr bone content, (2) the distribution of Sr in compact and cancellous bone, (3) the dose dependence of the deposition of Sr in bone, (4) the interactions between Sr and mineral at the crystal level (in monkeys), (5) the influence of Sr on the mean degree of mineralization of bone tissue and on the distribution of the degree of mineralization of bone tissue, and (6) the bone clearance of Sr over short periods of time (6 and 10 weeks) after cessation of SR administration (monkeys treated for 13

  14. Relationship between nanoscale mineral properties and calcein labeling in mineralizing bone surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Burghammer, Manfred; Montero, Cédric; Checa, Sara; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg; Willie, Bettina; Wagermaier, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Bone's mineral properties, such as particle thickness and degree of alignment have been associated with bone quality. Bone formation, remodeling, aging of the tissue and mineral homeostasis influence mineral particle properties leading to specific patterns across bone. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) with synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool, which allows us to study bone's nanoscale mineral properties in a position-resolved way. We used sSAXS, fluorescence light microscopy ...

  15. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    /m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P <0.01) and juvenile obese (r = 0.838; P <0.001). An...... inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P <0.01) and the juvenile obese group (r = -0.135; P <0.05). In a multiple linear regression, fat mass, lean body mass, and occupational physical activity were positively associated with...... BMD in the control group, whereas in the juvenile obese, only lean body mass was positively associated with BMD and smoking negatively associated with BMD. Our study supports that leptin is inversely associated with BMD and may play a direct role in the bone metabolism in nonobese and obese Danish...

  16. Remineralization of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) via alternating solution immersion (ASI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soicher, Matthew A; Christiansen, Blaine A; Stover, Susan M; Leach, J Kent; Fyhrie, David P

    2013-10-01

    In order to achieve successful clinical outcomes, biomaterials used for bone grafts must possess a number of traits including biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. These materials must also demonstrate appropriate mechanical stability to withstand handling as well as support potentially significant stresses at the implant site. Synthetic and natural polymer scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering (BTE) often lack necessary mechanical properties. Our goal was to internally mineralize natural collagenous matrix, thereby increasing mechanical properties of the material to useful levels. Published methods for intrafibrillar collagen mineralization were applied to clinically relevant-sized constructs but did not successfully deposit mineral in the interior of the constructs. To address this limitation, we developed a new technique for the remineralization of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) based on alternating solution immersion, or ASI. Mineral was removed from equine bone specimens, leaving behind a demineralized bone matrix (DBM). This matrix provides a framework for the nucleation and growth of a replacement mineral phase. Plain film radiography and microcomputed tomography (microCT) indicated accumulation of mineral within the DBM, and mechanical testing (3 point bending and compression) revealed a significant increase in stiffness between the DBM and the remineralized bone matrix (RBM). We believe this remineralization process will be useful in the preparation of stiff and strong allografts for clinical application. PMID:23759125

  17. Methods for measuring bone tissue mineral status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for measuring the bone tissue mineral content are considered. Radiogrammetry and radiographic densitometry (photodensitometry), one-photon absorptiometry, two-photon absorptiometry (TPA), computerized tomography (γ- and X-ray) are discussed. It was shown that computerized tomography was the most sensitive method though its cost and patient radiation doses were high. Two-photon bone densitometers (mainly based on 153Gd source) were most wide practised. Devices based in X-ray TPA supplant them lately. They are more complex in design but permit to reduce the time of examination due to increase in scanning rate and to improve the reproducibility. Moreover, they are ecologically pure

  18. Bone Mineral Density Assessment Methods and Dentistry Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo César SANTIAGO; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Bone quality and quantity evaluation had been the aim of some researches, mainly on diagnosis and prevention of bone metabolic diseases. Different methods to assess Bone Mineral Density (BMD) were developed in the last decades with the aim to determine the mineral contain on bone tissue without to precise bone quality. The bone quality evaluation had been carry out an important tool on planning, prognostic and treatment success in dentistry, since the advent of the implants and ...

  19. Induction of Bone Matrix Protein Expression by Native Bone Matrix Proteins in C2C12 Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN-MING HU; SEAN A. F. PEEL; STEPHEN K. C. HO; GEORGE K. B. SANDOR; CAMERON M. L. CLOKIE

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of bone matrix protein (BMP) induced by bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in vitro. Methods Type I collagen, osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were detected by immunohistochemistry in C2C12 cultured from day 1 to day 28. Results The signaling of bone matrix protein expression became weaker except for type I collagen, OC and BSP after 5 days. Fourteen days after culture, the positive signaling of type I collagen, OPN, ON, OC, and BSP was gradually declined, and could be detected significantly as compared with that of the negative control on day 28. BMP assay showed that the Ikaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher in C2C12 culture than in the control during the 14-day culture. Also, total protein and DNA significantly increased during the 14-day culture. High levels of ALP were seen in preosteoblasts and osteoblsts in vivo and in differentiating ostcoblasts in vitro. ALP was well recognized as a marker reflecting osteoblastic activity. Conclusion Native bovine BMP induces conversion of myoblasts into osteoblasts, produces type 1 collagen, and plays significantly role in osteoinduction and bone matrix mineralization of C2C12 in vitro.

  20. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  1. [Sarcopenia and bone mineral property with age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2016-08-01

    In order to maintain functional activities in the elderly, promotion of musculoskeletal care is important toward successful aging and healthy longevity. In practice, reduction of falls and fall-related injuries together with treatment of osteoporosis is important to keep activities of daily living. Recent findings suggest the possibility that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle and bone mineral property, represented by pathophysiological linkage between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27461501

  2. Biomarkers: how detect life on mineral matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Teresa; Brucato, John Robert; Pucci, Amaranta; Baratta, Giuseppe; Branciamore, Sergio

    2012-07-01

    Life Marker Chip (LMC) is a bioanalytical instrument on board of the ESA Exomars mission to detect specific organic molecules that may be associated with life on Mars. Observation of possible biomarkers is critical for the understanding of prebiotic evolution and to detect signature of past and/or present life on other extraterrestrial body. Biomarkers usually are associated with mineral matrix, so it is necessary to investigate the nature of the interaction of organic molecules with minerals. Our approach is to combine physical-chemical analisys (adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, surface area measurement, etc.) with FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in order to clarify the kind of interaction at molecular level between biomarkers and minerals. In particular we focus our attention on nucleobases that are the precursor of genetic material (DNA, RNA) with several minerals (MgO, forsterite, TiO2, hydroxylapatite, olivine) that mimic extraterrestrial materials. A second objective was to investigate the desorption processes in order to optimize the experimental procedure for the detection of biomarkers in the contest of LMC. In this study we have evaluated the effect of several parameters such as sonication and temperature on the extraction efficiency. Moreover because the desorption process strongly depends on the chemical nature of organics and minerals and on their own interaction, we have also evaluated the capability of different solvent mixtures (water, methanol, etc.) with different polarity and the use of surfactant (Tween 80) to extract previously adsorbed biomolecules. The results obtained could contribute to improve the biomarker extraction procedure in the LMC experiment.

  3. Relationship between nanoscale mineral properties and calcein labeling in mineralizing bone surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Burghammer, Manfred; Montero, Cédric; Checa, Sara; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N; Willie, Bettina M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Bone's mineral properties, such as particle thickness and degree of alignment have been associated with bone quality. Bone formation, remodeling, aging of the tissue and mineral homeostasis influence mineral particle properties leading to specific patterns across bone. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) with synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool, which allows us to study bone's nanoscale mineral properties in a position-resolved way. We used sSAXS, fluorescence light microscopy and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging to study bone's mineral properties at the tibial midshaft of in vivo-loaded mice. By combining these techniques, we could detect local changes in mineral properties. Regions labeled with calcein fluorochrome have lower mean mineral thickness and degree of mineral alignment. We also observed thinner and less aligned mineral particles near blood vessels. We conclude that mineral properties (i) are altered by fluorochrome labeling and (ii) depend on the proximity to blood vessels. PMID:25158172

  4. Structural features underlying raloxifene's biophysical interaction with bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, Nicoletta; Hu, Haitao; Chavali, Balagopalakrishna; Chalmers, Michael J; Reutter, Christopher T; Durst, Gregory L; Riley, Anna; Sato, Masahiko; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David D; Dodge, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-15

    Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), reduces fracture risk at least in part by improving the mechanical properties of bone in a cell- and estrogen receptor-independent manner. In this study, we determined that raloxifene directly interacts with the bone tissue. Through the use of multiple and complementary biophysical techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we show that raloxifene interacts specifically with the organic component or the organic/mineral composite, and not with hydroxyapatite. Structure-activity studies reveal that the basic side chain of raloxifene is an instrumental determinant in the interaction with bone. Thus, truncation of portions of the side chain reduces bone binding and also diminishes the increase in mechanical properties. Our results support a model wherein the piperidine interacts with bone matrix through electrostatic interactions with the piperidine nitrogen and through hydrophobic interactions (van der Waals) with the aliphatic groups in the side chain and the benzothiophene core. Furthermore, in silico prediction of the potential binding sites on the surface of collagen revealed the presence of a groove with sufficient space to accommodate raloxifene analogs. The hydroxyl groups on the benzothiophene nucleus, which are necessary for binding of SERMs to the estrogen receptor, are not required for binding to the bone surface, but mediate a more robust binding of the compound to the bone powder. In conclusion, we report herein a novel property of raloxifene analogs that allows them to interact with the bone tissue through potential contacts with the organic matrix and in particular collagen. PMID:26795112

  5. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  6. The turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage into bone may be regulated by osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lieke G E; van Rietbergen, B; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2011-06-01

    During endochondral ossification, growth plate cartilage is replaced with bone. Mineralized cartilage matrix is resorbed by osteoclasts, and new bone tissue is formed by osteoblasts. As mineralized cartilage does not contain any cells, it is unclear how this process is regulated. We hypothesize that, in analogy with bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast activity are regulated by osteocytes, in response to mechanical loading. Since the cartilage does not contain osteocytes, this means that cartilage turnover during endochondral ossification would be regulated by the adjacent bone tissue. We investigated this hypothesis with an established computational bone adaptation model. In this model, osteocytes stimulate osteoblastic bone formation in response to the mechanical bone tissue loading. Osteoclasts resorb bone near randomly occurring microcracks that are assumed to block osteocyte signals. We used finite element modeling to evaluate our hypothesis in a 2D-domain representing part of the growth plate and adjacent bone. Cartilage was added at a constant physiological rate to simulate growth. Simulations showed that osteocyte signals from neighboring bone were sufficient for successful cartilage turnover, since equilibrium between cartilage remodeling and growth was obtained. Furthermore, there was good agreement between simulated bone structures and rat tibia histology, and the development of the trabecular architecture resembled that of infant long bones. Additionally, prohibiting osteoclast invasion resulted in thickened mineralized cartilage, similar to observations in a knock-out mouse model. We therefore conclude that it is well possible that osteocytes regulate the turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage. PMID:21546025

  7. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  8. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  9. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  10. Collagen and mineral deposition in rabbit cortical bone during maturation and growth: effects on tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Harjula, Terhi; Koistinen, Arto; Iivarinen, Jarkko; Seppänen, Kari; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J

    2010-12-01

    We characterized the composition and mechanical properties of cortical bone during maturation and growth and in adult life in the rabbit. We hypothesized that the collagen network develops earlier than the mineralized matrix. Growth was monitored, and the rabbits were euthanized at birth (newborn), and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18 months of age. The collagen network was assessed biochemically (collagen content, enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-links) in specimens from the mid-diaphysis of the tibia and femur and biomechanically (tensile testing) from decalcified whole tibia specimens. The mineralized matrix was analyzed using pQCT and 3-point bend tests from intact femur specimens. The collagen content and the Young's modulus of the collagen matrix increased significantly until the rabbits were 3 months old, and thereafter remained stable. The amount of HP and LP collagen cross-links increased continuously from newborn to 18 months of age, whereas PEN cross-links increased after 6 months of age. Bone mineral density and the Young's modulus of the mineralized bone increased until the rabbits were at least 6 months old. We concluded that substantial changes take place during the normal process of development in both the biochemical and biomechanical properties of rabbit cortical bone. In cortical bone, the collagen network reaches its mature composition and mechanical strength prior to the mineralized matrix. PMID:20540098

  11. Determination of bone mineral volume fraction using impedance analysis and Bruggeman model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuchi, Ioana Veronica; Olariu, Cristina Stefania, E-mail: oocristina@yahoo.com; Mitoseriu, Liliana, E-mail: lmtsr@uaic.ro

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Mineral volume fraction of a bone sample was determined. • Dielectric properties for bone sample and for the collagen type I were determined by impedance spectroscopy. • Bruggeman effective medium approximation was applied in order to evaluate mineral volume fraction of the sample. • The computed values were compared with ones derived from a histogram test performed on SEM micrographs. -- Abstract: Measurements by impedance spectroscopy and Bruggeman effective medium approximation model were employed in order to determine the mineral volume fraction of dry bone. This approach assumes that two or more phases are present into the composite: the matrix (environment) and the other ones are inclusion phases. A fragment of femur diaphysis dense bone from a young pig was investigated in its dehydrated state. Measuring the dielectric properties of bone and its main components (hydroxyapatite and collagen) and using the Bruggeman approach, the mineral volume filling factor was determined. The computed volume fraction of the mineral volume fraction was confirmed by a histogram test analysis based on the SEM microstructures. In spite of its simplicity, the method provides a good approximation for the bone mineral volume fraction. The method which uses impedance spectroscopy and EMA modeling can be further developed by considering the conductive components of the bone tissue as a non-invasive in situ impedance technique for bone composition evaluation and monitoring.

  12. Quantitative image of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)

  13. Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, P; Casinos, A.; Currey, J D; Zioupos, P

    2001-01-01

    We compared the mechanical properties of 'ordinary' bovine bone, the highly mineralized bone of the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris, and mother of pearl (nacre) of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. The rostrum and the nacre are similar in having very little organic material. However, the rostral bone is much weaker and more brittle than nacre, which in these properties is close to ordinary bone. The ability of nacre to outperform rostral bone is the result of its extremely...

  14. Biomineralization of a Self-Assembled Extracellular Matrix for Bone Tissue Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding how biomineralization occurs in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone cells is crucial to the understanding of bone formation and the development of a successfully engineered bone tissue scaffold. It is still unclear how ECM mechanical properties affect protein-mineral interactions in early stages of bone mineralization. We investigated the longitudinal mineralization properties of MC3T3-E1 cells and the elastic modulus of their ECM using shear modulation force microscopy, synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The elastic modulus of the ECM fibers underwent significant changes for the mineralizing cells, which were not observed in the nonmineralizing cells. On substrates conducive to ECM network production, the elastic modulus of mineralizing cells increased at time points corresponding to mineral production, whereas that of the nonmineralizing cells did not vary over time. The presence of hydroxyapatite in mineralizing cells and the absence thereof in the nonmineralizing ones were confirmed by GIXD, and CLSM showed that a restructuring of actin occurred only for mineral-producing cells. These results show that the correct and complete development of the ECM network is required for osteoblasts to mineralize. This in turn requires a suitably prepared synthetic substrate for bone development to succeed in vitro.

  15. Diabetes-induced fibrotic matrix inhibits intramembranous bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Trackman, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes diminishes bone healing and ossification. Reduced bone formation in intramembranous ossification is known, yet the mechanism(s) behind impaired intramembranous bone healing are unclear. Here we report the formation of a fibrotic matrix during healing of intramembranous calvarial bone defects that appears to exclude new bone growth. Our histological analyses of 7-day and 14-day calvaria bone healing tissue in chemically-induced diabetic mice and non-diabetic mice showed the accumulati...

  16. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Won, J. E.; Yun, Y. R.; Jang, J. H.; S. H. Yang; Kim, J. H.; W. Chrzanowski; Wall, I. B.; Knowles, J. C.; Kim, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctio...

  17. Bone mineral density, vitamin D and anticonvulsant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILARDI SILVANA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral density and vitamin D metabolism in patients on chronic anticonvulsant therapy. METHODS: Sixty-nine men, outpatients on chronic anticonvulsant therapy, who had been treated for at least 5 years, were studied, comparing them to thirty healthy controls. Bone mineral density was measured as well as serum levels of calcium, ionized calcium, alkaline phosphatase, PTH, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. RESULTS: No differences in bone mineral density, serum levels of vitamin D and intact-PTH were observed between patients and controls. Bone mineral density was not associated with chronic anticonvulsant therapy. CONCLUSION: Those adult patients who were on chronic anticonvulsant therapy and who lived in low latitude regions had normal bone mineral density as well as vitamin D serum levels.

  18. Does crystallinity of extracted bone mineral increase over storage time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that the crystallinity of extracted bone mineral samples from the fin bones of zebrafish could increase over storage time. This would have implications in many studies in which the samples need to be stored until analysis. The aim of this study was to further evaluate if the crystallinity of extracted bone mineral increases over storage time. The extracted mineral was a biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures. The overall characterization of the mineral was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In order to evaluate possible changes in crystallinity over storage time, the same sample was analyzed by X-ray diffraction immediately after mineral extraction and after 18 months of storage. In conclusion, no statistically relevant changes were observed over storage time, although the occurrence of a slight increase in crystallinity could be discussed in the stored mineral sample.

  19. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  20. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  1. Periosteal Sharpey's Fibres: a Novel Bone Matrix Regulatory System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeanElizabethAaron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharpey’s “perforating” fibres (SF are well known skeletally in tooth anchorage. Elsewhere they provide anchorage for the periosteum and are less well documented. Immunohistochemistry has transformed their potential significance by identifying their collagen type III (CIII content and enabling their mapping in domains as permeating arrays of fibres (5-25 microns thick, protected from osteoclastic resorption by their poor mineralization. As periosteal extensions they are crucial in early skeletal development and central to intramembranous bone healing, providing unique microanatomical avenues for musculoskeletal exchange, their composition (eg collagen type VI, elastin, tenacin combined with a multiaxial pattern of insertion suggesting a role more complex than attachment alone would justify. A proportion permeate the cortex to the endosteum (and beyond, fusing into a CIII-rich osteoid layer (<2 microns thick encompassing all resting surfaces, and with which they apparently integrate into a PERIOSTEAL-SHARPEY FIBRE-ENDOSTEUM (PSE structural continuum. This intraosseous system behaves in favour of bone loss or gain depending upon extraneous stimuli (ie like Frost’s hypothetical “mechanostat”. Thus the birefringent fibres are sensitive to humoral factors (eg oestrogen causes retraction, rat femur model, physical activity (eg running causes expansion, rat model, ageing (eg causes fragmentation, pig mandible model and pathology (eg atrophied in osteoporosis, hypertrophied in osteoarthritis, human proximal femur, and with encroaching mineral particles hardening the usually soft parts. In this way the unobtrusive periosteal SF network may regulate bone status, perhaps even contributing to predictable “hotspots” of trabecular disconnection, particularly at sites of tension prone to fatigue, and with the network deteriorating significantly before bone matrix loss.

  2. Nanoporous Structure of Bone Matrix at Osteoporosis from Data of Atomic Force Microscopy and IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gaidash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that in an osteoporotic bone the fraction of nanosized pores decreases, the mineral phase amorphizes, hydrated shells around mineralized particles of the bone matrix thicken, and adhesion forces increase. This contributes to the formation of water clusters similar to bulk water clusters compared to the healthy bone tissue and leads to the accumulation of more viscous liquid with increased intermolecular interaction forces in the pores of the bone matrix. Given this, the rates of chemical reactions proceeding in the water phase of ultrathin channels of general parts of collagen fibrils decrease. Ultimately, nanopores of collagen-apatite interfaces lose, to a certain extent, the capability of catalyzing the hydroxyapatite crystallization.

  3. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  4. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm3, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm3, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm3) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm3 and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0.05, Tukey's HSD), on

  5. Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the

  6. A prospective study of alcohol consumption and bone mineral density.

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, T L; Barrett-Connor, E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the effects of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density in a defined population. DESIGN--Prospective study of bone mineral density, measured during 1988-91, in a cohort who had given baseline data on alcohol intake in the previous week and in the previous 24 hours and other factors affecting bone mineral density during 1973-5. SETTING--Rancho Bernardo, California. SUBJECTS--182 men and 267 women aged 45 and over at baseline, half having been randomly selected and half ...

  7. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  8. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  9. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  10. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens. (orig.)

  11. The correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone and the bone quality in the jaw bone of implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone in the jawbone and the grading of the bone quality by operative findings in implant patients. The jawbones of 53 implant patients (15 males and 38 females), 150 sites (maxilla 50 sites, mandible :100 sites) were analyzed by the preoperative Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) examination. The oral surgeons categorized the bone quality in four grades based on the operative findings (tactile sense). Statistical analyses were performed and the bone mineral densities of cancellous bone were compared with the grades of the bone qualities. The results were as follows: The bone mineral density of cancellous bone of males was significantly higher than that of females (p<0.05). The bone quality of females was significantly poorer than that of males (p<0.05). The bone mineral density of cancellous bone of the maxillae tended to be lower than that of the mandibles. The bone quality of the maxillae was significantly poorer than that of the mandibles (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone and the bone quality in the implant patients (p<0.05, r=-0.60). These results demonstrated that the measurement of the bone mineral density of cancellous bone in the implant patients from the preoperative Quantitative Computed Tomography examination had the potential to diagnose the bone quality of the implant sites. (author)

  12. A versatile new mineralized bone stain for simultaneous assessment of tetracycline and osteoid seams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, A R; Lundin, K D

    1989-05-01

    A versatile mineralized bone stain (MIBS) for demonstrating osteoid seams and tetracycline fluorescence simultaneously in thin or thick undecalcified sections has been developed. Bone specimens are fixed in 70% ethanol, but 10% buffered formalin is permissible. Depending upon one's preference, these specimens can be left unstained or be prestained before plastic embedding. Osteoid seams are stained green to jade green, or light to dark purple. Mineralized bone matrix is unstained or green. Osteoblast and osteoclast nuclei are light to dark purple, cytoplasm varies from slightly gray to pink. The identification of osteoid seams by this method agrees closely with identification by in vivo tetracycline uptake using the same section from the same biopsy. The method demonstrates halo volumes, an abnormal, lacunar, low density bone around viable osteocytes in purple. This phenomenon is commonly seen in vitamin D-resistant rickets, fluorosis, renal osteodystrophy, hyperparathyroidism, and is sometimes seen in fluoride treated osteoporotic patients. In osteomalacic bone, most osteoid seams are irregularly stained as indicated by the presence of unmineralized osteoid between mineralized lamellae. The method has been used effectively in staining new bone formation in hydroxyapatite implants and bone grafts. Old, unstained, plastic embedded undecalcified sections are stained as well as fresh sections after removal of the coverslip. This stain also promises to be valuable in the study of different metabolic bone diseases from the point of view of remodeling, histomorphometry, and pathology. PMID:2480003

  13. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have ... BMD tests of the hip using a standard technology called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, or DXA. ...

  14. Correlates of prepubertal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, R.; Borovnicar, D; Stroud, D.; Strauss, B.; Bines, J

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine early factors in bone mineral accretion in cystic fibrosis (CF).
METHODS—In 22 prepubertal children with CF and mild lung disease, the relation between total body bone mineral density (BMD) and measures of body composition, biochemistry, lung function, and physical activity was studied.
RESULTS—There was a non-significant mild reduction in mean total body BMD. No relation was found between BMD and anthropometric indices, fat free soft tissue, degree of lung ...

  15. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  16. Development of a system to evaluate the bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among different techniques available to quantify bone mineral content, we have decided to work with that one based on single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Tests using aluminium simulator and sheep bones have been done to asure a good performance of our device. (author)

  17. Association of Bone Mineral Density and Lifestyle in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossein-nezhad

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutritional intake and physical activity are important factors in maintaining bone mineral density. Peak bone density in 20-40 year-old population and its relation to life style could be useful in policy-making for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  18. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B;

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  19. Technical aspects and clinical interpretation of bone mineral measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahner, H

    1989-01-01

    Four procedures--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy radiography, and quantitative computed tomography--allow nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral, with high accuracy and precision, under conditions generally encountered in patient care situations. By using these procedures, almost any part of the skeleton is accessible to such measurements. Total bone is measured by the absorptiometry procedures, trabecular bone by quantitative computed tomography. Sever...

  20. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  1. Bone mineralization pathways during the rapid growth of embryonic chicken long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Asscher, Yotam; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and transport of ions from the environment to the site of bone formation is only partially understood and, for the most part, based on disparate observations in different animals. Here we study different aspects of the biomineralization pathways in one system, the rapidly forming long bones of the chicken embryo. We mainly used cryo-fixation and cryo-electron imaging to preserve the often unstable mineral phases in the tissues. We show the presence of surprisingly large amounts of mineral particles located inside membrane-delineated vesicles in the bone forming tissue between the blood vessels and the forming bone surface. Some of these particles are also located inside mitochondrial networks. The surfaces of the forming bones in the extracellular space contain abundant aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate particles, but these are not enveloped by vesicle membranes. In the bone resorbing region, osteoclasts also contain many particles in both mitochondrial networks and within vesicles. Some of these particles are present also between cells. These observations, together with the previously reported observation that CaP mineral particles inside membranes are present in blood vessels, leads us to the conclusion that important components of the bone mineralization pathways in rapidly forming chicken bone are dense phase mineral particles bound within membranes. It remains to be determined whether these mineral particles are transported to the site of bone formation in the solid state, fluid state or dissolve and re-precipitate. PMID:27108185

  2. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (peutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  3. Minimal invasive surgery for unicameral bone cyst using demineralized bone matrix: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Hwan; Seo Sung; Park So; Park Jong; Shin Duk; Park Il

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Various treatments for unicameral bone cyst have been proposed. Recent concern focuses on the effectiveness of closed methods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix as a graft material after intramedullary decompression for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts. Methods Between October 2008 and June 2010, twenty-five patients with a unicameral bone cyst were treated with intramedullary decompression followed by grafting of demineralized bone ...

  4. Lipids and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Pérez-Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between cholesterol and triglycerides and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease (hypertension and acute coronary syndrome.Methods: The study included 217 patients (83 men and 134 women, aged between 36 and 76 (mean age 59 ± 10, with hypertension and acute coronary syndrome. Information obtained included anthropometric measurements, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides; bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine.Results: BMD was significantly lower in patients in the higher tertiles of cholesterol (p = 0.041. The effect was maintained after adjustment for age and Body Mass Index (BMI. However, there was no association between the range of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and bone mass.Conclusions: A relationship was found between total cholesterol and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease.

  5. Assessment of bone mineral status in children with Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-ßeta, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone minerali...

  6. Bone loss without the loss of bone mineral material? A new perspective on anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, H H

    2009-06-01

    Since the advent on non-invasive in vivo clinical bone densitometry, investigators have reported that regional bone mineral material loss accompanies the onset and continuance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial single-energy photon absorptiometric (SPA) studies were followed by a succession of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) investigations, and a few single-energy quantitative computer assisted tomographic (SEQCT) bone densitometry vertebral measurements. Although most all DXA studies found a relatively small diminution (approximately 3%) of bone mineral material at lumbar vertebral and proximal femoral bone-sites of AN-afflicted adolescent girls and young women, these findings have been consensually interpreted and near-universally accepted as losses of actual bone mineral material accompanying AN. It has also been claimed by some that about 50% of those beset by AN while still young adolescents were osteoporotic. Nonetheless, over the last intervening 2 decades of these studies, no specific underlying direct bone-biological causal link between AN and trabecular bone material loss has yet been uncovered. The present exposition shows that in vivo SPA, DXA, and SEQCT measurements of bone mineral material losses do not constitute evidence of actual loss of bone material, and that the attribution of osteopenia and osteoporosis to AN-afflicted younger adolescent girls is not sustainable. Rather, the full gamut of these reported bone material "losses" can be accounted for by the already well-documented AN-induced changes in the anthropometrics and compositional mixes of extra-osseous soft tissues (primarily in a very noticeable reduction of extra-skeletal fat) and intra-osseous bone marrow yellowing (marrow hypoplasia and marrow cell necrosis). These changes in soft tissue compositions and anthropometrics alone have been shown to be sufficient to cause in vivo SPA, DXA, and SEQCT to systematically mis-estimate true bone material density and erroneously register

  7. Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, J D; Zioupos, P; Davies, P; Casino, A

    2001-01-01

    We compared the mechanical properties of 'ordinary' bovine bone, the highly mineralized bone of the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris, and mother of pearl (nacre) of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. The rostrum and the nacre are similar in having very little organic material. However, the rostral bone is much weaker and more brittle than nacre, which in these properties is close to ordinary bone. The ability of nacre to outperform rostral bone is the result of its extremely well-ordered microstructure, with organic material forming a nearly continuous jacket round all the tiny aragonite plates, a design well adapted to produce toughness. In contrast, in the rostrum the organic material, mainly collagen, is poorly organized and discontinuous, allowing the mineral to join up to form, in effect, a brittle stony material. PMID:12123292

  8. In ovo administration of boron alters bone mineralization of the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N; Odom, T W; Sampson, H W; Pardue, S L

    1991-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that boron (B) is an essential element for animals, especially in bone metabolism. In this study, the influence of in ovo boron administration was assessed in the chicken. At 8 d of embryogenesis, carrier or B (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg) was injected on to the chorioallantoic membrane of fertile eggs. At hatching, body weights were recorded and tissue samples collected. Although boron failed to alter bone mineralization, it decreased (p less than 0.05) dried bone weight, suggesting a reduction in the bone organic matrix. Furthermore, 1 mg boron decreased (p less than 0.05) hatchability and increased (p less than 0.05) the height of the proliferative zone in the growth plate, indicating an unfavorable effect on bone elongation of the developing chick. PMID:1718368

  9. Response Of Mineralizing And Non-Mineralizing Bone Cells To Fluid Flow: An In Vitro Model For Mechanotransruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren A.

    2004-01-01

    osteoblasts, including increased proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and production of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and osteopontin. Several proteins have been implicated in osteoblastic mechanotransduction including Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). We will characterize relative levels of each protein in mineralizing or non-mineralizing MC3T3 osteoblastic cells that have been exposed to fluid flow compared to non-fluid flow using immunofluorescent staining and two- photon laser microscopy as well as western blotting. Because calcium-mediated pathways are important in osteoblastic signaling, we will transfect MC3T3 cells with cameleon probes for Ca2+ containing YFP and CFP. Results will be analyzed using FRET/FLIM to study differential release of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing matrix mineralization. In addition, we plan to conduct several microarray experiments to determine differential gene expression in MC3T3 cells in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing mineralization.

  10. Maxillary sinus grafting with fresh frozen allograft versus bovine bone mineral: A tomographic and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Samuel Porfirio; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Sehn, Felipe Perraro; Silva, Erick Ricardo; Garcez-Filho, João de Andrade; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated histologically and tomographically the effects of fresh frozen bone allograft (FFB) or bovine bone mineral (BBM) in maxillary sinus floor augmentations. In total, 30 maxillary sinuses from 30 patients (mean age = 51.17 ± 10.86 years) underwent sinus augmentation. Patients were divided in two test groups (15 sinuses each). The first group was grafted with allograft bone, and the second group received bovine bone mineral. After 6 months, bone samples from each group were collected for histological examination. Implant survival rates were 97.78% (FFB group) and 100% (BBM group) 6 months after functional loading. Median volumetric reductions of 31.2% (11.33-40.56) and 12.22% (9.91-20.59) were observed in the FFB and BBM groups, respectively. Comparisons between the groups for differences in initial and final volumes of bone (p = 0.015) and the rate of resorption (p = 0.009) showed statistically significant differences. The FFB group showed osteoblastic cells in close contact with osteoid matrix, connected through bridges between allograft bone particles and new bone formation. The BBM group showed BBM particles in close contact with new bone, with visible osteoid matrix bridges and osteoblastic cells surrounding it. None showed signs of acute or chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Despite better results with BBM, both FFB and BBM in maxillary sinus augmentation resulted in high percentages of new bone formation, and allowed implant placement with a low rate of failure of osseointegration at a 6-month follow-up. PMID:27107475

  11. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  12. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  13. Molecular nanomechanics of nascent bone: fibrillar toughening by mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are highly conserved nanostructural building blocks of bone. By a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical analysis it is shown that the characteristic nanostructure of mineralized collagen fibrils is vital for its high strength and its ability to sustain large deformation, as is relevant to the physiological role of bone, creating a strong and tough material. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of protein and mineral phases under large deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils reveals a fibrillar toughening mechanism that leads to a manifold increase of energy dissipation compared to fibrils without mineral phase. This fibrillar toughening mechanism increases the resistance to fracture by forming large local yield regions around crack-like defects, a mechanism that protects the integrity of the entire structure by allowing for localized failure. As a consequence, mineralized collagen fibrils are able to tolerate microcracks of the order of several hundred micrometres in size without causing any macroscopic failure of the tissue, which may be essential to enable bone remodelling. The analysis proves that adding nanoscopic small platelets to collagen fibrils increases their Young's modulus and yield strength as well as their fracture strength. We find that mineralized collagen fibrils have a Young's modulus of 6.23 GPa (versus 4.59 GPa for the collagen fibril), yield at a tensile strain of 6.7% (versus 5% for the collagen fibril) and feature a fracture stress of 0.6 GPa (versus 0.3 GPa for the collagen fibril)

  14. Molecular nanomechanics of nascent bone: fibrillar toughening by mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Markus J.

    2007-07-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are highly conserved nanostructural building blocks of bone. By a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical analysis it is shown that the characteristic nanostructure of mineralized collagen fibrils is vital for its high strength and its ability to sustain large deformation, as is relevant to the physiological role of bone, creating a strong and tough material. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of protein and mineral phases under large deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils reveals a fibrillar toughening mechanism that leads to a manifold increase of energy dissipation compared to fibrils without mineral phase. This fibrillar toughening mechanism increases the resistance to fracture by forming large local yield regions around crack-like defects, a mechanism that protects the integrity of the entire structure by allowing for localized failure. As a consequence, mineralized collagen fibrils are able to tolerate microcracks of the order of several hundred micrometres in size without causing any macroscopic failure of the tissue, which may be essential to enable bone remodelling. The analysis proves that adding nanoscopic small platelets to collagen fibrils increases their Young's modulus and yield strength as well as their fracture strength. We find that mineralized collagen fibrils have a Young's modulus of 6.23 GPa (versus 4.59 GPa for the collagen fibril), yield at a tensile strain of 6.7% (versus 5% for the collagen fibril) and feature a fracture stress of 0.6 GPa (versus 0.3 GPa for the collagen fibril).

  15. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  16. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral density (125I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups

  17. Bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 47Ca calcitonin study is described which is used in combination with a conventional balance study in 5 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after therapy and in 1 control subject. The experimentally obtained data were analyzed according to Wendeberg and Dymling. The magnitude of the 47Ca loss through perspiration could not be determined. This fact can affect the rate of accretion but not the other parameters of calcium kinetics. A markedly flow of tracer into bone (inflow, internal disappearance, accretion, rate of accretion) and of calcium out of bone (resorption, outflow) was observed

  18. Bone Mineral Density and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, S; Hersberger, M; Fischler, M.; Huber, L. C.; Senn, O; Treder, U; Speich, R; Schmid, C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart...

  19. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (PZ-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  20. A primary phosphorus-deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Owen, M A G; Fontanillas, R; Soenens, M; McGurk, C; Obach, A

    2016-02-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar. PMID:26707938

  1. Association of Bone Mineral Density and Lifestyle in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossein-nezhad

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, osteoporosis is an increasingly important public health problem in men. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between life style and bone mineral density in men. Methods: Among the 20-76 year-old men of Tehran, 325 persons were selected randomly from 50 clusters. The persons suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid diseases, fractures or other conditions which effect bone metabolism were excluded. All participants underwent clinical examinations and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Results: In lumbar spine, peak bone density was seen between ages 25 and 40 yr and in hip, between 20 and 30. In men older than 50 yr, prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia, were 3.9% and 50%, respectively. Bone mineral density was significantly correlated to calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity and smoking. Conclusion: Nutritional intake and physical activity are important factors in maintaining bone mineral density. Peak bone density in 20-40 year-old population and its relation to life style could be useful in policy-making for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  2. Life cycle changes in bone mineralization and bone size traits of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, P N; Katanbaf, M N; Hester, P Y

    2009-05-01

    Life cycle changes in bone mineralization and bone size traits of the tibia and humerus were evaluated in commercial male and female broilers using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Experiment 1 evaluated weekly changes in bone traits from 2 to 7 wk of age, whereas experiment 2 compared the bone traits of 4 strains of commercial meat-type chickens from 4 to 8 wk of age. Birds were restrained without anesthesia, and the humerus and tibia were scanned in vivo. After each scan, individual BW was determined. From the DEXA scans, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), as well as bone length, width, and area were determined. Bone mineralization and size traits were analyzed as an analysis of covariance with BW as the covariate. If BW was NS as a covariate, then an ANOVA was used. The BMD reached its peak at 4 wk of age. The BMC of the humerus changed little from 2 to 8 wk of age, whereas tibial BMC increased as the birds aged, especially in males (P < 0.0001). In experiment 1, bone length, width, and area also increased with age (P < 0.0001), with the tibia growing in length at a faster rate than the humerus. In experiment 2, the BMD did not differ among the 4 strains of commercial broilers. Interactions with strain of chicken were also NS, indicating that all strains of chickens responded similarly with respect to age (4, 6, and 8 wk of age), sex, and type of bone (humerus vs. tibia). Coefficients of variation for BMD ranged from 15 to 16%, indicating a potential use of DEXA for selection to improve skeletal integrity. In conclusion, the tibia continued to grow, especially after the initiation of the growth spurt at 3 to 4 wk of age, as indicated by bone length, width, and BMC, but it did not become denser in mineral after 4 wk of age as its surface area increased. PMID:19359697

  3. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenbauer Bianka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM. Methods and results From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10 or DBM-augmentation (n = 10. At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014. Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group and 41.2 months (DBM-group. All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20% whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146. No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20% (p = 0.146. Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326. However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031. Conclusion With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160

  4. Demineralized Bone Matrix Injection in Consolidation Phase Enhances Bone Regeneration in Distraction Osteogenesis via Endochondral Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Won Joon; Cho, Tae-Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a promising tool for bone and tissue regeneration. However, prolonged healing time remains a major problem. Various materials including cells, cytokines, and growth factors have been used in an attempt to enhance bone formation. We examined the effect of percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) during the consolidation phase on bone regeneration after distraction. Methods The immature rabbit tibial DO model (20 mm length-gain) was u...

  5. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6OH2], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 μm (±5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm-3 and 1.92 g.cm-3 respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content in the samples was then investigated

  6. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  7. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  8. Bone mineral measurements and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low bone mass (osteopenia) is a major factor in the development of osteoporotic fractures in women after the menopause. The pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been pursued by dual lines of investigation: (1) development of a model to describe involutional bone loss, (2) identification of those factors which result in some healthy women having a greater risk for osteoporosis than others. Bone mineral measurements have been made using in vivo neutron activation analysis and whole body counting for the measurement of total body calcium (TBCa), single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content of the distal radius and dual photon absorptiometry for measurement of the bone density of the spine. TBCa is higher in men than women and is lost at a slow linear rate in men. Blacks have a skeletal mass about 8-9% higher than Caucasians. Women have a similar loss of TBCa to men prior to menopause, but then have an accelerated rate of loss after menopause. The change in bone density of the radius and spine with increasing age is also best described by a 2 phase regression in women, with appreciable loss after age 50

  9. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  10. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  11. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  12. Chronic radium intoxication: preliminary report of morphological and mineral changes in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations are presented on bone microradiograms from 44 radium patients. The data cover three basic categories of mineral changes: (1) increase in bone mineral resorption, (2) increase in bone mineral density and (3) increase in new bone tissue formation. The data show a trend of increasing amount of mineral change in all three categories as the cumulative rads, cumulative rad-years, and amount of radium intake increase

  13. Molecular nanomechanics of nascent bone: fibrillar toughening by mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Markus J [Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 1-272, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2007-07-25

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are highly conserved nanostructural building blocks of bone. By a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical analysis it is shown that the characteristic nanostructure of mineralized collagen fibrils is vital for its high strength and its ability to sustain large deformation, as is relevant to the physiological role of bone, creating a strong and tough material. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of protein and mineral phases under large deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils reveals a fibrillar toughening mechanism that leads to a manifold increase of energy dissipation compared to fibrils without mineral phase. This fibrillar toughening mechanism increases the resistance to fracture by forming large local yield regions around crack-like defects, a mechanism that protects the integrity of the entire structure by allowing for localized failure. As a consequence, mineralized collagen fibrils are able to tolerate microcracks of the order of several hundred micrometres in size without causing any macroscopic failure of the tissue, which may be essential to enable bone remodelling. The analysis proves that adding nanoscopic small platelets to collagen fibrils increases their Young's modulus and yield strength as well as their fracture strength. We find that mineralized collagen fibrils have a Young's modulus of 6.23 GPa (versus 4.59 GPa for the collagen fibril), yield at a tensile strain of 6.7% (versus 5% for the collagen fibril) and feature a fracture stress of 0.6 GPa (versus 0.3 GPa for the collagen fibril)

  14. Bone induction by composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and deminiralized bone matrix in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A composite of a local, sustained, drug-release system, Alzamer bioerodible polyorthoester, and demineralized bone-matrix (DBM) particles implanted in the abdominal muscle of 89 Wistar rats induced cartilage and bone formation at the same rate as DBM when evaluated histologically and by 85Sr uptake. The composite implant was technically easier to use than DBM alone. (author)

  15. Bone induction by composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and deminiralized bone matrix in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinholt, E.M.; Solheim, E. (Institute for Surgical Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo (Norway)); Bang, G. (Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, University of Bergen (Norway)); Sudmann, E. (Hagavik Orthopedic Hospital, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1991-01-01

    A composite of a local, sustained, drug-release system, Alzamer bioerodible polyorthoester, and demineralized bone-matrix (DBM) particles implanted in the abdominal muscle of 89 Wistar rats induced cartilage and bone formation at the same rate as DBM when evaluated histologically and by {sup 85}Sr uptake. The composite implant was technically easier to use than DBM alone. (author).

  16. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

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    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  17. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  18. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

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    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  19. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

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    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  20. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

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    Andreas O. Parashis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  1. Determination of bone mineral content in the heel bone using a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easy to use and low cost technique for determination of the bone mineral content in the heel bone using an unmodified gamma camera is described. The method uses two small flood phantoms with 125I and 99Tcm, respectively. The precision, when measured on 12 healthy volunteers, was 2.1% and a long-term reproducibility in vitro of 1.8% was obtained on phantoms. (author)

  2. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-01-01

    Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx). The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( )&'(-group) had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol"), marke...

  3. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Bo Huh; June-Jip Yang; Kyung-Hee Choi; Ji Hyeon Bae; Jeong-Yeol Lee; Sung-Eun Kim; Sang-Wan Shin

    2015-01-01

    Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss®) has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter) were fo...

  4. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  5. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  6. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  7. Solid-state P-31 MR studies of bone mineral and calcium phosphate bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium phosphate bone cements have recently been used to promote bone healing and remodeling, but little is known of their bioabsorption. The purpose of this paper to characterize and quantitate bone mineral and calcium phosphate bone cements with the use of solid-state P-31 NMR imaging to establish a model for bioabsorption studies. Pulverized cortical rabbit bone, octacalcium phosphate spherulites, and two synthetic apatite formulations (A and B, Norian, Mountain View, Calif) were evaluated in vitro. A 9.4-T Varian VXR-400S spectrometer operating at 161.9 MHz for P-31 was used to obtain NMR imaging spectra with the magic-angel spinning technique at a sample spin frequency of 6-7.5 kHz, utilizing an external 85% phosphoric acid reference. T1 was determined in a static 90 degrees τ 90 degrees experiment. Quantitation was attempted in mixed samples

  8. Analysis on correlation between bone strength by FEA, micro-CT parameters and bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro architecture and important determinants for bone strength. Recently micro-CT have provided possibilities for measuring a variety of structural indices to characterize bone micro architecture. The objective of this study was to compare the BMD and micro-CT parameters with Young's modulus calculated by finite element analysis (FEA) for the evaluation of bone strength. Bone specimens were obtained from the 18 female rabbits aged 16 weeks. Of those, 36 samples (right and left femur) were selected for 3D micro-CT analysis(ANT 'TM, SKYSCAN, Belgium) and BMD by PIXImus 2 (GE Lunar Co. USA). Five microstructural parameters of micro-CT, such as trabecular thickness(Tb. Th), bone specific surface (BS/BV), percent bone volume (BV/TV), structure model index (SMI) and degree of anisotropy (DOA) were studied. Young's modulus was obtained by software program (ANSYS 9.0, ANSYS Inc, Canonsburg, PA) based on micro-CT three dimensional images. Young's modults assessed by FEA correlated significantly with Tb.Th, BV/TV. BS/BV and SMI respectively. Young's modulus showed higher correlation with these microstructural parameters of micro-CT than BMD. Microstructural parameters except DOA showed significant correlations within the examined group. The micro architectural parameters of micro-CT and BMD represented some information in the evaluation of bone strength assessed by FEA

  9. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Min Yoo; Myung-Han Lee; Ji Hyung Park; Dong-Hyun Seo; Sangyeob Lee; Byungjo Jung; Han Sung Kim; Kiho Bae

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT) and Per2 knockout (KO) mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduc...

  10. Overexpression of DMP1 accelerates mineralization and alters cortical bone biomechanical properties in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia A.; Miller L.; Albazza, M.; Espinoza Orias, A.A.; Inoue, N.; Acerbo, A.; George, A.; Sumner, D.R.

    2011-09-29

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p < 0.01), more robust in cross-section (p < 0.05), stronger (p < 0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p < 0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p < 0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p < 0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p < 0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period.

  11. Bone matrix calcification during embryonic and postembryonic rat calvarial development assessed by SEM-EDX spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, Akiko; Okata, Hiroshi; Anada, Takahisa; Yoshinari, Mariko; Mikami, Yasuto; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasano, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bone mineral is constituted of biological hydroxyapatite crystals. In developing bone, the mineral crystal matures and the Ca/P ratio increases. However, how an increase in the Ca/P ratio is involved in maturation of the crystal is not known. The relationships among organic components and mineral changes are also unclear. The study was designed to investigate the process of calcification during rat calvarial bone development. Calcification was evaluated by analyzing the atomic distribution and concentration of Ca, P, and C with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and changes in the crystal structure with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Histological analysis showed that rat calvarial bone formation started around embryonic day 16. The areas of Ca and P expanded, matching the region of the developing bone matrix, whereas the area of C became localized around bone. X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis showed that the amorphous-like structure of the minerals at embryonic day 16 gradually transformed into poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite, whereas the proportion of mineral to protein increased until postnatal week 6. FTIR analysis also showed that crystallization of hydroxyapatite started around embryonic day 20, by which time SEM-EDX spectroscopy showed that the Ca/P ratio had increased and the C/Ca and C/P ratios had decreased significantly. The study suggests that the Ca/P molar ratio increases and the proportion of organic components such as proteins of the bone matrix decreases during the early stage of calcification, whereas crystal maturation continues throughout embryonic and postembryonic bone development. PMID:25773047

  12. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  14. Air pollution and genetic influences on bone mineral density and osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana CEVEI; Dorina STOICĂNESCU

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density, disrupted bone microarchitecture and alterations in the amount and variety of proteins in bones. Bone turnover is a very complex process, depending on genetic and non genetic factors, such as diet, lifestyle or air pollution. The aim of the study was to explore genetic and environmental risk factors that contribute to osteoporosis by quantifying several factors related to bone mineral density. We assess...

  15. Mineralization of oriented nano hydroxyapatite in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahymah Joshy, M.I.; Elayaraja, K.; Suganthi, R.V.; Narayana Kalkura, S. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2010-05-15

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel is a biomaterial and nondegradable water based polymer which is used as tissue filler. Mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HAp) in a UV polymerized acrylamide gel matrix was investigated by varying the concentration of precursors and pH in the range 8,9 and 10. During polymerization, diammonium hydrogen phosphate ions were impregnated in the gel matrix and subsequently, immersed in the calcium nitrate solution. Thin laminated macroporous structures, embedded with nanospheres and ribbons of HAp were mineralized. The HAp was found to be oriented along c-axis, which could lead to the preferential binding of the acidic proteins on it's surface. In addition, there was an enlargement of pore sizes with an increase in pH. The laminated structures showed resorbable nature whereas, flake like structures obtained at higher concentrations were found to be bioactive. This composite could be an alternative to the use of silicone gel, to avoid long term risk of fibrosis and migration when implanted. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  17. Mineralizing process and morphological structure of the femoral bone in rats under influence of aminophosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen O. Mostovoy

    2014-06-01

    Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were used in the research and 3 groups of animals (1 control and 2 experimental, n = 10 in each group were formed. The control group of animals received 1 ml of deionized water intragastrically (i.g. and 1 ml of normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p. once a day for 3 months. The experimental rats received administration of pamidronate i.p. or tweak i.g. (63 mg/kg for both for 3 months. The external and internal surfaces of femoral bone proximal epiphyses were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The degree of crystallinity of the mineral parts of samples was estimated with X-ray crystal structure analysis. Results: Animals that received pamidronate presented high mineralization of collagen matrix; the growth plate became narrower, the size of foramina nutricia and the branches of Volkmann's canals became smaller. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed increased interplanar distance compared to XRD patterns of the control group. Animals that received tweak had the highest degree of mineralization and visual breaking of the growth plate; the size of foramina nutricia and the number of branches of Volkmann's canals decreased. Dispersity of mineral component took place on XRD patterns as flattening of peaks in regions of small angles. Conclusion: Administration of pamidronate or tweak for 3 months caused bone hypermineralization and changed the parameters of elementary lattice cell that lead to structural disorders of femoral proximal epiphyses in rats. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(2.000: 81-84

  18. Determination of radial bone mineral content in low birth weight infants by photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies at the University of Wisconsin have demonstrated that photon absorptiometry is a precise, accurate, and reproducible technique for measuring bone mineral content in premature infants and can be used to establish an intrauterine curve of bone mineralization in the fetus. Photon absorptiometry can also be used to measure bone width, thereby documenting appositional bone growth. The bone mineral content/bone width ratio may be helpful in identifying disorders of bone mineral metabolism in premature infants. The technique has been used to demonstrate that relatively poor bone mineralization (compared with the intrauterine curve) occurs in very low birth weight infants after birth, regardless of the type of feeding or the presence or absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 31 references

  19. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  20. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  1. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants - Highlights: • Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was gamma-irradiated for sterilization. • Irradiated DBM had higher alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production. • It was reasoned the more released bone morphogenetic proteins by irradiation. • This result supports the application of radiation sterilization for bone implants

  2. Validation of a simple and fast method to quantify in vitro mineralization with fluorescent probes used in molecular imaging of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We validate a simple and fast method of quantification of in vitro mineralization. •Fluorescently labeled agents can detect calcium deposits in the mineralized matrix of cell cultures. •Fluorescent signals of the probes correlated with Alizarin Red S staining. -- Abstract: Alizarin Red S staining is the standard method to indicate and quantify matrix mineralization during differentiation of osteoblast cultures. KS483 cells are multipotent mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells that can differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts and are a well-characterized model for the study of bone formation. Matrix mineralization is the last step of differentiation of bone cells and is therefore a very important outcome measure in bone research. Fluorescently labelled calcium chelating agents, e.g. BoneTag and OsteoSense, are currently used for in vivo imaging of bone. The aim of the present study was to validate these probes for fast and simple detection and quantification of in vitro matrix mineralization by KS483 cells and thus enabling high-throughput screening experiments. KS483 cells were cultured under osteogenic conditions in the presence of compounds that either stimulate or inhibit osteoblast differentiation and thereby matrix mineralization. After 21 days of differentiation, fluorescence of stained cultures was quantified with a near-infrared imager and compared to Alizarin Red S quantification. Fluorescence of both probes closely correlated to Alizarin Red S staining in both inhibiting and stimulating conditions. In addition, both compounds displayed specificity for mineralized nodules. We therefore conclude that this method of quantification of bone mineralization using fluorescent compounds is a good alternative for the Alizarin Red S staining

  3. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone densi...

  4. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  5. Sclerostin regulates release of bone mineral by osteocytes by induction of carbonic anhydrase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Masakazu; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Ormsby, Renee T; Thomas, Gethin P; Anderson, Paul H; Bonewald, Lynda F; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J

    2013-12-01

    The osteocyte product sclerostin is emerging as an important paracrine regulator of bone mass. It has recently been shown that osteocyte production of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is important in osteoclastic bone resorption, and we reported that exogenous treatment of osteocytes with sclerostin can increase RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity. There is good evidence that osteocytes can themselves liberate mineral from bone in a process known as osteocytic osteolysis. In the current study, we investigated sclerostin-stimulated mineral dissolution by human primary osteocyte-like cells (hOCy) and mouse MLO-Y4 cells. We found that sclerostin upregulated osteocyte expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2/Car2), cathepsin K (CTSK/Ctsk), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP5/Acp5). Because acidification of the extracellular matrix is a critical step in the release of mineral from bone, we further examined the regulation by sclerostin of CA2. Sclerostin stimulated CA2 mRNA and protein expression in hOCy and in MLO-Y4 cells. Sclerostin induced a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) in both cell types as well as a decrease in extracellular pH (pHo) and the release of calcium ions from mineralized substrate. These effects were reversed in the co-presence of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetozolamide. Car2-siRNA knockdown in MLO-Y4 cells significantly inhibited the ability of sclerostin to both reduce the pHo and release calcium from a mineralized substrate. Knockdown in MLO-Y4 cells of each of the putative sclerostin receptors, Lrp4, Lrp5 and Lrp6, using siRNA, inhibited the sclerostin induction of Car2, Catk and Acp5 mRNA, as well as pHo and calcium release. Consistent with this activity of sclerostin resulting in osteocytic osteolysis, human trabecular bone samples treated ex vivo with recombinant human sclerostin for 7 days exhibited an increased osteocyte lacunar area, an effect that was reversed by the co-addition of acetozolamide. These findings

  6. Criteria to evaluate bone mineralization in cattle. II. Noninvasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of dual photon absorptiometry (PA), radiographic photometry (RP), and ultrasound (U) to estimate bone mineral content (BMC) and bone strength of a group of bovine third metacarpals (McIII). Metacarpals were chosen for evaluating BMC and bone strength because of their accessibility and susceptibility to biomechanical stress. The right and left McIII of 14 Angus heifers (24 to 32 mo of age) were collected at slaughter and all soft tissues (including periosteum) were removed. The BMC was estimated at both the midpoint and 3 cm proximal to the midpoint on the McIII diaphysis. Metacarpals then were tested by three-point bending to determine breaking load (BL) and breaking strength (BS). Bones were reassembled and two 2-cm sections were removed, one at the midpoint and one 1 cm proximal to the midpoint section. Sections then were ashed and ash content was expressed as grams per 2-cm slice and defined as BMC. Correlation coefficients (r) between BMC vs PA, RP, and U were .908 (P < .0001), .967 (P < .0001), and .565 (P < .0001), respectively; r values between BS vs PA, RP, and U were .406 (P < 05), .429 (P < .05), and .499 (P < .01), respectively, and r values between BL vs PA, RP, and U were .870 (P < .0001), .865 (P < .0001), and .588 (P < .001), respectively. These data indicate that noninvasive techniques are useful in predicting BMC and BL in the bovine

  7. Trace elements influence on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To compare trace elements (TE levels according to bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women. 27 elderly women (65.7 ± 3.96 years were evaluated. They were classified in two groups: high BMD (group 1 and low BMD (group 2. BMD was measured in DXA and TE were evaluated from hair sample. Higher levels of Ca, K, Na, Mo, B, Cu e Mg were found in group 1 (high BMD while Se and Pb were higher concentrated in group 2 (low BMD. The results suggest that the imbalance in the homeostasis of ET may be a risk factor for reduced BMD and higher Pb and Se concentrations can mark bone mass loss.

  8. Bio-inspired in situ crosslinking and mineralization of electrospun collagen scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Chetna; Ong, Seow Theng; Dwivedi, Neeraj; Diaz, Silvia Marrero; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Navaneethan, Balchandar; Fazil, Mobashar H U T; Liu, Shouping; Seitz, Vera; Wintermantel, Erich; Beuerman, Roger W; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Navin K; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani

    2016-10-01

    Bone disorders are the most common cause of severe long term pain and physical disability, and affect millions of people around the world. In the present study, we report bio-inspired preparation of bone-like composite structures by electrospinning of collagen containing catecholamines and Ca(2+). The presence of divalent cation induces simultaneous partial oxidative polymerization of catecholamines and crosslinking of collagen nanofibers, thus producing mats that are mechanically robust and confer photoluminescence properties. Subsequent mineralization of the mats by ammonium carbonate leads to complete oxidative polymerization of catecholamines and precipitation of amorphous CaCO3. The collagen composite scaffolds display outstanding mechanical properties with Young's modulus approaching the limits of cancellous bone. Biological studies demonstrate that human fetal osteoblasts seeded on to the composite scaffolds display enhanced cell adhesion, penetration, proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone matrix protein when compared to pristine collagen or tissue culture plates. Among the two catecholamines, mats containing norepinephrine displayed superior mechanical, photoluminescence and biological properties than mats loaded with dopamine. These smart multifunctional scaffolds could potentially be utilized to repair and regenerate bone defects and injuries. PMID:27475728

  9. Bone mineral density in young female Chinese dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, S; Hsu, H; Fong, Y; Chiu, C.; Kao, A.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate of the effect of dancing on bone mineral density (BMD) we compared 29 Chinese girls who had been receiving regular ballet training for at least 6 years with a control group of 20 nonathletic sex- and age-matched Chinese girls. BMD was measured at the second to fourth lumbar spine and at the right femoral neck using a commercial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA). There were no significant differences in either measured BMD or spinal BMD after adjusting for body weight (body m...

  10. Peri-acetabular bone mineral density in total hip replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, L.(University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Chicago, USA); Dinh, L.; Beaulé, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare peri-acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) between a monoblock acetabular component using a metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing and a modular titanium shell with a polyethylene (PE) insert. The secondary outcome was to measure patient-reported clinical function. Methods A total of 50 patients (25 per group) were randomised to MoM or metal-on-polyethlene (MoP). There were 27 women (11 MoM) and 23 men (14 MoM) with a mean age of 61.6 years (47.7 to 73.2). Measurement...

  11. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N; Wätjen, I; Bliddal, H; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator of...... osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  12. EFFECTS OF RUN TRAINING ON BONE DEVELOPMENT AND BONE MINERALIZATION IN GROWING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We planned to study the body weights, bone sizes and bone mineral (Ca, Mg, Zn contents of growing mice subjected to treadmill training. Twelve 4-week-old male Swiss Albino mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The mice were trained by running exercise on a flat bed treadmill with 15 m/min, 30 min/day motion, throughout 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The body weight of animals, and length, fat-free dry weight and Ca, Mg, and Zn contents of bones were measured in both groups. Body weights of animals, and lengths and wet and dry weights of the femur and the tibia were significantly higher in the exercised group. Also, the Zn, Mg and Ca mineral contents of bones in the group that underwent exercise were higher than in the other group. Running exercise with a flat bed treadmill performed by the growing mice is an effective exercise mode, especially for bone morphology.

  13. Photothermal tomography for the functional and structural evaluation, and early mineral loss monitoring in bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas; Wang, Xueding; Feng, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Salient features of a new non-ionizing bone diagnostics technique, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT), exhibiting optical-grade contrast and capable of resolving the trabecular network in three dimensions through the cortical region with and without a soft-tissue overlayer are presented. The absolute nature and early demineralization-detection capability of a marker called thermal wave occupation index, estimated using the proposed modality, have been established. Selective imaging of regions of a specific mineral density range has been demonstrated in a mouse femur. The method is maximum-permissible-exposure compatible. In a matrix of bone and soft-tissue a depth range of ~3.8 mm has been achieved, which can be increased through instrumental and modulation waveform optimization. Furthermore, photoacoustic microscopy, a comparable modality with TC-PCT, has been used to resolve the trabecular structure and for comparison with the photothermal tomography. PMID:25136480

  14. Physicomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of a demineralized bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Ratushnyak, A. S.; Chebodaeva, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the results of a study of physicomechanical properties of a demineralized bone matrix of human cancellous and compact bones. A demineralized cancellous bone was shown to have the best characteristics of a porous system for colonization of matrices by cells. The ultimate stress and elasticity modulus of samples of demineralized femoral heads isolated in primary hip replacement was demonstrated to vary in wide ranges. The elasticity modulus ranged from 50 to 250 MPa, and the tensile strength varied from 1.1 to 5.5 MPa. Microhardness measurements by the recovered indentation method were not possible because of the viscoelastic properties of a bone material. To study the piezoelectric properties of samples, a measuring system was developed that comprised a measuring chamber with contact electrodes, a system for controlled sample loading, an amplifier-converter unit, and signal recording and processing software. The measurement results were used to determine the dependence of the signal amplitude on the dynamic deformation characteristics. The findings are discussed in terms of the relationship between the mechanical and electrical properties and the structure of the organic bone component.

  15. Irradiation-sterilization of rat bone matrix gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone matrix gelatin induces bone formation in muscle, and when implanted orthotopically it improves bone repair. Co-60 sterilization of bone gelatin impairs the protein-bound induction mechanisms. Gelatin samples nonirradiated or irradiated by 25 or 50 kGy were implanted into a pouch in the abdominal wall of Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as into a 7-mm calvarial defect. Evaluation was done by histologic studies, histomorphometry of orthotopic implants, and determination of alkaline phosphatase in ectopic implants. Gelatin irradiated with 50 kGy was absorbed in the muscle bed without evidence of any specific host reaction Irradiation of 25 kGy led to histologically confirmed ectopic bone formation, but the wet weight of the explants was only half that of the nonirradiated control samples. Alkaline phosphatase activity was equal in both of these groups. With orthotopic implantation, neither a histologic nor a morphometric effect was seen with 25 kGy. Loss of osteoinduction with 25-kGy irradiation is apparently masked by osteoconductive mechanisms with orthotopic implantation. (author)

  16. Microscale Material Properties of Bone and the Mineralized Tissues of the Intervertebral Disc-Vertebral Body Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, Rachel C.

    The objective of this dissertation is to understand the influences of material structure on the properties, function and failure of biological connective tissues. Biological interfaces are becoming an increasingly studied system within mechanics and tissue engineering as a model for attaching dissimilar materials. The elastic modulus of bone (≈ 20 GPa) and cartilage (≈ 0.1-1 MPa) differ over orders of magnitude, which should intuitively create high stress concentrations and failure at the interface. Yet, these natural interface systems rarely fail in vivo, and the mechanism by which loads are transferred between tissues has not yet been established. Tissue quality is one major contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone and cartilage, and is defined by properties such as collagen orientation, mineral volume fraction, porosity and tissue geometry. These properties have yet to be established at the bone-cartilage interface in the spine, and the lack of quantitative data on material microstructure and behavior limits treatments and tissue engineering construct design. In this dissertation, second harmonic generation imaging, quantitative backscattered scanning electron imaging and nanoindentation are combined to characterize micrometer scale tissue quality and modulus in both bone and calcified cartilage. These techniques are utilized to: 1) determine the hierarchical micrometer to millimeter scale properties of lamellar bone, 2) quantify changes throughout development and aging at the human intervertebral disc-vertebral body junction, and 3) explore compressive fractures at this interface. This work is the first to provide quantitative data on the mineral volume fraction, collagen orientation and modulus from the same, undecalcified sections of tissue to corroborate tissue structure and mineralization and describe quantitative parameters of the interface. The principal findings from this work indicate that the underlying matrix, or collagen, organization in

  17. Solid thoron source preparation in a porous mineral matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoron and progeny are decay products of 232Th with a great impact on human health. The release of thoron gas from the mining and milling of thorite, monazite and other major thorium ores has been recognised as a potential radiological health hazard. For precise measurements, calibration is a very important factor. This paper describes a cheap and easy way of producing a stable thoron source made of thorium nitrate packed in a porous clay mineral matrix used as 220Rn generator. The source should have a small spherical shape and be fired at 600 deg. C; this will lead to a great pore volume, necessary for the thoron gas. High importance should be given to the water uptake. The exhalation power of 220Rn was measured using a Lucas scintillation cell. Experimental efficiency values obtained ranged between 0.16 and 1.44%. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of multi-scale mineralized collagen-polycaprolactone composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, D W; Erning, K; Flanagan, C L; Hollister, S J; Harley, B A C

    2016-08-01

    A particular challenge in biomaterial development for treating orthopedic injuries stems from the need to balance bioactive design criteria with the mechanical and geometric constraints governed by the physiological wound environment. Such trade-offs are of particular importance in large craniofacial bone defects which arise from both acute trauma and chronic conditions. Ongoing efforts in our laboratory have demonstrated a mineralized collagen biomaterial that can promote human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis in the absence of osteogenic media but that possesses suboptimal mechanical properties in regards to use in loaded wound sites. Here we demonstrate a multi-scale composite consisting of a highly bioactive mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold with micron-scale porosity and a polycaprolactone support frame (PCL) with millimeter-scale porosity. Fabrication of the composite was performed by impregnating the PCL support frame with the mineral scaffold precursor suspension prior to lyophilization. Here we evaluate the mechanical properties, permeability, and bioactivity of the resulting composite. Results indicated that the PCL support frame dominates the bulk mechanical response of the composite resulting in a 6000-fold increase in modulus compared to the mineral scaffold alone. Similarly, the incorporation of the mineral scaffold matrix into the composite resulted in a higher specific surface area compared to the PCL frame alone. The increased specific surface area in the collagen-PCL composite promoted increased initial attachment of porcine adipose derived stem cells versus the PCL construct. PMID:27104930

  19. Relationship of nutrient intakes and bone mineral density of elderly women in Daegu, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Park, Eun-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Ju

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrient intake and bone mineral density (BMD) of elderly women in Daegu, Korea. In this study, the bone mineral densities of 101 elderly women in Daegu were measured, and their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and maternal factors were determined through a survey. The subjects were divided into the normal group, the osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group to find out if there is a correlation between bone mineral density and ...

  20. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  1. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  2. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen; Zhuang, Caiping; Li, Lihua; Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-11-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. PMID:27523994

  3. Spinal Deformity, Dorsal Kyphosis and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kuran

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been show that spine deformity index is a better indicator of the functional capacity of the osteoporotic patient than the number of vertebral fractures. In order to investigate the relation between spinal deformity, dorsal kyphosis and the bone mineral density, we undertook the following study. In 40 postmenopausal women (age 59,1±7 spine deformity index (SDI was calculated by lateral roentgenograms of the dorsal and lumbar spine. 25 subjects at premenopausal age were also x-rayed to find the normal limits. Dorsal kyphosis (DK was measured by Cobb’s angle. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by DEXA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Student’s t-test were used as statistical analysis. The results show that there was a significant correlation between DK and SDI. BMD's at femoral neck and lumbar spine were not correlated with DK and SDI (p>0,05. In patients with 40 degrees. The difference was not significant. We conclude that as the spinal deformity increases, DK is expected to increase and BMD is expected to decrease.

  4. Multiple vibration intensities and frequencies for bone mineral density improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Bertram; Burns, Edith; Wilson, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Devices that deliver controlled quantum vibration intensities at multiple frequencies (QVIMF) provide optimal stress to the musculoskeletal system for improved bone mineral density and muscle strength. This paper presents development of a QVIMF system and pilot study to determine device performance. Development is centered on specially-designed actuators that comprise multiple nodes of controlled and smooth, but variable rates of contact on a telescoping platform through sets of damping subsystems. The combination of specially-designed actuators and damping subsystems, powered by a DC controlled motor, delivers quantum busts of vibration at multiple frequencies resulting in whole body vibration. An initial feasibility study involved a 79 year old adult male. After IRB approval from both the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and the Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, the subject's bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA) at baseline. The subject then visited the UWM laboratory for two fifteen-minute vibration sessions per visit, three times a week for a total of 60 visits. Post-vibration BMD was again measured by DXA. Comparison pre- and post-vibration test results showed increases in BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, forearm and lower lumbar spine (L1-4). PMID:19163635

  5. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  6. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm2(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Human dental pulp stem cells produce mineralized matrix in 2D and 3D cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riccio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in 2D cultures and 3D biomaterials. DPSCs, separated from dental pulp by enzymatic digestion, and isolated by magnetic cell sorting were differentiated toward osteogenic lineage on 2D surface by using an osteogenic medium. During the differentiation process, DPSCs express specific bone proteins like Runx-2, Osx, OPN and OCN with a sequential expression, analogous to those occurring during osteoblast differentiation, and produce extracellular calcium deposits. In order to differentiate cells in a 3D space that mimes the physiological environment, DPSCs were cultured in two distinct bioscaffolds, MatrigelTM and Collagen sponge. With the addition of a third dimension, osteogenic differentiation and mineralized extracellular matrix production significantly improved. In particular, in MatrigelTM DPSCs differentiated with osteoblast/osteocyte characteristics and connected by gap junction, and therefore formed calcified nodules with a 3D intercellular network. Furthermore, DPSCs differentiated in collagen sponge actively secrete human type I collagen micro-fibrils and form calcified matrix containing trabecular-like structures. These neo-formed DPSCs-scaffold devices may be used in regenerative surgical applications in order to resolve pathologies and traumas characterized by critical size bone defects.

  8. von Kossa staining alone is not sufficient to confirm that mineralization in vitro represents bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonewald, L F; Harris, S E; Rosser, J; Dallas, M R; Dallas, S L; Camacho, N P; Boyan, B; Boskey, A

    2003-05-01

    Numerous techniques are currently used to characterize biological mineralization in intact tissues and cell cultures; the von Kossa staining method, electron microscopic analysis (EM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are among the most common. In this study, we utilized three of these methods to compare the mineralization of cultured fetal rat calvarial cells (FRC) and the osteoblast cell lines 2T3 and MC3T3-E1 with the in vivo mineral of rat calvarial bone. The cells were cultured with or without ascorbic acid (100 microg/ml) and beta-glycerophosphate (2.5, 5, or 10 mM betaGP), and harvested between 16 and 21 days (FRC cells and 2T3 cells) or at 30 days of culture (MC3T3-E1 cells). In the FRC cultures, maximal von Kossa staining was observed with 2.5 and 5 mM betaGP in the presence of 100 microg/ml ascorbate. FRC cells also showed some von Kossa staining when cultured with bGP alone. In contrast, maximal von Kossa staining for MC3T3-E1 cells was observed with 10 mM betaGP. Only the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells that received both ascorbate and betaGP produced von Kossa positive structures. The 2T3 cultures produced von Kossa positive staining only upon treatment with ascorbic acid and betaGP, which was greatly accelerated by bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). FTIR was performed on the mineral and matrix generated in FRC, MC3T3, and 2T3 cultures, and the results were compared with spectra derived from 16-day-old rat calvaria. The mineral-to-matrix ratios calculated from FTIR spectra for rat calvaria ranged from 2.97 to 7.44. FRC cells made a bonelike, poorly crystalline apatite, and, with increasing betaGP, there was a statistically significant (Pmineral-to-matrix ratio (0.56 +/- 0.16, 1.00 +/- 0.32, and 2.46 +/- 0.76, for 2.5, 5, and 10 mM betaGP, respectively). The mean carbonate-to-phosphate ratios of the FRC cultures were 0.015, 0.012, and 0.008, in order of increasing bGP concentration, compared with rat calvaria values of 0

  9. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    produced from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants with a......Best Poster 5Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants AuthorsBabiker , H.; Ding M.; Overgaard S.InstitutionOrthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Clinical Institute, University of Southern......- and autograf as they have the capability of inducing new bone and improving implant fixation through enhancing bone ingrowth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DBM alone or with CB on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants.Material and MethodsDBM100 (pure DBM) and CB...

  10. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Jakobsen, Jette; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    VDR and ER genotype on the effect of the supplementation. Methods: The girls (n = 221) were randomized to receive either 5 mu g or 10 mu g vitamin D-3 supplementation per day or placebo for 12 months. Whole body and lumbar spine bone mass measured by DXA and pubertal status were determined at baseline...... density (BMD) (p = 0.007) and bone mineral content (BMC) (p = 0.048) in the FF VDR genotype but not in the Ff or ff VDR genotypes. Conclusion: Supplementation with vitamin D (5 or 10 mu g/day) over 12 months increased the S-25OHD concentration but there was no effect on indices of bone health in the...... entire group of girls. However, there was an effect on BMD for a subgroup with the FF VDR genotype indicating an influence of genotype....

  12. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality. PMID:24975215

  13. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss® has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter were formed in a white rabbit model and then implanted or not (controls with Bio-Oss® or BMP-2/Bio-Oss®. The Bio-Oss® and BMP-2/Bio-Oss® groups had significantly greater new bone areas (expressed as percentages of augmented areas than the non-implanted controls at four and eight weeks after surgery, and the BMP-2/Bio-Oss® group (16.50 ± 2.87 (n = 6 had significantly greater new bone areas than the Bio-Oss® group (9.43 ± 3.73 (n = 6 at four weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2 treated heparinized Bio-Oss® markedly enhances bone regeneration.

  14. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Yang, June-Jip; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bae, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss®) has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter) were formed in a white rabbit model and then implanted or not (controls) with Bio-Oss® or BMP-2/Bio-Oss®. The Bio-Oss® and BMP-2/Bio-Oss® groups had significantly greater new bone areas (expressed as percentages of augmented areas) than the non-implanted controls at four and eight weeks after surgery, and the BMP-2/Bio-Oss® group (16.50 ± 2.87 (n = 6)) had significantly greater new bone areas than the Bio-Oss® group (9.43 ± 3.73 (n = 6)) at four weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2 treated heparinized Bio-Oss® markedly enhances bone regeneration. PMID:26184187

  15. Bone mineral density and the relationship between lipid profile and bone mineral density in the rats administered juniperus communis linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship of Juniperus Communis Lynn. with the bone mineral density in the rats fed with a high cholesterol (1%) diet. Thirty five Wistar albino rats weighed approximately 250-300 were used in this study. The rats are divided in five groups of seven each. Groups I and II were administered 0.5 ml of 0.5% Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC), while Groups II, IV and V administered 0.5 ml of juniperus communis linn dissolved in 25, 50, 100 mg/kg. Group I and Group II were fed with normal pellets while the other four groups were fed with pellets containing 1% cholesterol. Levels of lipid profile and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were defined in all the groups. Furthermore, bone mineral density (B M D) of the animals were obtained with DEXA scanner. BMD values of the rats did not show a different among the groups. Significant negative correlations were determined between BMD measurements and LDL-C levels in all groups connected with dose of Juniperus Communis oil. However, this relationship was not linear. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidants in Bone Mineral Density of Iranian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Oveisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(s Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously renewed throughout life by the process of bone remodeling. Antioxidant system might be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC, vitamin C and vitamin E levels of plasma besides measuring enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR enzymes activity in Iranian osteoporotic women comparing to the control group.Materials and MethodsBone mineral density (BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The participants were divided into groups: a total participants (-3.9 ≤ T–score ≤ 3.6 including 192 women, b the control group (T-score ≥ -1 including 76 women, c the total patients (T-score < -1 including 76 women. Then, plasma TAC, vitamin C levels, SOD and GR activities, erythrocyte CAT were measured using spectrophotometrical methods separately, and for vitamin E by HPLC analysis.ResultsComparing the control group and osteoporotic women showed that: a plasma levels for vitamin C and erythrocyte CAT were markedly lower in the patients than in the controls, but plasma activity of TAC, SOD and GR were significantly higher, respectively. b the differences were higher between control and patients with severe disease (T-score <-1.7 comparing to patients in the group with milder disease (-1.7 ≤ T-score <-1. c Femoral neck BMD adjusted with age and BMI showed a positive and significant correlation with plasma levels of vitamin C in all subjects, but this relation was reverse or negative for TAC, SOD and GR.ConclusionIt seems that a physiologic increase in the amount of some antioxidants occurs in osteoporosis; even though this amount may not be sufficient for the human body requirements.

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  18. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation. PMID:25069021

  19. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  20. A clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome. (author)

  1. Bone mineral metabolism in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklingausen disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramala, Luigi; Giustini, Sandra; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Colangelo, Luciano; Cilenti, Giuseppina; Formicuccia, Maria Chiara; D'Erasmo, Emilio; Calvieri, Stefano; Letizia, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by specific cutaneous features (neurofibromas, "café-au-lait" spots of the skin) and alterations of several tissue (nervous, vascular) and bone deformities, such as scoliosis, congenital pseudoarthrosis and bone dysplasia of tibia. Moreover, several studies have shown systemic involvement of bone tissue in NF1 patients, leading to reduced bone mass. The aim of our study was to evaluate some bone mineral metabolism parameters before and after calcium and vitamin D supplementation in NF1 patients. We evaluated in 70 NF1 consecutive patients the mineral metabolism and bone mineral density compared with 40 normal subjects. We showed bone alterations in 35% of patients and the increase of bone formation markers, such as bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (41.2 ± 15.5 vs. 25.6 ± 8.7 UI; P 60%). Moreover, we revealed a significant reduction of bone mass density at spine (L1-L4) (0.935 ± 0.13 vs. 1.110 ± 0.17 g/cm(2); P mineral bone involvement, with vitamin D deficiency; calcium and vitamin D supplementation is necessary to restore these bone mineral metabolic alterations. PMID:22120694

  2. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  3. An investigation of bone mineral density changes with increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study bone mineral density changes rule with increasing age for improving reliability of diagnosis of osteoporosis. Method: BMD of forearm, femoral neck and lumbar spine of 313 healthy subjects was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry using (DXA), Sophos L-XRA. There were 162 males and 151 females (age range 20∼84 years). They were divided into ten year cohorts for analysis. Results: The ages of peak mass of BMD of forearm and lumbar spine were in 30∼39 age-group for both male and female. The peak values of femoral neck, ward's triangle were in 20∼29 age-group of both sexes, BMD declined with increasing age, except the 60∼69 age-group of lumbar spine and femoral neck in male. Conclusion: The lumbar spine measurement with lateral DXA can avoid some adverse influence of post-anterior DXA

  4. Measurement of vertebral bone mineral by CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of exp (-rho2l).107 was calculated from the averaged density rho (evaluated from averaged CT value) and mean radius l of the soft tissue surrounding the vertabral body. This value was found to well describe the beam hardening effect on the CT value of the vertebral body. We defined the exp (-rho2l).107 as ''Beam Hardening Index (for abbreviation, BHI)''. BHI's of patients were ranged from 10 to 1000, and the medium was about 100. Calibration curve for BHI of 100 can be satisfactorily used for almost all of the patients. Therefore, it becomes unnecessary to evaluate BHI for individual patient. For a patient whose bone mineral is extremely decreased, it is necessary to measure his BHI for selecting the most adequate calibration curve. (author)

  5. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium, p...

  6. Growth hormone therapy and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Van, Phillip L; Baron, Jeffrey; Reynolds, James C; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2004-10-01

    In a previous report, preliminary data showed a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in women with Turner syndrome that had been treated with GH compared with women with Turner syndrome that had not been treated. To clarify this point, we have investigated the effects of GH treatment at multiple sites in this case-control, cross-sectional study. There were 23 women per group, who were similar in age, height, body mass index, estrogen use, and ethnic makeup. Median age (range) at start and duration of GH treatment was 9 (3-17) and 5 (2-9) yr, respectively. GH-treated women had a slightly greater ( approximately 8%, P = 0.03) width of the radial shaft, but otherwise there were no significant differences between groups in bone dimensions or BMD at the distal radius, lumbar spine, or femoral neck. Furthermore, regression analysis in a linear model including independent variables of age, age at diagnosis, body mass index, presence of spontaneous puberty, and GH use confirmed that GH use did not contribute to variation in BMD. PMID:15472180

  7. Bone mineral density in adults with Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 ± 4.45 and 23.65 ± 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 ± 3.46 and 23.86 ± 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.)

  8. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  9. Selective Determinants of Low Bone Mineral Mass in Adult Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Trombetti; Laura Richert; François R. Herrmann; Thierry Chevalley; Jean-Daniel Graf; René Rizzoli

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relative effect of amenorrhea and insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) levels on cancellous and cortical bone density and size. We investigated 66 adult women with anorexia nervosa. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density was measured by DXA. We calculated bone mineral apparent density. Structural geometry of the spine and the hip was determined from DXA images. Weight and BMI, but not height, as well as bone mineral content and density, but not area and geom...

  10. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.Z., E-mail: pollacka@mail.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mumford, S.L. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wactawski-Wende, J. [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  11. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  12. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  13. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4± 11.0 y (1)v 57.6± 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 ± 0.08m (1) v 1.61 ± 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 ± 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg ± 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 ± 0.18g/cm2 (1) v 0.94± 0.21 g/cm2 (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 ± 0.16 g/cm2 v 0.76 ± 0.18 g/cm2 (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R2 = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R2 = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD

  14. Minimal invasive surgery for unicameral bone cyst using demineralized bone matrix: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hwan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various treatments for unicameral bone cyst have been proposed. Recent concern focuses on the effectiveness of closed methods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix as a graft material after intramedullary decompression for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts. Methods Between October 2008 and June 2010, twenty-five patients with a unicameral bone cyst were treated with intramedullary decompression followed by grafting of demineralized bone matrix. There were 21 males and 4 female patients with mean age of 11.1 years (range, 3–19 years. The proximal metaphysis of the humerus was affected in 12 patients, the proximal femur in five, the calcaneum in three, the distal femur in two, the tibia in two, and the radius in one. There were 17 active cysts and 8 latent cysts. Radiologic change was evaluated according to a modified Neer classification. Time to healing was defined as the period required achieving cortical thickening on the anteroposterior and lateral plain radiographs, as well as consolidation of the cyst. The patients were followed up for mean period of 23.9 months (range, 15–36 months. Results Nineteen of 25 cysts had completely consolidated after a single procedure. The mean time to healing was 6.6 months (range, 3–12 months. Four had incomplete healing radiographically but had no clinical symptom with enough cortical thickness to prevent fracture. None of these four cysts needed a second intervention until the last follow-up. Two of 25 patients required a second intervention because of cyst recurrence. All of the two had a radiographical healing of cyst after mean of 10 additional months of follow-up. Conclusions A minimal invasive technique including the injection of DBM could serve as an excellent treatment method for unicameral bone cysts.

  15. Hydrothermal preparation of analogous matrix minerals of CM carbonaceous chondrites from metal alloy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yiya; Jing, Yunhai

    2014-12-01

    A mineral assemblage that is analogous to the matrix minerals of CM carbonaceous chondrites was produced from an alloyed metal particle mixture of Fe, Mg, Al, Si, and Ni in reducing, basic and S2-containing hydrothermal environments. The elemental ratios of the alloyed metal particle mixture were adopted from reported matrix composition of the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The characteristic minerals of the synthetic mineral assemblage are cronstedtite, tochilinite and tochilinite-cronstedtite-intergrowth, other minerals include polyhedral serpentine, chrysotile-like phase, nanotube-like hollow structures, lizardite-like phase, brucite-like phase, etc. (not every mineral appears in a single sample, however, cronstedtite and tochilinite are two invariant minerals in the synthetic mineral assemblage). The dominant individual minerals in the synthetic mineral assemblage have remarkable similarity to the corresponding minerals of the matrix of CM carbonaceous chondrites in composition, morphology, structure, and crystallinity. Our experimental work indicates that matrix minerals of CM carbonaceous chondrites formed billions of years ago may be reproduced under laboratory conditions.

  16. Fluid flow increases mineralized matrix deposition in 3D perfusion culture of marrow stromal osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Gregory N.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; van den Dolder, Juliette; Sheffield, Tiffany L.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Jansen, John A.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Bone is a complex highly structured mechanically active 3D tissue composed of cellular and matrix elements. The true biological environment of a bone cell is thus derived from a dynamic interaction between responsively active cells experiencing mechanical forces and a continuously changing 3D matrix architecture. To investigate this phenomenon in vitro, marrow stromal osteoblasts were cultured on 3D scaffolds under flow perfusion with different rates of flow for an extended period to permit osteoblast differentiation and significant matrix production and mineralization. With all flow conditions, mineralized matrix production was dramatically increased over statically cultured constructs with the total calcium content of the cultured scaffolds increasing with increasing flow rate. Flow perfusion induced de novo tissue modeling with the formation of pore-like structures in the scaffolds and enhanced the distribution of cells and matrix throughout the scaffolds. These results represent reporting of the long-term effects of fluid flow on primary differentiating osteoblasts and indicate that fluid flow has far-reaching effects on osteoblast differentiation and phenotypic expression in vitro. Flow perfusion culture permits the generation and study of a 3D, actively modeled, mineralized matrix and can therefore be a valuable tool for both bone biology and tissue engineering.

  17. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... < 0.001) than at baseline, respectively. After 12 months, CTX-1 showed a main effect of 43% (P < 0.05). In R and C, BMD and BTM remained unchanged. In conclusion, 4 months of recreational football for elderly men had an osteogenic effect, which was further developed after 12 months, whereas resistance...

  18. Thrombospondin-1 regulates bone homeostasis through effects on bone matrix integrity and nitric oxide signaling in osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah R Amend; Uluckan, Ozge; Hurchla, Michelle; Leib, Daniel; Novack, Deborah Veis; Silva, Matthew; Frazier, William; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), an endogenous antiangiogenic, is a widely expressed secreted ligand with roles in migration, adhesion and proliferation and is a target for new therapeutics. While TSP1 is present in the bone matrix and several TSP1 receptors play roles in bone biology, the role of TSP1 in bone remodeling has not been fully elucidated. Bone turnover is characterized by coordinated activity of bone-forming osteoblasts (OB) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OC). TSP1−/− mice had increased...

  19. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  20. Osteocyte morphology in human tibiae of different bone pathologies with different bone mineral density--is there a role for mechanosensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, Ruud P; Nolte, Peter A; Vatsa, Aviral; Semeins, Cornelis M; Salmon, Philip L; Smit, Theo H; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2009-08-01

    Matrix strains due to external loading are different in bones of different pathologies with different bone mineral density (BMD), and are likely sensed by the osteocytes, the putative bone mechanosensors. The mechanosensitivity of osteocytes appears to be strongly influenced by their morphology. In this study, we explored the possibility that osteocyte morphology might play a role in various bone pathologies with different BMD. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and nano-CT were used to quantitatively determine 3D morphology and alignment of osteocytes and osteocyte lacunae in human proximal tibial bone with relatively low (osteopenic), medium (osteoarthritic), and high (osteopetrotic) BMD. Osteopenic osteocytes were relatively large and round (lengths 8.9:15.6:13.4 microm), osteopetrotic osteocytes were small and discoid shaped (lengths 5.5:11.1:10.8 microm), and osteoarthritic osteocytes were large and elongated (lengths 8.4:17.3:12.2 microm). Osteopenic osteocyte lacunae showed 3.5 fold larger volume and 2.2 fold larger surface area than osteoarthritic lacunae, whereas osteopetrotic lacunae were 1.9 fold larger and showed 1.5 fold larger surface area than osteoarthritic lacunae. Osteopetrotic osteocyte lacunae had lower alignment than osteopenic and osteoarthritic lacunae as indicated by their lower degree of anisotropy. The differences in 3D morphology of osteocytes and their lacunae in long bones of different pathologies with different BMD might reflect an adaptation to matrix strain due to different external loading conditions. Moreover, since direct mechanosensing of matrix strain likely occurs by the cell bodies, the differences in osteocyte morphology and their lacunae might indicate differences in osteocyte mechanosensitivity. The exact relationship between osteocyte morphology and bone architecture, however, is complex and deserves further study. PMID:19398046

  1. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens. PMID:18212376

  2. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Joe; Ganesh, Hosahithlu K; Acharya, Shrikrishna; Bandgar, Tushar R; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Karvat, Anjana; Bhatia, Shobna J; Shah, Samir; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, nine female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism (n = 37), hepatitis B (n = 25) and hepatitis C (n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level. PMID:19630107

  3. Automated, Foot-Bone Registration Using Subdivision-Embedded Atlases for Spatial Mapping of Bone Mineral Density

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu; Commean, Paul K.; Hildebolt, Charles; Sinacore, Dave; Prior, Fred; Carson, James P.; Kakadiaris, Ioannis,; Ju, Tao

    2012-01-01

    We present an atlas-based registration method for bones segmented from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans, with the goal of mapping their interior bone mineral densities (BMDs) volumetrically. We introduce a new type of deformable atlas, called subdivision-embedded atlas, which consists of a control grid represented as a tetrahedral subdivision mesh and a template bone surface embedded within the grid. Compared to a typical lattice-based deformation grid, the subdivision control gri...

  4. Efficacy of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry for Evaluation of Biomechanical Properties: Bone Mineral Density and Actual Bone Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sung Hwa; Lee, Joomi; Park, Il Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bone mineral density (BMD) is an important index in diagnosis of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases, prediction of fractures, and monitoring treatment. This study was to find a more feasible technique for prediction of osteoporotic fracture between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to reveal the actual change of bone strength when BMD was changed. Methods Ten of these 20 specimens were used as the demineralized group...

  5. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  6. Bone mineral density and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Eriko; Morakote, Nuntana; Chaovistsaree, Somsak; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of lifestyle on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 177 young women affiliated with Chiang Mai University hospital were enrolled. Firstly, questionnaires about their lifestyle and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) were examined. The measurement of BMD was assessed by Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Secondly, based on the measurement of BMD, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Low BMD group (L group: less than YAM-1.0SD) and a Normal BMD group (N group: more than YAM-1.0SD). L group (n=23) and N group (n=23) were examined using Osteocalcine (OC), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) as bone turnover markers, and serum Ca, 1,25-(OH)2Vitamin D, Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 (MK-4) as bone turnover related factors. Based on the results, the percentage of Low BMD group was 23.2%. Concerning lifestyle and BMD, the BMD of the low cheese intake group was 99.7± 17.0 and the BMD of the high cheese intake one was 110.0± 23.3 (pVitamin D between L and N groups (p<0.05). It was suggested that BMI, food and fracture experience might affect BMD level and suppression of bone formation might have contributed to the low BMD group among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. PMID:24854992

  7. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  8. Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Nuri; Inci, Ayca; Coban, Melahat; Ulman, Cevval; Kursat, Seyhun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum bone turnover markers (BTM) and bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We enrolled 83 patients with CKD, 41 (49.4%) males, 42 (50.6%) females, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23.90±12 (range=6.0-56.0). BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) (anteroposterior, L2 through L4), femoral neck (FN) and femoral trochanter (FT) were measured by DEXA. Biochemical BTM, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum specific alkaline phosphatase (serum AP), bone-specific AP (BSAP), plasma bicarbonate and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25hD) were used for the prediction of BMD loss. T score results of LS and FN were worse than FT. BMD levels were lower in females than in males (all palkaline phosphatase (AP) and BSAP was considered to be negative. No statistically significant association was found between BMD of all the measured skeletal sites and eGFR. Loss of BMD was identified mostly in females over ≥65 years of age and after menopause. Higher serum levels of BSAP and AP can be determined in the advanced stages of renal failure and they reflect fracture risk of the femur, but not spine. Measurements of BMD by DEXA are useful to demonstrate bone loss, but not technical enough to distinguish the quantity of bone loss between different stages of CKD. PMID:26969749

  9. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    The present paper was focused on the development of a new method of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) fabrication via a chemical treatment of a native bone tissue. Particular attention was paid to the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of native bones, sterility, and biological performance in vivo using the syngeneic heterotopic and orthotopic implantation models. The obtained data indicated that after a chemical decellularization treatment in 4% aqueous sodium chlorite, no noticeable signs of the erosion of compact cortical bone surface or destruction of trabeculae of spongy bone in spinal channel were observed. The histological studies showed that the chemical treatment resulted in the decellularization of both bone and cartilage tissues. The DECM samples demonstrated no signs of chemical and biological degradation in vivo. Thorough structural characterization revealed that after decellularization, the mineral frame retained its integrity with the organic phase; however clotting and destruction of organic molecules and fibers were observed. FTIR studies revealed several structural changes associated with the destruction of organic molecules, although all organic components typical of intact bone were preserved. The decellularization-induced structural changes in the collagen constituent resulted changed the deformation under compression mechanism: from the major fracture by crack propagation throughout the sample to the predominantly brittle fracture. Although the mechanical properties of radius bones subjected to decellularization were observed to degrade, the mechanical properties of ulna bones in compression and humerus bones in bending remained unchanged. The compressive strength of both the intact and decellularized ulna bones was 125-130 MPa and the flexural strength of humerus bones was 156 and 145 MPa for the intact and decellularized samples, respectively. These results open new avenues for the use of DECM samples as

  10. Human breast cancer cell-mediated bone collagen degradation requires plasminogen activation and matrix metalloproteinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Peter A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to the skeleton and induce extensive bone destruction. Cancer cells produce proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and the plasminogen activator system (PAS which promote invasion of extracellular matrices, but whether these proteinases degrade bone matrix is unclear. To characterize the role that breast cancer cell proteinases play in bone degradation we compared the effects of three human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF-7 with those of a normal breast epithelial cell line, HME. The cell lines were cultured atop radiolabelled matrices of either mineralized or non-mineralized bone or type I collagen, the principal organic constituent of bone. Results The 3 breast cancer cell lines all produced significant degradation of the 3 collagenous extracellular matrices (ECMs whilst the normal breast cell line was without effect. Breast cancer cells displayed an absolute requirement for serum to dissolve collagen. Degradation of collagen was abolished in plasminogen-depleted serum and could be restored by the addition of exogenous plasminogen. Localization of plasmin activity to the cell surface was critical for the degradation process as aprotinin, but not α2 antiplasmin, prevented collagen dissolution. During ECM degradation breast cancer cell lines expressed urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA and uPA receptor, and MMPs-1, -3, -9,-13, and -14. The normal breast epithelial cell line expressed low levels of MMPs-1, and -3, uPA and uPA receptor. Inhibitors of both the PAS (aprotinin and PA inhibitor-1 and MMPs (CT1166 and tisue inhibitor of metalloproteinase blocked collagen degradation, demonstrating the requirement of both plasminogen activation and MMP activity for degradation. The activation of MMP-13 in human breast cancer cells was prevented by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 but not by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, suggesting

  11. In Vitro Mineralization of an Osteoid-Like Dense Collagen Construct for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Benedetto

    The aim of this doctoral research was to design and evaluate strategies to rapidly achieve an acellular mineralization of an osteoid-like dense collagen gel for potential applications in bone regeneration. It was hypothesized that the collagen fibrillar density (CFD) affects the microenvironment and the physical properties of the framework of collagen gels. To test this hypothesis, and as a first objective, the mineralization of collagen gel sheets, rolls and strips with increasing CFDs was investigated in vitro in simulated body fluid (SBF). Collagen gels with physiologically relevant CFDs (14.1 wt%) led to greater extent of mineralization (12 dry wt% at day 14 in SBF), when compared to highly hydrated gels. Chemical characterization confirmed this mineral phase to be CHA, which significantly increased the gel apparent modulus and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Surprisingly, CFD also affected the electrostatic properties of collagen gel, as investigated by quantifying the extent of anionic and cationic dyes bound to collagen gels with different CFDs. It was therefore proposed that the increase in gel CFD led to a more physiological microenvironment, resulting in a higher number of fibril-to-fibril contact points and an increase in charge concentration, which facilitated the mineral formation and validated the proposed osteoid model. As a second objective, the mineralization of dense collagen (DC) gels with physiologically relevant CFD (14.1 wt%) was enhanced and accelerated by mimicking the role of anionic non collagenous proteins (NCPs) in the native osteoid, which act as CHA nucleators. Two strategies were implemented: first, the influence of collagen fibrillization pH on the extent of DC gel mineralization was investigated. Since the collagen molecule is slightly positively charged at physiological pH (isoelectric point at pH 7.8), it was hypothesized that it would be more negatively charged if formed in an alkaline environment, i.e., above its isoelectric

  12. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  13. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  14. A Comparative Study of Quantitative Assessment of Bone Mineral Density of Mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to compare the bone mineral densities measured at mandibular premolar area by copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom with those measured at radius by dual energy absorptiometry and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Digital system with slide scanner, copper-equivalent image, and hydroxyapatite phantom. For experiment, intraoral radiograms of 15 normal subjects ranged from 20 years old to 67 old were taken with copper-step wedge at mandibular premolar area and bone mineral densities calculated by conversion equation to bone mineral density of hydroxyapatite were compared with those measured at radius distal 1/3 area by Hologic QDR-1000. Obtained results as follows: 1) The conversion equation was Y=5.97X-0.25 and its determination coefficient was 0.9967. The coefficient of variation in the measurement of copper-equivalent value ranged from 4% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 2) The coefficient of variation in the measurement of bone mineral density by the equation ranged from 7% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 3) The bone mineral densities ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 g/cm2 at mandibular premolar area. 4) The correlation coefficient between bone mineral densities at mandibular premolar area and those at radius distal 1/3 area was 0.8965. As summary, digital image analyzing system using copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom appeared to be clinically useful to measure the bone mineral density at dental area.

  15. Azanitrile Cathepsin K Inhibitors: Effects on Cell Toxicity, Osteoblast-Induced Mineralization and Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yuan Ren

    Full Text Available The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK, abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is responsible for the degradation of bone matrix proteins, including collagen type 1. Thus, CatK is an attractive target for new anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapies, but the wider effects of CatK inhibitors on bone cells also need to be evaluated to assess their effects on bone. Therefore, we selected, among a series of synthetized isothiosemicarbazides, two molecules which are highly selective CatK inhibitors (CKIs to test their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.Cell viability upon treatment of CKIs were was assayed on human osteoblast-like Saos-2, mouse monocyte cell line RAW 264.7 and mature mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow. Osteoblast-induced mineralization in Saos-2 cells and in mouse primary osteoblasts from calvaria, with or without CKIs,; were was monitored by Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, while osteoclast-induced bone resorption was performed on bovine slices.Treatments with two CKIs, CKI-8 and CKI-13 in human osteoblast-like Saos-2, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with RANKL and mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow stimulated with RANKL and MCSF were found not to be toxic at doses of up to 100 nM. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, CKI-8 did not inhibit osteoblast-induced mineralization in mouse primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. However, CKI-13 led to a reduction in mineralization of around 40% at 10-100 nM concentrations in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells while it did not in primary cells. After a 48-hour incubation, both CKI-8 and CKI-13 decreased bone resorption on bovine bone slices. CKI-13 was more efficient than the commercial inhibitor E-64 in inhibiting bone resorption induced by osteoclasts on bovine bone slices. Both CKI-8 and CKI-13 created smaller bone resorption pits on bovine bone slices, suggesting that the mobility of osteoclasts was slowed

  16. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  17. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  18. Phantom studies of triple photon absorptiometry and bone mineral measurement at a hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using triple photon absorptiometry (TPA) for the measurement of bone mineral mass about a hip prosthesis was examined. A theoretical expression describing the variance of TPA measurements was verified using a triple photon source and phantom materials which simulate the soft tissue-bone mineral-metal prosthesis system. The expression for the variance was used to determine an optimized set of photon energies. It was shown that a precision of 3% could be obtained for reasonable measurement times using this optimized set of energies and that TPA should be a feasible approach for measurement of bone mineral about a hip prosthesis. (orig.)

  19. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Fol...

  20. Familial aggregation of forearm bone mineral density in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern and its prevalence can be predicted based on forearm bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to investigate the familial aggregation of forearm BMD in a population-based, cross-sectional study in Anhui, China. Information on sociodemographic and environmental variables was obtained from 1,636 subjects from 409 nuclear families (including mother, father, and their first two children) by a standardized questionnaire. The forearm BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA). Using generalized additive models with a sequential adjustment for covariates, it was clearly indicated that the forearm BMD of the mother, the father, and the first sibling each had a significant and independent relation to the forearm BMD of the second sibling. Furthermore, using multiple logistic regression, the second sibling had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.3 (95%CI: 2.0-14.5) of having an extremely low (bottom 10th percentile) proximal forearm BMD and an OR of 4.3 (95%CI: 1.6-12.0) of having an extremely low distal forearm BMD when the parental mean forearm BMD was low and the first sibling's forearm BMD was low. Our findings showing strong familial aggregation of both proximal and distal forearm BMD values suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in determining both traits

  1. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  2. The Construction and Investigation of PLGA Artificial Bone by Biomimetic Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHENG Qixin; WANG Jinguang; WANG yuntao; HAO Jie

    2005-01-01

    To modify the surface property of poly lactide co-glycolide (PLGA) by biomimetic mineralization to construct a new kind of artificial bone. PLGA films and 3 diamensional (3-D) porous scaffolds hydrolyzed in alkaline solution were minerilized in SBF for 14 days. The morphology and composition of the mineral grown on PLGA were analyzed with SEM, FTIR and XRD. The porosity of the scaffolds was detected by using the liquid displacement method. The compressive strength of the scaffolds was detected by using a Shimadzu universal mechanic tester. An obvious mineral coating was detected on the surface of films and scaffolds. The main component of the mineral was carbonated hydroxyapatite (HA) similar to the major mineral component of bone tissues. The porosity of the un-mineralized and mineralized porous scaffolds was (84.86±8.52) % and (79.70±7.70) % respectively. The compressive strength was 0. 784±0. 156 N/mm2 in un-mineralized 3-D porous PLGA and 0. 858±0. 145 N/mm2 in mineralized 3-D porous PLGA. There were no significant differences between the mineralized and un-mineralized scaffolds (P>0. 05) in porosity and biomechanics. Biomimetic mineralization is a suitable method to construct artificial bone.

  3. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16...

  4. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  5. Increased calcium content and inhomogeneity of mineralization render bone toughness in osteoporosis: mineralization, morphology and biomechanics of human single trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Soltau, Markus; Zustin, Jozef; Püschel, Klaus; Duda, Georg N; Amling, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The differentiation and degree of the effects of mineral content and/or morphology on bone quality remain, to a large extent, unanswered due to several microarchitectural particularities in spatial measuring fields (e.g., force transfer, trajectories, microcalli). Therefore, as the smallest basic component of cancellous bone, we focused on single trabeculae to investigate the effects of mineralization and structure, both independently and in superposition. Transiliac Bordier bone cores and T12 vertebrae were obtained from 20 females at autopsy for specimen preparation, enabling radiographical analyses, histomorphometry, Bone Mineral Density Distribution (BMDD) analyses, and trabecular singularization to be performed. Evaluated contact X-rays and histomorphometric limits from cases with osteoporotic vertebral fractures generated two subdivisions, osteoporotic (n=12, Ø 78 years) and non-osteoporotic (n=8, Ø 49 years) cases, based on fracture appearance and bone volume (BV/TV). Measurements of trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) and eroded surface (ES/BS) were carried out to provide detailed structural properties of the investigated groups. The mechanical properties of 400 rod-like single vertebral trabeculae, assessed by three-point bending, were matched with mineral properties as quantified by BMDD analyses of cross-sectioned rod-like and plate-like trabeculae, both in superposition and independently. Non-osteoporotic iliac crests and vertebrae displayed linear dependency on structure parameters, whereas osteoporotic compartments proved to be non-correlated with bone structure. Independent of trabecular thickness, osteoporotic rod-like trabeculae showed decreases in Young's modulus, fracture load, yield strength, ultimate stress, work to failure and bending stiffness, along with significantly increased mean calcium content and calcium width. Non-osteoporotic trabeculae

  6. Air pollution and genetic influences on bone mineral density and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana CEVEI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density, disrupted bone microarchitecture and alterations in the amount and variety of proteins in bones. Bone turnover is a very complex process, depending on genetic and non genetic factors, such as diet, lifestyle or air pollution. The aim of the study was to explore genetic and environmental risk factors that contribute to osteoporosis by quantifying several factors related to bone mineral density. We assessed family history, vitamin D status, bone mineral density in subjects seeking advice on osteoporosis. Air pollution data were also obtained. Average concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter PM10 were calculated. Due to their synergistic effect on the organism the maximum permissible concentration calculated for all air pollutants was exceeded. In our study total body bone mineral density was inversely associated with indicators of air pollution. The prevalence of vitamin D depletion was 64.76%. Genetic contribution to the etiology of osteoporosis was revealed by the positive family history for 36% affected subjects. Air pollution and vitamin D deficiency have a negative impact on bone mineral homeostasis.

  7. Demineralized Bone Matrix, as a Graft Enhancer of Auto-Local Bone in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Dong Ki; Moon, Sang Ho; Kim, Tae Woo; Boo, Kyung Hwan; Hong, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A case controlled study with prospective data collection. Purpose To evaluate the early influence and the final consequence of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) on auto-local bone as a graft enhancer in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Overview of Literature DBM is known as an osteoinductive material; however, it has not been clearly recognized to enhance auto-local bone with a small amount. Methods Patients who had a PLIF were allocated into two groups. Group I (70 cases)...

  8. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  9. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rohold, A; Henriksen, J E;

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin...

  10. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  11. Osteomimicry of mammary adenocarcinoma cells in vitro; increased expression of bone matrix proteins and proliferation within a 3D collagen environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Cox

    Full Text Available Bone is the most common site of metastasis for breast cancer, however the reasons for this remain unclear. We hypothesise that under certain conditions mammary cells possess osteomimetic capabilities that may allow them to adapt to, and flourish within, the bone microenvironment. Mammary cells are known to calcify within breast tissue and we have recently reported a novel in vitro model of mammary mineralization using murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1 cells. In this study, the osteomimetic properties of the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line and the conditions required to induce mineralization were characterized extensively. It was found that exogenous organic phosphate and inorganic phosphate induce mineralization in a dose dependent manner in 4T1 cells. Ascorbic acid and dexamethasone alone have no effect. 4T1 cells also show enhanced mineralization in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the presence of phosphate supplemented media. The expression of several bone matrix proteins were monitored throughout the process of mineralization and increased expression of collagen type 1 and bone sialoprotein were detected, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we have shown for the first time that 3D collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds, bioengineered to represent the bone microenvironment, are capable of supporting the growth and mineralization of 4T1 adenocarcinoma cells. These 3D scaffolds represent a novel model system for the study of mammary mineralization and bone metastasis. This work demonstrates that mammary cells are capable of osteomimicry, which may ultimately contribute to their ability to preferentially metastasize to, survive within and colonize the bone microenvironment.

  12. Giemsa as a fluorescent dye for mineralizing bone-like nodules in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giemsa was first used as a fluorescent dye for mineralized bone and cartilage in tissue sections. The aim of this study was to establish the use of Giemsa as a fluorescent dye for mineralizing bone-like nodules produced in cell cultures. Osteoblasts were grown under mineralizing conditions for 14 days, producing typical bone-like nodules. Upon staining with Giemsa stock solution for 1 min, the mineralizing nodules could be selectively visualized emitting intense green and red fluorescence when observed under blue and green illumination, respectively. The textural details of the nodules were clearly observed under fluorescence microscopy, allowing to identify regions with different degrees of mineralization. The mineralized nature of the nodules was confirmed using von Kossa's method, Alizarin Red S staining and x-ray mapping for Ca and P in a scanning electron microscope, showing a strong correlation between the mineralizing and the fluorescent nodules. The selective fluorescence was related to the mineral phase, being absent in decalcified samples. The use of Giemsa as a fluorescent dye for mineralizing bone-like nodules presents a simple alternative method to quickly analyze biomineralization assays in vitro under fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the biological evaluation of biomaterials. (communication)

  13. Concentration dependence of fluorine impurity spin-lattice relaxation rate in bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration dependence of the fluoride ion spin-lattice relaxation rate has been observed by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on samples of defatted and dried bone. The 19F spin-lattice relaxation rates increased linearly with bone fluoride concentration. Different results were obtained from trabecular than from cortical bone. For the same macroscopic fluoride content per gram of bone calcium, relaxation rate is significantly faster in cortical bone. Relaxation rates in cortical bone samples prepared from rats and dogs were apparently controlled by the same species-independent processes. For samples from beagle dogs, bulk fluoride concentrations measured by neutron activation analysis were 3.1±0.3 times greater in trabecular bone than in corresponding cortical bone. The beagle spin-lattice relaxation data suggest that microscopic fluoride concentrations in bone mineral were 1.8±0.4 times greater in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. It is concluded that accumulation of fluoride impurities in bone mineral is non-uniform. (author)

  14. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measure...

  15. Lower bone mineral density in Somali women living in Sweden compared with African–Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Demeke, Taye; El-Gawad, Gamal Abd; Osmancevic, Amra; Gillstedt, Martin; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia. Bone mineral density was lower in Somali women, living in Sweden, in relation to both the American and the African–American reference populations. The majority, 73 %, had vitamin D deficiency, and supplementation should be considered to prevent from osteomalacia, osteoporosis and future fractures. Purpose Low vitamin D can lead to osteomalacia. The hypothesis was that bone mineral density (BMD) in Somali women living in Sweden was lower i...

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  17. Tantalum coating on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Christine J.; Brammer, Karla S. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Noh, Kunbae [Corporate Research Institute, Cheil Industries, Inc., Gocheon-Dong, Uiwang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 437-711 (Korea, Republic of); Johnston, Gary [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Jin, Sungho, E-mail: jin@ucsd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ∼ 30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. - Highlights: • A TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface structure was coated with tantalum. • Osteoblast cell response was compared between the tantalum coated and as-formed TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface. • We observed superior rates of bone matrix mineralization and osteoblast maturation on the tantalum coated nanotube surface.

  18. Tantalum coating on TiO2 nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO2) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ∼ 30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO2 nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. - Highlights: • A TiO2 nanotube surface structure was coated with tantalum. • Osteoblast cell response was compared between the tantalum coated and as-formed TiO2 nanotube surface. • We observed superior rates of bone matrix mineralization and osteoblast maturation on the tantalum coated nanotube surface

  19. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Sperling; Harikrashna Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a...

  20. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Sperling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients.

  1. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott; Bhatt, Harikrashna

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  2. Relationship between chronological and bone ages and pubertal stage of breasts with bone biomarkers and bone mineral density in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study bone mineral density (BMD in adolescent females according to five groups of chronological age (CA, bone age (BA, and breast development stage (B, and to correlate these parameters with plasma bone biomarkers (BB. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in 101 healthy adolescent females between 10 and 20 years old. The study variables were: weight, height, body mass index (BMI, CA, B, BA, calcium intake, BMD, and BB. Osteocalcin (OC, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, and C-terminal telopeptide (S-CTx were evaluated for BB. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. RESULTS: BMD in lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total body increased with age, and the respective observed averages were: in CA1 (10 years old, 0.631, 0.692, 0.798 g/cm2; in CA2 (11 to 12 years old, 0.698, 0.763, 0.840 g/cm2; in CA3 (13 to 14 years old, 0.865, 0.889, 0.972 g/cm2; in CA4 (15 to 16 years old, 0.902, 0.922, 1.013 g/cm2; and in CA5 (17 to 19 years old, 0.944, 0.929, 1.35 g/cm2. These results showed significant differences between 13 and 14 years of age (CA3 or when girls reached the B3 stage (0.709, 0.832, 0.867 g/cm2. The highest median concentrations of BB were between 10 and 12 years of age when adolescents were in the B2-B3 (p < 0.001. Median BB concentrations decreased in advanced BA and B. CONCLUSIONS: BB concentrations were positively correlated with the peak height velocity and negatively correlated with BMD in the study sites. Increased BMD and BB concentrations were observed in B3.

  3. Bone fragility induced by X-ray irradiation in relation to cortical bone-mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyaruba, M.M.; Yamamoto, I.; Morita, R. [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Kimura, H. [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science (Japan). Dept. of Experimental Radiology

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fractional irradiation on the biomechanical properties of bone in the rat in relation to the cortical bone-mineral content (BMC), and to compare these effects with those brought about by single-dose irradiation. Seventy-five veteran female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was the control group. The left tibiae of the remaining rats were exposed to irradiation. Group 2 received one single dose of X-rays at 10-60 Gy. Groups 3 and 4 received fractional irradiation up to different cumulative doses (10-60 Gy): group 3 received 2.5 Gy once a day; group 4 received 1.25 Gy twice a day. Twenty-four weeks after irradiation, the rats were killed and the BMC in each tibial diaphysis was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The bones were then loaded to failure in a three-point bending test. The control group showed no difference (p>0.05) between left and right tibiae, neither in BMC nor in the maximum load at fracture. Single-dose irradiation caused a 16% (p=0.0366) decrease in the maximum load at 40 Gy, and a 19% (p=0.008) decrease at 60 Gy. The once-daily fractional dose of irradiation caused a 10% (p=0.0022) decrease in the maximum load of the irradiated tibiae at 60 Gy when compared to the intact contralateral tibiae. The twice-daily fractional dose of irradiation had no observable effect on the maximum load of the irradiated tibiae. Neither fractional irradiation modality had an effect on BMC. (orig./MG).

  4. High-acceleration whole body vibration stimulates cortical bone accrual and increases bone mineral content in growing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyubkin, Vasily; Guignandon, Alain; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Malaval, Luc; Vico, Laurence

    2016-06-14

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a promising tool for counteracting bone loss. Most WBV studies on animals have been performed at acceleration vibration at 90Hz and 2g peak acceleration for 15min/day, 5 days/week. We examined the effects on skeletal tissues with micro-computed tomography and histology. We also quantified bone vascularization and mechanosensitive osteocyte proteins, sclerostin and DMP1. Three weeks of WBV resulted in an increase of femur cortical thickness (+5%) and area (+6%), associated with a 25% decrease of sclerostin expression, and 35% increase of DMP1 expression in cortical osteocytes. Mass-structural parameters of trabecular bone were unaltered in femur or vertebra, while osteoclastic parameters and bone formation rate were increased at both sites. Three weeks of WBV resulted in higher blood vessel numbers (+23%) in the distal femoral metaphysis. After 9-week WBV, we have not observed the difference in structural cortical or trabecular parameters. However, the tissue mineral density of cortical bone was increased by 2.5%. Three or nine weeks of 2g/90Hz WBV treatment did not affect longitudinal growth rate or body weight increase under our experimental conditions, indicating that these are safe to use. These results validate a potential of 2g/90Hz WBV to stimulate trabecular bone cellular activity, accelerate cortical bone growth, and increase bone mineral density. PMID:27178020

  5. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic. PMID:24755526

  6. The role of water and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding on microdamage progression in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiaodu; Zhou, Yanheng; Rong, Qiguo

    2014-02-01

    Microdamage would be accumulated in bone due to high-intensity training or even normal daily activity, which may consequently cause fragility fracture or stress fracture. On the other hand, microdamage formation serves as a toughening mechanism in bone. However, the mechanisms that control microdamage initiation and accumulation in bone are still poorly understood. Our previous finite element model indicated that different interfacial properties between mineral and collagen in bone may lead to distinct patterns of microdamage accumulation. Therefore, the current study was designed to examine such prediction and to investigate the role of water and mineral-collagen interactions on microdamage accumulation in bone. To address these issues, 48 mice femurs were divided randomly into four groups. These groups were dehydrated or treated with perfluorotripropylamine (PFTA) or NaF solution to change water distribution and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding in bone. After three-point bending fatigue tests, the types of microdamage (i.e., linear microcracks or diffuse damage) formed in bone were compared between different groups. The results suggested that (1) bone tissues with strong mineral-collagen interfacial bonding facilitate the formation of linear microcraks, and (2) water has little contribution to the growth of microcracks. PMID:24122969

  7. The correlation between mineralization degree and bone tissue stiffness in the porcine mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M.B.K. Willems; L. Mulder; J.M.J. den Toonder; A. Zentner; G.E.J. Langenbach

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the local tissue mineral density (TMD) with the bone tissue stiffness. It was hypothesized that these variables are positively correlated. Cancellous and cortical bone samples were derived from ten mandibular condyles taken from 5 young and 5 adult female pigs.

  8. Application of new optical coherence elastography to monitor the mineralization processing in bone tissue engineering constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guangying; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Yang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Generation of functional tissue in vitro through tissue engineering technique is a promising direction to repair and replace malfunctioned organ and tissue in the modern medicine for various diseases which could not been treated well by conventional therapy. Similar to the embryo development, the generation of tissue in vitro is a highly dynamic processing. Obtaining the feedback of the processing real time is highly demanded. In this study, a new methodology has been explored aiming to monitor the morphological and mechanical property alteration of bone tissue engineering constructs simultaneously. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) equipped with a LDS V201 permanent magnet shaker and a modulated acoustic radiation force (ARF) to provide a vibration signal, has been used for the real time and non-destructive monitoring. A phantom construct system has been used to optimize the measurement conditions in which agar hydrogel with concentration from 0, 0.75 to 2% with/without hydroxyappatite particles have been injected to 3D porous poly (lactic acid) scaffolds to simulate the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and mineralized ECM. The structural and elastography images of the constructs have clearly demonstrated the linear relation with the increased mechanical property versus the increase of agar concentration within the pores of the scaffolds. The MG63 bone cells seeded in the scaffolds and cultured for 4 weeks have been monitored by the established protocol exhibiting the increased mechanical strength in the pore wall where the ECM or mineralized ECM was assumed to be formed in comparison to empty pores. This study confirms that OCE-ARF could become a valuable tool in regenerative medicine to assess the biological events during in vitro culture and conditioning.

  9. Short-Term Effects of TNF Inhibitors on Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Giovanni; Adami, Giovanni; Adami, Silvano; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Gatti, Davide; Rossini, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    TNFα inhibitors (TNFαI) exert positive effects on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Bone involvement is a major determinant of functional impairment in this disease. Here we investigated the short-term effects of TNFαI therapy on bone metabolism and density. We studied 54 patients with RA starting a TNFαI biologic drug, in whom any factor known to interfere with bone metabolism was excluded or rigorously accounted for. We measured at baseline and after 6-month therapy bone turnover markers: N-propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP), and bone alkaline phosphates for bone formation and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) for bone resorption. We also evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and lumbar by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All bone markers rose significantly and these changes were not dependent on steroid dosage. A significant decrease in femoral neck BMD was also observed. These results indicate that TNFαI therapy in RA over 6 months is associated with an early increase in bone turnover and a decline in hip BMD. PMID:26887973

  10. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  11. The Effect of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on Saos-2 Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Khojasteh, Arash; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Eslami, Mohammad; Motahhary, Pourya; Morad, Golnaz; Shidfar, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) is a xenogenic bone substitute, widely used in maxillofacial bone regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate its influence on the growth behavior of human osteosarcoma cell line, Saos-2 culture, and compare it with the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone, an inductive factor for osteoblasts. Materials and Methods Human osteosarcoma cells, Saos-2, were cultured on Bio-Oss and their growth rate was compared to Saos-2 cu...

  12. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45Ca content and 45Ca/dry and 45Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  13. Bone Quality: The Mechanical Effects of Microarchitecture and Matrix Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Judd

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this body of work we have examined some of the current concepts pertaining to the relation between bone mass, bone quality and the mechanical properties of bone. In our first series of studies we used a model of human osteoarthritis to investigate the implications of changes in the effective tissue modulus. Having established that the material properties of the trabecular bone were altered in the earliest stages of osteoarthritis, we then investigated a possible cause, namely th...

  14. Effect of underground working on vitamin D levels and bone mineral densities in coal miners: a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Mungan, A.G.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U.; Guven, B.; Begendik, F. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of underground working on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) values in coal miners. Fifty coal miners working underground and 50 surface workers as controls, matched for age and body mass index, from Zonguldak, Turkey, were recruited to the study. Levels of 25-OHD, biochemical bone markers, and lumbar spine and femur BMD values were measured in all study participants. Lumbar spine and femur BMD values were significantly higher in underground workers compared with surface workers, but there was no significant difference in 25-OHD levels between the two groups. Duration of underground working, age, 25-OHD levels, cigarette consumption and dietary calcium intake were not correlated with BMD values. Underground physical working does not seem to be a significant risk factor for low 25-OHD levels or low BMD values.

  15. Observation of the bone mineral density of newly formed bone using rabbits. Compared with newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required. The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping (3Dmap), and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants. The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants (Ti-6Al-4V alloy: 3.1 mm in diameter and 30.0 mm in length) by grit-blasting. They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (16 weeks old, male). The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. We measured BMD of newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone using Micro-CT, and the BMD distribution map of 3Dmap (TRI/3D Bon BMD, Ratoc System Engineering). The BMD of cortical bone was 1,026.3±44.3 mg/cm3 at 4 weeks, 1,023.8±40.9 mg/cm3 at 8 weeks, 1,048.2±45.6 mg/cm3 at 16 weeks, 1,067.2±60.2 mg/cm3 at 24 weeks, and 1,069.3±50.7 mg/cm3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a non-significant increase each period. The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was 296.8±25.6 mg/cm3 at 4 weeks, 525.0±72.4 mg/cm3 at 8 weeks, 691.2±26.0 mg/cm3 at 16 weeks, 776.9±27.7 mg/cm3 at 24 weeks, and 845.2±23.1 mg/cm3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a significant increase after each period. It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it

  16. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  17. Odanacatib in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: a review of current clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Cristiano A F; McClung, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Human bones are in a continuous process of remodeling that ensures renovation and maintenance of the skeletal mass. Bone remodeling has two phases that are normally coupled and balanced: bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts and bone formation mediated by osteoblasts. An increase in bone resorption over bone formation results in a progressive loss of bone mass and impairment of bone microarchitecture leading to osteoporosis and its associated fractures. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the remodeling process have allowed the development of new targets for osteoporosis treatment. Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease, is found in osteoclasts along the bone resorption surfaces and very efficiently degrades type I collagen, the major component of the organic bone matrix. Inhibition of cathepsin K reduces bone resorption but does not impair bone formation particularly at cortical sites. Odanacatib, a potent and highly selective cathepsin K inhibitor, showed prevention of bone loss without reduction of bone formation in preclinical and clinical trials (phase I and II). Odanacatib is currently in a phase III fracture outcome international trial for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23904864

  18. Osteopenia of Prematurity: Does Physical Activity Improve Bone Mineralization in Preterm Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnaker, Kelsey A; Poskey, Gail A

    2016-01-01

    Bone mineralization of preterm infants is significantly less than full-term infants at birth, placing preterm infants at risk for osteopenia of prematurity and other metabolic bone diseases. Advances in nutritional supplementation and standard nursing care alone have been unsuccessful in improving bone mineralization postnatally. Research supports a daily physical activity protocol of passive range of motion and gentle joint compression when combined with adequate nutritional supplementation reduces osteopenia of prematurity. This article provides a systematic review of the current evidence surrounding early physical activity and neonatal massage for the treatment of osteopenia and indicates the need for universal handling protocols in caring for this unique population. PMID:27052984

  19. Bone mineral properties in growing Col1a2(+/G610C) mice, an animal model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Marco; Wang, Min; Imbert, Laurianne; Barnes, Aileen M; Spevak, Lyudmila; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Huang, Yihe; Ma, Yan; Marini, Joan C; Jacobsen, Christina M; Warman, Matthew L; Boskey, Adele L

    2016-06-01

    The Col1a2(+/G610C) knock-in mouse, models osteogenesis imperfecta in a large old order Amish family (OOA) with type IV OI, caused by a G-to-T transversion at nucleotide 2098, which alters the gly-610 codon in the triple-helical domain of the α2(I) chain of type I collagen. Mineral and matrix properties of the long bones and vertebrae of male Col1a2(+/G610C) and their wild-type controls (Col1a2(+/+)), were characterized to gain insight into the role of α2-chain collagen mutations in mineralization. Additionally, we examined the rescuability of the composition by sclerostin inhibition initiated by crossing Col1a2(+/G610C) with an LRP(+/A214V) high bone mass allele. At age 10-days, vertebrae and tibia showed few alterations by micro-CT or Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). At 2-months-of-age, Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias had 13% fewer secondary trabeculae than Col1a2(+/+), these were thinner (11%) and more widely spaced (20%) than those of Col1a2(+/+) mice. Vertebrae of Col1a2(+/G610C) mice at 2-months also had lower bone volume fraction (38%), trabecular number (13%), thickness (13%) and connectivity density (32%) compared to Col1(a2+/+). The cortical bone of Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias at 2-months had 3% higher tissue mineral density compared to Col1a2(+/+); Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebrae had lower cortical thickness (29%), bone area (37%) and polar moment of inertia (38%) relative to Col1a2(+/+). FTIRI analysis, which provides information on bone chemical composition at ~7μm-spatial resolution, showed tibias at 10-days did not differ between genotypes. Comparing identical bone types in Col1a2(+/G610C) to Col1a2(+/+) at 2-months-of-age, tibias showed higher mineral-to-matrix ratio in trabeculae (17%) and cortices (31%). and in vertebral cortices (28%). Collagen maturity was 42% higher at 10-days-of-age in Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebral trabeculae and in 2-month tibial cortices (12%), vertebral trabeculae (42%) and vertebral cortices (12%). Higher acid-phosphate substitution

  20. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  1. Stanozolol Decreases Bone Turnover Markers, Increases Mineralization, and Alters Femoral Geometry in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, E; Aparicio, V A; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Martinez, R; Erben, R G; Kapravelou, G; Sánchez-González, C; De Teresa, C; Porres, J M; López-Jurado, M; Aranda, P; Pietschmann, P

    2016-06-01

    Stanozonol (ST) is a synthetic derivative of testosterone; it has anabolic/androgenic activity, increasing both the turnover of trabecular bone and the endocortical apposition of bone. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ST on bone status in rats by bone mineral content, markers of formation and resorption, bone density, and structural and microarchitectural parameters. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two experimental groups corresponding to placebo or ST administration, which consisted of weekly intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg body weight of ST. Plasma parameters were analyzed by immunoassay. Bone mineral content was determined by spectrophotometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) and structural parameters were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and trabecular and cortical microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography. Plasma Ca, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase were higher, and urinary Ca excretion, corticosterone, and testosterone concentrations lower in the ST group. Femur Ca content was higher and P content was lower in the ST, whereas osteocalcin, aminoterminal propeptides of type I procollagen, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen were lower. Total cross-sectional, trabecular, and cortical/subcortical areas were lower in the ST. No differences were observed on BMD and area parameters of the diaphysis as well as on trabecular and cortical microarchitecture. The use of ST increases bone mineralization, ash percentage, and Ca and Mg content in femur. In spite of an absence of changes in BMD, geometric metaphyseal changes were observed. We conclude that ST alters bone geometry, leads to low bone turnover, and thus may impair bone quality. PMID:26801156

  2. Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the bone fractures in racehorses occur in the fore limb, especially in the metacarpal joint during the racing and training. The longitudinal fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc III) often occurs in the osteosclerotic and/or necrotic lesions in the distal part of the bone. To elucidate the endogenous factors of its fracture, soft radiograms of 4 fractured and 4 non-fractured control cases have been investigated morphometrically by a image analyzer. In addition, to analyze the quality of these bones, 20 elements of mineral contents in the crashed bones have been measured using a fluorescent X-ray analyzer. As the results, the osteosclerotic change was observed in both groups in the plantar side of the distal part of Mc III, however, no significant differences were found in the bone morphometry. No significant differences in the 19 elements of bone mineral were found except Fe. From these findings, the mechanism of the occurrence of the longitudinal fracture in the Mc III remains to be elucidated. In future, further work needs to be done with regard to the mechanical intensity and collagen disposition of the distal part of the Mc III

  3. Correlation of Serum Leptin Level with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Chinese Adolescent Dancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; YAN LAN; JING HU; YAN-HUA YANG; QIAN ZHANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate plasma leptin concentrations in adolescent female dancers and to determine whether leptin has some effects on their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. Methods Sixty dancers aged 15-17 years and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two bone turnover markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRACP), were determined by ELISA. Results The dancers had a lower fat mass and a lower leptin level than the controls, while they had a relatively higher BMD of the total body and legs after adjustment for BMI and age. The levels of bone resorption and formation of markers were higher in the dancers than in the controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, body weight, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. In dancers, Leptin was positively correlated with the BMD of the total body and the left leg. However, after adjustment for BMI, no correlation of serum leptin concentrations with BMD values was found in either dancers or controls. Nor correlation was found between leptin and bone turnover markers after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion The leptin profile is different between the controls and the dancers with a lower BMI and a lower fat mass. Circulating plasma leptin level depends on BMI and is not a direct determinant of BMD in Chinese adolescent dancers.

  4. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Bone Mineral Density: Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Aghaei Meybodi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Osteoporosis is a major public health concern around the world. It has been shown that bone mineral den­sity is correlated to anthropometric measures like height and weight, but this association may vary depending on ethnic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to identify probable relations between anthropometric measures and bone mineral density."nMethods: In this population-based study, we compiled the data collected from Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study to assess the possible associations between different anthropometric indices and bone mineral density at femur and lumbar spine. The gathered data was analyzed using t-test and one way ANOVA."nResults: Data was available for 4445 subjects, consisting 1900 males (42.7% and 2545 females (57.3%. We observed statistically significant correlations between bone mineral density and height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumfer­ence, waist to hip ratio and body mass index (BMI. Based on the result of linear regression modeling studies, BMI could be considered an independent predictor of bone mineral density."nConclusion: Iranian population shows similar measures compared to analogous studies in other populations. Lower weight should be carefully considered as a predisposing factor for bone loss and osteoporosis.

  5. Effects of Reproductive Factors on Bone Mineral Densitometry

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    Halim Yılmaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effects of reproductive factors on bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 1196 postmenopausal women with BMD (g/cm2 measurements at lumbar vertebra (LS and femur neck (FN were enrolled. Demographic, reproductive characteristics and Body Mass Index (BMI of patients were defined. In order to define BMD related factors, multiple regression analysis was employed. Results: Main results were as follows: mean age= 59.97±8.56 yrs; weight= 73.49±13.06 kg; BMI= 29.25±5.22kg/m², age of menarche= 14.00±1.64 yrs; number of deliveries 4.22±2.09; total breastfeeding duration= 60.77±38.80 months; number of breastfeeding per day= 8.23±3.91; menopausal age= 47.12±4.22 yrs; duration of menopause= 12.80±9.10 yrs; LS BMD= 0.993±0.171 gr/cm2; FN BMD 0.844±0.14 gr/cm2. There were negative correlations between LS BMD and FN BMD values and age, menopause duration, total breastfeeding duration, and number of breastfeeding per day. There were positive correlations between LS and FN BMD values, and weight and BMI scores. Additionally, there were negative correlations between LS and FN BMD values, and age of menarche and number of deliveries. In linear stage regression analysis, weight, number of breastfeeding per day, postmenopausal duration, duration of total breastfeeding and age of menarche were defined as the most significant predictors for LS BMD, whereas weight, postmenopausal duration and number of breastfeeding per day were defined as the most significant predictors for FN BMD. Conclusion: LS and FN BMD in postmenopausal women are related to reproductive factors, so reproductive factors should also be considered in the evaluation of risk factors in postmenopausal women. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18:8-12

  6. Low radiation dose impact on human bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immediately after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster it was assumed that osteoporosis would develop in a few young adult males (the so-called 'cleaners') who took part in the cleanup operations. The following factors were taken into consideration: Low external irradiation of whole body including skeleton; Non-uniform irradiation of thyroid and parathyroid glands by iodine radionuclides, as well as the different radiosensitivity of these organs (imbalance of parathormone and calcitonine); Intoxication from lead dropped from helicopters into the destroyed reactor as well as cadmium, a constituent of the nuclear reactor construction (a suppressive action of Pb and Cd on normal growth and the functioning of osteoblasts); Chronic stress arising in the cleaners following a huge amount of negative information from the mass media about the unhealthy consequences of exposure (imbalance of Ca-regulating hormones, including an excess of glucocorticoids). Despite substantiated assumption, all the efforts of national and international programs during the after-disaster period were mostly aimed at early diagnoses of thyroid and blood diseases. No attention was paid to osteoporosis problems of the cleaners. Only since 1997, the DXA method (Bone Densitometer LUNAR DPX-L) has been used to determine spinal and femoral BMD. To date, 162 men aged 30 to 50 have been examined, that is, those who were 18 to 35 years old during cleanup operations. In addition, the total body composition (tissue, fat, lean, BMD, BMC) as well as height and body mass was determined by DXA in every subject. A control group consisted of 188 randomly selected healthy men of the same age. Using the T score and the WHO recommendation changes in either spinal or femoral BMD that could be classified as osteopenia (77 cleaners, 47.5 %) and osteoporosis (9 cleaners, 5.6 %) were found in 86 of 162 cleaners. No great changes in height and body composition were found in cleaners. The incidence of osteopenia and

  7. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  8. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  9. Quantification of the degree of mineralization of bone in three dimensions using synchrotron radiation microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of three-dimensional measuring techniques coupled to specific image processing methods opens new opportunities for the analysis of bone structure. In particular, synchrotron radiation microtomography may provide three-dimensional images with spatial resolution as high as one micrometer. Moreover, the use of a monoenergetic synchrotron beam, which avoids beam-hardening effects, allows quantitative measurements of the degree of mineralization in bone samples. Indeed, the reconstructed gray levels of tomographic images correspond directly to a map of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample. Since the absorption depends on the amount of mineral content, we proposed a calibration method to evaluate the three-dimensional distribution of the degree of mineralization within the sample. First a theoretical linear relationship modeling the linear attenuation coefficient as a function of the hydroxyapatite concentrations was derived. Then, an experimental validation on phantoms confirmed both the accuracy of the image processing tools and the experimental setup used. Finally, the analysis of the degree of mineralization in four iliac crest bone biopsy samples was reported. Our method was compared to the reference microradiography technique, currently used for this quantification in two dimensions. The concentration values of the degree of mineralization were found with both techniques in the range 0.5-1.6 g of mineral per cubic centimeter of bone, both in cortical and in trabecular region. The mean difference between the two techniques was around 4.7%, and was slightly higher in trabecular region than in cortical bone

  10. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  11. Retinoic acid differentially affects in vitro proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of two fish bone-derived cell lines: different gene expression of nuclear receptors and ECM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ignacio; Tiago, Daniel M; Laizé, Vincent; Leonor Cancela, M; Gisbert, Enric

    2014-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active metabolite of vitamin A, regulates vertebrate morphogenesis through signaling pathways not yet fully understood. Such process involves the specific activation of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors (RARs and RXRs), which are nuclear receptors of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Teleost fish are suitable models to study vertebrate development, such as skeletogenesis. Cell systems capable of in vitro mineralization have been developed for several fish species and may provide new insights into the specific cellular and molecular events related to vitamin A activity in bone, complementary to in vivo studies. This work aims at investigating the in vitro effects of RA (0.5 and 12.5 μM) on proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization of two gilthead seabream bone-derived cell lines (VSa13 and VSa16), and at identifying molecular targets of its action through gene expression analysis. RA induced phenotypic changes and cellular proliferation was inhibited in both cell lines in a cell type-dependent manner (36-59% in VSa13 and 17-46% in VSa16 cells). While RA stimulated mineral deposition in VSa13 cell cultures (50-62% stimulation), it inhibited the mineralization of extracellular matrix in VSa16 cells (11-57% inhibition). Expression of hormone receptor genes (rars and rxrs), and extracellular matrix-related genes such as matrix and bone Gla proteins (mgp and bglap), osteopontin (spp1) and type I collagen (col1a1) were differentially regulated upon exposure to RA in proliferating, differentiating and mineralizing cultures of VSa13 and VSa16 cells. Altogether, our results show: (i) RA affects proliferative and mineralogenic activities in two fish skeletal cell types and (ii) that during phenotype transitions, specific RA nuclear receptors and bone-related genes are differentially expressed in a cell type-dependent manner. PMID:24291400

  12. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  13. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  14. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture. PMID:25245313

  15. Evaluation of anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix/cell binding peptide as a bone graft material in the treatment of human periodontal infrabony defects: A clinico-radiographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghousia Fatima; Ravindra Shivamurthy; Srinath Thakur; Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various bone graft materials have been used in the treatment of periodontal defects. A synthetic bone substitute material composed of P-15 with anorganic bone mineral has been scantly studied. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix (ABM)/cell binding peptide (P-15) in human periodontal infrabony defects with that of open flap debridement (OFD) alone. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth, randomized ...

  16. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use. PMID:26472048

  17. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  18. Extracellular matrix-mimetic adhesive biomaterials for bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shekaran, Asha; Andrés J. García

    2010-01-01

    Limited osseointegration of current orthopaedic biomaterials contributes to the failure of implants such as arthroplasties, bone screws and bone grafts, which present a large socioeconomic cost within the United States. These implant failures underscore the need for biomimetic approaches that modulate host cell-implant material responses to enhance implant osseointegration and bone formation. Bioinspired strategies have included functionalizing implants with ECM proteins or ECM-derived peptid...

  19. Bone mineralization in male commercial broilers and its relationship to gait score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, P N; Katanbaf, M N; Hester, P Y

    2010-02-01

    Broilers selected for increased body size and breast muscle have imposed stress on the skeletal system, resulting in poorer walking ability. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between bone mineralization and gait score in 4 crosses of commercial broilers and to ascertain if mineralization of the toe is correlated to the tibia. Three chickens per pen each with good (gait score of 0 or 1) or poorer (gait score of 3) walking ability were killed and weighed. The left humerus, the left middle toe, and both drumsticks were collected for determination of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, and bone size traits using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The BMD and bone size traits were similar among the 4 crosses of commercial broilers at 6 wk of age. However, gait scores differed among genotypes, with cross C having better gait scores than crosses A and B, but did not differ from cross D. The bone mineral content and bone size traits did not differ between birds with good walking ability as compared with those broilers of poorer walking ability. However, birds with poorer walking ability had higher BMD (P<0.05) and BW (P<0.001) than males with good walking ability. Within a cross, the correlation between gait score and BMD was not significant except for cross D birds. Broilers of cross D with better walking ability had decreased bone mineralization (r=0.19, P=0.03). The stronger correlation between gait score and BW for all crosses of commercial broilers (r=0.38, P<0.0001) suggests that the low association between gait score and bone mineralization for cross D was mainly due to BW. The BMD of the left toe was correlated to the BMD of the left tibia (r=0.91, P<0.0001) and right tibia (r=0.87, P<0.0001). In conclusion, bone mineralization was similar among crosses of meat-type chickens, and it had little influence on the gait score of male broilers. PMID:20075288

  20. Biochemical Characterization of Major Bone-Matrix Proteins Using Nanoscale-Size Bone Samples and Proteomics Methodology*

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna E Sroga; Karim, Lamya; Colón, Wilfredo; Vashishth, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting the need for a broad scale investigation of the proteins and protein modifications in the organic matrix of bone and the use of these measures to predict fragility fractures. However, limitations in sample availability and high heterogeneity of bone tissue cause unique experimental and/or diagnostic problems. We addressed these by an innovative combination of laser capture microscopy with our newly developed liquid chromatography separation methods, follow...

  1. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mineral elements in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)

  2. X-ray microscopy study of bone mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission spectro-microscopy around the calcium K-edge and fluorescence microscopy were performed respectively on the Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and Scanning X-ray Microscope (SXM) end-stations of ID21 beamline at ESRF, to map the calcium distribution and the Ca/P ratio in bone samples. Preliminary results are presented. The motivation for these experiments is the study of the genetic determinism of bone mineralisation parameters in two different strains of mice

  3. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Dosa, Laura; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years) KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone,...

  4. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  5. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  6. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  7. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  8. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  9. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  10. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  11. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  12. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Schündeln

    Full Text Available Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI, a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths.The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec of the distal radius.The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 -L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001. The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 -L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively. Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001, but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation.The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands.

  13. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  14. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjanomennahary, P.; Ghalila, S. Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A.; Rachidi, M.; Benhamou, Cl.; Chappard, C. [Caracteristation du Tissu Osseux par Imagerie, U658 Inserm, Orleans (France); Mathematiques Appliquees Paris 5, UMR 8145 CNRS, Paris, France and U2S ENIT, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); U2S ENIT, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Caracteristation du Tissu Osseux par Imagerie, U658 Inserm, Orleans (France); Bioingenierie et Biomateriaux Osteo-articulaires, UMR 7052 CNRS, Paris (France)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (D{sub app}) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV{sub Arch}) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 {mu}m of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV{sub Arch}. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  15. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (Dapp) and bone volume proportion (BV/TVArch) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 μm of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TVArch. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  16. Effect of Bio-Oss ® Collagen and Collagen matrix on bone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, R.W.K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to compare the amount of new bone produced by Bio-Oss ® Collagen to that produced by collagen matrix in vivo. Method: eighteen bone defects, 5mm by 10mm were created in the parietal bone of 9 New Zealand White rabbits. 6 defects were grafted with Bio-Oss ® Collagen. 6 defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone (positive control) and 6 were left empty (negative control). Animals were killed on day 14 and the defects were dissected and prepared for histological assessment. Quant...

  17. Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix Bone Fracture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hum Y. Chai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently doctors in orthopedic wards inspect the bone x-ray images according to their experience and knowledge in bone fracture analysis. Manual examination of x-rays has multitude drawbacks. The process is time-consuming and subjective. Approach: Since detection of fractures is an important orthopedics and radiologic problem and therefore a Computer Aided Detection(CAD system should be developed to improve the scenario. In this study, a fracture detection CAD based on GLCM recognition could improve the current manual inspection of x-ray images system. The GLCM for fracture and non-fracture bone is computed and analysis is made. Features of Homogeneity, contrast, energy, correlation are calculated to classify the fractured bone. Results: 30 images of femur fractures have been tested, the result shows that the CAD system can differentiate the x-ray bone into fractured and nonfractured femur. The accuracy obtained from the system is 86.67. Conclusion: The CAD system is proved to be effective in classifying the digital radiograph of bone fracture. However the accuracy rate is not perfect, the performance of this system can be further improved using multiple features of GLCM and future works can be done on classifying the bone into different degree of fracture specifically.

  18. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pgroups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  19. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... SigmaCHL (p < 0.03) in subadults and for dieldrin (p < 0.002) and SigmaDDT (p < 0.02) in adult males; indications for SigmaPBDE in subadults were also found (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the strong correlative relationships suggest that disruption of the bone mineral composition in East Greenland polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  20. Quantitative in-vivo determination of bone mineral using computerized roentgenographic densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new computerized roentgenographic method for the quantitative in vivo determination of bone mineral content of the peripheral skeleton has been devised using a Leitz scanning microscope and PDP 11/03 microcomputer for image scanning and digital control, an improved mathematical model for the film-based information retrieval step and otherwise standard radiographic equipment and procedures. Current clinical trials are targeted on disease states likely to affect significantly the bone mineral content of the distal forearm, archetypal of trabecular bone, and the phalanges. Clinical reproducibility is within 2% for the phalanges and 3.5% for the forearm. The technique has been used to quantify the mineral-mobilizing effects of parathyroidectomy and prolonged glucocorticoid therapy. Quantitative roentgenography is a more credible alternative to, or augmentation of, more technologically advanced techniques such as dual-photon absorptiometry than is generally accepted

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases in bone marrow: roles of gelatinases in physiological hematopoiesis and hematopoietic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, X.F.; Han, Z. C.

    2006-01-01

    Turnover balance of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a prerequisite for the structural and functional homeostasis of bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. The role of ECM in physiologic hematopoiesis and its pathologic change in hematopoietic malignancies are very important and under extensive investigation. Accumulating evidence suggests that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent proteinases, take an active part in the physiological and pa...

  2. Teriparatide Increases Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Irene S.; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Misra, Madhusmita; Lee, Hang; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a prevalent psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting women, is characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Increased clinical fractures are common, and most women have low bone mineral density (BMD). Previously investigated treatments have led to no or modest increases in BMD in AN. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of teriparatide (TPT; human PTH[1–34]), an anabolic agent, on low bone mass in women with AN. Design, Setting, and Patients: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial at a clinical research center included 21 women with AN: 10 (mean age ± SEM, 47 ± 2.7 years) treated with TPT and 11 (47.1 ± 2.3 years) treated with placebo. Interventions: TPT (20 μg SC) or placebo was administered for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome measure was change in BMD of the spine and hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), C-terminal collagen cross-links, sclerostin, and IGF-1 levels. Results: At 6 months, spine BMD increased significantly more with TPT (posteroanterior spine, 6.0% ± 1.4%; lateral spine, 10.5% ± 2.5%) compared with placebo (posteroanterior spine, 0.2% ± 0.7%, P < .01; lateral spine, −0.6% ± 1.0%; P < .01). The results remained significant after controlling for baseline body mass index, P1NP, and IGF-1. Changes in femoral neck (P = .4) and total hip (P = 0.8) BMD were comparable in both groups, as were changes in weight. Serum P1NP levels increased after 3 months of TPT treatment and remained at this higher level at 6 months, whereas P1NP levels were unchanged in the placebo group (P = .02). TPT was well-tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that TPT administration increases spine BMD substantially after only 6 months of therapy in women with AN. PMID:24456286

  3. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and fu...

  4. Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius

  5. Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Fracture and Matrix Minerals in Selected Samples of the Culebra Dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminant release scenarios proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository suggest that the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation could be an important radionuclide release path. This thin, vuggy, highly fractured unit is the most transmissive geologic unit overlying the WIPP. Many of the samples obtained from drill cores in the Culebra exhibit fractures that are lined with iron-oxyhydroxide-rich and clay-rich mineral coatings. The coatings are mineralogically distinct from the rock matrix, and may have sorptive characteristics that are different from a clay-poor dolomite matrix. Where locally abundant, such coatings could affect advective/diffusive exchange between matrix blocks and fractures and the accessible mineral surface area available for radionuclide adsorption. Clay minerals are present in the matrix and as fracture coatings in the samples from all the drill core locations examined in this study. Visual examination of rock sample surfaces in the H-19b7 core suggests that at least 7% of the total fracture surface area is coated with iron oxhydroxides or clays. In the samples from H-19b7, the amount of clay disseminated in the matrix varies from <1% to approximately12 % by weight, and generally increases with stratigraphic height within the unit. In a suite of samples obtained from 12 other locations in the vicinity of the WIPP site, matrix samples from the Culebra contain 0.6--7% clay. These samples were taken from the more transmissive lower two-thirds of the unit (Culebra Units 2-4) which was considered to be the accessible portion of the unit in the WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA). Clay minerals also occur as clay-rich laminae and partings with the geometries of primary sedimentary structures and dissolution residues. Such partings are the loci of bedding plane fractures, and have the heaviest clay coatings found in the unit. Crosscutting fractures also commonly exhibit clay mineral coatings, but these are

  6. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, FeiYan; Chen, Jie; Shi, JingSheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg...

  7. The effect of sport on bone mineral density in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Sivrikaya, Haktan

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and whether there are differences among the effects of different sports (running, basketball, handball, volleyball, soccer and wrestling) on BMD. This study was carried out on 110 athletes (70 males and 40 females) and 20 sedentary subjects (10 males and 10 females) aged between 18 and 25. None of the subjects were alcoholic or drug user, had any bone disease or were using steroids. BMD measurements wer...

  8. Association of Circulating Renin and Aldosterone With Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density in African Ancestry Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Kammerer, Candace M; Pratt, J Howard; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is associated with accelerated bone loss, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a key regulator of blood pressure. Although components of this system are expressed in human bone cells, studies in humans are sparse. Thus, we studied the association of circulating renin and aldosterone with osteocalcin and bone mineral density. We recruited 373 African ancestry family members without regard to health status from 6 probands (mean family size: 62 and relative pairs: 1687). Participants underwent a clinical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomographic scans. Renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and osteocalcin were measured in fasting blood samples. Aldosterone/renin ratio was calculated as aldosterone concentration/renin activity. All models were analyzed using pedigree-based variance components methods. Full models included adjustment for age, sex, body composition, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication. Higher renin activity was significantly associated with lower total osteocalcin and with higher trabecular bone mineral density (bothP<0.01). There were also significant genetic correlations between renin activity and whole-body bone mineral density. There were no associations with aldosterone concentration in any model and results for aldosterone/renin ratio were similar to those for renin activity. This is the first study to report a significant association between renin activity and a marker of bone turnover and bone mineral density in generally healthy individuals. Also, there is evidence for significant genetic pleiotropy and, thus, there may be a shared biological mechanism underlying both the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and bone metabolism that is independent of hypertension. PMID:26975710

  9. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 168...... various AEDs. Our data suggest that patients on long-term treatment with LEV have a higher risk for affection of bone density....

  10. Effect of chronic strontium administration on bone mineral content and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Sørensen, Søren Roed; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Christgau, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    killed. The remaining three groups (17-week groups) were left for an additional 8 weeks, receiving the same treatment regimen before death. The left proximal tibiae were scanned by micro-computed tomography to quantify the microarchitecture of subchondral bone, followed by mechanical testing and......-week ALN group had reduced collagen concentration and greater mineral concentration. Treatment with ALN did not significantly change the mechanical properties of the cancellous bone. Udgivelsesdato: Jan...

  11. Visualizing mineralization in deformed opercular bones of larval gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Catherine; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Wolf, T.; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    During the rearing process of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), abnormal development of the opercular bone is particularly common (Aquaculture 156, 1997, 165). In order to alleviate its occurrence in rearing facilities, it's crucial to identify the very first physical signs of deviation in normal skeletal development. Nano-CT-scanning was tested for its applicability to quantify deviations in bone mineralization levels. Seven opercles were dissected from larvi of 65 days post hatching, rand...

  12. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females

    OpenAIRE

    Marwaha, Raman K.; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Methods: Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistr...

  13. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider Peter; Schlamp Dieter; Schuler Simone; Schulze Ulrike ME; Mehler-Wex Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN). Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7) after hospital disch...

  14. Osteogenic ability of bone marrow stem cells intraoperatively enriched by a novel matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qing; Chen, Kaining; HUANG, WU; HE, YUNSONG; NONG, MINGSHAN; LI, CHUNXIANG; LIANG, TIANSEN

    2014-01-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) is commonly used as an adhibiting agent due to its good viscosity, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a common enriched matrix for selective cell retention technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use PLL to coat the surface and interspaces of DBM to form a novel type of enriched matrix [DBM coated with PLL (PLL-DBM)], in order to effectively improve the enrichment effects of bone marrow stem cells and enhance their osteogenic ability. Electron microscope sc...

  15. Variability in bone mineralization among purebred lines of meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, P N; Katanbaf, M N; Hester, P Y

    2009-09-01

    The variability of bone traits was assessed in purebred lines of meat-type chickens using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Experiment 1 evaluated changes in bone mineralization and size traits of the tibia and humerus in 4 purebred lines from 6 to 24 wk of age. Experiment 2 compared the same traits of the tibia, radius, and ulna of 9 purebred lines at 6 wk of age. Differences in bone traits among purebred lines were apparent in both experiments. Of the 4 purebred lines compared in experiment 1, line C demonstrated the best phenotypic traits relative to bone quality. Even though line C had the longest tibia, one of the largest bone areas, one of the heaviest BW, and one of the highest bone mineral content (BMC) at 24 wk of age, the tibia of line C did not become less dense in mineral as this line of chickens approached sexual maturity as did the tibia of the other purebred lines of chickens. Specifically, its tibial bone mineral density (BMD) showed age-related increases unlike the other purebred lines of chickens, which showed little change in tibial BMD from 6 to 24 wk of age. In experiment 2, all bone traits as well as BW were different among purebred lines (P<0.001). The 2 purebred lines (7 and 8) with the lightest 6-wk-old BW (2,033 and 2,055 g, respectively) had diverse skeletal traits. Birds of line 7 had the lowest BMD (0.1131 g/cm2), BMC (1.05 g), shortest bone length (69.2 mm), and smallest bone area (8.0 cm2); however, the other purebred line low in BW (line 8) showed the opposite trend in that bones from these birds were the highest in BMD (0.1276 g/cm2), BMC (1.38 g), bone length (74.6 mm), and area (9.2 cm2) when compared with all of the other lines. In conclusion, several purebred lines of meat-type chickens expressed large differences in bone traits, suggesting the potential to genetically select birds for increased BMD. PMID:19687283

  16. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  17. Selective Determinants of Low Bone Mineral Mass in Adult Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Andrea; Richert, Laura; Herrmann, François R.; Chevalley, Thierry; Graf, Jean-Daniel; Rizzoli, René

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relative effect of amenorrhea and insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) levels on cancellous and cortical bone density and size. We investigated 66 adult women with anorexia nervosa. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density was measured by DXA. We calculated bone mineral apparent density. Structural geometry of the spine and the hip was determined from DXA images. Weight and BMI, but not height, as well as bone mineral content and density, but not area and geometry parameters, were lower in patients with anorexia nervosa as compared with the control group. Amenorrhea, disease duration, and sIGF-I were significantly associated with lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD. In a multiple regression model, we found that sIGF-I was the only significant independent predictor of proximal femur BMD, while duration of amenorrhea was the only factor associated with lumbar spine BMD. Finally, femoral neck bone mineral apparent density, but not hip geometry variables, was correlated with sIGF-I. In anorexia nervosa, spine BMD was related to hypogonadism, whereas sIGF-I predicted proximal femur BMD. The site-specific effect of sIGF-I could be related to reduced volumetric BMD rather than to modified hip geometry. PMID:23634145

  18. Selective determinants of low bone mineral mass in adult women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Andrea; Richert, Laura; Herrmann, François R; Chevalley, Thierry; Graf, Jean-Daniel; Rizzoli, René

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relative effect of amenorrhea and insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) levels on cancellous and cortical bone density and size. We investigated 66 adult women with anorexia nervosa. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density was measured by DXA. We calculated bone mineral apparent density. Structural geometry of the spine and the hip was determined from DXA images. Weight and BMI, but not height, as well as bone mineral content and density, but not area and geometry parameters, were lower in patients with anorexia nervosa as compared with the control group. Amenorrhea, disease duration, and sIGF-I were significantly associated with lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD. In a multiple regression model, we found that sIGF-I was the only significant independent predictor of proximal femur BMD, while duration of amenorrhea was the only factor associated with lumbar spine BMD. Finally, femoral neck bone mineral apparent density, but not hip geometry variables, was correlated with sIGF-I. In anorexia nervosa, spine BMD was related to hypogonadism, whereas sIGF-I predicted proximal femur BMD. The site-specific effect of sIGF-I could be related to reduced volumetric BMD rather than to modified hip geometry. PMID:23634145

  19. Estrogen Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eskridge, Susan L.; Morton, Deborah J.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wingard, Deborah; Wooten, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    Controlling for body size and composition, the authors examined the association between estrogen therapy and bone mineral density in older African-American and Caucasian women. In 1992–1998, 443 African-American and 989 Caucasian women aged 45–87 years were assessed for medication use, laboratory variables, behavioral characteristics, and bone mineral density. The mean age was 61.3 (95% confidence interval: 60.3, 62.3) years in African Americans and 71.0 (95% confidence interval: 70.4, 71.7) ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient......, with its associated increased fracture risk, vascular calcification, and accelerated mortality fracture risk. Peritoneal dialysis, however, bears a lower risk than hemodialysis (HD). The approach to CKD-MBD prophylaxis and treatment in the elderly PD patient is similar to other CKD patients, with some...... to other dialysis patient groups, physicians should be aware of the special problems of the elderly group....

  1. Bone Regeneration Using Dentin Matrix Depends on the Degree of Demineralization and Particle Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Koga

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the influence of particle size and extent of demineralization of dentin matrix on bone regeneration.Extracted human teeth were pulverized and divided into 3 groups according to particle size; 200, 500, and 1000 μm. Each group was divided into 3 groups depending on the extent of demineralization; undemineralized dentin (UDD, partially demineralized dentin matrix (PDDM, and completely demineralized dentin matrix (CDDM. The dentin sample was implanted into rat calvarial bone defects. After 4 and 8 weeks, the bone regeneration was evaluated with micro-CT images, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Osteoblasts were cultured on UDD and DDM to evaluate the cell attachment using electron microscope.Micro-CT images and histological observation revealed that CDDM had largely resorbed but UDD had not, and both of them induced little bone formation, whereas all particle sizes of PDDM induced more new bone, especially the 1000 μm. Electron microscopic observation showed osteoblasts attached to DDM but not to UDD.PDDM with larger particle size induced prominent bone regeneration, probably because PDDM possessed a suitable surface for cell attachment. There might be an exquisite balance between its resorption and bone formation on it. PDDM could be considered as a potential bone substitute.

  2. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J.; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C.; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J.; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (~35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8±5.2 years (mean age 52.7±...

  3. A novel 3-D mineralized tumor model to study breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth P Pathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with advanced breast cancer, but the role of the bone mineral hydroxyapatite (HA in this process remains unclear. We have developed a novel mineralized 3-D tumor model and have employed this culture system to systematically investigate the pro-metastatic role of HA under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were cultured within non-mineralized or mineralized polymeric scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming-particulate leaching technique. Tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of pro-osteoclastic interleukin-8 (IL-8 was increased in mineralized tumor models as compared to non-mineralized tumor models, and IL-8 secretion was more pronounced for bone-specific MDA-MB231 subpopulations relative to lung-specific breast cancer cells. These differences were pathologically significant as conditioned media collected from mineralized tumor models promoted osteoclastogenesis in an IL-8 dependent manner. Finally, drug testing and signaling studies with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta confirmed the clinical relevance of our culture system and revealed that breast cancer cell behavior is broadly affected by HA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that HA promotes features associated with the neoplastic and metastatic growth of breast carcinoma cells in bone and that IL-8 may play an important role in this process. The developed mineralized tumor models may help to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may ultimately enable more efficacious therapy of patients with advanced breast cancer.

  4. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  5. Use of a matrix for apexification procedure with mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatavkar Roheet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This articles describes a technique for placement of a matrix barrier prior to use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA as an artificial root-end barrier. The technique also demonstrates the use of a delivery system utilizing large-bore needles for the predictable and precise placement of the barrier materials at the apex of the tooth.

  6. Equilibrium-dependent bisphosphonate interaction with crystalline bone mineral explains the pharmacokinetics and osteonecrosis of the jaw in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hokugo, Akishige; Sun, Shuting; Park, Sil; McKenna, Charles E.; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are chemically stable analogs of pyrophosphate exhibiting strong affinity to bone and have been used for the treatment of diseases characterized by excessive bone resorption. Contrary to the widely accepted BP accumulation model in bone after repeated applications, we report here that an equilibrium-dependent BP-crystalline bone mineral interaction may better explain BP bio-distribution and anti-catabolic bone remodeling and may be relevant to the appearance of osteonecr...

  7. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghadir AH

    2016-02-01

    index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05 with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups.Conclusion: The observed changes in the levels of Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were shown to be positively correlated with improved bone mass density among control and osteoporosis subjects of both sexes. These results demonstrate that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity might protect bone and cartilage by regulation of body trace elements which are involved in the biosynthesis of bone matrix structures and inhibition of bone resorption process via a proposed anti-free radical mechanism. Keywords: essential minerals, osteoporosis, bone density, aerobic exercise, BMD, bone metabolism

  8. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L; Grunkin, M; Thodberg, H H

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...... BMDDXR was observed to be 0.60% in a clinical study of 24 women and the in vitro variation over 12 different radiological clinics was found to be 1% of the young normal BMDDXR level. In a cohort of 416 women BMDDXR was found to be closely correlated with BMD at the distal forearm measured by dual...

  9. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University School of Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: spinelee@snu.ac.kr [Research and Development Center, CGBio Inc., Seong-Nam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  10. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  11. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurstegge Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. Methods We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery. Results The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. Conclusion The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.

  12. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  13. Reproducible methods for calibrating the backscattered electron signal for quantitative assessment of mineral content in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, T.M.; Bloebaum, R.D.; Bachus, K.N.; Skedros, J.G. (VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging shows promise for orthopaedic and bone research. BSE images of bone may be captured on-line directly from the scanning electron microscope (SEM), and then analyzed to produce a backscattered electron profile (BSEP), a modified image graylevel histogram which is representative of the mineral content in bone. The goals of this work were (1) develop a reproducible graylevel calibration technique for bone specimens, and (2) determine a conservative time interval during which SEM operating conditions would remain stable. Calibration standards containing pure aluminum and pure magnesium wires were placed in the SEM with human cancellous bone. Baseline imaging conditions were first established by adjusting the SEM until the bone image displayed good resolution and graylevel separation between regions of different mineral content. Microscope brightness and contrast controls were randomly changed to initiate the new operating conditions of another imaging session, and graylevel values from the calibration metals were used to readjust the microscope back to baseline operating conditions. Weighted mean graylevel values of the BSEPs from calibration trials were compared to those of the baseline. Data showed that bone images could be reproduced within 1.2 percent. It was also concluded that our equipment required calibration checks at 20 minute intervals.

  14. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  15. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. - Highlights: ► Ca–P phases were coated on PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofiber membranes within 3 h. ► Ca–P coatings prepared by 3 methods exhibited different structures and components. ► The Ca–P coating weight increase depends on the apatite nucleation velocity. ► Surface hydrophilicity enhanced the velocity and quantity of apatite nucleation. ► The resulting Ca–P apatite coatings exhibit good biocompatibility to MG63 cells.

  16. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, H.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Z.Z. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, W., E-mail: zhengwei@hrbeu.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-P phases were coated on PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofiber membranes within 3 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-P coatings prepared by 3 methods exhibited different structures and components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ca-P coating weight increase depends on the apatite nucleation velocity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilicity enhanced the velocity and quantity of apatite nucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting Ca-P apatite coatings exhibit good biocompatibility to MG63 cells.

  17. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p vol (r 0.866, p vol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality

  18. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  19. Effects of Odanacatib on bone mineralization density distribution in thoracic spine and femora of ovariectomized adult rhesus monkeys: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Fisher, John E; Duong, Le T; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) has been developed as a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, the major cysteine protease in osteoclasts. In adult rhesus monkeys, treatment with ODN prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in lumbar vertebrae and hip. In this study, we evaluate the effects of ODN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in vertebral spongiosa, distal femoral metaphyseal and cortical shaft from monkeys (aged 16-23 years), treated with vehicle (n=5) or ODN (6 mg/kg, n=4 or 30 mg/kg, n=4, PO daily) for 21 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was measured in a subset of distal femoral samples. In lumbar vertebrae there was a shift to higher mineralization in samples from ODN-treated groups, compared to vehicle: CaMean (+4%), CaPeak (+3%), CaWidth (-9%), CaLow (-28%) in the 6 mg/kg group and CaMean (+5.1%, p<0.023), CaPeak (+3.4%, p<0.046), CaWidth (-15.7%, p=0.06) and CaLow (-38.2%, p<0.034) in the 30 mg/kg group. In distal femoral metaphyseal cancellous bone, there was a clear tendency toward a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, as in the spine. However, primary and osteonal bone of the distal cortical diaphyses showed no significant change in BMDD, whereas bone mineral density was significantly increased after treatment. In ovariectomized monkeys, this study shows that ODN treatment increased trabecular BMDD, consistent with its previously reported ability to reduce cancellous remodeling. Here, ODN also showed no changes in BMDD in cortical bone sites, consistent with its actions on maintaining endocortical and stimulating periosteal bone formation. PMID:23179105

  20. The effect of chronic mild hyponatremia on bone mineral loss evaluated by retrospective national Danish patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Christian; Eiken, Pia; Verbalis, Joseph;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild hyponatremia ([Na+]=130-137mmol/L) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) loss through multiple, serial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Utilizing biochemical and DXA scan data from two Danish regions...

  1. Mineralized collagen scaffolds induce hMSC osteogenesis and matrix remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Weisgerber, D.W.; Caliari, S.R.; Harley, B.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering must be able to instruct cell behavior in the presence of the complex biophysical and biomolecular environments encountered in vivo. While soluble supplementation strategies have been identified to enhance osteogenesis, they are subject to significant diffusive loss in vivo or the need for frequent re-addition in vitro. This investigation therefore explored whether biophysical and biochemical properties of a mineralized collagen-GAG scaffold were suffi...

  2. Cellulose Nanocrystals--Bioactive Glass Hybrid Coating as Bone Substitutes by Electrophoretic Co-deposition: In Situ Control of Mineralization of Bioactive Glass and Enhancement of Osteoblastic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Garcia, Rosalina Pérez; Munoz, Josemari; Pérez de Larraya, Uxua; Garmendia, Nere; Yao, Qingqing; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-11-11

    Surface functionalization of orthopedic implants is being intensively investigated to strengthen bone-to-implant contact and accelerate bone healing process. A hybrid coating, consisting of 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) individually wrapped and interconnected with fibrous cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), is deposited on 316L stainless steel from aqueous suspension by a one-step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Apart from the codeposition mechanism elucidated by means of zeta-potential and scanning electron microscopy measurements, in vitro characterization of the deposited CNCs-BG coating in simulated body fluid reveals an extremely rapid mineralization of BG particles on the coating (e.g., the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals layer after 0.5 day). A series of comparative trials and characterization methods were carried out to comprehensively understand the mineralization process of BG interacting with CNCs. Furthermore, key factors for satisfying the applicability of an implant coating such as coating composition, surface topography, and adhesion strength were quantitatively investigated as a function of mineralization time. Cell culture studies (using MC3T3-E1) indicate that the presence of CNCs-BG coating substantially accelerated cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of extracellular matrix. This study has confirmed the capability of CNCs to enhance and regulate the bioactivity of BG particles, leading to mineralized CNCs-BG hybrids for improved bone implant coatings. PMID:26460819

  3. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  4. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials

  5. Densidade mineral óssea de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade Bone mineral density in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobayashi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a densidade óssea como fator concomitante da obesidade em adolescentes pós-púberes, controlando outras variáveis que possam interferir nessa relação. MÉTODOS: Estudo com 83 sobrepesos e obesos (IMC > P85 e 89 não obesos (P5 OBJECTIVE: to study bone density as a concomitant factor for obesity in post-pubertal adolescents, controlling for other variables that may interfere in such a relation. METHODS: Study comprising 83 overweight and obese adolescents (BMI > P85 and 89 non obese ones (P5 < BMI < P85. Cases and controls were selected out of 1,420 students (aged 14-19 from a public school in the city of São Paulo. The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-L4 in g/cm² was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR™ DPX-L. The variable bone density was dichotomized using 1.194 g/cm² as cutoff point. Bivariate analyses were conducted considering the prevalence of overweight and obesity followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression according to a hierarchical conceptual model. RESULTS: The prevalence of bone density above the median was twice more frequent among cases (69.3% than among controls (32.1%. In the bivariate analysis such prevalence resulted in an odds ratio (OR of 4.78. The logistic regression model showed that the association between obesity and mineral density is yet more intense with an OR of 6.65 after the control of variables related to sedentary lifestyle and intake of milk and dairy products. CONCLUSION: Obese and overweight adolescents in the final stages of sexual maturity presented higher bone mineral density in relation to their normal-weight counterparts; however, cohort studies will be necessary to evaluate the influence of such characteristic on bone resistance in adulthood and, consequently, on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis at older ages.

  6. Muscle strength and soccer practice as major determinants of bone mineral density in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Marques, Elisa; Brito, João;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between isokinetic strength of the lower limb muscles and bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) of adolescent male soccer players and age-matched controls not involved in sport (12-15years). METHODS: A random sample of 151 young males was divided...

  7. Comparative analysis of bone mineral density and incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians and omnivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of bone mineral density and incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians. Methods: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral densities of spine, neck of femur and greater trochanter in 62 vegetarians (vegetarian group) and 60 normal age-matched men(control group). Results: Compared with control group, the bone mineral densities(tms · cm-2) of spine, neck of femur and greater trochanter in vegetarians were evidently decreased (0.752 ± 0.075 vs 1.014 ± 0.096, 0.697 ± 0.071 vs 1.003 ± 0.111, 0.713 ± 0.083 vs 1.011 ± 0.097, P<0.001) and the incidences of osteoporosis and osteopenia were increased (40.3% υs 13.3%, 19.3% υs 5.0%, P<0.001). Conclusion: Vegetarians have lower bone mineral density and higher incidences of osteoporosis and osteopenia than omnivores. (authors)

  8. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu; E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei; O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted; K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O.̈. Ljunggren; R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho; P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  9. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  10. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine

  11. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner; Amstrup, Anders; Søballe, Kjeld; Stilling, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study rando...

  12. Local bone mineral mass as a function of dose in radium cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral mass at specific sites in the forearms and fingers of females with exposure to radium and mesothorium appears to have no dependence on dose. Data analysis is continuing, so these results should be considered preliminary. Future analyses will include males

  13. Selenium status is positively associated with bone mineral density in healthy aging European men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Beukhof (Carolien); M. Medici (Marco); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); Birgit Hollenbach (B.); A. Hoeg (Antonia); W. Visser (Willy); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); T.J. Visser (Theo); L. Schomburg (Lutz); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status

  14. Hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density in an elderly population : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; VanDaele, PLA; Pols, HAP; Burger, H; Hofman, A; Birkenhager, JC; Lamberts, SWJ; Grobbee, DE

    1996-01-01

    We studied the association between insulin and glucose levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population based study of 5931 elderly men and women, Serum insulin was measured 2 h after a nonfasting oral glucose load in subjects not using antidiabetes medication, BMD was measured by dual-energy X

  15. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers Under Bisphosphonate Therapy Used in the First Year After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Cieciura, Ewa; Sadowska, Anna; Pacholczyk, Marek; Chmura, Andrzej; Tronina, Olga; Durlik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapid bone loss occurs early after liver transplantation (Tx), concomitantly with intensified bone turnover. In the present study we investigated the effect of bisphosphonates (bisph) added to vitamin D (vitD) and calcium on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biomarkers in liver graft recipients in the first posttransplant year. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 28 patients BMD was determined at the third month after Tx. In case of osteopenia (Tscore ≤-1.0) and no contraindications, oral bisph was started for 1 year (group BP, n=14); other patients served as controls (CON, n=14). The changes in BMD and biomarkers of bone formation were osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and resorption. Study endpoints were active isoform 5b of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP5b), serum pyridinoline crosslinks (PYD), and urine excretion of deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) crosslinks. RESULTS In 19 (68%) patients, reduced BMD (T-score ≤1.0) was observed at baseline. The changes in lumbar BMD in BP and CON groups were 5.2% and 1.5%, respectively, not reaching statistical significance. Baseline PYD, Dpd/creat, and OC were elevated in all patients, indicating high bone turnover. We observed decrease in PYD and Dpd/creat in both groups; however, OC decreased only under bisph therapy. Increase in BAP was observed in the control group but not in the BP group. The changes in BAP and OC were significantly different (pliver transplant recipients in the first posttransplant year. Bisph more efficiently decreased the rate of bone turnover than vitD and calcium alone. PMID:27112626

  16. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  17. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  18. Micro-computerised tomography optimisation for the measurement of bone mineral density around titanium dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dental implants (screws) are commonly used to replace missing teeth by forming a biological union with bone ('osseointegration'). Micro-computerised tomography (μCT) may be useful for measuring bone mineral density around dental implants. Major issues arise because of various artefacts that occur with polychromatic X-rays associated bench type instruments that may compromise interpretation of the observations. In this study various approaches to minimise artefacts such as; beam hardening, filtering and edge effects are explored with a homogeneous polymeric material, Teflon, with and without an implant present. The implications of the limitations of using such polychromatic μCT systems to quantify bone mineral density adjacent to the implant are discussed. (author)

  19. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  20. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T;

    2011-01-01

    included a cohort of 15,544 men and women aged 18-95 years, who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD scans of the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand were performed with a compact radiographic absorptiometry system (Alara MetriScan®). Also, height......The study investigates an association between phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) and self-reported passive smoking using data on 15,038 persons (aged 18-95 years), who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD was significantly lower in persons exposed to long-term passive smoking in...... their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study...

  1. Significance of determination of bone mineral density and osteocalcin in diabetic patients with diabetic microvascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of diabetic microvascular complications on bone mineral density (BMI) and osteocalcin (BGP). Methods: 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied, including 33 with microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) (group 1) and 27 without complications (group 2). Fasting blood glucose, serum fructosamine (GSP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP), calcium (Ca2+) levels were measured by biochemical method; osteocalcin (BGP) level was detected by RIA. BMD of the lumbar spine and femur was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all patients. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the height and body weight. Results: The BMI, GSP, FBG, TALP and Ca2+ values in the two groups were not much different, but BGP and BMD in group 1 were significantly lower than those in group 2. Conclusion: Bone mineral density (BMD) and BGP values were closely related to the microvascular complications in diabetes, which could decrease bone formation and increase the frequency of osteoporosis

  2. Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketul C. Popat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic tissue scaffolds have a high potential impact for patients experiencing osteogenesis imperfecta. Using electrospinning, tissue scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (HAp/PCL composite nanofibers were fabricated with two different HAp concentrations—1% and 10% of the solid scaffold weight. After physico-chemical scaffold characterization, rat bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on the composite scaffolds in maintenance medium and then in osteogenic medium. Quantitative PCR, colorimetric assays, immunofluorescent labeling, and electron microscopy measured osteogenic cell responses to the HAp/PCL scaffolds. In maintenance conditions, both Hap/PCL scaffolds and control scaffolds supported cell colonization through seven days with minor differences. In osteogenic conditions, the 10% HAp scaffolds exhibited significantly increased ALP assay levels at week 3, consistent with previous reports. However, qPCR analysis demonstrated an overall decrease in bone matrix-associated genes on Hap/PCL scaffolds. Osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescent microscopy revealed a trend that both mineralized scaffolds had greater amounts of both proteins, though qPCR results indicated the opposite trend for osteopontin. Additionally, type I collagen expression decreased on HAp scaffolds. These results indicate that cells are sensitive to minor changes in mineral content within nanofibers, even at just 1% w/w, and elucidating the sensing mechanism may lead to optimized osteogenic scaffold designs.

  3. Aging bone in men and women: beyond changes in bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, C R; Lauretani, F; Bandinelli, S; Bartali, B; Di Iorio, A; Volpato, S; Guralnik, J M; Harris, T; Ferrucci, L

    2003-07-01

    Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) we assessed trabecular and cortical bone density, mass and geometric distribution at the tibia level in 512 men and 693 women, age range 20-102 years, randomly selected from the population living in the Chianti area, Tuscany, Italy. Total, trabecular and cortical bone density decreased linearly with age ( p<0.0001 in both sexes), and the slope of age-associated decline was steeper in women than in men. In men, the cortical bone area was similar in different age groups, while in women older than 60 years it was significantly smaller by approximately 1% per year. The total cross-sectional area of the bone became progressively wider with age, but the magnitude of the age-associated increment was significantly higher in men than in women ( p<0.001). The minimum moment of inertia, an index of mechanical resistance to bending, remained stable with age in men, while it was significantly lower in older compared with younger women (0.5% per year). The increase in bone cross-sectional area in aging men may contribute to the maintenance of adequate bone mechanical competence in the face of declining bone density. In women this compensatory mechanism appears to be less efficient and, accordingly, the bone mechanical competence declines with age. The geometric adaptation of increasing cross-sectional bone size is an important component in the assessment of bone mechanical resistance which is completely overlooked, and potentially misinterpreted, by traditional planar densitometry. PMID:12827220

  4. Association between Renal Stone, Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh Maghbooli

    2007-01-01

    Results: Data showed that patients with a history of renal stones had a higher prevalence of osteoporosis (16.7% and os¬teopenia (53.3% than the subjects without a history of renal stone disease (11.2% and 35.7%, respectively. For both men and women the mean age of patients with a history of renal stone disease was significantly lower than patients with no dis¬ease history (men: with history 44.27+/-14.8, without history 50.28+/-12.3; P= 0.02 (women: with history 43.21+/-11.8, with¬out history 49.06+/-9.6; P= 0.02. Female patients with a history of renal stone disease also had a significantly lower (8.74% mean spinal bone density (P= 0.02, but there were no other significant differences in either the biochemical parame¬ters that were measured or in the hip bone density. Conclusions: These data suggest that osteoporosis may be more prevalent in those patients that have had a history of renal stone formation.

  5. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Caucasian Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A Cross-Sectional Study Using HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Gudex, Claire; Ahrberg, Fabian; Brixen, Kim; Voss, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of fracture. We used high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and estimated bone strength...... by finite element analysis (FEA) at the distal radius and tibia to assess bone characteristics beyond BMD that may contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-three Caucasian women with SLE (median age 48, range 21-64 years) and 99 controls (median age 45, range 21-64 years) were studied....... Groups were comparable in radius regarding geometry and vBMD, but SLE patients had lower trabecular number (-7 %, p < 0.05), higher trabecular separation (13 %, p < 0.05) and lower FEA-estimated failure load compared to controls (-10 %, p < 0.05). In tibia, SLE patients had lower total vBMD (-11 %, p < 0...

  6. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction. We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Effects of fatigue on microstructure and mechanical properties of bone organic matrix under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a fatigue induced weakening of cortical bone was revealed in microstructure and mechanical competence of demineralized bone matrix. Two types of cortical bone samples (plexiform and Haversian) were use. Bone slabs from the midshaft of bovine femora were subjected to cyclical bending. Fatigued and adjacent control samples were cut into cubes and demineralized in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Demineralized samples were either subjected to microscopic quantitative image analysis, or compressed to failure (in longitudinal or transverse direction) with a simultaneous analysis of acoustic emission (AE). In fatigued samples porosity of organic matrix and average area of pores have risen, along with a change in the pores shape. The effect of fatigue depended on the type of the bone, being more pronounced in the plexiform than in Haversian tissue. Demineralized bone matrix was anisotropic under compressive loads in both types of cortical structure. The main result of fatigue pretreatment on mechanical parameters was a significant decrease of ultimate strain in the transverse direction in plexiform samples. The decrease of strain in this group was accompanied by a considerable increase of the fraction of large pores and a significant change in AE energy.

  8. Human osteoblast-like cells respond to mechanical strain with increased bone matrix protein production independent of hormonal regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, L. V.; Hruska, K. A.; Duncan, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of osteosarcoma cell lines to chronic intermittent strain increases the activity of mechano-sensitive cation (SA-cat) channels. The impact of mechano-transduction on osteoblast function has not been well studied. We analyzed the expression and production of bone matrix proteins in human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells, OHS-4, in response to chronic intermittent mechanical strain. The OHS-4 cells exhibit type I collagen production, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-inducible osteocalcin, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. The matrix protein message level was determined from total RNA isolated from cells exposed to 1-4 days of chronic intermittent strain. Northern analysis for type I collagen indicated that strain increased collagen message after 48 h. Immunofluorescent labeling of type I collagen demonstrated that secretion was also enhanced with mechanical strain. Osteopontin message levels were increased several-fold by the application of mechanical load in the absence of vitamin D, and the two stimuli together produced an additive effect. Osteocalcin secretion was also increased with cyclic strain. Osteocalcin levels were not detectable in vitamin D-untreated control cells. However, after 4 days of induced load, significant levels of osteocalcin were observed in the medium. With vitamin D present, osteocalcin levels were 4 times higher in the medium of strained cells compared to nonstrained controls. We conclude that mechanical strain of osteoblast-like cells is sufficient to increase the transcription and secretion of matrix proteins via mechano-transduction without hormonal induction.

  9. Reduced systemic bone mineral density associated with a rare case of tooth and nail syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This is the first report of a rare genetic tooth and nail syndrome (TNS) diagnosed in a 14-year-old Caucasian girl with a complete absence of the permanent dentition and, additionally, reduced total and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). This coincidence suggests a new clinical manifestation of the disorder in which genetic factors and/or shared mechanisms may be responsible for the deterioration of the stomatognathic system, anodontia, nail phenotype and osteopenia. Low bone mass appears to be a new component of the syndrome. There is a rationale for bone densitometry scans assuming that patients with TNS may have an increased risk of osteopenia. Reduced BMD and, possibly, impaired bone quality and strength may produce difficulties or even exclude such patients from future treatment with dental implants. (authors)

  10. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment with...... melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  11. Utility of tricalcium phosphate and osteogenic matrix cellsheet constructs for bone defect reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the effects of transplanting osteogenicmatrix cell sheets and beta-tricalcium phosphate(TCP) constructs on bone formation in bone defects.METHODS: Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were preparedfrom bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), anda porous TCP ceramic was used as a scaffold. Threeexperimental groups were prepared, comprised of TCPscaffolds (1) seeded with BMSCs; (2) wrapped withosteogenic matrix cell sheets; or (3) both. Constructswere implanted into a femoral defect model in rats andbone growth was evaluated by radiography, histology,biochemistry, and mechanical testing after 8 wk.RESULTS: In bone defects, constructs implanted withcell sheets showed callus formation with segmental or continuous bone formation at 8 wk, in contrast toTCP seeded with BMSCs, which resulted in bone nonunion.Wrapping TCP constructs with osteogenic matrixcell sheets increased their osteogenic potential andresulting bone formation, compared with conventionalbone tissue engineering TCP scaffolds seeded withBMSCs. The compressive stiffness (mean ± SD) valueswere 225.0 ± 95.7, 30.0 ± 11.5, and 26.3 ± 10.6MPa for BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuousbone formation, BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs withsegmental bone formation, and BMSC/TCP constructs,respectively. The compressive stiffness of BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation wassignificantly higher than those with segmental boneformation and BMSC/TCP constructs.CONCLUSION: This technique is an improvementover current methods, such as TCP substitution, andis useful for hard tissue reconstruction and inducingearlier bone union in defects.

  12. Measurement of hand bone mineral content using single-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single photon absorption imaging technique has been developed to assess the bone mass of the hand, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or bronchial asthma. A modified rectilinear scanner images the hand by transmission scanning in a water bath with a 7.4 GBq 125I source. A microcomputer is used to calculate the bone mineral distribution, and the total bone mineral content (BMC) of the hand is determined from that distribution. The precision (coefficient of variation) of the measurement is 1.9%. A control population of 20 men and 58 women has been studied to determine normal variations in hand bone mineral content with age, sex, body size, hand volume and years since menopause. The normal men are found to have an average hand BMC of 25.1 g with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22%, which is reduced to 12% by normalising for body size using span. The normal women had an average hand BMC of 18.0 g +- 15%. The CV is reduced to 13% by normalising for span and years post-menopause. (author)

  13. An objective algorithm for the determination of bone mineral content using dichromatic absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Witt, R.M.; Wellman, H.N.; Johnston, C.C.

    1985-05-01

    The determination of vertebral column bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometric methods is a problem of continued clinical interest. The more successful methods suffer from the frequent need of operator interaction in order to maintain good precision results. The authors have introduced a new objective algorithm that eliminates the subjectiveness of operator interaction without sacrificing reproducibility. The authors' system consists of a modified rectilinear scanner interfaced to a CAMAC acquisition device coupled to a PDP-11V03 minicomputer. The subject is scanned in the supine position with legs elevated to minimize lordosis. The source (Gd-153) and detector are collimated defining an area of 10mm x 10mm at the level of the spine. The transverse scan width is usually 120 mm. Scanning from the iliac crests toward the head, 50 transverses at 3mm y-increments are acquired at approximately 1mm increments. The data analysis begins with the calculation of R-value for each pixel in the scan. The calculations for bone mineral content are performed and various quantities are accumulated. In a reproducibility study of 116 patient studies, the authors achieved a bone mineral/bone area ratio precision (std dev/mean) of 1.37% without operator interaction nor vertebral body selection.

  14. An objective algorithm for the determination of bone mineral content using dichromatic absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of vertebral column bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometric methods is a problem of continued clinical interest. The more successful methods suffer from the frequent need of operator interaction in order to maintain good precision results. The authors have introduced a new objective algorithm that eliminates the subjectiveness of operator interaction without sacrificing reproducibility. The authors' system consists of a modified rectilinear scanner interfaced to a CAMAC acquisition device coupled to a PDP-11V03 minicomputer. The subject is scanned in the supine position with legs elevated to minimize lordosis. The source (Gd-153) and detector are collimated defining an area of 10mm x 10mm at the level of the spine. The transverse scan width is usually 120 mm. Scanning from the iliac crests toward the head, 50 transverses at 3mm y-increments are acquired at approximately 1mm increments. The data analysis begins with the calculation of R-value for each pixel in the scan. The calculations for bone mineral content are performed and various quantities are accumulated. In a reproducibility study of 116 patient studies, the authors achieved a bone mineral/bone area ratio precision (std dev/mean) of 1.37% without operator interaction nor vertebral body selection

  15. Regulacin de la mineralizacin sea por factores inorgnicos y peptdicos Regulation of Bone Mineralization by inorganic and peptide factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L Negri

    2011-10-01

    osteoctico perilacunar.Orthotopic mineralization begins with the production of matrix vesicles that are produced by polarized budding of the surface of condrocytes, osteoblasts and odontoblasts. It occurs in two steps: The first one is the formation of hydroxiapatite crystals within the matrix vesicles, followed by the propagation of the hydroxiapatite crystals through the membrane vesicle into the extra cellular matrix. In the regulation of orthotopic mineralization, apart from tissue-specific cells, a great number of enzymes, inorganic and peptide factors participate, that have complex interactions among them. Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi antagonizes the ability of phosphate (Pi to crystallize with calcium and to form hydroxiapatite, thus suppressing its propagation. For the normal mineralization to continue, an adjusted balance of the extra cellular Pi and PPi levels is needed. Three molecules have been identified that have a central role in the regulation of extra cellular PPi levels: tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, which hydrolyzes PPi, the nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1, which generates PPi from triphosphate nucleosides, and the multiple-steps transmembrane protein ANK which transfers PPi from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. There are, in turn, two SIBLING proteins called DMP1 and MEPE that regulate mineralization. The expression of DMP1 by the osteocyte is dramatically induced in response to mechanical loading increasing bone mineralization. MEPE protein contains a protease resistant motif called ASARM, which is believed to be the candidate for the mineralization inhibitor (minhibin. Osteopontin is another mineralization inhibitor in its phosphorilated form and its secretion is markedly reduced in knockout mice for NPP1. Present data seem to support the hypothesis that these molecules could be the translators of bone strain and participate in the regulation of mineralization of the perilacunar osteocytic space.

  16. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    OpenAIRE

    von Mühlen, Denise G; Greendale, Gail A.; Cedric F Garland; Wan, Lori; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D (25(OH)D) increases the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption. Low levels of serum calcium stimulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains serum calcium levels at the expense of increased bone turnover, bone loss and increased risk of fractures. We studied the association between 25(OH)D and PTH levels, and their associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss, and prevalence of hip fractures in 615 community-dwelling postmenopausal aged 50 - 97 y...

  17. Aluminum and bone: Review of new clinical circumstances associated with Al(3+) deposition in the calcified matrix of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Bizot, P; Mabilleau, G; Hubert, L

    2016-06-01

    Several decades ago, aluminum encephalopathy associated with osteomalacia has been recognized as the major complication of chronic renal failure in dialyzed patients. Removal of aluminum from the dialysate has led to a disappearance of the disease. However, aluminum deposit occurs in the hydroxyapatite of the bone matrix in some clinical circumstances that are presented in this review. We have encountered aluminum in bone in patients with an increased intestinal permeability (coeliac disease), or in the case of prolonged administration of aluminum anti-acid drugs. A colocalisation of aluminum with iron was also noted in cases of hemochromatosis and sickle cell anemia. Aluminium was also identified in a series of patients with exostosis, a frequent benign bone tumor. Corrosion of prosthetic implants composed of grade V titanium (TA6V is an alloy containing 6% aluminum and 4% vanadium) was also observed in a series of hip or knee revisions. Aluminum can be identified in undecalcified bone matrix stained by solochrome azurine, a highly specific stain allowing the detection of 0.03 atomic %. Colocalization of aluminum and iron does not seem to be the fruit of chance but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Histochemistry is superior to spectroscopic analyses (EDS and WDS in scanning electron microscopy). PMID:26762722

  18. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  19. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Cuenca-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group, hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct. During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5. Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT, histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70% than for mineral scaffold alone (22% and hybrid constructs (35%. The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft. Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored

  20. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  1. Experimental study on bone mineral determination in the wound healing process after tooth extraction by 125I-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out by 125I-photon absorptiometry in tooth extraction wounds of dogs to determine the bone mineral content of the mandibular premolar region. The bone mineral content of excised mandibles was measured on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 56th, and the 84th day, respectively, after tooth extraction. These were then compared with the values obtained by photodensitometry and by histological findings. The bone mineral content obtained by 125I-photon absorptiometry varied within a range of 0.270 and 0.720 g/cm2, over a period of 84-days. The highest mineral content value was noted in the apical site. Lower values were noted in the central site and with still lower values in the marginal site. In each case the bone mineral content which deacreased on the 3rd and 7th day after extraction tended to increase gradually thereafter. On the 56th and 84th day after tooth extraction, an increase in bone mineral in the margical site and a deacrease in the apical site was observed. This observation indicated that homogenization of the bone mineral occurred in the tooth extraction wound. Bone changes in the histological findings related to the healing process and the changes of values obtained by photodensitometry coincided with the changes shown in 125I-photon absorptiometry. (author)

  2. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  3. The action of demineralized bovine bone matrix on bone neoformation in rats submitted to experimental alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Buchaim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether demineralized bovine bone (Gen-ox® alters bone neoformation in rats submitted to alcoholism. Forty male rats were separated into two groups of 20 rats and distributed as follows: Group E1, which received 25% ethanol and a surgical cavity filled only by a blood clot, and Group E2, which received 25% ethanol and a surgical cavity filled with Gen-ox®. The animals were euthanized at 10, 20, 40 and 60 days after surgery and necropsy was performed. The histomorphological and histometric analyses of the area of connective tissue and bone neoformation showed that the reorganization of the bone marrow and full repair of the surgical cavity in Group E1 occurred more quickly than in Group E2. It was also noted that in the final period the animals in Group E2 showed areas of connective tissue and thick bone trabeculae around the particles of the implant. It can be concluded that the use of Gen-ox® delayed the process of bone repair in alcoholic rats, although it can be used as filling material because it shows osteoconductive activity, as evidenced by bone tissue formation around the graft particles.

  4. The Effect of Bioceramic Composite Extracellular Matrixes Used to Repair Bone Deficiency on Relevant Blood Biochemical Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    At the base of experimental animal model construction of bone defect in New Zealand rabbit, the promoting repair effect of bioactive ceramics on bone defect as well as its machanism was studied through testing body mineral elements, enzymes related to bone morphogenetic proteins and some biochemical indexes. Refering to some documents, materials of TCP, CHA and HA were combined and TCP/BMP/ TCP-β1 and CHA/BMP/ TCP-β1, HA/BMP/ TCP-β1 composite materials were made. All kinds of them were implanted into the radial defect site of rabbit, respectively. The chosen blood indexes (Ca, P, ALP, GGT, AST, ALT, TPA, BUN and Cr) were tested by colorimetry, speed rate and bromocresol green testing methods. No abnormal effects were found in any animal after operation. Serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP were increased with the length of time in all groups of the three kinds of composite material, mixed material and pure materials. The increases in composite material groups were more significant ( P <0.05). Comparison of the three kinds of material showed TCP > CHA > HA. There was a tendency of increased TPA and decreased BUN with the length of time. There was no significant difference between the composite material groups and pure material group (P >0.05). The three kinds of bioactive ceramics composed of extracellular matrix could increase the serum concentrations of Ca and P and activity of ALP after being implanted into defect bone and showed some repairing capacity. This provided a new area of machanism study of bone defect repair by biomaterials.

  5. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  6. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and...... performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and bioinformatics network analysis. We conducted an autosomal genome-wide meta-analysis of gene-by-sex interaction on lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in 25,353 individuals from 8 cohorts. In a second stage, we followed up the 12 top...

  7. Bone Mineral Densitometry Findings of Children with Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of Celiac Disease (CD on children’s bone is the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD. Osteoporosis is a consequence of this decrease and usually manifests in adult ages. Studies in CD patients generally show that bone density of these patients can be different at the same ages for the same duration of disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age and bone mineral density of CD patients at first diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ninety one patients (M/F: 36/55; age range: 3-16; mean age: 9.6±3.5 with diagnosis of CD were included in the study. BMD survey from L1-L4 lumbar spine and total hip of the patients was evaluated at presentation. We evaluated the patients in 3 groups according to their ages: Group 1: pre-school (3-7 years old, Group 2: elementary school (8-11 years old and Group 3: adolescent (12-16 years old. Results were compared using Student’s t test and correlation analysis. Results: The mean disease duration of the patients was 16.4±16.3 months. Mean height and weight of the patients were 124.8±17.9 cm and 27±9.3 kg, respectively and height and weight of 37 patients were in ≤ 3. percentile according to age. The BMD values of both lumbar spine and total hip and Z-scores of lumbar region were in mild correlation with age (r>0.5. There was significant difference between mean ages of patients with low bone mass for chronological age and normal bone densitometry values (p<0.05. There were 27, 36 and 28 patients in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. The difference between mean BMD values of these groups were statistically significant (p<0.05. The mean values of lumbar Z- scores of patients were -1.08±1.27, -1.42±1, -1.86±1.14, respectively for these three groups. Conclusion: Bone mineral densities of CD patients in childhood were lower in elder children at the time of diagnosis. This confirms the opinion that the diagnosis at earlier age results better treatment

  8. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density (BMD) of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last two Research Coordinated Meetings, in San Diego, CA, October 1996 and Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 1998. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone

  9. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  10. Antibacterial and osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone matrix treated with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems incurred by storage of demineralized bone allograft material and its potential use in contaminated operative sites make an antibacterial property desirable. Silver was considered for this role because of its wide spectrum of antibacterial susceptibility, low incidence of resistance, and its ability to persistently inhibit bacteria after binding to collagen matrices. Demineralized bone matrix prepared from rat diaphyseal bone segments was treated by exposure fo AgCl, AgNO3 and NaNO3 solutions prior to lyophilization. The resulting material was tested for bacterial inhibition after incubation in saline solutions for various times and showed inhibition persisting for at least four weeks (Ag-treated material only). Silver treating the matrix was found to partially inhibit the osteoinductive capacity at 10(-3) and 10(-2) M but not at 10(-5) M as measured by intramuscular implantation in the rat for six weeks. Control and NaNo3-treated specimens showed normal bone growth as measured by ashing and by 99mTc binding, and confirmed by radiologic densities. Histologic sections showed dense microdeposits on dense material predominately near the decalcified bone surfaces, but also within the matrix. The results suggest that pretreatment with silver at concentrations in the 10(-4) range would render the implant material antibacterial, protect its sterility, and leave the osteoinductive capacity intact

  11. Antibacterial and osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone matrix treated with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Spadaro, J.A.; Webster, D.A.

    The problems incurred by storage of demineralized bone allograft material and its potential use in contaminated operative sites make an antibacterial property desirable. Silver was considered for this role because of its wide spectrum of antibacterial susceptibility, low incidence of resistance, and its ability to persistently inhibit bacteria after binding to collagen matrices. Demineralized bone matrix prepared from rat diaphyseal bone segments was treated by exposure fo AgCl, AgNO3 and NaNO3 solutions prior to lyophilization. The resulting material was tested for bacterial inhibition after incubation in saline solutions for various times and showed inhibition persisting for at least four weeks (Ag-treated material only). Silver treating the matrix was found to partially inhibit the osteoinductive capacity at 10(-3) and 10(-2) M but not at 10(-5) M as measured by intramuscular implantation in the rat for six weeks. Control and NaNo3-treated specimens showed normal bone growth as measured by ashing and by 99mTc binding, and confirmed by radiologic densities. Histologic sections showed dense microdeposits on dense material predominately near the decalcified bone surfaces, but also within the matrix. The results suggest that pretreatment with silver at concentrations in the 10(-4) range would render the implant material antibacterial, protect its sterility, and leave the osteoinductive capacity intact.

  12. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners

  13. Association of mineral composition of neonatal intravenous feeding solutions and metabolic bone disease of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    MacMahon, P; Blair, M E; Treweeke, P; Kovar, I Z

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of increasing the mineral content of parenteral nutrition solutions on the biochemical and radiological indicators of metabolic bone disease of prematurity 27 neonates who required parenteral nutrition were sequentially allocated to receive either a standard solution (group 1) or one with an increased mineral content (group 2). The 13 patients in group 1 received 0.68 mmol/kg/day of calcium and 0.61 mmol/kg/day of phosphorus, and the 14 in group 2 received 1.25 and 1.20 ...

  14. Forearm bone mineral density in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Troels; Nielsen, Christian Stoltz; Christensen, Signe Engkjær; Nissen, Peter H; Heickendorff, Lene; Mosekilde, Leif

    2011-10-01

    Studies have shown that cancellous bone is relatively preserved in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), whereas bone loss is seen in cortical bone. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) patients seem to preserve bone mineral in spite of hypercalcemia and often elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH). The objective of this study was to compare total and regional forearm bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with PHPT and FHH and to examine if differences can be used to separate the two disorders. We included 63 FHH, and 121 PHPT patients in a cross-sectional study. We performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the forearm, hip and lumbar spine and measured a number of biochemical variables. PTH patients had significantly lower Z-scores in all parts of the forearm compared to FHH. This was also the case after adjustment for body mass index. When stratifying for age, gender and PTH, T-scores were still significantly lower in PHPT patients than in FHH patients at the total, the mid and the ultradistal forearm, but not at the proximal 1/3 forearm. In a multiple regression analysis BMD Z-score was lower in PHPT compared to FHH at the total forearm, the mid forearm and the ultradistal forearm but not the proximal forearm when adjusting for biochemical variables including PTH, 1,25(OH)(2)D and Ca(2+). These observations support that inactivating mutations in the CASR gene in bone cells in FHH may protect against forearm bone loss. Differences between the two groups in total or regional forearm BMD were inferior to the calcium/creatinine clearance ratio as a diagnostic tool to separate FHH from PHPT. PMID:21785908

  15. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM and ABB according to a stepwise dry and dip lyophilizing protocol. Histological and microcomputed tomography (µCT) analyses were performed to measure the amount of bone formation and bone volume after 2- and 8-week healing intervals. Results Upon histological observation at two weeks, the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups showed osteoconductive bone formation, while the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone formation. New bone formation was higher in DDM/rhBMP-2, DDM and ABB decreasing order. The amounts of bone formation were very similar at two weeks; however, at eight weeks, the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed a two-fold greater amount of bone formation compared to the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups. The µCT analysis showed markedly increased bone volume in the DDM/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks compared with that of the DDM group. Notably, there was a slight decrease in bone volume in the ABB/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks. There were no significant differences among the DDM, ABB/rhBMP-2, and DDM/rhBMP-2 groups at two or eight weeks. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, DDM appears to be a suitable carrier for rhBMP-2 in orthotopic sites. PMID:27162749

  16. The influence of dietary crude protein intake on bone and mineral metabolism in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Brand

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.

  17. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  18. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierpowska, J [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Hakulinen, M A [Department of Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, POB 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Saarakkala, S [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, POB 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lappalainen, R [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2003-03-21

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMD{sub vol}), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMD{sub vol}. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMD{sub vol} (r 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMD{sub vol} were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMD{sub vol} was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  19. HMGB1 Induces Secretion of Matrix Vesicles by Macrophages to Enhance Ectopic Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Bei, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chuan; Feng, Shi-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Du, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Hou-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical conditions have been linked to ectopic mineralization (EM). This process of pathological biomineralization is complex and not fully elucidated, but thought to be started within matrix vesicles (MVs). We hypothesized that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine associated with biomineralizing process under physiological and pathological conditions, induces EM via promoting MVs secretion from macrophages. In this study, we found that HMGB1 significantly promoted secretion of MVs from macrophages and subsequently led to mineral deposition in elevated Ca/Pi medium in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy of calcifying MVs showed formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the vesicle interior. Subcutaneous injection into mice with MVs derived from HMGB1-treated cells showed a greater potential to initiate regional mineralization. Mechanistic experiments revealed that HMGB1 activated neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2) that involved the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and p38 MAPK (upstream of nSMase2). Inhibition of nSMase2 with GW4869 or p38 MAPK with SB-239063 prevented MVs secretion and mineral deposition. Collectively, HMGB1 induces MVs secretion from macrophages at least in part, via the RAGE/p38 MAPK/nSMase2 signaling pathway. Our findings thus reveal a novel mechanism by which HMGB1 induces ectopic mineralization. PMID:27243975

  20. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    percentage by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) at 7 years. We found a significant inverse association between DHA and BMI from 2-7 years, body fat 8 percentage at 7 years and a positive association with age at adiposity rebound, but the latter was only significant in the girls. We found no association...... BMI development, and fat percentage; serum vitamin D status in cord blood and height development and bone mineralization; and serum vitamin D status at 4 years and bone mineralization. This is performed in the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000). In Study 1, breast-milk n......-3 PUFA exposure from 281 mothers was expressed as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-6/n-3 PUFA-ratio. In 222 of the children, we registered BMI from 2-7 years and age and BMI at adiposity rebound, parameters predictive of adiposity risk. In 207of the children, we furthermore measured body fat...

  1. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  2. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Myeloma: A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density with Plain Radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Clinical Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Ik Chan [Dept. of Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare BMD with plain radiography, MRI and clinical stage. We reviewed 59 patients with MM and an age- and sex-matched control group, with measured BMD. The L-spine and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral plain radiographs of the L-spine were graded as 3 stages using the modified Saville index. Four bone marrow patterns were classified on sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the L-spine. BMD in the MM and control group were analyzed. BMD in MM was compared with the modified Saville index, bone marrow patterns on MRI, and clinical stages. In MM, spine BMD was reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group (p < 0.001). The modified Saville index was negatively correlated with spine T scores (p < 0.01). The spine BMD in normal marrow pattern on the MRI was the most reduced. There was no statistical correlation between BMD and clinical stage. In MM, spine BMD was significantly reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group. The modified Saville index was significantly correlated with spine BMD in MM.

  3. Development and Characterization of a Bioinspired Bone Matrix with Aligned Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite on Collagen Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Chin Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of three-dimensional (3D scaffolds have been designed to mimic the biological spontaneous bone formation characteristics by providing a suitable microenvironment for osteogenesis. In view of this, a natural bone-liked composite scaffold, which was combined with inorganic (hydroxyapatite, Hap and organic (type I collagen, Col phases, has been developed through a self-assembly process. This 3D porous scaffold consisting of a c-axis of Hap nanocrystals (nHap aligning along Col fibrils arrangement is similar to natural bone architecture. A significant increase in mechanical strength and elastic modulus of nHap/Col scaffold is achieved through biomimetic mineralization process when compared with simple mixture of collagen and hydroxyapatite method. It is suggested that the self-organization of Hap and Col produced in vivo could also be achieved in vitro. The oriented nHap/Col composite not only possesses bone-like microstructure and adequate mechanical properties but also enhances the regeneration and reorganization abilities of bone tissue. These results demonstrated that biomimetic nHap/Col can be successfully reconstructed as a bone graft substitute in bone tissue engineering.

  4. A preliminary study of bone mineral densities of the proximal femur and acetabulum after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate periprosthetic bone mineral densities of the femur and acetabulum after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (RSAH). Methods: A comparative study was carried out in 26 patients who underwent RSAH. The bone mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 1 year after RSAH. Both the operated and unoperated hips were scanned. In the dual femur bone mineral density analysis, 9 regions of interests (ROIs) were defined: ROIs 1-6 were determined according to Taylor regions; ROIs A1-A3 were determined according to Wilkinson regions. The student t test was used for comparing differences in bone mineral density between the operated and unoperated sides. Results: The bone mineral densities of the proximal femur in ROIs 5 and 6 medial to the stem were significantly increased in the operated side compared to the unoperated side (P<0.05), but no significant differences were found in ROIs 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the proximal femur between two sides (P>0.05). The bone mineral density of acetabulum in cranial ROI A1 of the operated side was significantly decreased compared to the unoperated side (P<0.05), while in the medial and caudal ROIs A2 and A3 showed no significantly differences between two sides (P>0.05). Conclusion: The bone stock of proximal femur can be well preserved and recovered after RSAH. (authors)

  5. Measurement of bone mineral contents in Pakistan by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertebral bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual photon absorptiometry in 144 normal males and 219 females (ages 11-85 years), 118 patients of hyperthyroidism, 7 of chronic renal failure and 5 each of postmenopausal osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism. Generally males had higher BMC than females. Pattern of age related bone gain and diminution was same in both sexes but the rate of bone loss differed significantly, females having higher rate of bone loss. When compared to Western population lower BMC values in our normals were seen. However, rate of bone loss in our population was lower than that reported in the west. BMC values in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure were not significantly different that of age matched normals. The small numbers of cases of post menopausal osteoporosis and hyperpara- thyroidism, tough precluding any generalization, did show lower BMC values. Lower BMC values in our normal population could possibly be explained on racial ground. But in spite of less than ideal dietary status in our normal population in general, the lower rate of bone loss and a lower incidence of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid and chronic renal failure cases can raise the possibility of active vitamin D metabolism component, triggered by utraviolet radiation, having an overall beneficiary effect on the calcium cycle. This calls for a more comprehensive workup. (author)

  6. Development of the in vivo measurement system of bone mineral content using monoenergetic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system, developed for in vivo measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) using monoenergetic gamma-rays of 241 Am, is described. It presents a discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of the technique, with details of acquisition and data processing and also discusses the calibration procedure used. The results obtained with in vivo measurements are presented and BMC values of clinically normal subjects and chronic renal patients are compared. (author)

  7. Diagnostic efficacy of panoramic mandibular index to identify postmenopausal women with low bone mineral densities

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, B.K. Yashoda; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Ravleen, Nagi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare and assess the accuracy of panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and antegonial index (AI) in the panoramic radiographs of postmenopausal women with normal and low skeletal bone mineral densities( BMD) diagnosed by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry ( DXA). Study Design: In panoramic radiographs obtained from 40 post menopausal women( 20 normal and 20 osteoporo tic) aged between 50-75 who’s BMD has already been assessed by...

  8. Vertebral Bone Mineral Measures and Psychological Wellbeing Among Individuals with Modic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Andrew M.; O’Sullivan, Peter B.; Deryck Foulner; John D. Wark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This case-control pilot study examined whether vertebral bone mineral measures were associated with the presence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and Modic changes (MCs), and to compare psychological wellbeing and inflammation among individuals with CLBP and MCs, compared to individuals with no history of low back pain and without MCs. Methods Eleven individuals with MRI-defined MCs in the lumbar spine and CLBP (cases) and 10 individuals with no history of CLBP or MCs (controls) respon...

  9. Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Dae Gi; Lee, Hyo Serk; Joo, Young Min; Seo, Ju Tae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is related to testicular insufficiency, which causes low testosterone levels in serum. Generally, sex hormone levels and bone mineral density (BMD) are lower in patients with KS than normal. We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement on serum testosterone levels and BMD in KS patients. Materials and Methods From December 2005 to March 2008, 18 KS patients with a 47, XXY karyotype were treated with initial intramuscular injections of long-acting t...

  10. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. ...

  11. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong; Chang, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to ...

  12. Reliability and Validity of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density Measurements by DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Melissa Kareen

    2002-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been well established in both clinical and research settings for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and is becoming more widely utilized for assessment of body composition. Reliability and validity are essential factors in both applications of this technique; however, neither have been confirmed for the QDR-4500A DXA at Virginia Tech. Therefore, measurements of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (TPF) and total for...

  13. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Sousan Kolahi; Hamid Noshad; Jamal Eivazi Ziaei; Alireza Nikanfar; Parvin Shakori Partovi; Iraj Asvadi Kermani; Farid Panahi; Nassim Mahmoudzade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without brea...

  14. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rat...

  15. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Gushulak; Hassanali Vatanparast; Christine Nisbet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral conte...

  16. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zurstegge Matthias; Rokahr Christoph; Decking Ralf; Simon Ulrich; Decking Jens

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. Methods We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome a...

  17. Comparison of DXA and MRI methods for interpreting femoral neck bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokoski, Merja H; Arokoski, Jari P A; Vainio, Pauli; Niemitukia, Lea H; Kröger, Heikki; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the practical implementation of the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by converting the areal bone mineral density BMD (BMD(areal)) to volumetric BMD using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) because a failure to control for the femoral neck size can lead to erroneous interpretation of BMD values. We also evaluated the feasibility of MR T2* relaxation time in assessing bone mineral status of the femoral neck. Twenty-eight randomly selected 47- to 64-yr-old healthy men were studied. The men had neither unilateral nor bilateral hip osteoarthritis according to radiographs. Bone width, mineral content (BMC), BMD(areal), and apparent volumetric BMD (BMD(vol)) of the right femoral neck were measured with DXA. The BMD(vol) was calculated by approximating the femoral neck to be cylindrical with a circular cross-section (Vol(dxa)). Volumetric measurements from MR (Vol(mri)) images of the femoral neck were also used to create a BMD measure that was corrected for the femoral neck volume (BMD(mri)). T2* measurements were performed with a 1.5-T scanner (Siemens Magnetom 63SP, Erlangen, Germany). A single 10-mm-thick coronal slice was generated on the femur with a repetition time of 60 ms, and nine echo times (4-20 ms) were used to derive T2* values. Vol(mri) correlated positively (r = 0.828, p cylinder with circular cross-section geometry may lead to lower DXA-derived BMD(vol) values, as compared to true MRI-derived volumetric bone mineral density. Thus, the BMD(vol) may not be an accurate method to calculate the true volumetric BMD in the femoral neck. Our results also suggest that the MRI-derived T2* method may be used to approximate the BMD in the proximal femur. PMID:12357066

  18. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reix, Philippe; Bellon, Gabriel [Hopital Femme Mere Enfant, Service de Pediatrie, Pneumologie, Allergologie, Mucoviscidose, Bron (France); Braillon, Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service d' Imagerie Foetale et Pediatrique, Bron (France)

    2010-03-15

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 {+-} 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94{+-}0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  19. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 ± 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94±0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  20. The impact of alendronate on bone mineral density of osteoporotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Aghaei-Meybodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the real life therapeutic effects of weekly doses of alendronate in treating a group of osteoporotic patients in Iran. The present historical cohort was conducted on patients who had undergone two or more bone mineral densitometry within an interval of 1.5-2 years in Shariati Hospital bone mineral density department between 2002 and 2010.patients were asked by phone about consumption of alendronate. The mean increase in the BMD values at different sites was calculated. There was a significant increase in the body mass index (BMI values of both the individuals taking alendronate and the control group (P<0.001. Taking the weekly dosage of the drug was associated with a 7.67% increase in the BMD values at the femoral neck, 8.68% at the total hip, and 3.17% at the lumbar spine. Moreover, our results showed a significant difference between the height decline in the two groups (alendronate taking: 0.7±2.4 vs. control: -0.7±2.6, P<0.001. Comparing the results of the present study with that of previous ones revealed the drug is beneficial in improving bone mineral density in Iranians; as well alendronate is more effective in Iranian postmenopausal women when compared with the Americans.

  1. Evaluation of Clinical Decision Rules for Bone Mineral Density Testing among White Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is a devastating, insidious disease that causes skeletal fragility. Half of women will suffer osteoporotic fractures during their lifetimes. Many fractures occur needlessly, because of inattentiveness to assessment, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Study Purpose. Study Purpose. To evaluate the discriminatory performance of clinical decision rules to determine the need to undergo bone mineral density testing. Methods. A nationally representative sample from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey consisted of 14,060 subjects who completed surveys, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and bone mineral density exams. Multivariable linear regression tested the correlation of covariates that composed the clinical decision rules with bone mineral density. Results. Increased age and decreased weight were variables in the final regression models for each gender and race/ethnicity. Among the indices, the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, which is composed of age and weight, performed best for White women. Study Implications. These results have implications for the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool performed best and is inexpensive and the least time consuming to implement.

  2. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry. PMID:26996419

  3. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion of...... chemotherapy, i.e., 4 months. METHODS: Dual-imaging X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline and after completing anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy to measure BMD in the spine, hip, and forearm in early-stage breast cancer patients. High-dose prednisolone was used at three weekly...... % CI -3.3; -0.1, p = 0.04) compared to never/former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy supplemented with prednisolone was not associated with loss of BMD. Postmenopausal women gained bone mass, whereas current smokers lost bone mass....

  4. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  5. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of porous-coated titanium implants in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-03-01

    Allogenic bone graft has been considered the gold standard in connection with bone graft material in revision joint arthroplasty. However, the lack of osteogenic potential and the risk of disease transmission are clinical challenges. The use of osteoinductive materials, such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM), alone or in combination with allograft or commercially available human cancellous bone (CB), may replace allografts, as they have the capability of inducing new bone and improving implant fixation through enhancing bone ongrowth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DBM alone, DBM with CB, or allograft on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants. DBM100 and CB produced from human tissue were included. Both materials are commercially available. DBM granules are placed in pure DBM and do not contain any other carrier. Titanium alloy implants, 10 mm long × 10 mm diameter, were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of eight skeletally mature sheep. Thus, four implants with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: (a) DBM; (b) DBM:CB at a ratio of 1:3; (c) DBM:allograft at a ratio of 1:3; or (d) allograft (gold standard), respectively. A standardized surgical procedure was used. At sacrifice 6 weeks after implantation, both distal femurs were harvested. The implant fixation was evaluated by mechanical push-out testing to test shear mechanical properties between implant and the host bone and by histomorphometry. Non-parametric tests were applied; p strengths among the DBM/CB, DBM/allograft and allograft groups were not statistically different. The strength of the DBM group was 0.01 MPa, which was statistical significantly lower than the other three groups (p < 0.05). Histomorphometry results showed that the bone ongrowth in the DBM group was statistically significantly lower than the other three groups, while the volume fraction of new bone showed no significant difference among

  6. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr.; Patricia Garani Fernandes; Flávia Adelino Suaid; Marcio Fernando de Moraes Grisi; Sergio Luis Scombatti de Souza; Mario Taba Jr.; Daniela Bazan Palioto; Valdir Antonio Muglia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM) / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15) or the control group (ADM only). Histomorphometric measurements and histological a...

  7. Survey of radioactive level and radiation dose to the miner in Zhejiang bone coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the research program on comparison the effect of nuclear energy and other energies on health, environment and climate change, radioactivity level and radiation dose to the miner in Zhejiang Bone Coal Mine was investigated. The first stage, started from December 2002 to July 2004, conducted 4 times measurement. The results show that 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K contents in bone coal are 786 Bq/kg, 734 Bq/kg, 16 Bq/kg and 620 Bq/kg respectively. The annual average of 222Rn content is 141 Bq/m3 in the mine, with the highest value in summer and the lowest in winter-spring under the natural ventilation. the annual average γ dose rate is 549 nGy/h. The second stage investigation in July 2005 was carried out for three mines. It is found that the 222Rn content in mine is the major contributor to the annual effective dose to miners. the dose to the miner can be maintained below 2 mSv/a under well controlled ventilation, while the dose may exceed 28 mSv/a if the ventilation dose not work well. It is necessary to improve ventilation in order to safeguard miner's health. (authors)

  8. In ovo feeding with minerals and vitamin D3 improves bone properties in hatchlings and mature broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, R; Shahar, R; Uni, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo feeding (IOF) with inorganic minerals or organic minerals and vitamin D3 on bone properties and mineral consumption. Eggs were incubated and divided into 4 groups: IOF with organic minerals, phosphate, and vitamin D3 (IOF-OMD); IOF with inorganic minerals and phosphate (IOF-IM); sham; and non-treated controls (NTC). IOF was performed on embryonic day (E) 17; tibiae and yolk samples were taken on E19 and E21. Post-hatch, only chicks from the IOF-OMD, sham, and NTC were raised, and tibiae were taken on d 10 and 38. Yolk mineral content was examined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Tibiae were tested for their whole-bone mechanical properties, and mid-diaphysis bone sections were indented in a micro-indenter to determine bone material stiffness (Young's modulus). Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to examine cortical and trabecular bone structure. Ash content analysis was used to examine bone mineralization. A latency-to-lie (LTL) test was used to measure standing ability of the d 38 broilers. The results showed that embryos from both IOF-OMD and IOF-IM treatments had elevated Cu, Mn, and Zn amounts in the yolk on E19 and E21 and consumed more of these minerals (between E19 and E21) in comparison to the sham and NTC. On E21, these hatchlings had higher whole-bone stiffness in comparison to the NTC. On d 38, the IOF-OMD had higher ash content, elevated whole-bone stiffness, and elevated Young's modulus (in males) in comparison to the sham and NTC; however, no differences in standing ability were found. Very few structural differences were seen during the whole experiment. This study demonstrates that mineral supplementation by in ovo feeding is sufficient to induce higher mineral consumption from the yolk, regardless of its chemical form or the presence of vitamin D3. Additionally, IOF with organic minerals and vitamin D3 can increase bone ash content, as well as stiffness of the whole

  9. Bone mineral density and nutritional indices in adolescent females with recently diagnosed anorexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures have been shown to occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study evaluated adolescent females diagnosed with AN less than 12 months previously to determine the presence of any significant bone mass reduction at this early stage of diagnosis and to evaluate the correlation between total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and nutritional indices (body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, fat mass and percentage fat). The subjects were 22 adolescent females aged 12-17 years (mean= 14.3 years) diagnosed with AN less than 12 months earlier (range 2.5-11 months; mean = 6.7 months). They had bone density measurements of the TB and LS using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Comparison was made with values of age-matched controls in the Lunar normative database. Although there was a tendency towards low TB and LS bone mass, these changes were not statistically significant. Bivariate analyses showed significant correlation between TB BMD and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.001) and between TB BMC and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.01). There was similar significant correlation between LS BMD and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P<0.01), and between LS BMC and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P < 0.01). With stepwise regression analysis, only lean mass remained significantly correlated with TB BMD and BMC and LS BMD and BMC. There was no longer any significant correlation with weight. In this study, the weight percentile was found to be correlated highly with the LS BMD Z-score (P < 0.01). Therefore, during adolescence, the lean mass in particular, but also body weight, are good indicators of bone densities. Adolescent females do not appear to show bone mass reduction in the early stages of diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This suggests early intervention may preserve bone gain and attainment of normal peak bone mass

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Orientation of Mineral in Bone from Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Norio; Akiyama, Morio; Terayama, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering data from a rabbit femur is quantitatively evaluated with respect to the mineral distribution in bone. The results show the existence of a needle-like mineral with a length of at least 300 A and a preferred orientation of the needle axes parallel to the long axis of the bone. The angular distribution of the needle axes gives a value of 30° for the mean inclination.

  11. Cardiovascular diseases in older patients with osteoporotic hip fracture: prevalence, disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism, and bidirectional links

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher A; Srikusalanukul W; Davis M; Smith P

    2013-01-01

    A Fisher,1,3 W Srikusalanukul,1 M Davis,1,3 P Smith2,31Departments of Geriatric Medicine, 2Orthopaedic Surgery, The Canberra Hospital, 3Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Considerable controversy exists regarding the contribution of mineral/bone metabolism abnormalities to the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and osteoporotic fractures.Aims and methods: To determine the relationships between mineral/bone metabolism biomarkers a...

  12. Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warholm, Lina; Petersen, Kresten R; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.......Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years....

  13. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Poggi; Stefano Aterini; Laura Nicastro; Vincenzo Chiarugi; Marco Ruggiero; Stefania Pacini; Massimo Gulisano

    2002-01-01

    In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA). In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene,...

  14. Bone mineral density of tibae and femura of broiler breeders: growth, development and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. This study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of the UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m² each. The management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (Agroceres Ross, 2003, with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. Birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. On the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. These analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. The egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. For bone mineral density evaluation (BMD birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. BMD values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. On the other hand, interactions were found among femur BMD values and weight and age categories. There was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur BMD. A negative correlation (-0.15 was observed between tibia BMD and eggshell percentage. It was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.

  15. FTIR spectroscopic study of an organic/mineral composite for bone and dental substitute materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Pierre; Lapkowski, Mieczysław; Legeros, Raquel,; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Jean, Alain; Daculsi, Guy

    1997-01-01

    A new injectable biomaterial for bone and dental surgery is a composite consisting of a polymer as a matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics as fillers. The stability of the polymer is essential in the production of a ready-to-use injectable sterilized biomaterial. The purpose of this study was to detect possible polymer degradation which may have been caused by the interaction with the fillers using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Composites containing CaP fillers (B...

  16. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PIGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (PIGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  17. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    OpenAIRE

    Um, In-Woong; Hwang, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Moon-Young; Jun, Sang-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Jang, Hyon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM...

  18. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  19. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  20. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  1. Small-Angle X-ray Study of the Three-Dimensional Collagen/Mineral Superstructure in Intramuscular Fish Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was conducted on native intramuscular shad/herring bone samples. Two-dimensional SAXS patterns were quantitatively analyzed with special consideration for preferred orientation effects, leading to new insights into the three-dimensional superstructure of mineralized collagen fibrils in shad/herring bone

  2. Preadipocyte Factor-1 Is Associated with Marrow Adiposity and Bone Mineral Density in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Misra, Madhusmita; Meenaghan, Erinne; Rosen, Clifford J; Clemmons, David R.; Breggia, Anne; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Despite having low visceral and sc fat depots, women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have elevated marrow fat mass, which is inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Adipocytes and osteoblasts differentiate from a common progenitor cell, the human mesenchymal stem cell. Therefore, understanding factors that regulate this differentiation process may provide insight into bone loss in AN.

  3. Mineralization and Characterization of Composite Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges Intended for Early Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of freeze-dried gelatin sponges as alternative bone grafting substitutes has many advantages, including the ability to swell, high porosity, tailorable degradation, and versatility to incorporate multiple components such as growth factors and nanofillers. The purpose of this study was to mineralize (M and further characterize 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linked gelatin sponges enhanced with preparations rich in growth factors, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers (PHCE. Sponges were characterized for their swelling and in vitro mineralization potential, surface characteristics, protein release, mechanical properties, and MG-63 cell attachment and infiltration. All sponges swelled up to 50% of their original volume upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy showed sparse mineral deposition for gelatin-M scaffolds while PHCE-M scaffolds exhibited more uniform mineral nucleation. Over 21 days, PHCE-M scaffolds cumulatively released significantly more (30% of its initial protein content than all other scaffolds. PHCE-M scaffolds reported lower modulus values (1.3–1.6 MPa when compared to gelatin control scaffolds (1.6–3.2 MPa. Increased cell attachment and infiltration was noticed on PHCE and PHCE-M scaffolds. The results of the study demonstrate the enhanced performance of PHCE and PHCE-M scaffolds to serve as bone healing scaffolds. Their potential to release incorporated factors, comparable composition/mechanical properties to tissues developed in the early stages of bone healing, and enhanced initial cellular response make them suitable for further studies evaluating more complex cellular interactions.

  4. Low bone mineral density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Charlotte E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is common in patients with COPD but the likely multi-factorial causes contributing to this condition (e.g. sex, age, smoking, therapy mask the potential contribution from elements related to COPD. In order to study osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD related to COPD, we studied a well-defined group of patients and controls. Methods BMD, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, circulating bone biomarkers and biochemistry were determined in 30 clinically stable male ex-smokers with confirmed COPD and 15 age matched "ex-smoker" male controls. None of the patients were on inhaled corticosteroids or received more than one short course of steroids. Results Mean (SD FEV1% predicted of patients was 64(6%, the majority having Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD II airflow obstruction. There were 5/30 patients and 1/15 controls who were osteoporotic, while a further 17 patients and 5 controls were osteopenic. The BMD at the hip was lower in patients than controls, but not at the lumbar spine. Mean values of procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide and osteocalcin, both markers of bone formation, and Type 1 collagen β C-telopeptide, a marker of bone resorption, were similar between patients and controls. However, all bone biomarkers were inversely related to hip BMD in patients (r = -0.51, r = -0.67, r = -0.57, p Conclusions Men with COPD had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia than age matched male controls, with a marked difference in BMD at the hip. Bone biomarkers suggest increased bone turnover.

  5. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    OpenAIRE

    Jagpal Sugeet; Ambia-Sobhan Hasina; Shapses Sue A; Huang Abigail E; Kemp Francis W; Bogden John D; Brown Ian L; Birkett Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2), which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals...

  6. RELAXIN enhances differentiation and matrix mineralization through Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (Rxfp2) in MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carolina; Kobayashi, Yukiho; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Moriyama, Keiji

    2014-08-01

    RELAXIN (RLN) is a polypeptide hormone of the insulin-like hormone family; it facilitates birth by softening and widening the pubic symphysis and cervix in many mammals, including humans. The role of RLN in bone metabolism was recently suggested by its ability to induce osteoclastogenesis and activate osteoclast function. RLN binds to RELAXIN/INSULIN-LIKE FAMILY PEPTIDE 1 (RXFP1) and 2 (RXFP2), with varying species-specific affinities. Young men with mutated RXFP2 are at high risk for osteoporosis, as RXFP2 influences osteoblast metabolism by binding to INSULIN-LIKE PEPTIDE 3 (INSL3). However, there have been no reports on RLN function in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization or on the functionally dominant receptors for RLN in osteoblasts. We previously described Rxfp1 and 2 expression patterns in developing mouse oral components, including the maxillary and mandibular bones, Meckel's cartilage, tongue, and tooth primordia. We hypothesized that Rln/Rxfp signaling is a key mediator of skeletal development and metabolism. Here, we present the gene expression patterns of Rxfp1 and 2 in developing mouse calvarial frontal bones as determined by in situ hybridization. In addition, RLN enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and caused abnormal mineralization and extracellular matrix metabolism through Rxfp2, which was predominant over Rxfp1 in MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Our data suggest a novel role for Rln in craniofacial skeletal development and metabolism through Rxfp2. PMID:24857857

  7. Obif, a Transmembrane Protein, Is Required for Bone Mineralization and Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mizuhashi

    Full Text Available Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119, encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice.First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS and osteoid maturation time (Omt, and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS. In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant.Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.

  8. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis of necrotic bone

    OpenAIRE

    Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Utku, Haluk; Ikemoto, Yuka; Celasun, Bülent; Kömürcü, Mahmut; Atik, Aziz

    2007-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis) is a disease that results from the temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to the bone. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy has been used to study the changes in mineral and matrix content of necrotic bone. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that in necrotic bone the relative mineral/matrix ratio decreased. Spectroscopic differences were observed between normal and necrotic bones. The noticeable differences may have important implications for analyzin...

  9. Effects of cell-attachment and extracellular matrix on bone formation in vivo in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Villa

    Full Text Available Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes.

  10. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  11. Disposition of preformed mineral in matrix vesicles. Internal localization and association with alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were made on the disposition of mineral ions in matrix vesicles (MV) and their relationship to alkaline phosphatase by treatment of MV-enriched microsomes (MVEM) with graded levels of Ca2+-chelating agents to complex accessible ions, fractionation of MVEM on hypertonic sucrose gradients at two different pH values (7.5 and 8.0) to evaluate for the presence of calcium phosphate mineral, and passage of MVEM through cation-exchange columns to determine the accessibility of the Ca2+. The effect of removal of Ca2+ and Pi on subsequent ability of MVEM to induce mineral formation from synthetic cartilage lymph was also determined. Passage through cation-exchange columns revealed that MV Ca2+ was not freely exchangeable, but coeluted in the void volume with alkaline phosphatase. However, upon incubation in synthetic cartilage lymph, progressively more Ca2+ was retained by the column. These findings indicate that, initially, the majority of Ca2+ in MVEM is internal and not readily exchangeable, but as Ca2+ accumulates, progressively more becomes external. The mineral in MV is labile and readily susceptible to loss; treatment with graded levels of EGTA removed major portions of the original Ca2+ and Pi. 45Ca uptake by these mineral-depleted MV was markedly reduced, even in the presence of alkaline phosphatase substrates. Sucrose gradient fractionation of MVEM caused extensive loss of Pi, but not Ca2+, from the low-density alkaline phosphatase-rich fractions. This reveals that Ca2+ and Pi are not initially coupled together: Pi is largely soluble, whereas Ca2+ must be tightly bound. In the high-density vesicles, large amounts of both Ca2+ and Pi are present

  12. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD, mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs and trabecular bones (Tbs were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp at 2 and 4 weeks to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks. The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical

  13. Effects of strontium ions on growth and dissolution of hydroxyapatite and on bone mineral detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, J; Christoffersen, M R; Kolthoff, N; Bärenholdt, O

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and analyses of a series of hydroxyapatites (HA) containing 1-10 mol % of Ca2+ replaced by Sr2+ is reported. The solubility of these apatites is found to increase with increasing content of Sr2+, 10% SrHA dissolves faster than CaHA at given values of Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations, but with a similar rate at the same degree of saturation. Sr2+ is found to inhibit the rates of both dissolution and growth of CaHA and 10% SrHA at pH 7.2, CaHA being more strongly inhibited by Sr2+ than 10% SrHA. The effect of partial substitution of Ca2+ in hydroxyapatite by Sr2+ on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry has been studied using three commercial densitometers. Extrapolating the absorption data for up to 10% replacement of Ca2+ by Sr2+ to 100% substitution of Ca2+ by Sr2+ in HA leads to an apparent increase in BMC or BMD of about a factor of 10. This factor is in agreement with theoretical calculations using attenuation coefficients of the atoms concerned. It is concluded that existing BMC scanners register artificially high values of BMC if the bone contains significant amounts of Sr2+ or other metal ions with atomic number larger than calcium. PMID:8988347

  14. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  15. Next-generation sequencing for disorders of low and high bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Gautam; Campeau, Philippe M.; Zhang, Victor Wei; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Dawson, Brian C.; Grover, Monica; Bacino, Carlos A.; Sutton, V. Reid; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lu, James T.; Lemire, Edmond; Gibbs, Richard A.; Cohn, Dan H.; Cui, Hong; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Lee, Brendan H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and osteopetrosis (OPT)are collectively common inherited skeletal diseases. Evaluation of subjects with these conditions often includes molecular testing which has important counseling, therapeutic and sometimes legal implications. Since several different genes have been implicated in these conditions, Sanger sequencing of each gene can be a prohibitively expensive and time consuming way to reach a molecular diagnosis. Methods In order to circumvent these problems, we have designed and tested a NGS platform that would allow simultaneous sequencing on a single diagnostic platform of different genes implicated in OI, OPT, EDS, and other inherited conditions leading to low or high bone mineral density. We used a liquid-phase probe library that captures 602 exons (~100 kb) of 34 selected genes and have applied it to test clinical samples from patients with bone disorders. Results NGS of the captured exons by Illumina HiSeq2000 resulted in an average coverage of over 900X. The platform was successfully validated by identifying mutations in 6 patients with known mutations. Moreover, in 4 patients with OI or OPT without a prior molecular diagnosis, the assay was able to detect the causative mutations. Conclusions In conclusion, our NGS panel provides a fast and accurate method to arrive at a molecular diagnosis in most patients with inherited high or low bone mineral density disorders. PMID:23443412

  16. Relationships of ultrasonic backscatter with ultrasonic attenuation, sound speed and bone mineral density in human calcaneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, K A; Stuber, A P; Reynolds, J C

    2000-10-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed have been investigated in trabecular bone by numerous authors. Ultrasonic backscatter has received much less attention. To investigate relationships among these three ultrasonic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), 30 defatted human calcanei were investigated in vitro. Normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA), sound speed (SOS), and logarithm of ultrasonic backscatter coefficient (LBC) were measured. Bone mineral density was assessed using single-beam dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation coefficients of least squares linear regressions of the three individual ultrasound (US) parameters with BMD were 0.84 (nBUA), 0.84 (SOS) and 0.79 (LBC). The 95% confidence intervals for the correlation coefficients were 0. 69-0.92 (nBUA), 0.68-0.92 (SOS) and 0.60-0.90 (LBC). The correlations among pairs of US variables ranged from 0.63-0.79. Variations in nBUA accounted for r(2) = 62% of the variations in LBC. Variations in SOS accounted for r(2) = 40% of the variations in LBC. These results suggest that ultrasonic backscattering properties may contain substantial information not already contained in nBUA and SOS. A multiple regression model including all three US variables was somewhat more predictive of BMD than a model including only nBUA and SOS. PMID:11120369

  17. Bone mineralization disorders as a complication of anorexia nervosa - etiology, prevalence, course and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska, Gabriela Wiesława; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Racicka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) most often has its onset in adolescence, which is a crucial period to achieve peak bone mass. The hormonal abnormalities (hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, decreased secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor) and malnutrition are associated with profound bone mineralization disorders. Densitomertic bone mineral density (BMD) values for osteopenia and osteoporosis were found respectively in 35-98% and 13-50% of women with AN. Prospective studies indicate a further decline in BMD at the beginning of treatment and a crucial importance of weight gain and return of spontaneous menses for its growth. Due to frequent chronic and relapsing course of AN densitometric assessment of BMD is recommended in all patients with AN and amenorrhea lasting around twelve months. In order to establish standards for the treatment of osteoporosis in AN, studies on pharmacological treatment are conducted. There are promising results indicating the improvement in BMD after treatment with physiologic oestrogen replacement treatment and sequential administration of medroxyprogesterone in teenage girls and bisphosphonates in adult women. Supplementation of vitamin D and adequate consumption of calcium from diet are recommended. Further studies on the effectiveness of long-term treatment of osteoporosis with regard to the possibility of increase in BMD and reducing the risk of osteoporotic fractures are needed. PMID:27556110

  18. Bone mineralization disorders as a complication of anorexia nervosa - etiology, prevalence, course and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Wiesława Jagielska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN most often has its onset in adolescence, which is a crucial period to achieve peak bone mass. The hormonal abnormalities (hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, decreased secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and malnutrition are associated with profound bone mineralization disorders. Densitomertic bone mineral density (BMD values for osteopenia and osteoporosis were found respectively in 35–98% and 13–50% of women with AN. Prospective studies indicate a further decline in BMD at the beginning of treatment and a crucial importance of weight gain and return of spontaneous menses for its growth. Due to frequent chronic and relapsing course of AN densitometric assessment of BMD is recommended in all patients with AN and amenorrhea lasting around twelve months. In order to establish standards for the treatment of osteoporosis in AN, studies on pharmacological treatment are conducted. There are promising results indicating the improvement in BMD after treatment with physiologic oestrogen replacement treatment and sequential administration of medroxyprogesterone in teenage girls and bisphosphonates in adult women. Supplementation of vitamin D and adequate consumption of calcium from diet are recommended. Further studies on the effectiveness of long-term treatment of osteoporosis with regard to the possibility of increase in BMD and reducing the risk of osteoporotic fractures are needed.

  19. Tantalum coating on TiO2 nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Christine J; Brammer, Karla S; Noh, Kunbae; Johnston, Gary; Jin, Sungho

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO2) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ~30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO2 nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. PMID:24582257

  20. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emma T. Callegari; Nicola Reavley; Suzanne M Garland; Alexandra Gorelik; Wark, John D.; on behalf of the Safe-D study team

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study i...

  1. Association between low C-peptide and low lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Montalcini, T; Gallotti, P.; Coppola, A; Zambianchi, V.; Fodaro, M.; Galliera, E.; Marazzi, M G; S. Romeo; Giannini, S.; Corsi Romanelli, M. M.; Pujia, A; Gazzaruso, C

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this population-based, cross-sectional study in Italian postmenopausal females not affected by diabetes, we showed a link between serum C-peptide and lumbar bone mineral density, suggesting that C-peptide exerts an insulin-independent effect on bone mass. Introduction It is well known that type 1 (T1) diabetes, characterized by insulin and C-peptide deficiency, is associated with a low lumbar bone mineral density and an increased risk for fracture. While a role for insulin in the p...

  2. A comparison of commercially available demineralized bone matrix for spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jeffrey C.; Alanay, A; Mark, Davies; Kanim, Linda E. A.; Campbell, Pat A; Dawson, Edgar G.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to augment the available grafting material as well as to increase spinal fusion rates, the utilization of a demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a graft extender or replacement is common. There are several commercially available DBM substances available for use in spinal surgery, each with different amounts of DBM containing osteoinductive proteins. Each product may have different osteoinductivity potential due to different methods of preparation, storage, and donor specifications....

  3. Comparison of Singh index accuracy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density measurement for evaluating osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Singh index is an inexpensive simple method to evaluate bone density, commonly used to assess osteoporosis is based on the radiological appearance of the trabecular bone structure of the proximal femur on a plain antero-posterior radiograph. The purpose of this study was to compare between Singh index and bone mineral density measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Materials and Methods: Three orthopedists evaluated radiographs of 72 patients suspected with osteoporosis. The inter-observer agreements of the Singh index were obtained by using kappa statistics. The bone mineral density of proximal femur was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all patients, and then the bone mineral density results were compared with those of Singh index by using reference radiographic charts of the Singh index method. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density. A Norland XR46 system was used for the investigations. Results: The inter-observer agreement kappa values were 0.01, 0.07 and 0.09 (mean value: 0.05) and the strength of the observer agreements was negligible. The obtained Osteoporosis prevalence among the studied patients was 38.9%. Conclusion: The inter-observer variation was large, there was no any correlation between the Singh index and bone densitometry. So, the index cannot be used; for evaluating and osteoporosis diagnosis, because of its low reliability.

  4. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density, trace elements and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the primary purposes of the coordinated research program was to measure BMD of the healthy population of the ages between 15 and 49 based on the protocol discussed during the first research coordination meeting, RCM, in Vienna, December 12-15, 1994. The work carried out since then can be divided into several topics. Each of these subjects will be summarized in the following sections. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used for determination of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn and Cu in bone samples. Sample preparation is a critical step prior to AAS. It requires the oxidation of organic matter of biological samples to prepare a solution ready for analysis of mineral elements. For bone samples, for dissolution purposes several acid or acid mixtures can be used. For the preparation of bone samples for AAS, cleaned, separated from blood, muscle and fat, powdered and homogenized bone samples were dissolved in nitric acid. Different dissolution procedures such as hot plate dissolution, dissolution at room temperature and microwave dissolution were tried. After these experiments, microwave dissolution procedure was chosen as the main digestion method for its following advantages: Rapid dissolution (only 8 minutes), complete digestion, minimal reagent consumption, sample integrity which allows volatile element determination, lower reagent blank and potential automation. Bone samples weighing approximately 300 mg will be irradiated with thermal neutrons at Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, TR-2 Reactor in Istanbul. Gamma rays of the radioactive isotopes of the samples will be measured with the nuclear spectroscopy system at the Department of Chemistry, METU. We have already analyzed five bone samples (cortical and trabecular parts separately) weighing approximately 200 mg, both short and long irradiation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NUT), USA

  5. Effects of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins On Bone Mineral Density and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Samancı

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins have been shown to have effects on bone metabolism in laboratory studies. While early clinic studies have showed lower risk for osteoporotic fractures among statin users than nonusers, subsequent studies have found mixed results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism. Thirty-five consecutive postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women who were treated for at least last 6 months with statins were included in the study. Seventy-five normocholesterolemic age-matched postmenopausal women were in the control group. Subjects with a history of any diseases and used drugs that may affect calcium or bone metabolism were excluded from the study. Age, associated illness, years since menopause, and body mass index (BMI were obtained from all the patients including the control group. Besides, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy D3, osteocalcin, and urinary calcium excretion were measured. BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at femoral neck and 3rd lomber spine. Mean duration of statin use was 28.17±21.17 months. BMI was found to be statistically higher in statin users than nonusers (27.47±3.67kg/m2 and 25.46±3.91 kg/m2, respectively. The markers of bone metabolism used in the study were found to be similar between the groups. BMD was not different in statin users and nonusers at femoral neck and lomber spine. As conclusion, statin use did not affect BMD and bone metabolism in this study. In our opinion large randomised, controlled, prospective clinical trials are needed to accurately determine the role of statins in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumsohn, A; Marin, F; Nickelsen, T; Brixen, K; Sigurdsson, G; González de la Vera, J; Boonen, S; Liu-Léage, S; Barker, C; Eastell, R

    2011-01-01

    We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone...... markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment. INTRODUCTION: The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women with...... osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD...

  7. Skeletal Mineralization Deficits and Impaired Biogenesis and Function of Chondrocyte-Derived Matrix Vesicles in Phospho1(-/-) and Phospho1/Pi t1 Double-Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manisha C; Bottini, Massimo; Cory, Esther; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Kuss, Pia; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sah, Robert L; Beck, Laurent; Fadeel, Bengt; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    We have previously shown that ablation of either the Phospho1 or Alpl gene, encoding PHOSPHO1 and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) respectively, lead to hyperosteoidosis, but that their chondrocyte-derived and osteoblast-derived matrix vesicles (MVs) are able to initiate mineralization. In contrast, the double ablation of Phospho1 and Alpl completely abolish initiation and progression of skeletal mineralization. We argued that MVs initiate mineralization by a dual mechanism: PHOSPHO1-mediated intravesicular generation of inorganic phosphate (Pi ) and phosphate transporter-mediated influx of Pi . To test this hypothesis, we generated mice with col2a1-driven Cre-mediated ablation of Slc20a1, hereafter referred to as Pi t1, alone or in combination with a Phospho1 gene deletion. Pi t1(col2/col2) mice did not show any major phenotypic abnormalities, whereas severe skeletal deformities were observed in the [Phospho1(-/-) ; Pi t1(col2/col2) ] double knockout mice that were more pronounced than those observed in the Phospho1(-/-) mice. Histological analysis of [Phospho1(-/-) ; Pi t1(col2/col2) ] bones showed growth plate abnormalities with a shorter hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and extensive hyperosteoidosis. The [Phospho1(-/-) ; Pi t1(col2/col2) ] skeleton displayed significant decreases in BV/TV%, trabecular number, and bone mineral density, as well as decreased stiffness, decreased strength, and increased postyield deflection compared to Phospho1(-/-) mice. Using atomic force microscopy we found that ∼80% of [Phospho1(-/-) ; Pi t1(col2/col2) ] MVs were devoid of mineral in comparison to ∼50% for the Phospho1(-/-) MVs and ∼25% for the WT and Pi t1(col2/col2) MVs. We also found a significant decrease in the number of MVs produced by both Phospho1(-/-) and [Phospho1(-/-) ; Pi t1(col2/col2) ] chondrocytes. These data support the involvement of phosphate transporter 1, hereafter referred to as Pi T-1, in the initiation of skeletal mineralization and

  8. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapilmoto Monika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1 improve nutrition, (2 increase health literacy and, (3 increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood test panel and a quality of life inventory (AlgaeCal 1. Two weeks after the last subject completed, a second group of 58 was enrolled and followed the identical plan, but with a different bone-health supplement (AlgaeCal 2. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline bone mineral density (BMD or in variables related to BMD (age, sex, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, or fat-free mass. In both groups, no significant differences in BMD or related variables were found between volunteers and non-volunteers or between those who completed per protocol and those who were lost to attrition. Both groups experienced a significant positive mean annualized percent change (MAPC in BMD compared to expectation [AlgaeCal 1: 1.15%, p = 0.001; AlgaeCal 2: 2.79%, p = 0.001]. Both groups experienced a positive MAPC compared to baseline, but only AlgaeCal 2 experienced a significant change [AlgaeCal 1: 0.48%, p = 0.14; AlgaeCal 2: 2.18%, p p = 0.005. The MAPC contrast between compliant and partially compliant subjects was significant for both plans (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively. No clinically significant changes in a 43-panel blood chemistry test were found nor were there any changes in self-reported quality of life in either group. Conclusions Following The Plan for six months with either version of the bone health supplement was associated with significant increases in BMD as compared to expected and, in AlgaeCal 2, the increase from

  9. Association Between Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Men on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Sandra M S de A; Wahrlich, Vivian; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Studies have revealed complex interactions between bone and fat, however there are few studies about this crosstalk in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study investigated possible relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in patients who underwent hemodialysis. Twenty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (47.0 [42.3-56.8] years, body mass index 26.0 ± 4.2 kg/m, dialysis vintage of 48.5 [26.7-95.7] months). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and parathormone levels were analyzed using Multiplex kits (R&D System Inc). Low bone mass in the femoral neck was reported in 54.8% of patients. Total BMD and total T-score were positively correlated with lean mass (r = 0.46, P = 0.04; r = 0.47, P = 0.04, respectively), but not with leptin or body fat mass. In conclusion, lean body mass is probably important to maintain bone health in male patients who underwent hemodialysis. PMID:26418381

  10. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test. PMID:27185035

  11. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  12. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong; Chang, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to 7th lumbar vertebra was performed and the region of interest was drawn in each trabecular and cortical bone. Mean Hounsfield unit values were converted to equivalent BMD with bone-density phantom by linear regression analysis. The converted mean trabecular BMDs were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. ADH dogs showed significantly lower BMDs at cortical bone than normal dogs. Mean trabecular BMDs of dogs with PDH using QCT were significantly lower than those of normal dogs, and both mean trabecular and cortical BMDs in dogs with ADH were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. Taken together, these findings indicate that QCT is useful to assess BMD in dogs with HAC. PMID:26040613

  13. Relationship between serum sex hormone and bone mineral density in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the relationship between serum sex hormone level and bone mineral density (BMD) in male patients with type 2 diabetes, the serum levels of sex hormone (FSH, LH, PRL, E2, P and T) were measured by RIA in 49 male patients with type 2 diabetes and 46 male subjects without diabetes. The BMD of all patients in distal radius were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption method. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the value of BMD: osteoporosis group (OP), loss bone mass group (L), normal bone mass group (N). The results showed that the BMD in patients with type 2 diabetes were markedly lower than that in patients without diabetes (P2, T and P levels in OP group with type 2 diabetes were markedly lower than those in OP group without diabetes (P2 and P were positively correlated with BMD. The results suggested that the loss of bone mass in patients with type 2 diabetes is relative to the disturbance of pituitary gonad axis. The patient who lacks gonad hormones was susceptible to osteoporosis. (authors)

  14. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik; Alkjaer, T; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2005-01-01

    Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... study investigated BMD in seven Danish national team rowers with previous rib stress fracture (RSF) and 7 controls (C) matched for gender, age, height, weight and training experience. Total body scan and specific scans of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and distal radius were performed using a...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....

  15. Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Kannus, P; Sievänen, H; Haapasalo, H; Mänttäri, A; Vuori, I

    1995-09-01

    To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measured anatomic sites were at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, calcaneus, and distal radius. The athlete group consisted of aerobic dancers (N = 27), squash players (N = 18), and speed skaters (N = 14). The squash players had the highest values for weight-adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (13.8% p forces, is more effective in bone formation than training with a large number of low-force repetitions. PMID:8541131

  16. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm2 and 0.765g/cm2. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  17. How does long-term parenteral nutrition impact the bone mineral status of children with intestinal failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Antonella; Bizzarri, Carla; Bizzarri, Claudia; Basso, Maria Sole; Gambarara, Manuela; Cappa, Marco; Daniele, Antonella; Noto, Cristian; Castro, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Patients on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are at significantly increased risk for the development of metabolic bone disease (MBD); this condition is characterized by incomplete mineralization of osteoid with consequent disturbances ranging from osteopenia to severe bone disease with fractures. The aim of the study was: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of MBD, (2) to identify the PN- or intestinal failure (IF)-related factors and (3) to assess annual changes of bone mineral status. Since September 2005 all patients affected by IF and treated with PN started a BMD evaluation program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twenty-four IF patients were included [15 with short bowel syndrome (SBS), 5 with severe protracted diarrhea and 4 with chronic intestinal pseudostruction]. The bone mineral density (BMD) Z-score was significantly lower in patients than in the control group. In our series SBS patients showed a BMD Z-score significantly higher in comparison with the medical causes of IF. No significant correlations were found between bone mineral status and PN duration and nutrient intake. Nine IF patients were submitted to a second DXA evaluation after 1 year from the baseline. All bone mineral variables were significantly increased at the second DXA evaluation. The high prevalence of MBD in IF patients undergoing long-term treatment with PN requires that these patients undergo careful and periodic monitoring of their bone mineral status; patients with congenital gut dysfunctions, such as epithelium defects and motility anomalies, are at major risk of developing this complication, probably due to the association with extra-intestinal causes of bone loss. PMID:20033239

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Residents of Villages Surrounding Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimof

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs associated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated association between fruit and vegetables intake and bone mineral density in rural population of Tehran surroundings. Subjects were a subgroup of a large study on prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surrounding Tehran, capital of Iran. Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL (Calscan method at the heels. Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 years were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men were 69.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetable intake women were grouped as those consuming less than 1.5 servings of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reported consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01. Those consumed more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin A (r= 0.03, P<0.05 was correlated with BMD. High consumption of vegetables positively affected bone mineral density in rural women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables could positively affect osteoporosis prevention.

  19. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone density measures, has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that menstrual recovery and weight gain (≥10% increase in body mass index) would predict an increase in these measures of bone density. Methods: In a prospective observational study, lumbar and whole-body (WB) bone density was measured at 0, 6, and 12 months in 34 AN girls aged 12–18 yr and 33 controls. Using Ward’s modification of the Molgaard approach, we determined measures of BMC for BA and BA for height at the lumbar spine and WB and also determined spine bone mineral apparent density and WB BMC adjusted for height. Results: Girls with AN had lower spine BMC for BA Z-scores (P = 0.0009), and lower WB BA for height Z (P < 0.0001), compared with controls. Menstrual recovery and weight gain in AN (AN-recovered) (median 9 months) resulted in a stabilization of BMD measures, whereas BMD continued to decrease in AN who did not gain weight and recover menses (AN-not recovered). AN-recovered also predicted greater increases in spine BMC for BA and WB BA for height, compared with AN-not recovered (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Even short-term weight gain with menstrual recovery is associated with a stabilization of BMD measures. PMID:18089702

  20. Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents

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    Jeddi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC, Bone Mineral Density (BMD, total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11 than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11 (P < 0.001. We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001 and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44. Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents. Conclusions These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children.

  1. Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Morseth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported benefits of regular physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD. The effects of physical activity on BMD are primarily linked to the mechanisms of mechanical loading, but the understanding of the precise mechanism behind the association is incomplete. The aim of this paper was to review the main findings concerning sources and types of mechanical stimuli in relation to BMD. Mechanical forces that act on bone are generated from impact with the ground (ground-reaction forces and from skeletal muscle contractions (muscle forces or muscle-joint forces, but the relative importance of these two sources has not been elucidated. Both muscle-joint forces and gravitational forces seem to be able to induce bone adaptation independently, and there may be differences in the importance of loading sources at different skeletal sites. The nature of the stimuli is affected by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of the activity. The activity should be dynamic, not static, and the magnitude and rate of the stimuli should be high. In accordance with this, cross-sectional studies report highest BMD in athletes of high-impact activities such as dancing, soccer, volleyball, basketball, squash, speed skating, gymnastics, hockey, and step-aerobics. Endurance activities such as orienteering, skiing, and triathlon seem to be beneficial to a lesser degree, whereas low-impact activities such as swimming and cycling are associated with lower BMD than controls. Both the intensity and frequency of the activity should be varied and increased beyond the habitual level. Duration of the activity seems to be less important, and a few loading cycles seem to be sufficient.

  2. Bone mineral density changes during pregnancy in actively exercising women as measured by quantitative ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    To, William W. K.; Wong, Margaret W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether bone mineral density (BMD) changes in women engaged in active exercises during pregnancy would be different from non-exercising women. Methods Consecutive patients with singleton pregnancies who were engaged in active exercise training during pregnancy were prospectively recruited over a period of 6 months. Quantitative USG measurements of the os calcis BMD were performed at 14–20 weeks and at 36–38 weeks. These patients were compared to a control cohort of non-e...

  3. Racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density among older women

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hae-Sung; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Zmuda, Joseph M; Leung, P C; Lui, Li-Yung; Hill, Deanna D.; Patrick, Alan L.; Cauley, Jane A

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiologic information regarding international differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in women is currently insufficient. We compared BMD in older women across five racial/ethnic groups in four countries. The femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine BMD were measured in women (aged 65–74 years) from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) (5,035 Caucasian women and 256 African American women in the US), the Tobago Women’s Health Study (116 Afro-Caribbean women), the Ms Os Hong Ko...

  4. Fracture Risk Prediction Using Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density or FRAX(®)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Brixen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    In this prospective study, we investigated the ability of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD), and age alone to predict fractures using data from a Danish cohort study, Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, including men (n = 5206) and women (n = 7552......) aged 40-90 yr. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and by phalangeal BMD measurement. Information on incident and prevalent fractures, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis was retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry. Survival analyses were used to examine...