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Sample records for bone material properties

  1. Bone strength and material properties of the glenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, N.C.; Odgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    of bone specimens harvested from the central part of the glenoid subchondral area. The elastic modulus varied from approximately 100 MPa at the glenoid bare area to 400 MPa at the superior part of the glenoid. With the elastic constants used a predictor of the mechanical anisotropy, the average anisotropy...... ratio was 5.2, indicating strong anisotropy. The apparent density was an average 0.35 gr. cm-3, and the Poisson ratio averaged 0.263. According to our findings the anisotropy of the glenoid cancellous bone, details concerning the strength distribution, and the load-bearing function of the cortical shell......The quality of the glenoid bone is important to a successful total shoulder replacement. Finite element models have been used to model the response of the glenoid bone to an implanted prosthesis. Because very little is known about the bone strength and the material properties at the glenoid...

  2. Macroscopic anisotropic bone material properties in children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Carolyne; Jameson, John; Tarima, Sergey; Smith, Peter; Harris, Gerald

    2017-11-07

    Children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically experience numerous fractures and progressive skeletal deformities over their lifetime. Recent studies proposed finite element models to assess fracture risk and guide clinicians in determining appropriate intervention in children with OI, but lack of appropriate material property inputs remains a challenge. This study aimed to characterize macroscopic anisotropic cortical bone material properties and investigate relationships with bone density measures in children with severe OI. Specimens were obtained from tibial or femoral shafts of nine children with severe OI and five controls. The specimens were cut into beams, characterized in bending, and imaged by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-computed tomography. Longitudinal modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and bending strength were 32-65% lower in the OI group (p<0.001). Yield strain did not differ between groups (p≥0.197). In both groups, modulus and strength were lower in the transverse direction (p≤0.009), but anisotropy was less pronounced in the OI group. Intracortical vascular porosity was almost six times higher in the OI group (p<0.001), but no differences were observed in osteocyte lacunar porosity between the groups (p=0.086). Volumetric bone mineral density was lower in the OI group (p<0.001), but volumetric tissue mineral density was not (p=0.770). Longitudinal OI bone modulus and strength were correlated with volumetric bone mineral density (p≤0.024) but not volumetric tissue mineral density (p≥0.099). Results indicate that cortical bone in children with severe OI yields at the same strain as normal bone, and that their decreased bone material strength is associated with reduced volumetric bone mineral density. These results will enable the advancement of fracture risk assessment capability in children with severe OI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution bone material property assignment yields robust subject specific finite element models of complex thin bone structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2016-06-14

    Accurate finite element (FE) modeling of complex skeletal anatomy requires high resolution in both meshing and the heterogeneous mapping of material properties onto the generated mesh. This study introduces Node-based elastic Modulus Assignment with Partial-volume correction (NMAP) as a new approach for FE material property assignment to thin bone structures. The NMAP approach incorporates point spread function based deblurring of CT images, partial-volume correction of CT image voxel intensities and anisotropic interpolation and mapping of CT intensity assignment to FE mesh nodes. The NMAP procedure combined with a derived craniomaxillo-facial skeleton (CMFS) specific density-isotropic elastic modulus relationship was applied to produce specimen-specific FE models of 6 cadaveric heads. The NMAP procedure successfully generated models of the complex thin bone structures with surface elastic moduli reflective of cortical bone material properties. The specimen-specific CMFS FE models were able to accurately predict experimental strains measured under in vitro temporalis and masseter muscle loading (r=0.93, slope=1.01, n=5). The strength of this correlation represents a robust validation for CMFS FE modeling that can be used to better understand load transfer in this complex musculoskeletal system. The developed methodology offers a systematic process-flow able to address the complexity of the CMFS that can be further applied to create high-fidelity models of any musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite-Based Bone Reconstructive Materials with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Zorica R; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Ignjatović, Nenad L; Stojanović, Zoran; Mladenović-Antić, Snezana B; Kocić, Branislava D; Najman, Stevo; Petrović, Nenad D; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2016-02-01

    In the field of oral implantology the loss of bone tissue prevents adequate patient care, and calls for the use of synthetic biomaterials with properties that resemble natural bone. Special attention is paid to the risk of infection after the implantation of these materials. Studies have suggested that some nanocontructs containing metal ions have antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, compared to hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/poly-lactide-co-glycolide. The antibacterial effects of these powders were tested against two pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coi (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), using the disc diffusion method and the quantitative antimicrobial test in a liquid medium. The quantitative antimicrobial test showed that all of the tested biomaterials have some antibacterial properties. The effects of both tests were more prominent in case of S. aureus than in E coli. A higher percentage of cobalt in the crystal structure of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles led to an increased antimicrobial activity. All of the presented biomaterial samples were found to be non-hemolytic. Having in mind that the tested of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca/Co-HAp) material in given concentrations shows good hemocompatibility and antimicrobial effects, along with its previously studied biological properties, the conclusion can be reached that it is a potential candidate that could substitute calcium hydroxyapatite as the material of choice for use in bone tissue engineering and clinical practices in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical, material, and antimicrobial properties of acrylic bone cement impregnated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Josh; Vivanco, Juan; Rose, Warren; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn; Squire, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is one of the most serious complications that can lead to failure of a total joint replacement. Recently, the rise of multidrug resistant bacteria has substantially reduced the efficacy of antibiotics that are typically incorporated into acrylic bone cement. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an attractive alternative to traditional antibiotics resulting from their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low bacterial resistance. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to incorporate metallic silver nanoparticles into acrylic bone cement and quantify the effects on the cement's mechanical, material and antimicrobial properties. AgNPs at three loading ratios (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0% wt/wt) were incorporated into a commercial bone cement using a probe sonication technique. The resulting cements demonstrated mechanical and material properties that were not substantially different from the standard cement. Testing against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using Kirby-Bauer and time-kill assays demonstrated no antimicrobial activity against planktonic bacteria. In contrast, cements modified with AgNPs significantly reduced biofilm formation on the surface of the cement. These results indicate that AgNP-loaded cement is of high potential for use in primary arthroplasty where prevention of bacterial surface colonization is vital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko A.J.; Zioupos, Peter; Aula, Antti; Risteli, Juha; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Jämsä, Timo; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr −/− ) and wild-type (Ahr +/+ ) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr +/+ mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr −/− mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr +/+ mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr −/− mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr +/+ mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation results in increased trabecular bone

  8. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.herlin@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Finnilä, Mikko A.J., E-mail: mikko.finnila@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Zioupos, Peter, E-mail: p.zioupos@cranfield.ac.uk [Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University, Shrivenham SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Aula, Antti, E-mail: antti.aula@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Risteli, Juha, E-mail: juha.risteli@ppshp.fi [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Jämsä, Timo, E-mail: timo.jamsa@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Tuukkanen, Juha, E-mail: juha.tuukkanen@oulu.fi [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja, E-mail: merja.korkalainen@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Hakansson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Viluksela, Matti, E-mail: matti.viluksela@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup −/−}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup −/−} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup −/−} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation

  9. Obesity-related changes in bone structural and material properties in hyperphagic OLETF rats and protection by voluntary wheel running

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a study to examine how the development of obesity and the associated insulin resistance affect bone structural and material properties, and bone formation and resorption markers in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model. This was a 36-week study of sedentary, hyperphag...

  10. Micromechanical modeling of the cement-bone interface: the effect of friction, morphology and material properties on the micromechanical response

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element models of a cement-bone interface specimen were created from micro-computed tomography data of a physical specimen that was sectioned from an in vitro cemented total hip arthroplasty. In five models t...

  11. Injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair materials with regulable self-setting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2011-12-15

    An injectable and self-setting bone repair materials (nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nHAC/CSH) was developed in this study. The nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) composite, which is the mineralized fibril by self-assembly of nano-hydrocyapatite and collagen, has the same features as natural bone in both main hierarchical microstructure and composition. It is a bioactive osteoconductor due to its high level of biocompatibility and appropriate degradation rate. However, this material lacks handling characteristics because of its particle or solid-preformed block shape. Herein, calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) was introduced into nHAC to prepare an injectable and self-setting in situ bone repair materials. The morphology of materials was observed using SEM. Most important and interesting of all, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD), which is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, was introduced into nHAC as setting accelerator to regulate self-setting properties of injectable nHAC/CSH composite, and thus the self-setting time of nHAC/CSH composite can be regulated from more than 100 min to about 30 min and even less than 20 min by adding various amount of setting accelerator. The compressive properties of bone graft substitute after final setting are similar to those of cancellous bone. CSD as an excellent setting accelerator has no significant effect on the mechanical property and degradability of bone repair materials. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies demonstrated that the nHAC/CSH composite could provide more adequate stimulus for cell adhesion and proliferation, embodying favorable cell biocompatibility and a strong ability to accelerate bone formation. It can offer a satisfactory biological environment for growing new bone in the implants and for stimulating bone formation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  13. The Role of Water Compartments in the Material Properties of Cortical Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granke, Mathilde; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-09-01

    Comprising ~20% of the volume, water is a key determinant of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone. It essentially exists in two general compartments: within pores and bound to the matrix. The amount of pore water-residing in the vascular-lacunar-canalicular space-primarily reflects intracortical porosity (i.e., open spaces within the matrix largely due to Haversian canals and resorption sites) and as such is inversely proportional to most mechanical properties of bone. Movement of water according to pressure gradients generated during dynamic loading likely confers hydraulic stiffening to the bone as well. Nonetheless, bound water is a primary contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone in that it is responsible for giving collagen the ability to confer ductility or plasticity to bone (i.e., allows deformation to continue once permanent damage begins to form in the matrix) and decreases with age along with fracture resistance. Thus, dehydration by air-drying or by solvents with less hydrogen bonding capacity causes bone to become brittle, but interestingly, it also increases stiffness and strength across the hierarchical levels of organization. Despite the importance of matrix hydration to fracture resistance, little is known about why bound water decreases with age in hydrated human bone. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), both bound and pore water concentrations in bone can be measured ex vivo because the proton relaxation times differ between the two water compartments, giving rise to two distinct signals. There are also emerging techniques to measure bound and pore water in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NMR/MRI-derived bound water concentration is positively correlated with both the strength and toughness of hydrated bone and may become a useful clinical marker of fracture risk.

  14. Main properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material in treatment of periodontal defects. A review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Shahnaz, Aysan; Pourali, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to provide a literature review on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (n-HA). n-HA constitutes the principle inorganic part of hard tissues. Therefore, preparation of commercial synthetic analogues, the so-called ‘biomimetic’, has gained a lot of attention since it can precisely mimic the physicochemical features of biological apatite compounds. Due to its improved osseointegrative properties, n-HA may represent a promising class of bone graft materials. n-HA binds to the bone and by stimulation of osteoblast activity and enhancing local growth factors it improves bone healing. Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition in response to microbial plaque that leads to periodontal tissue destruction and osseous defects in alveolar bone. A review of the extant literature reveals that n-HA has certain advantages in periodontal tissue regeneration including minimal patient morbidity, better biocompatibility, and lack of toxicity

  15. Alteration of the bone tissue material properties in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Mansur, Sity Aishah; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a severe disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. A higher occurrence of bone fractures has been reported in T1DM, and although bone mineral density is reduced in this disorder, it is also thought that bone quality may be altered in this chronic pathology. Vibrational microscopies such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) represent an interesting approach to study bone quality as they allow investigation of the collagen and mineral compartment of the extracellular matrix in a specific bone location. However, as spectral feature arising from the mineral may overlap with those of the organic component, the demineralization of bone sections should be performed for a full investigation of the organic matrix. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a new approach, based on the demineralization of thin bone tissue section to allow a better characterization of the bone organic component by FTIRM, (ii) to validate collagen glycation and collagen integrity in bone tissue and (iii) to better understand what alterations of tissue material properties in newly forming bone occur in T1DM. The streptozotocin-injected mouse (150 mg/kg body weight, injected at 8 weeks old) was used as T1DM model. Animals were randomly allocated to control (n = 8) or diabetic (n = 10) groups and were sacrificed 4 weeks post-STZ injection. Bones were collected at necropsy, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and sectioned prior to examination by FTIRM. FTIRM collagen parameters were collagen maturity (area ratio between 1660 and 1690 cm(-1) subbands), collagen glycation (area ratio between the 1032 cm(-1) subband and amide I) and collagen integrity (area ratio between the 1338 cm(-1) subband and amide II). No significant differences in the mineral compartment of the bone matrix could be observed between controls and STZ-injected animals. On the other hand, as compared with controls, STZ-injected animals presented with

  16. Beneficial effects of a N-terminally modified GIP agonist on tissue-level bone material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilleau, Guillaume; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Simon, Yannick; Audran, Maurice; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Bone remodeling is under complex regulation from nervous, hormonal and local signals, including gut hormones. Among the gut hormones, a role for the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested. However, the rapid degradation of GIP in the bloodstream by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) precludes therapeutic use. To circumvent this problem, a series of N-terminally modified GIP agonists have been developed, with N-AcGIP being the most promising. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of N-AcGIP on bone at the micro-level using trabecular and cortical microstructural morphology, and at the tissue-level in rats. Copenhagen rats were randomly assigned into control or N-AcGIP-treated groups and received daily injection for 4 weeks. Bone microstructural morphology was assessed by microCT and dynamic histomorphometry and tissue-level properties by nanoindentation, qBEI and infra-red microscopy. Four week treatment with N-AcGIP did not alter trabecular or cortical microstructural morphology. In addition, no significant modifications of mechanical response and properties at the tissue-level were observed in trabecular bone. However, significant augmentations in maximum load (12%), hardness (14%), indentation modulus (13%) and dissipated energy (16%) were demonstrated in cortical bone. These beneficial modifications of mechanical properties at the tissue-level were associated with increased mineralization (22%) and collagen maturity (13%) of the bone matrix. Taken together, the results support a beneficial role of GIP, and particularly stable analogs such as N-AcGIP, on tissue material properties of bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Bone Material Properties in Type 1 Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishaela R Rubin

    Full Text Available Fractures, particularly at the lower extremities and hip, are a complication of diabetes. In both type 1 (T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D, fracture risk is disproportionately worse than that predicted from the measurement of bone mineral density. Although an explanation for this discrepancy is the presence of organic matrix abnormalities, it has not been fully elucidated how advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs relate to bone deterioration at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. We hypothesized that there would be a relationship between skeletal AGE levels (determined by Raman microspectroscopy at specific anatomical locations and bone macroscopic and microscopic properties, as demonstrated by the biomechanical measures of crack growth and microindentation respectively. We found that in OVE26 mice, a transgenic model of severe early onset T1D, AGEs were increased by Raman (carboxymethyl-lysine [CML] wildtype (WT: 0.0143 ±0.0005 vs T1D: 0.0175 ±0.0002, p = 0.003 at the periosteal surface. These differences were associated with less tough bone in T1D by fracture mechanics (propagation toughness WT: 4.73 ± 0.32 vs T1D: 3.39 ± 0.24 NM/m1/2, p = 0.010 and by reference point indentation (indentation distance increase WT: 6.85 ± 0.44 vs T1D: 9.04 ± 0.77 μm; p = 0.043. Within T1D, higher AGEs by Raman correlated inversely with macroscopic bone toughness. These data add to the existing body of knowledge regarding AGEs and the relationship between skeletal AGEs with biomechanical indices.

  18. Material properties and in vitro biocompatibility of a newly developed bone cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Mitzner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties and biocompatibility (In Vitro of a new bone cement were investigated. A new platform technology named COOL is a variable composite of dissolved, chemically modified PMMA and different bioceramics. COOL cures at body temperature via a classical cementation reaction. Compressive strengths ranging from 3.6 ± 0.8 to 62.8 ± 1.3 MPa and bending strengths ranging from 9.9 ± 2.4 to 26.4 ± 3.0 MPa were achieved with different COOL formulations. Porosity varied between 31 and 43%. Varying the components of each formulation mechanical properties and porosity could be adjusted. In Vitro biocompatibility studies with primary human osteoblasts (pHOB in direct contact with different COOL formulations, did not reveal any signs of toxicity. In contrast to Refobacin® R, cells incubated with COOL showed similar density, viability and ALP activity compared to control, if specimen were added immediately to the cell monolayer after preparation. In conclusion, COOL has promising mechanical properties in combination with high biocompatibility In Vitro and combines different advantages of both CPCs and PMMA cements by avoiding some of the respective shortcomings.

  19. Micro-mechanical modeling of the cement-bone interface: the effect of friction, morphology and material properties on the micromechanical response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.; Mann, K.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element

  20. Micro-mechanical modeling of the cement-bone interface: the effect of friction morphology and material properties on the micromechanical response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement–bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement–bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element

  1. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 ∼ 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic

  2. Fe and Fe-P Foam for Biodegradable Bone Replacement Material: Morphology, Corrosion Behaviour, and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hrubovčáková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron and iron-phosphorus open-cell foams were manufactured by a replica method based on a powder metallurgical approach to serve as a temporary biodegradable bone replacement material. Iron foams alloyed with phosphorus were prepared with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties and manipulating the corrosion rate. Two different types of Fe-P foams containing 0.5 wt.% of P were prepared: Fe-P(I foams from a phosphated carbonyl iron powder and Fe-P(II foams from a mixture of carbonyl iron and commercial Fe3P. The microstructure of foams was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties and the corrosion behaviour were studied by compression tests and potentiodynamic polarization in Hank’s solution and a physiological saline solution. The results showed that the manufactured foams exhibited an open, interconnected, microstructure similar to that of a cancellous bone. The presence of phosphorus improved the mechanical properties of the foams and decreased the corrosion rate as compared to pure iron foams.

  3. The Use of Micro and Nano Particulate Fillers to Modify the Mechanical and Material Properties of Acrylic Bone Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Joshua A.

    Acrylic bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate) is widely used in total joint replacements to provide long-term fixation of implants. In essence, bone cement acts as a grout by filling in the voids left between the implant and the patient's bone, forming a mechanical interlock. While bone cement is considered the `gold standard' for implant fixation, issues such as mechanical failure of the cement mantle (aseptic loosening) and the development of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) still plague joint replacement procedures and often necessitate revision arthroplasty. In an effort to address these failures, various modifications are commonly made to bone cement such as mechanical reinforcement with particles/fibers and the addition of antibiotics to mitigate PJI. Despite these attempts, issues such as poor particle interfacial adhesion, inadequate drug release, and the development of multidrug resistant bacteria limit the effectiveness of bone cement modifications. Therefore, the overall goal of this work was to use micro and nanoparticles to enhance the properties of acrylic bone cement, with particular emphasis placed on improving the mechanical properties, cumulative antibiotic release, and antimicrobial properties. An acrylic bone cement (Palacos R) was modified with three types of particles in various loading ratios: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (for mechanical reinforcement), xylitol microparticles (for increased antibiotic release), and silver nanoparticles (as an antimicrobial agent). These particles were used as sole modifications, not in tandem with one another. The resulting cement composites were characterized using a variety of mechanical (macro to nano, fatigue, fracture, and dynamic), imaging, chemical, thermal, biological, and antimicrobial testing techniques. The primary outcomes of this dissertation demonstrate that: (1) mesoporous silica, as used in this work, is a poor reinforcement phase for acrylic bone cement, (2) xylitol can significantly

  4. Structural properties of a bone-ceramic composite as a promising material in spinal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirilova, I. A., E-mail: IKirilova@mail.ru; Sadovoy, M. A.; Podorozhnaya, V. T., E-mail: VPodorognaya@niito.ru; Taranov, O. S. [Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. Ya.L. Tsivyan, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F. [Christianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Shatskaya, S. S. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper describes the results of in vitro tests of composite bone-ceramic implants and procedures for modifying implant surfaces to enhance osteogenesis. Analysis of CBCI ESs demonstrated that they have a porous structure with the mean longitudinal pore size of 70 µm and the mean transverse pore size of 46 µm; surface pores are open, while inner pores are closed. Elemental analysis of the CBCI surface demonstrates that CBCIs are composed of aluminum and zirconium oxides and contain HA inclusions. Profilometry of the CBCI ES surface revealed the following deviations: the maximum deviation of the profile in the sample center is 15 µm and 16 µm on the periphery, while the arithmetical mean and mean square deviations of the profile are 2.65 and 3.4 µm, respectively. In addition, CBCI biodegradation products were pre-examined; a 0.9% NaCl solution was used as a comparison group. Potentially toxic and tissue accumulated elements, such as cadmium, cobalt, mercury, and lead, are present only in trace amounts and have no statistically significant differences with the comparison group, which precludes their potential toxic effects on the macroorganism. Ceramic-based CBCI may be effective and useful in medicine for restoration of the anatomic integrity and functions of the bone tissue.

  5. Geometric and mechanical properties evaluation of scaffolds for bone tissue applications designing by a reaction-diffusion models and manufactured with a material jetting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Velasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds are essential in bone tissue engineering, as they provide support to cells and growth factors necessary to regenerate tissue. In addition, they meet the mechanical function of the bone while it regenerates. Currently, the multiple methods for designing and manufacturing scaffolds are based on regular structures from a unit cell that repeats in a given domain. However, these methods do not resemble the actual structure of the trabecular bone which may work against osseous tissue regeneration. To explore the design of porous structures with similar mechanical properties to native bone, a geometric generation scheme from a reaction-diffusion model and its manufacturing via a material jetting system is proposed. This article presents the methodology used, the geometric characteristics and the modulus of elasticity of the scaffolds designed and manufactured. The method proposed shows its potential to generate structures that allow to control the basic scaffold properties for bone tissue engineering such as the width of the channels and porosity. The mechanical properties of our scaffolds are similar to trabecular tissue present in vertebrae and tibia bones. Tests on the manufactured scaffolds show that it is necessary to consider the orientation of the object relative to the printing system because the channel geometry, mechanical properties and roughness are heavily influenced by the position of the surface analyzed with respect to the printing axis. A possible line for future work may be the establishment of a set of guidelines to consider the effects of manufacturing processes in designing stages.

  6. Lightweight Open-Cell Scaffolds from Sea Urchin Spines with Superior Material Properties for Bone Defect Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Xiaokang; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Li, Yong; Vecchio, Kenneth S; Yang, Lina; Cui, Wei; Yang, Rui; Zhu, Yue; Guo, Zheng; Zhang, Xing

    2017-03-22

    Sea urchin spines (Heterocentrotus mammillatus), with a hierarchical open-cell structure similar to that of human trabecular bone and superior mechanical property (compressive strength ∼43.4 MPa) suitable for machining to shape, were explored for potential applications of bone defect repair. Finite element analyses reveal that the compressive stress concentrates along the dense growth rings and dissipates through strut structures of the stereoms, indicating that the exquisite mesostructures play an important role in high strength-to-weight ratios. The fracture strength of magnesium-substituted tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP) scaffolds produced by hydrothermal conversion of urchin spines is about 9.3 MPa, comparable to that of human trabecular bone. New bone forms along outer surfaces of β-TCMP scaffolds after implantation in rabbit femoral defects for one month and grows into the majority of the inner open-cell spaces postoperation in three months, showing tight interface between the scaffold and regenerative bone tissue. Fusion of beagle lumbar facet joints using a Ti-6Al-4V cage and β-TCMP scaffold can be completed within seven months with obvious biodegradation of the β-TCMP scaffold, which is nearly completely degraded and replaced by newly formed bone ten months after implantation. Thus, sea urchin spines suitable for machining to shape have advantages for production of biodegradable artificial grafts for bone defect repair.

  7. Intrinsic material property differences in bone tissue from patients suffering low-trauma osteoporotic fractures, compared to matched non-fracturing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennin, S; Desyatova, A; Turner, J A; Watson, P A; Lappe, J M; Recker, R R; Akhter, M P

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporotic (low-trauma) fractures are a significant public health problem. Over 50% of women over 50yrs. of age will suffer an osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. While current therapies reduce skeletal fracture risk by maintaining or increasing bone density, additional information is needed that includes the intrinsic material strength properties of bone tissue to help develop better treatments, since measurements of bone density account for no more than ~50% of fracture risk. The hypothesis tested here is that postmenopausal women who have sustained osteoporotic fractures have reduced bone quality, as indicated with measures of intrinsic material properties compared to those who have not fractured. Transiliac biopsies (N=120) were collected from fracturing (N=60, Cases) and non-fracturing postmenopausal women (N=60, age- and BMD-matched Controls) to measure intrinsic material properties using the nano-indentation technique. Each biopsy specimen was embedded in epoxy resin and then ground, polished and used for the nano-indentation testing. After calibration, multiple indentations were made using quasi-static (hardness, modulus) and dynamic (storage and loss moduli) testing protocols. Multiple indentations allowed the median and variance to be computed for each type of measurement for each specimen. Cases were found to have significantly lower median values for cortical hardness and indentation modulus. In addition, cases showed significantly less within-specimen variability in cortical modulus, cortical hardness, cortical storage modulus and trabecular hardness, and more within-specimen variability in trabecular loss modulus. Multivariate modeling indicated the presence of significant independent mechanical effects of cortical loss modulus, along with variability of cortical storage modulus, cortical loss modulus, and trabecular hardness. These results suggest mechanical heterogeneity of bone tissue may contribute to fracture resistance

  8. An open source software tool to assign the material properties of bone for ABAQUS finite element simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Elise C; Gill, Harinderjit S

    2016-09-06

    A new software tool to assign the material properties of bone to an ABAQUS finite element mesh was created and compared with Bonemat, a similar tool originally designed to work with Ansys finite element models. Our software tool (py_bonemat_abaqus) was written in Python, which is the chosen scripting language for ABAQUS. The purpose of this study was to compare the software packages in terms of the material assignment calculation and processing speed. Three element types were compared (linear hexahedral (C3D8), linear tetrahedral (C3D4) and quadratic tetrahedral elements (C3D10)), both individually and as part of a mesh. Comparisons were made using a CT scan of a hemi-pelvis as a test case. A small difference, of -0.05kPa on average, was found between Bonemat version 3.1 (the current version) and our Python package. Errors were found in the previous release of Bonemat (version 3.0 downloaded from www.biomedtown.org) during calculation of the quadratic tetrahedron Jacobian, and conversion of the apparent density to modulus when integrating over the Young׳s modulus field. These issues caused up to 2GPa error in the modulus assignment. For these reasons, we recommend users upgrade to the most recent release of Bonemat. Processing speeds were assessed for the three different element types. Our Python package took significantly longer (110s on average) to perform the calculations compared with the Bonemat software (10s). Nevertheless, the workflow advantages of the package and added functionality makes 'py_bonemat_abaqus' a useful tool for ABAQUS users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Micro-mechanical modeling of the cement-bone interface: the effect of friction, morphology and material properties on the micromechanical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-11-14

    In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element models of a cement-bone interface specimen were created from micro-computed tomography data of a physical specimen that was sectioned from an in vitro cemented total hip arthroplasty. In five models the friction coefficient was varied (mu=0.0; 0.3; 0.7; 1.0 and 3.0), while in one model an ideally bonded interface was assumed. In two models cement interface gaps and an optimal cement penetration were simulated. Finally, the effect of bone cement stiffness variations was simulated (2.0 and 2.5 GPa, relative to the default 3.0 GPa). All models were loaded for a cycle of fully reversible tension-compression. From the simulated stress-displacement curves the interface deformation, stiffness and hysteresis were calculated. The results indicate that in the current model the mechanical properties of the cement-bone interface were caused by frictional phenomena at the shape-closed interlock rather than by adhesive properties of the cement. Our findings furthermore show that in our model maximizing cement penetration improved the micromechanical response of the cement-bone interface stiffness, while interface gaps had a detrimental effect. Relative to the frictional and morphological variations, variations in the cement stiffness had only a modest effect on the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface. The current study provides information that may help to better understand the load-transfer mechanisms taking place at the cement-bone interface.

  10. The interaction of osteoblasts with bone-implant materials: 1. The effect of physicochemical surface properties of implant materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubies, Dana; Himmlová, L.; Riedel, T.; Chánová, Eliška; Balík, Karel; Douděrová, M.; Bartová, J.; Pešáková, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 95-111 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : implant * surface properties * proliferation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/60/60_95.pdf

  11. The materials used in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshchenko, V. P., E-mail: tervp@ngs.ru; Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Larionov, P. M. [Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. Ya.L. Tsivyan, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Bone tissue engineering looking for an alternative solution to the problem of skeletal injuries. The method is based on the creation of tissue engineered bone tissue equivalent with stem cells, osteogenic factors, and scaffolds - the carriers of these cells. For production of tissue engineered bone equivalent is advisable to create scaffolds similar in composition to natural extracellular matrix of the bone. This will provide optimal conditions for the cells, and produce favorable physico-mechanical properties of the final construction. This review article gives an analysis of the most promising materials for the manufacture of cell scaffolds. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the basis for the scaffold, but it alone cannot provide adequate physical and mechanical properties of the construction, and favorable conditions for the cells. Addition of natural polymers improves the strength characteristics and bioactivity of constructions. Of the inorganic compounds, to create cell scaffolds the most widely used calcium phosphates, which give the structure adequate stiffness and significantly increase its osteoinductive capacity. Signaling molecules do not affect the physico-mechanical properties of the scaffold, but beneficial effect is on the processes of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Biodegradation of the materials will help to fulfill the main task of bone tissue engineering - the ability to replace synthetic construct by natural tissues that will restore the original anatomical integrity of the bone.

  12. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Shunji [Life Science Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-11-1 Fukasawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0081 (Japan); Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori [Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15 Nishi-7, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 Japan (Japan); Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo, E-mail: yunoki.shunji@iri-tokyo.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, 2-12-1-S7-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm{sup -3} and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 {+-} 0.48 and 0.651 {+-} 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  13. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, Shunji; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm -3 and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 ± 0.48 and 0.651 ± 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  14. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  15. Properties of deproteinized bone for reparation of big segmental defect in long bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Yue-kui; TIAN Xiao-bin; LI Bo; QIU Bing; ZHOU Zuo-jia; YANG Zheng; LI Qi-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore suitable scaffold material for big segmental long bone defect by studying the properties of the prepared deproteinized bone. Methods: Cancellated bone were made as 30 mm ×3 mm ×3 mm bone blocks from inferior extremity of pig femur along bone trabecula. The deproteinized bone was prepared with an improved method. Their morphological features, components, cell compatibility, mechanical and immunological properties were investigated respectively. Results: Deproteinized bone maintained natural re ticular pore system. The main organic material is collagen Ⅰand inorganic composition is hydroxyapatite. It has good mechanical properties, cell adhesion rate and histocompatibility. Conlusion: This deproteinized bone can be applicable as scaffold for reparation of big segmental defect in long bone.

  16. Comparison of the mechanical properties between tantalum and nickel-titanium foams implant materials for bone ingrowth applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, P.; Aparicio, C.; Planell, J.A.; Gil, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic porous materials are designed to allow the ingrowth of living tissue inside the pores and to improve the mechanical anchorage of the implant. In the present work, tantalum and nickel-titanium porous materials have been characterized. The tantalum foams were produced by vapour chemical deposition (CVD/CVI) and the NiTi foams by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). The former exhibited an open porosity ranging between 65 and 73% and for the latter it ranged between 63 and 68%. The pore sizes were between 370 and 440 μm for tantalum and between 350 and 370 μm for nickel-titanium. The Young's modulus in compression of the foams studied, especially for tantalum, were very similar to those of cancellous bone. This similitude may be relevant in order to minimize the stress shielding effect in the load transfer from the implant to bone. The strength values for NiTi foam are higher than for tantalum, especially of the strain to fracture which is about 23% for NiTi and only 8% for tantalum. The fatigue endurance limit set at 10 8 cycles is about 7.5 MPa for NiTi and 13.2 MPa for tantalum. The failure mechanisms have been studied by scanning electron microscopy

  17. Effect of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Addition on the Properties of Hydrothermal Derived Calcium Phosphate Cement for Bone Filling Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) on hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement has been studied. The precursors used to prepare the cement were calcium oxide (CaO) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4); the reaction was conducted in water at 80-100°C. To improve properties of CPC, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) of 1wt% and 2wt% was added to the liquid phase of CPC and the results were compared to CPC without PVA addition. The addition of PVA was proved to bring remarkable effects on cohesion, setting time and mechanical strength of CPC which make it suitable physically for injectable bone filler applications.

  18. Variation of the bone forming ability with the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate bone substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Rongquan; Barbieri, Davide; Luo, Xiaoman; Weng, Jie; Bao, Chongyun; De Bruijn, Joost D.; Yuan, Huipin

    2018-01-01

    Because of their bioactive properties and chemical similarity to the inorganic component of bone, calcium phosphate (CaP) materials are widely used for bone regeneration. Six commercially available CaP bone substitutes (Bio-Oss, Actifuse, Bi-Ostetic, MBCP, Vitoss and chronOs) as well as two

  19. Effect of modifications in mineralized collagen fibril and extra-fibrillar matrix material properties on submicroscale mechanical behavior of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Ural, Ani

    2018-06-01

    A key length scale of interest in assessing the fracture resistance of bone is the submicroscale which is composed of mineralized collagen fibrils (MCF) and extra-fibrillar matrix (EFM). Although the processes through which the submicroscale constituents of bone contribute to the fracture resistance in bone have been identified, the extent of the modifications in submicroscale mechanical response due to the changes in individual properties of MCFs and EFM has not been determined. As a result, this study aims to quantify the influence of individual MCF and EFM material property modifications on the mechanical behavior (elastic modulus, ultimate strength, and resistance to failure) of bone at the submicroscale using a novel finite element modeling approach that incorporate 3D networks of MCFs with three different orientations as well as explicit representation of EFM. The models were evaluated under tensile loading in transverse (representing MCF separation) and longitudinal (representing MCF rupture) directions. The results showed that the apparent elastic modulus at the submicroscale under both loading directions for all orientations was only affected by the change in the elastic modulus of MCFs. MCF separation and rupture strengths were mainly dependent on the ultimate strength of EFM and MCFs, respectively, with minimal influence of other material properties. The extent of damage during MCF separation increased with increasing ultimate strength of EFM and decreased with increasing fracture energy of EFM with minimal contribution from elastic modulus of MCFs. For MCF rupture, there was an almost one-to-one linear relationship between the percent change in fracture energy of MCFs and the percent change in the apparent submicroscale fracture energy. The ultimate strength and elastic modulus of MCFs had moderate to limited influence on the MCF rupture fracture energy. The results of this study quantified the extent of changes that may be seen in the energy

  20. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys Developed as Bone Repair Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone repair materials are rapidly becoming a hot topic in the field of biomedical materials due to being an important means of repairing human bony deficiencies and replacing hard tissue. Magnesium (Mg alloys are potentially biocompatible, osteoconductive, and biodegradable metallic materials that can be used in bone repair due to their in situ degradation in the body, mechanical properties similar to those of bones, and ability to positively stimulate the formation of new bones. However, rapid degradation of these materials in physiological environments may lead to gas cavities, hemolysis, and osteolysis and thus, hinder their clinical orthopedic applications. This paper reviews recent work on the use of Mg alloy implants in bone repair. Research to date on alloy design, surface modification, and biological performance of Mg alloys is comprehensively summarized. Future challenges for and developments in biomedical Mg alloys for use in bone repair are also discussed.

  1. Theory-Guided Materials Design of Multi-Phase Ti-Nb Alloys with Bone-Matching Elastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Neugebauer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a scale-bridging approach for modeling the integral elasticresponse of polycrystalline composite that is based on a multi-disciplinary combination of(i parameter-free first-principles calculations of thermodynamic phase stability andsingle-crystal elastic stiffness; and (ii homogenization schemes developed forpolycrystalline aggregates and composites. The modeling is used as a theory-guidedbottom-up materials design strategy and applied to Ti-Nb alloys as promising candidatesfor biomedical implant applications. The theoretical results (i show an excellent agreementwith experimental data and (ii reveal a decisive influence of the multi-phase character ofthe polycrystalline composites on their integral elastic properties. The study shows thatthe results based on the density functional theory calculations at the atomistic level canbe directly used for predictions at the macroscopic scale, effectively scale-jumping severalorders of magnitude without using any empirical parameters.

  2. New generation poly(ε-caprolactone)/gel-derived bioactive glass composites for bone tissue engineering: Part I. Material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Michal; Menaszek, Elzbieta; Zagrajczuk, Barbara; Pawlik, Justyna; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based composite films containing 12 and 21vol.% bioactive glass (SBG) microparticles were prepared by solvent casting method. Two gel-derived SBGs of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system differing in SiO2 and CaO contents were applied (mol%): S2: 80SiO2, 16CaO, 4P2O5 and A2: 40SiO2, 54CaO, 6P2O5. The surfaces of the films in contact with Petri dish and exposed to the gas phase during casting were denoted as GS and AS, respectively. Both surfaces of films were characterised in terms of their morphology, micro- and nano-topography as well as wettability. Also mechanical properties (tensile strength, Young's modulus) and PCL matrix crystallinity (degree of crystallinity, crystal size) were evaluated. Degradation behaviour was examined by incubation of materials in UHQ-water at 37°C for 56weeks. The crystallinity, melting temperature and mass loss of incubated materials and pH changes of water were monitored. Furthermore, proliferation of MG-63 osteoblastic cells by direct contact and cytotoxic effect of obtained materials were investigated. Results showed that opposite surfaces of the same polymer and composite films differ in studied surface parameters. The addition of SBG particles into PCL matrix improves nano- and micro-roughness of both surfaces, enhances the hydrophilicity of GS surfaces (~67° for 21A2-PCL compared to ~78° for pure PCL) and also makes AS surface more hydrophobic (~94° for 21S2-PCL compared to ~86° for pure PCL). The nucleation density of PCL was increased with increasing content of SBG particles, which results in the large number of fine spherulites on composite AS surfaces observed using polarized optical (POM), scanning electron (SEM), and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. Higher content of SBG particles causes a notable increase of Young's modulus (from 0.38GPa for pure PCL, 0.90GPa for 12A2-PCL to 1.31GPa for 21A2-PCL), which also depends on SBG chemical composition. After 56-week degradation test, considerably higher

  3. Material model of pelvic bone based on modal analysis: a study on the composite bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyš, Petr; Čapek, Lukáš

    2017-02-01

    Digital models based on finite element (FE) analysis are widely used in orthopaedics to predict the stress or strain in the bone due to bone-implant interaction. The usability of the model depends strongly on the bone material description. The material model that is most commonly used is based on a constant Young's modulus or on the apparent density of bone obtained from computer tomography (CT) data. The Young's modulus of bone is described in many experimental works with large variations in the results. The concept of measuring and validating the material model of the pelvic bone based on modal analysis is introduced in this pilot study. The modal frequencies, damping, and shapes of the composite bone were measured precisely by an impact hammer at 239 points. An FE model was built using the data pertaining to the geometry and apparent density obtained from the CT of the composite bone. The isotropic homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the cortical and trabecular bone were estimated from the optimisation procedure including Gaussian statistical properties. The performance of the updated model was investigated through the sensitivity analysis of the natural frequencies with respect to the material parameters. The maximal error between the numerical and experimental natural frequencies of the bone reached 1.74 % in the first modal shape. Finally, the optimised parameters were matched with the data sheets of the composite bone. The maximal difference between the calibrated material properties and that obtained from the data sheet was 34 %. The optimisation scheme of the FE model based on the modal analysis data provides extremely useful calibration of the FE models with the uncertainty bounds and without the influence of the boundary conditions.

  4. The fracture properties and toughening mechanisms of bone and dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Kurt John

    The mechanical properties of bone and dentin and in particular their fracture properties, are the subject of intense research. The relevance of these properties is increasing as our population ages and fracture incidence impacts the lives of a greater portion of the population. A robust framework is needed to understand the fracture properties of bone and dentin to guide researchers as they attempt to characterize the effects of aging, disease, and pharmaceutical treatments on the properties of these mineralized tissues. In the present work, this framework is provided and applied to human bone, human dentin, and animal bone. In situ electron microscopy was also used to identify the salient toughening mechanisms in bone and dentin. It was found that bone and dentin are extrinsically toughened materials and consequently their fracture properties are best characterized utilizing a crack-growth resistance approach. A description of the different mechanical measurements commonly employed when using small animal models (rats and mice) to evaluate the influence of drug therapies on bone fragility is provided. A study where these properties were measured for a large population of wild-type rats and mice was also conducted. Given my findings, it was determined that for the most complete understanding of small animal bone it was necessary to measure strength and toughness. Strength measurements probe the flaw distribution and toughness measurements to evaluate the resistance to facture in the presence of a single dominant worst-case flaw.

  5. Advances in Osteobiologic Materials for Bone Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Anwarul; Byambaa, Batzaya; Morshed, Mahboob; Cheikh, Mohammad Ibrahim; Shakoor, Rana Abdul; Mustafy, Tanvir; Marei, Hany

    2018-04-27

    A significant challenge in the current orthopedics is the development of suitable osteobiologic materials that can replace the conventional allografts, autografts and xenografts, and thereby serve as implant materials as bone substitutes for bone repair or remodeling. The complex biology behind the nano-microstructure of bones and their repair mechanisms, which involve various types of chemical and biomechanical signaling amongst different cells, has set strong requirements for biomaterials to be used in bone tissue engineering. This review presents an overview of various types of osteobiologic materials to facilitate the formation of the functional bone tissue and healing of the bone, covering metallic, ceramic, polymeric and cell-based graft substitutes, as well as some biomolecular strategies including stem cells, extracellular matrices, growth factors and gene therapies. Advantages and disadvantages of each type, particularly from the perspective of osteoinductive and osteoconductive capabilities, are discussed. Although the numerous challenges of bone regeneration in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are yet to be entirely addressed, further advancements in osteobiologic materials will pave the way towards engineering fully functional bone replacement grafts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomimetic materials for controlling bone cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevelle, Olivier; Faucheux, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects that cannot "heal spontaneously during life" will become an ever greater health problem as populations age. Harvesting autografts has several drawbacks, such as pain and morbidity at both donor and acceptor sites, the limited quantity of material available, and frequently its inappropriate shape. Researchers have therefore developed alternative strategies that involve biomaterials to fill bone defects. These biomaterials must be biocompatible and interact with the surrounding bone tissue to allow their colonization by bone cells and blood vessels. The latest generation biomaterials are not inert; they control cell responses like adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. These biomaterials are called biomimetic materials. This review focuses on the development of third generation materials. We first briefly describe the bone tissue with its cells and matrix, and then how bone cells interact with the extracellular matrix. The next section covers the materials currently used to repair bone defects. Finally, we describe the strategies employed to modify the surface of materials, such as coating with hydroxyapatite and grafting biomolecules.

  7. Influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the extracellular matrix, material properties, and gene expression of long-term articular chondrocyte cultures: loss of chondrocyte stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, David A; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Carlson, Cathy S; Lewis, Jack L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on articular chondrocyte tissues grown as monolayers in vitro for up to 8 weeks. Articular chondrocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits and plated in monolayer cultures. The cultures were supplemented with 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 for up to 8 weeks and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, material properties, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were analyzed. mRNA expression of cartilage-specific genes, type II collagen, and aggrecan showed that BMP-2 enhanced chondrocyte stability for up to 3 weeks. After 3 weeks in culture, there was substantially more type I collagen expression and more osteopontin and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2 than in controls. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin 5) were upregulated in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2, coinciding with a loss of ECM density, collagen, and proteoglycan. Eight-week tissue stimulated with BMP-2 was more fragile and tore more easily when removed from the culture dish as compared to controls, suggesting temporal limitations to the effectiveness of BMP-2 in monolayer systems and perhaps other models to enhance the generation of a cartilage-like tissue for tissue engineering purposes.

  8. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Marques,1 José MF Ferreira,1 Ecaterina Andronescu,2 Denisa Ficai,2 Maria Sonmez,3 Anton Ficai21Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 3National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, RomaniaAbstract: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multifunctionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative, cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin, and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl. The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies.Keywords: bone graft, cancer, collagen, magnetite, cytostatics, silver

  9. Analysis of rheological properties of bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, M K D; Waters, M G J; Holford, K M; Adusei, G

    2007-07-01

    The rheological properties of three commercially available bone cements, CMW 1, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC, were investigated. Testing was undertaken at both 25 and 37 degrees C using an oscillating parallel plate rheometer. Results showed that the three high viscosity cements exhibited distinct differences in curing rate, with CMW 1 curing in 8.7 min, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC in 13 min at 25 degrees C. Furthermore it was found that these curing rates were strongly temperature dependent, with curing rates being halved at 37 degrees C. By monitoring the change of viscosity with time over the entire curing process, the results showed that these cements had differing viscosity profiles and hence exhibit very different handling characteristics. However, all the cements reached the same maximum viscosity of 75 x 10(3) Pa s. Also, the change in elastic/viscous moduli and tan delta with time, show the cements changing from a viscous material to an elastic solid with a clear peak in the viscous modulus during the latter stages of curing. These results give valuable information about the changes in rheological properties for each commercial bone cement, especially during the final curing process.

  10. Osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Weaver, James C.; Jensen, Mads Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the roles of osteocytes in bone maintenance have gained increasing attention. Osteocytes reside in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi resulting in a vast cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. As the structure of the lacuno-canalicular network is highly connected......-species but also inter-site variation in lacunar properties. Here, osteocyte lacunae in rat cortical bone have been studied using synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR μCT) and backscattered electron (BE) microscopy. Quantitative lacunar geometric characteristics are reported based on the synchrotron...... radiation data, differentiating between circumferential lamellar bone and a central, more disordered bone type. From these studies, no significant differences were found in lacunar volumes between lamellar and central bone, whereas significant differences in lacunar orientation, shape and density values...

  11. Material properties characterization - concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, G.L.; MacLeod, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of the six contributions in the SMiRT 4 conference to Session H5 on structural analysis of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels. These relate to short term stress-strain aspects of concrete loaded beyond the linear range in uniaxial and biaxial stress fields, to some time and temperature dependent properties of concrete at working stress levels, and to a programme of strain-gauge testing for the assessment of concrete properties. From the information discussed, it is clear that there are difficulties in determining material properties for concrete, and these are summarised. (UK)

  12. Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Saeedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD. However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented.

  13. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bader, Yousef A.

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coefficient (d) in the axial direction was obtained as a function of the percent barium titanate added. The development of piezoelectricity when barium titanate is added was interpreted, using XRD, as due to the formation of barium titanate silicate. Compositions determined as having properties comparable to those of natural bone, were tested for in vitro solubility in pure water and saline solution. The results obtained showed that the selected composition (containing 15% kaolin, 10% barium titanate, pressed at 35 MPa and fired at 1350 degC for two hours) has properties comparable to those of dry bone and a reasonable in vitro solubility. (author)

  14. Organ and tissue level properties are more sensitive to age than osteocyte lacunar characteristics in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig, Nina; Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Birkbak, Mie Elholm

    2016-01-01

    orientation with animal age. Hence, the evolution of organ and tissue level properties with age in rat cortical bone is not accompanied by related changes in osteocyte lacunar properties. This suggests that bone microstructure and bone matrix material properties and not the geometric properties...... of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte...

  15. The ultrastructure of bone and its relevance to mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Henry P.; Abueidda, Diab; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2017-09-01

    Bone is a biologically generated composite material comprised of two major structural components: crystals of apatite and collagen fibrils. Computational analysis of the mechanical properties of bone must make assumptions about the geometric and topological relationships between these components. Recent transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of samples of bone prepared using ion milling methods have revealed important previously unrecognized features in the ultrastructure of bone. These studies show that most of the mineral in bone lies outside the fibrils and is organized into elongated plates 5 nanometers (nm) thick, 80 nm wide and hundreds of nm long. These so-called mineral lamellae (MLs) are mosaics of single 5 nm-thick, 20 - 50 nm wide crystals bonded at their edges. MLs occur either stacked around the 50 nm-diameter collagen fibrils, or in parallel stacks of 5 or more MLs situated between fibrils. About 20% of mineral is in gap zones within the fibrils. MLs are apparently glued together into mechanically coherent stacks which break across the stack rather than delaminating. ML stacks should behave as cohesive units during bone deformation. Finite element computations of mechanical properties of bone show that the model including such features generates greater stiffness and strength than are obtained using conventional models in which most of the mineral, in the form of isolated crystals, is situated inside collagen fibrils.

  16. The Mechanical Properties and Biometrical Effect of 3D Preformed Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration on Alveolar Bone Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyoun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of three-dimensional preformed titanium membrane (3D-PFTM to enhance mechanical properties and ability of bone regeneration on the peri-implant bone defect. 3D-PFTMs by new mechanically compressive molding technology and manually shaped- (MS- PFTMs by hand manipulation were applied in artificial peri-implant bone defect model for static compressive load test and cyclic fatigue load test. In 12 implants installed in the mandibular of three beagle dogs, six 3D-PFTMs, and six collagen membranes (CM randomly were applied to 2.5 mm peri-implant buccal bone defect with particulate bone graft materials for guided bone regeneration (GBR. The 3D-PFTM group showed about 7.4 times higher mechanical stiffness and 5 times higher fatigue resistance than the MS-PFTM group. The levels of the new bone area (NBA, %, the bone-to-implant contact (BIC, %, distance from the new bone to the old bone (NB-OB, %, and distance from the osseointegration to the old bone (OI-OB, % were significantly higher in the 3D-PFTM group than the CM group (p<.001. It was verified that the 3D-PFTM increased mechanical properties which were effective in supporting the space maintenance ability and stabilizing the particulate bone grafts, which led to highly efficient bone regeneration.

  17. Electrical properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, L; Syms, R R A

    2014-01-01

    An informal and highly accessible writing style, a simple treatment of mathematics, and clear guide to applications have made this book a classic text in electrical and electronic engineering. Students will find it both readable and comprehensive. The fundamental ideas relevant to the understanding of the electrical properties of materials are emphasized; in addition, topics are selected in order to explain the operation of devices having applications (or possible future applications) in engineering. The mathematics, kept deliberately to a minimum, is well within the grasp of a second-year student. This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microele...

  18. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, Niyazi; Kosal, Mehmet; Altay Atlihan, M.; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until ∼200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating

  19. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Niyazi [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.tr; Kosal, Mehmet [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kosal@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Altay Atlihan, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: atlihan@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ulku.yuce@taek.gov.tr

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until {approx}200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating.

  20. Properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, P F

    2014-01-01

    Materials 'Tidings' of Rigidity's Breakdown Elastic Properties of Solids Elastic Solids in Series and Parallel Fluid Statics Eureka! Fluid Dynamics: Flux Bernoulli's Equation No Confusion, It's Just Diffusion Baby, It's Viscous Outside Gas Gas Gas Through the Earth and Back Introduction to Simple Harmonic Oscillation SHO-Time Springs in Series and Parallel SHO: Kinematics, Dynamics, and Energetics Damped Oscillation: Qualitative Damped Oscillation: Explicitly Forced Oscillations Impedance and Power Resonance The First Wave Wave Dynamics and Phenomenology Linear Superposition of Waves Linear Superposition of Rightmoving Harmonic Waves Standing Waves Transverse Waves: Speed and Energetics Speed of Longitudinal Waves Energy Content of Longitudinal Waves Inhomogeneous Media Doppler Shifts Huygens' Principle, Interference, and Diffraction Say Hello, Wave Goodbye Optics Mirror Mirror Refraction Through a Glass Darkly Temperature and Thermometry Heat Convective and Conductive Heat Flow Radiative Heat Flow More Radia...

  1. Bone biopsy needles. Mechanical properties, needle design and specimen quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keulers, Annika; Penzkofer, T.; Cunha-Cruz, V.C.; Bruners, P.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen; Braunschweig, T.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Mahnken, A.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively analyze differences in mechanical properties, needle design including signs of wear, subjective handling and specimen quality of bone biopsy needles. Materials and Methods: In this study 19 different bone biopsy systems (total 38; 2 /type) were examined. With each biopsy needle five consecutive samples were obtained from vertebral bodies of swine. During puncture a force-torques sensor measured the mechanical properties and subjective handling was assessed. Before and after each biopsy the needles were investigated using a profile projector and signs of wear were recorded. Afterwards, a pathologist semi-quantitatively examined the specimen regarding sample quality. The overall evaluation considered mechanical properties, needle wear, subjective handling and sample quality. Differences were assessed for statistical significance using ANOVA and t-test. Results: Needle diameter (p = 0.003) as well as needle design (p = 0.008) affect the mechanical properties significantly. Franseen design is significantly superior to other needle designs. Besides, length reduction recorded by the profile projector, as a quality criterion showed notable distinctions in between the needle designs. Conclusion: Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Needle design has an important influence on mechanical properties, handling and specimen quality. Detailed knowledge of those parameters would improve selecting the appropriate bone biopsy needle. (orig.)

  2. A novel hyperthermia treatment for bone metastases using magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumine, Akihiko; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsubara, Takao; Nakamura, Tomoki; Uchida, Atsumasa; Sudo, Akihiro; Takegami, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Patients with bone metastases in the extremities sometimes require surgical intervention to prevent deterioration of quality of life due to a pathological fracture. The use of localized radiotherapy combined with surgical reinforcement has been a gold standard for the treatment of bone metastases. However, radiotherapy sometimes induces soft tissue damage, including muscle induration and joint contracture. Moreover, cancer cells are not always radiosensitive. Hyperthermia has been studied since the 1940s using an experimental animal model to treat various types of advanced cancer, and studies have now reached the stage of clinical application, especially in conjunction with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Nevertheless, bone metastases have several special properties which discourage oncologists from developing hyperthermic therapeutic strategies. First, the bone is located deep in the body, and has low thermal conductivity due to the thickness of cortical bone and the highly vascularized medulla. To address these issues, we developed new hyperthermic strategies which generate heat using magnetic materials under an alternating electromagnetic field, and started clinical application of this treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest studies on hyperthermic treatment in the field of musculoskeletal tumors, and to introduce the treatment strategy employing our novel hyperthermia approach. (author)

  3. Macroscopic properties of model disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knackstedt, M.A.; Roberts, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    Disordered materials are ubiquitous in nature and in industry. Soils, sedimentary rocks, wood, bone, polymer composites, foams, catalysts, gels, concretes and ceramics have properties that depend on material structure. Present techniques for predicting properties are limited by the theoretical and computational difficulty of incorporating a realistic description of material structure. A general model for microstructure was recently proposed by Berk [Berk, Phys.Rev.A, 44 5069 (1991)]. The model is based on level cuts of a Gaussian random field with arbitrary spectral density. The freedom in specifying the parameters of the model allows the modeling of physical materials with diverse morphological characteristics. We have shown that the model qualitatively accounts for the principal features of a wider variety of disordered materials including geologic media, membranes, polymer blends, ceramics and foams. Correlation functions are derived for the model microstructure. From this characterisation we derive mechanical and conductive properties of the materials. Excellent agreement with experimentally measured properties of disordered solids is obtained. The agreement provides a strong hint that it is now possible to correlate effective physical properties of porous solids to microstructure. Simple extensions to modelling properties of non-porous multicomponent blends; metal alloys, ceramics, metal/matrix and polymer composites are also discussed

  4. Material properties in complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. Moein; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2011-01-01

    activation differently and through different sensing molecules and initiation pathways. The importance of material properties in triggering complement is considered and mechanistic aspects discussed. Mechanistic understanding of complement events could provide rational approaches for improved material design...

  5. Bioreactor activated graft material for early implant fixation in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek Henriksen, Susan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    from the iliac crest. For both groups, mononuclear cells were isolated, and injected into a perfusion bioreactor (Millenium Biologix AG, Switzerland). Scaffold granules (Ø~900-1500 µm, ~88% porosity) in group 1, consisted of hydroxyapatite (HA, 70%) with β-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP, 30%) (Danish....... The superficial part was used for mechanical testing and micro-CT scanning, and the profound part for histomorphometry. Push-out tests were performed on an 858 Bionix MTS hydraulic materials testing machine (MTS Systems Corporation, USA). Shear mechanical properties between implant and newly generated bone were...

  6. A biomimetic approach toward artificial bone-like materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2001-01-01

    Bone consists of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite and collagen, an elastic protein matrix that is decorated with mineral-nucleating phosphoproteins. Our rational design of artificial bone-like material uses natural bone as a guide. Hydrogel and self-assembling polymers that possess anionic groups suitably positioned for nucleating biominerals, and therefore mimic the natural function of the collagen-phosphoprotein matrix in bone, were designed to direct template-driven biomimetic mineralizatio...

  7. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  8. Bionic Design, Materials and Performance of Bone Tissue Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Design, materials, and performance are important factors in the research of bone tissue scaffolds. This work briefly describes the bone scaffolds and their anatomic structure, as well as their biological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, we reviewed the characteristics of metal materials, inorganic materials, organic polymer materials, and composite materials. The importance of the bionic design in preoperative diagnosis models and customized bone scaffolds was also discussed, addressing both the bionic structure design (macro and micro structure and the bionic performance design (mechanical performance and biological performance. Materials and performance are the two main problems in the development of customized bone scaffolds. Bionic design is an effective way to solve these problems, which could improve the clinical application of bone scaffolds, by creating a balance between mechanical performance and biological performance.

  9. [Study on preparation and physicochemical properties of surface modified sintered bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfeng; Zheng, Qixin; Guo, Xiaodong

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate a new method for preparing a biomimetic bone material-surface modified sintered bovine cancellous bone, and to improve its bioactivity as a tissue engineering bone. The prepared sintered bovine cancellous bones with the same size were randomly divided into two groups, immersing in 1 and 1. 5 times simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. The three time periods of soak time were 7, 14, and 21 days. After sintered bone was dried, the surface morphology of sintered bone and surface mineralization composition were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By comparing the effect of surface modification of sintered bone materials, we chose the most ideal material and studied its pore size, the rate of the porosity, the compress and bend intensity. And then the material and the sintered bone material without surface modification were compared. The study indicated that sintered bone material immersed in SBF (1.5 times) for 14 days showed the best effect of surface modification, retaining the original physico-chemical properties of sintered bone.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3930 - Bone grafting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the oral and maxillofacial region. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) for bone grafting materials that do not contain a drug that is a therapeutic biologic. The special control is FDA's “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Dental Bone Grafting Material Devices.” (See § 872.1(e) for...

  11. Concrete deck material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The two-fold focus of this study was (a) to develop an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for causing : cracking in the concrete; and (b) to study the influence of the local materials on the performance of NYSDOTs HP : concrete mixture. R...

  12. Composite resin as an implant material in bone. Histologic, radiologic, microradiologic and oxytetracycline fluorescence examination of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainio, J; Rokkanen, P [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Clinical Sciences; Central Hospital, Tampere (Finland))

    1978-01-01

    The potential of a bis-GMA composite resin as implant material in bone is evaluated. The material is claimed to have mechanical and physical properties superior to those of the bone cements used today. A groove made in the cortex of the tibia in 18 rats was filled with bis-GMA, while a similar was left empty in the contralateral tibia. The reaction of the bone to this material was evaluated by histologic, radiologic, microradiograph and OTC-fluorescence methods. The material was well tolerated by the bone; after 1,3 and 6 weeks no reaction to the material was observed.

  13. Demineralized dentin matrix composite collagen material for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Xiaozhong; He, Fengrong; Wu, Xiongwen; Shen, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) had been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, particle morphology of DDM limited it further applications. In this study, DDM and collagen were prepared to DDM composite collagen material. The surface morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). MC3T3-E1 cells responses in vitro and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of DDM composite collagen material in bone defect of rabbits were also investigated. SEM analysis showed that DDM composite collagen material evenly distributed and formed a porous scaffold. Cell culture and animal models results indicated that DDM composite collagen material was biocompatible and could support cell proliferation and differentiation. Histological evaluation showed that DDM composite collagen material exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results suggested that DDM composite collagen material might have a significant clinical advantage and potential to be applied in bone and orthopedic surgery.

  14. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Kang, Lingzhi; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Liu, Huanye; Wang, Zhaoliang; Guo, Zhongwu; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-01-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials

  15. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  16. Bone Quality: The Mechanical Effects of Microarchitecture and Matrix Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Day (Judd)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this body of work we have examined some of the current concepts pertaining to the relation between bone mass, bone quality and the mechanical properties of bone. In our first series of studies we used a model of human osteoarthritis to investigate the implications of changes in the

  17. Properties of auxiliary filtering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.

  18. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete...

  19. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes

  20. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Duthil, P

    2014-07-17

    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes.

  1. Semiconductor materials and their properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre; Reinders, Angele; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor materials are the basic materials which are used in photovoltaic (PV) devices. This chapter introduces solid-state physics and semiconductor properties that are relevant to photovoltaics without spending too much time on unnecessary information. Usually atoms in the group of

  2. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes.

  3. The ultrastructure and processing properties of Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, S; Bayerlein, T; Proff, P; Hoffmann, A; Gedrange, T

    2006-02-01

    The ultrastructure, fundamental chemistry, and processing modes of fully synthetic bone grafting materials are relevant to the reconstruction of osseous defects. Rapid progress in the profitable market of biomaterials has led to the development of various bone substitutes. Despite all these efforts, an ideal and full substitute of autologous bone is not yet in sight. With regard to anorganic calcium phosphate ceramics, Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone are compared. These have a similar composition and are osteoconductive, which indispensably requires contact with well-vascularised bone.

  4. Mechanical properties of a biodegradable bone regeneration scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, B. D.; Oldham, J. B.; He, S. L.; Zobitz, M. E.; Payne, R. G.; An, K. N.; Currier, B. L.; Mikos, A. G.; Yaszemski, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Poly (Propylene Fumarate) (PPF), a novel, bulk erosion, biodegradable polymer, has been shown to have osteoconductive effects in vivo when used as a bone regeneration scaffold (Peter, S. J., Suggs, L. J., Yaszemski, M. J., Engel, P. S., and Mikos, A. J., 1999, J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 10, pp. 363-373). The material properties of the polymer allow it to be injected into irregularly shaped voids in vivo and provide mechanical stability as well as function as a bone regeneration scaffold. We fabricated a series of biomaterial composites, comprised of varying quantities of PPF, NaCl and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), into the shape of right circular cylinders and tested the mechanical properties in four-point bending and compression. The mean modulus of elasticity in compression (Ec) was 1204.2 MPa (SD 32.2) and the mean modulus of elasticity in bending (Eb) was 1274.7 MPa (SD 125.7). All of the moduli were on the order of magnitude of trabecular bone. Changing the level of NaCl from 20 to 40 percent, by mass, did not decrease Ec and Eb significantly, but did decrease bending and compressive strength significantly. Increasing the beta-TCP from 0.25 g/g PPF to 0.5 g/g PPF increased all of the measured mechanical properties of PPF/NVP composites. These results indicate that this biodegradable polymer composite is an attractive candidate for use as a replacement scaffold for trabecular bone.

  5. Improvement of disintegrable properties of bone prosthetic phosphate cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    The author added a viscoelastic binder or bio-disintegrable polymer filler in αDT-cement (DTC) base, which consisting of α-tricalcium phosphate, tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, in order to examine whether disintegrable properties of the bone prosthetic materials could be improved. The additive for the former binder was hydroxypropyl-cellulose and the latter filler, poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and they were mixed in various proportions with the base. At both sides of the cranial coronary suture of Japanese white rabbit, cavities (4 in total) were made at anteroposterior sites where those prosthetic cements were filled. At 1, 2 and 4 weeks later, the operated bone region was dissected out, its soft X-ray image was taken by the machine OMC603 (OHMICRON), and three-dimensional (3D) micro-focused XCT images, by Shimadzu SMX-130CT-SV. The trabecular thickness, bone volume and tissue volume ratio were calculated from the latter images by the trabecular structural measure software TRI/3Dbon (ROTAC). Disintegration rate of the cements was tested in water. Disintegrable properties were found to affect osteogenesis by giving the space for it, and thereby the choice of the ratio of the binder and disintegrable filler in the DTC makes it possible to design the most suitable cement needed. (R.T.)

  6. A comparative study of zirconium and titanium implants in rat: osseointegration and bone material quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, María R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Ceré, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8 weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments.

  7. Properties of plastic filtration material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses properties of filters made of thermoplastic granulated material. The granulated plastic has a specific density of 10.3-10.6 kN/m/sup 3/ and a bulk density of about 6 kN/m/sup 3/. Its chemical resistance to acids, bases and salts is high but is it soluble in organic solvents. Filters made of this material are characterized by a porosity coefficient of 36.5% and a bulk density of 5.7-6.8 kN/m/sup 3/. Physical and mechanical properties of filter samples made of thermoplastic granulated material (50x50x50 mm) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Compression strength and influencing factors were analyzed (ambient temperature, manufacturing technology). Tests show that this filtration material developed by Poltegor is superior to other filtration materials used in Poland.

  8. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimized mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser J; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-02-01

    The broad aim of this work was to investigate and optimize the properties of calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) for use in vertebroplasty to achieve effective primary fixation of spinal fractures. The incorporation of collagen, both bovine and from a marine sponge (Chondrosia reniformis), into a CPC was investigated. The biological properties of the CPC and collagen-CPC composites were assessed in vitro through the use of human bone marrow stromal cells. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase, PicoGreen, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively. The addition of both types of collagen resulted in an increase in cytotoxicity, albeit not to a clinically relevant level. Cellular proliferation after 1, 7, and 14 days was unchanged. The osteogenic potential of the CPC was reduced through the addition of bovine collagen but remained unchanged in the case of the marine collagen. These findings, coupled with previous work showing that incorporation of marine collagen in this way can improve the physical properties of CPCs, suggest that such a composite may offer an alternative to CPCs in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Behavior of bone cells in contact with magnesium implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Anna; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium-based implants exhibit several advantages, such as biodegradability and possible osteoinductive properties. Whether the degradation may induce cell type-specific changes in metabolism still remains unclear. To examine the osteoinductivity mechanisms, the reaction of bone-derived cells (MG63, U2OS, SaoS2, and primary human osteoblasts (OB)) to magnesium (Mg) was determined. Mg-based extracts were used to mimic more realistic Mg degradation conditions. Moreover, the influence of cells having direct contact with the degrading Mg metal was investigated. In exposure to extracts and in direct contact, the cells decreased pH and osmolality due to metabolic activity. Proliferating cells showed no significant reaction to extracts, whereas differentiating cells were negatively influenced. In contrast to extract exposure, where cell size increased, in direct contact to magnesium, cell size was stable or even decreased. The amount of focal adhesions decreased over time on all materials. Genes involved in bone formation were significantly upregulated, especially for primary human osteoblasts. Some osteoinductive indicators were observed for OB: (i) an increased cell count after extract addition indicated a higher proliferation potential; (ii) increased cell sizes after extract supplementation in combination with augmented adhesion behavior of these cells suggest an early switch to differentiation; and (iii) bone-inducing gene expression patterns were determined for all analyzed conditions. The results from the cell lines were inhomogeneous and showed no specific stimulus of Mg. The comparison of the different cell types showed that primary cells of the investigated tissue should be used as an in vitro model if Mg is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 165-179, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Magnetic materials. Properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.

    1998-01-01

    Main theoretical and experimental results of physics of magnetic materials have been stated. Special attention was paid to the problem of creation of magnetic materials for information recording and presentation. The results of fundamental researches have been considered for their effect on creation of magnetic materials with the properties required for production as well as the reverse effect of production financing on the development of fundamental investigations. The relations between the development of high technologies and the society requirements, financing volumes and the level of NIKOR. (author)

  11. Prediction of mechanical properties of trabecular bone using quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammentausta, E; Hakulinen, M A; Jurvelin, J S; Nieminen, M T

    2006-01-01

    Techniques for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed for non-invasive estimation of the mineral density and structure of trabecular bone. The R* 2 relaxation rate (i.e. 1/T* 2 ) is sensitive to bone mineral density (BMD) via susceptibility differences between trabeculae and bone marrow, and by binarizing MRI images, structural variables, such as apparent bone volume fraction, can be assessed. In the present study, trabecular bone samples of human patellae were investigated in vitro at 1.5 T to determine the ability of MRI-derived variables (R* 2 and bone volume fraction) to predict the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate strength). Further, the MRI variables were correlated with reference measurements of volumetric BMD and bone area fraction as determined with a clinical pQCT system. The MRI variables correlated significantly (p 2 and MRI-derived bone volume fraction further improved the prediction of yield stress and ultimate strength. Although pQCT showed a trend towards better prediction of the mechanical properties, current results demonstrate the feasibility of combined MR imaging of marrow susceptibility and bone volume fraction in predicting the mechanical strength of trabecular bone and bone mineral density

  12. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly degreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  13. Nano-material aspects of shock absorption in bone joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tributsch, H; Copf, F; Copf, P; Hindenlang, U; Niethard, F U; Schneider, R

    2010-01-01

    This theoretical study is based on a nano-technological evaluation of the effect of pressure on the composite bone fine structure. It turned out, that the well known macroscopic mechano-elastic performance of bones in combination with muscles and tendons is just one functional aspect which is critically supported by additional micro- and nano- shock damping technology aimed at minimising local bone material damage within the joints and supporting spongy bone material. The identified mechanisms comprise essentially three phenomena localised within the three-dimensional spongy structure with channels and so called perforated flexible tensulae membranes of different dimensions intersecting and linking them. Kinetic energy of a mechanical shock may be dissipated within the solid-liquid composite bone structure into heat via the generation of quasi-chaotic hydromechanic micro-turbulence. It may generate electro-kinetic energy in terms of electric currents and potentials. And the resulting specific structural and surface electrochemical changes may induce the compressible intra-osseal liquid to build up pressure dependent free chemical energy. Innovative bone joint prostheses will have to consider and to be adapted to the nano-material aspects of shock absorption in the operated bones.

  14. Development of implants composed of bioactive materials for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei

    The purpose of this Ph.D. research was to address the clinical need for synthetic bioactive materials to heal defects in non-loaded and loaded bone. Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres created in a previous study were evaluated as a carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in bone regeneration. New bone formation in rat calvarial defects implanted with BMP2-loaded microspheres (43%) was significantly higher than microspheres without BMP2 (17%) at 6 weeks postimplantation. Then hollow HA microspheres with a carbonate-substituted composition were prepared to improve their resorption rate. Hollow HA microspheres with 12 wt. % of carbonate showed significantly higher new bone formation (73 +/- 8%) and lower residual HA (7 +/- 2%) than stoichiometric HA microspheres (59 +/- 2% new bone formation; 21 +/- 3% residual HA). The combination of carbonate-substituted hollow HA microspheres and clinically-safe doses of BMP2 could provide promising implants for healing non-loaded bone defects. Strong porous scaffolds of bioactive silicate (13-93) glass were designed with the aid of finite-element modeling, created by robocasting and evaluated for loaded bone repair. Scaffolds with a porosity gradient to mimic human cortical bone showed a compressive strength of 88 +/- 20 MPa, a flexural strength of 34 +/- 5 MPa and the ability to support bone infiltration in vivo. The addition of a biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) layer to the external surface of these scaffolds increased their load-bearing capacity in four-point bending by 50% and dramatically enhanced their work of fracture, resulting in a "ductile" mechanical response. These bioactive glass-PLA composites, combining bioactivity, high strength, high work of fracture and an internal architecture conducive to bone infiltration, could provide optimal implants for structural bone repair.

  15. A novel composite material specifically developed for ultrasound bone phantoms: cortical, trabecular and skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydra, A; Maev, R Gr

    2013-01-01

    In the various stages of developing diagnostic and therapeutic equipment, the use of phantoms can play a very important role in improving the process, help in implementation, testing and calibrations. Phantoms are especially useful in developing new applications and training new doctors in medical schools. However, devices that use different physical factors, such as MRI, Ultrasound, CT Scan, etc will require the phantom to be made of different physical properties. In this paper we introduce the properties of recently designed new materials for developing phantoms for ultrasonic human body investigation, which in today's market make up more than 30% in the world of phantoms. We developed a novel composite material which allows fabrication of various kinds of ultrasound bone phantoms to mimic most of the acoustical properties of human bones. In contrast to the ex vivo tissues, the proposed material can maintain the physical and acoustical properties unchanged for long periods of time; moreover, these properties can be custom designed and created to suit specific needs. As a result, we introduce three examples of ultrasound phantoms that we manufactured in our laboratory: cortical, trabecular and skull bone phantoms. The paper also presents the results of a comparison study between the acoustical and physical properties of actual human bones (reported in the referenced literatures) and the phantoms manufactured by us. (note)

  16. Tensile behaviour and properties of a bone analogue composite (HA, HDPE) crosslinked by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, G.; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    2005-01-01

    A natural composite material, hydroxyapatite (HA) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) crosslinked by ionizing radiations is been developed as a bioactive analogue material for bone replacement. Mechanical properties of the composites irradiated up to 300 kGy under tensile tests was studied. Gel content and micrographs of different composite fractures are shown. (author)

  17. A numerical study on stress distribution across the ankle joint: Effects of material distribution of bone, muscle force and ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Subrata; Ghosh, Rajesh

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a realistic three dimensional FE model of intact ankle joint. Three dimensional FE model of the intact ankle joint was developed using computed tomography data sets. The effect of muscle force, ligaments and proper material property distribution of bone on stress distribution across the intact ankle joint was studied separately. Present study indicates bone material property, ligaments and muscle force have influence on stress distribution across the ankle joint. Proper bone material, ligaments and muscle must be considered in the computational model for pre-clinical analysis of ankle prosthesis.

  18. Ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S R; Passi, D; Singh, P; Bhuibhar, A

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic defects with bone graft substitutes has shown promising result achieving almost complete bone regeneration depending on product resorption similar to human bone's physicochemical and crystallographic characteristics. Among these, non-ceramic and ceramic hydroxyapatite being the main inorganic salt of bone is the most studied calcium phosphate material in clinical practices ever since 1970s and non-ceramic since 1985. Its "chemical similarity" with the mineralized phase of biologic bone makes it unique. Hydroxyapatite as an excellent carrier of osteoinductive growth factors and osteogenic cell populations is also useful as drug delivery vehicle regardless of its density. Porous ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite is osteoconductive, biocompatible and very inert. The need for bone graft material keeps on increasing with increased age of the population and the increased conditions of trauma. Recent advances in genetic engineering and doping techniques have made it possible to use non-ceramic hydroxyapatite in larger non-ceramic crystals and cluster forms as a successful bone graft substitute to treat various types of bone defects. In this paper we have mentioned some recently studied properties of hydroxyapatite and its various uses through a brief review of the literatures available to date.

  19. Thermomechanical properties of mullitic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Urbánek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tests provide important information about the properties and behaviour of materials. Basic tests include the measurement of flexural strength and in case of refractory materials, the measurement of flexural strength at high temperatures as well. The dependence of flexural strength on the temperature of ceramic materials usually exhibits a constant progression up to a certain temperature, where the material starts to melt and so the curve begins to decline. However, it was discovered that ceramic mullitic material with a 63 wt.% of Al2O3 exhibits a relatively significant maximum level of flexural strength at about 1000 °C and refractory mullitic material with a 60 wt.% of Al2O3 also exhibits a similar maximum level at about 1100 °C. The mentioned maximum is easily reproducible, but it has no connection with the usual changes in structure of material during heating. The maximum was also identified by another measurement, for example from the progression of the dynamic Young’s modulus or from deflection curves. The aim of this work was to analyse and explain the reason for the flexural strength maximum of mullitic materials at high temperatures.

  20. Biomimetic Materials and Fabrication Approaches for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan D; Amirthalingam, Sivashanmugam; Kim, Seunghyun L; Lee, Seunghun S; Rangasamy, Jayakumar; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2017-12-01

    Various strategies have been explored to overcome critically sized bone defects via bone tissue engineering approaches that incorporate biomimetic scaffolds. Biomimetic scaffolds may provide a novel platform for phenotypically stable tissue formation and stem cell differentiation. In recent years, osteoinductive and inorganic biomimetic scaffold materials have been optimized to offer an osteo-friendly microenvironment for the osteogenic commitment of stem cells. Furthermore, scaffold structures with a microarchitecture design similar to native bone tissue are necessary for successful bone tissue regeneration. For this reason, various methods for fabricating 3D porous structures have been developed. Innovative techniques, such as 3D printing methods, are currently being utilized for optimal host stem cell infiltration, vascularization, nutrient transfer, and stem cell differentiation. In this progress report, biomimetic materials and fabrication approaches that are currently being utilized for biomimetic scaffold design are reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

    2004-09-01

    Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials in the laboratory? These questions have motivated us to investigate the mechanics of protein-mineral nanocomposite structure. Large aspect ratios and a staggered alignment of mineral platelets are found to be the key factors contributing to the large stiffness of biomaterials. A tension-shear chain (TSC) model of biological nanostructure reveals that the strength of biomaterials hinges upon optimizing the tensile strength of the mineral crystals. As the size of the mineral crystals is reduced to nanoscale, they become insensitive to flaws with strength approaching the theoretical strength of atomic bonds. The optimized tensile strength of mineral crystals thus allows a large amount of fracture energy to be dissipated in protein via shear deformation and consequently enhances the fracture toughness of biocomposites. We derive viscoelastic properties of the protein-mineral nanostructure and show that the toughness of biocomposite can be further enhanced by the viscoelastic properties of protein.

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of rib bone samples and of bone reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Takata, M.K.; Kramarski, S.; Borelli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis method was used for the determination of trace elements in rib bone samples taken from autopsies of accident victims. The elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, Rb and Zn were determined in cortical tissues by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. The reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were also analyzed in order to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of the results. It was verified that lyophilization is the most convenient process for drying bone samples since it does not cause any element losses. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for rib samples and the literature values as well as between the results obtained for different ribs from a single individual and for bones from different individuals. (author)

  3. Electron spin resonance dosimetric properties of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caracelli, I.; Terrile, M.C.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry using bovine bone samples are described. The number of paramagnetic centers created by gamma radiation in the inorganic bone matrix was measured as a function of absorbed dose. The minimum detectable dose was 0.5 Gy for 60Co gamma rays. The response was linear up to the maximum dose studied (30 Gy) and independent of dose rate up to the maximum dose rate used (1.67 Gy min-1). For different bone samples the reproducibility was 5%. This method may be valuable for nuclear accident dosimetry

  4. Physicochemical characterization of porcine bone-derived grafting material and comparison with bovine xenografts for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Heon; Yi, Gyu Sung; Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Deug Joong

    2017-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of a xenograft are very important because they strongly influence the bone regeneration capabilities of the graft material. Even though porcine xenografts have many advantages, only a few porcine xenografts are commercially available, and most of their physicochemical characteristics have yet to be reported. Thus, in this work we aimed to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of a porcine bone grafting material and compare them with those of 2 commercially available bovine xenografts to assess the potential of xenogenic porcine bone graft materials for dental applications. We used various characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption method, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and others, to compare the physicochemical properties of xenografts of different origins. The porcine bone grafting material had relatively high porosity (78.4%) and a large average specific surface area (SSA; 69.9 m 2 /g), with high surface roughness (10-point average roughness, 4.47 µm) and sub-100-nm hydroxyapatite crystals on the surface. Moreover, this material presented a significant fraction of sub-100-nm pores, with negligible amounts of residual organic substances. Apart from some minor differences, the overall characteristics of the porcine bone grafting material were very similar to those of one of the bovine bone grafting material. However, many of these morphostructural properties were significantly different from the other bovine bone grafting material, which exhibited relatively smooth surface morphology with a porosity of 62.0% and an average SSA of 0.5 m 2 /g. Considering that both bovine bone grafting materials have been successfully used in oral surgery applications in the last few decades, this work shows that the porcine-derived grafting material possesses most of the key physiochemical characteristics required for its

  5. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF COW AND SHEEP'S BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan Ahmed Elhouri Ahmed; Mubarak Dirar Abdallah2

    2017-01-01

    In this work five samples of (cow and sheep's bones) were prepared to powders in a period of crashing (10 up to 50 sec); weight = 56.73mg To find values of: Refractive index Energy gap And Electrical Conductivity

  6. Various effects of antidepressant drugs on bone microarchitectecture, mechanical properties and bone remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, N.; Bernard, P.; Beaupied, H; Bizot, J.C.; Trovero, F.; Courteix, D.; Benhamou, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various drugs which present antidepressant properties: selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, fluoxetine), serotonin and noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitors (Desipramine) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE, rolipram and tofisopam) on bone microarchitecture and biomechanical properties. Twelve female mice were studied per group starting at an age of 10 weeks. During 4 weeks, they received subcutaneously either placebo or 20 mg kg -1 day -1 of desipramine, fluoxetine or 10 mg kg -1 day -1 of rolipram or tofisopam. Serum Osteocalcin and CTx were evaluated by ELISA. Bone microarchitecture of the distal femur was characterized by X-ray microCT (Skyscan1072). Mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending test (Instron 4501) and antidepressant efficacy by forced swimming and open field tests. Fluoxetine displayed lower TbTh (- 6.1%, p -1 , 6431 ± 1182 MPa) than in placebo (101 ± 9 N mm -1 , 8441 ± 1180 MPa). Bone markers indicated a significantly higher bone formation in tofisopam (+ 8.6%) and a lower in fluoxetine (- 56.1%) compared to placebo. These data suggest deleterious effects for SSRIs, both on trabecular and cortical bone and a positive effect of PDE inhibitors on trabecular bone. Furthermore tofisopam anabolic effect in terms of bone markers, suggests a potential therapeutic effect of the PDE inhibitors on bone

  7. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  8. Chemical and physical properties of bone cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Liang Lai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral compression fracture is the most common complication of osteoporosis. It may result in persistent severe pain and limited mobility, and significantly impacts the quality of life. Vertebroplasty involves a percutaneous injection of bone cement into the collapsed vertebrae by fluorescent guide. The most commonly used bone cement in percutaneous vertebroplasty is based on the polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomers to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA polymers. However, information on the properties of bone cement is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the clinical community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the physical properties of PMMA. The effects of altering the portions and contents of monomer liquid and polymer powders on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also discussed. This information will allow spine surgeons to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific clinical applications and improve safety.

  9. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M

    1996-01-01

    and Interpore 500 HA/CC) were implanted into 5-mm bur holes in rabbit tibiae. There was no difference in the amount of newly formed bone around the four biomaterials. Interpore 500 HA/CC resorbed completely, whereas the other three biomaterials did not undergo any detectable biodegradation. Bio......The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 500......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....

  10. Effect of storage on osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E

    1994-01-01

    A requirement for the clinical use of demineralized bone is the possibility of storing the material without loss of its osteoinductive properties. Seventy-five 8-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups of 15 rats each. Lyophilized demineralized allogeneic bone...... was prepared and implanted in the abdominal muscle either without prior storage (control group) or after storage for 9 or 14 months at -70 degrees C or 4 degrees C (four experimental groups). Bone formation in the implants was evaluated quantitatively 4 weeks postoperatively by measuring the strontium 85...

  11. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  12. Is Graphene a Promising Nano-Material for Promoting Surface Modification of Implants or Scaffold Materials in Bone Tissue Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming; Liu, Yunsong; Chen, Tong; Du, Feng; Zhao, Xianghui; Xiong, Chunyang

    2014-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering promises to restore bone defects that are caused by severe trauma, congenital malformations, tumors, and nonunion fractures. How to effectively promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or seed cells has become a hot topic in this field. Many researchers are studying the ways of conferring a pro-osteodifferentiation or osteoinductive capability on implants or scaffold materials, where osteogenesis of seed cells is promoted. Graphene (G) provides a new kind of coating material that may confer the pro-osteodifferentiation capability on implants and scaffold materials by surface modification. Here, we review recent studies on the effects of graphene on surface modifications of implants or scaffold materials. The ability of graphene to improve the mechanical and biological properties of implants or scaffold materials, such as nitinol and carbon nanotubes, and its ability to promote the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs or osteoblasts have been demonstrated in several studies. Most previous studies were performed in vitro, but further studies will explore the mechanisms of graphene's effects on bone regeneration, its in vivo biocompatibility, its ability to promote osteodifferentiation, and its potential applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24447041

  13. Is graphene a promising nano-material for promoting surface modification of implants or scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming; Liu, Yunsong; Chen, Tong; Du, Feng; Zhao, Xianghui; Xiong, Chunyang; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2014-10-01

    Bone tissue engineering promises to restore bone defects that are caused by severe trauma, congenital malformations, tumors, and nonunion fractures. How to effectively promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or seed cells has become a hot topic in this field. Many researchers are studying the ways of conferring a pro-osteodifferentiation or osteoinductive capability on implants or scaffold materials, where osteogenesis of seed cells is promoted. Graphene (G) provides a new kind of coating material that may confer the pro-osteodifferentiation capability on implants and scaffold materials by surface modification. Here, we review recent studies on the effects of graphene on surface modifications of implants or scaffold materials. The ability of graphene to improve the mechanical and biological properties of implants or scaffold materials, such as nitinol and carbon nanotubes, and its ability to promote the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs or osteoblasts have been demonstrated in several studies. Most previous studies were performed in vitro, but further studies will explore the mechanisms of graphene's effects on bone regeneration, its in vivo biocompatibility, its ability to promote osteodifferentiation, and its potential applications in bone tissue engineering.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of the callus mechanical properties during bone transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Macias, J.; Reina-Romo, E.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoindentation allows obtaining the elastic modulus and the hardness of materials point by point. This technique has been used to assess the mechanical propeties of the callus during fracture healing. However, as fas as the authors know, the evaluation of mechanical properties by this technique of the distraction and the docking-site calluses generated during bone transport have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this work is using nanoindentation to assess the spatial and temporal variation of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during bone transport. Nanoindentation measurements were carried out using 6 samples from sheep sacrificed at different stages of the bone transport experiments. The results obtained show an important heterogeneity of the elastic modulus of the woven bone without spatial trends. In the case of temporal variation, a clear increase of the mean elastic modulus with time after surgery was observed (from 7±2GPa 35 days after surgery to 14±2GPa 525 days after surgery in the distraction callus and a similar increase in the docking site callus). Comparison with the evolution of the elastic modulus in the woven bone generated during fracture healing shows that mechanical properties increase slower in the case of the woven bone generated during bone transport. (Author)

  15. Repairing rabbit radial defects by combining bone marrow stroma stem cells with bone scaffold material comprising a core-cladding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Liu, G H; Wu, Q; Yu, B

    2015-10-05

    We prepared a bone scaffold material comprising a PLGA/β-TCP core and a Type I collagen cladding, and recombined it with bone marrow stroma stem cells (BMSCs) to evaluate its potential for use in bone tissue engineering by in vivo and in vitro experiments. PLGA/β-TCP without a cladding was used for comparison. The adherence rate of the BMSCs to the scaffold was determined by cell counting. Cell proliferation rate was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The osteogenic capability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity. The scaffold materials were recombined with the BMSCs and implanted into a large segmental rabbit radial defect model to evaluate defect repair. Osteogenesis was assessed in the scaffold materials by histological and double immunofluorescence labeling, etc. The adherence number, proliferation number, and alkaline phosphatase expression of the cells on the bone scaffold material with core-cladding structure were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold material (P structure completely degraded at the bone defect site and bone formation was completed. The rabbit large sentimental radial defect was successfully repaired. The degradation and osteogenesis rates matched well. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure exhibited better osteogenic activity and capacity to repair a large segmental bone defect compared to the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure has excellent physical properties and biocompatibility. It is an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Influence of cortical endplates on ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Kang Il

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of thick cortical endplates on the ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone in a femur with a high fracture risk. Twelve trabecular bone samples were prepared from bovine femurs, and acrylic plates with thicknesses of 1.25, 1.80, and 2.75 mm were manufactured to simulate the cortical endplates using acrylic with a density and a sound speed similar to cortical bone. Although the thickness of the acrylic plates attached to the two sides of the trabecular bone increased, high correlations were observed between the speed of sound and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.80-0.86. High correlations were also observed between the attenuation coefficient at 0.5 mm and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.84-0.91. These results suggest that the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient at a specific frequency measured in a femur with relatively thick cortical endplates compared to the calcaneus could be used as indices for predicting the bone mineral density of the femur.

  17. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  18. Prediction of the Setting Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmud Rabiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties.

  19. Mechanical and morphological properties of trabecular bone samples obtained from third metacarpal bones of cadavers of horses with a bone fragility syndrome and horses unaffected by that syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Jennifer E; Entwistle, Rachel C; Arens, Amanda M; Garcia, Tanya C; Christiansen, Blaine A; Fyhrie, David P; Stover, Susan M

    2012-11-01

    To determine morphological and mechanical properties of trabecular bone of horses with a bone fragility syndrome (BFS; including silicate-associated osteoporosis). Cylindrical trabecular bone samples from the distal aspects of cadaveric third metacarpal bones of 39 horses (19 horses with a BFS [BFS bone samples] and 20 horses without a BFS [control bone samples]). Bone samples were imaged via micro-CT for determination of bone volume fraction; apparent and mean mineralized bone densities; and trabecular number, thickness, and separation. Bone samples were compressed to failure for determination of apparent elastic modulus and stresses, strains, and strain energy densities for yield, ultimate, and failure loads. Effects of BFS and age of horses on variables were determined. BFS bone samples had 25% lower bone volume fraction, 28% lower apparent density, 18% lower trabecular number and thickness, and 16% greater trabecular separation versus control bone samples. The BFS bone samples had 22% lower apparent modulus and 32% to 33% lower stresses, 10% to 18% lower strains, and 41 % to 52% lower strain energy densities at yield, ultimate, and failure loads, compared with control bone samples. Differences between groups of bone samples were not detected for mean mineral density and trabecular anisotropy. Results suggested that horses with a BFS had osteopenia and compromised trabecular bone function, consistent with bone deformation and pathological fractures that develop in affected horses. Effects of this BFS may be systemic, and bones other than those that are clinically affected had changes in morphological and mechanical properties.

  20. A new Fe–Mn–Si alloplastic biomaterial as bone grafting material: In vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fântânariu, Mircea, E-mail: mfantanariu@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 8, 700489, Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 3, 700490, Iasi (Romania); Solcan, Carmen, E-mail: csolcan@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 8, 700489, Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 3, 700490, Iasi (Romania); Strungaru, Ştefan, E-mail: strungaru_stefan@yahoo.com [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Biology, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Şindilar, Eusebiu Viorel, E-mail: esindilar@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, no. 8, 700489, Iasi (Romania); Plăvan, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.plavan@uaic.ro [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Biology, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Fe–Mn–Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft material for bone implants. • Fe–Mn–Si alloy degradation rate was preliminary evaluate with SEM and EDAX techniques. • Biochemical, histological, RX and CT investigations were done in rats with subcutaneous and tibiae implants. • Fe–Mn–Si alloy assured an ideal compromise between degradation and mechanical integrity during bone regeneration. - Abstract: Designing substrates having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key's development of bio-materials for medical application. In orthopedics, graft material may be used to fill bony defects or to promote bone formation in osseous defects created by trauma or surgical intervention. Incorporation of Si may increase the bioactivity of implant locally, both by enhancing interactions at the graft–host interface and by having a potential endocrine like effect on osteoblasts. A Fe–Mn–Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft materials for bone implants that need long recovery time period. The surface morphology of the resulted specimens was investigated using scanning electrons microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffractions (X’Pert equipment) or X-ray dispersive energy analyze (Bruker EDS equipment). This study objective was to evaluate in vivo the mechanisms of degradation and the effects of its implantation over the main metabolic organs. Biochemical, histological, plain X radiography and computed tomography investigations showed good compatibility of the subcutaneous implants in the rat organism. The implantation of the Fe–Mn–Si alloy, in critical size bone (tibiae) defect rat model, did not induced adverse biological reactions and provided temporary mechanical support to the affected bone area. The biodegradation products were hydroxides layers which adhered to the substrate surface. Fe–Mn–Si alloy assured the mechanical integrity in rat tibiae defects

  1. Physical and mechanical properties evaluation of Acropora palmata coralline species for bone substitution applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, K; Camero, S; Alarcón, M E; Rivas, A; González, G

    2002-05-01

    The search for ideal materials for bone substitution has been a challenge for many decades. Numerous natural and synthetic materials have been studied. For this application, exoskeletons of coral have been considered a good alternative given its tendency to resorption, biocompatibility and similarity to the mineral bone phase. Very few studies of these materials consider a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship. The purpose of this work was to carry out the microstructural characterization of a coralline species named Acropora palmata and the determination of the mechanical and physico-chemical properties. Measurements of hardness, compressive strength, bulk density and apparent porosity were performed. From these results it was determined that this marine coral species could be an alternative xenograft due to its mechanical properties and osteoconductive nature.

  2. Microstructure and properties of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen Tungsheng

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics materials study is an important field in modern materials science. Each side presented 19 papers most of which were recent investigations giving rather extensive coverage of microstructure and properties of new materials. (Auth.)

  3. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Material heterogeneity in cancellous bone promotes deformation recovery after mechanical failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ashley M; Matheny, Jonathan B; Keaveny, Tony M; Taylor, David; Rimnac, Clare M; Hernandez, Christopher J

    2016-03-15

    Many natural structures use a foam core and solid outer shell to achieve high strength and stiffness with relatively small amounts of mass. Biological foams, however, must also resist crack growth. The process of crack propagation within the struts of a foam is not well understood and is complicated by the foam microstructure. We demonstrate that in cancellous bone, the foam-like component of whole bones, damage propagation during cyclic loading is dictated not by local tissue stresses but by heterogeneity of material properties associated with increased ductility of strut surfaces. The increase in surface ductility is unexpected because it is the opposite pattern generated by surface treatments to increase fatigue life in man-made materials, which often result in reduced surface ductility. We show that the more ductile surfaces of cancellous bone are a result of reduced accumulation of advanced glycation end products compared with the strut interior. Damage is therefore likely to accumulate in strut centers making cancellous bone more tolerant of stress concentrations at strut surfaces. Hence, the structure is able to recover more deformation after failure and return to a closer approximation of its original shape. Increased recovery of deformation is a passive mechanism seen in biology for setting a broken bone that allows for a better approximation of initial shape during healing processes and is likely the most important mechanical function. Our findings suggest a previously unidentified biomimetic design strategy in which tissue level material heterogeneity in foams can be used to improve deformation recovery after failure.

  5. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  6. Modern materials in fabrication of scaffolds for bone defect replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazlov, V. A.; Mamuladze, T. Z.; Pavlov, V. V.; Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The article defines the requirements for modern scaffold-forming materials and describes the main advantages and disadvantages of various synthetic materials. Osseointegration of synthetic scaffolds approved for use in medical practice is evaluated. Nylon 618 (certification ISO9001 1093-1-2009) is described as the most promising synthetic material used in medical practice. The authors briefly highlight the issues of individual bone grafting with the use of 3D printing technology. An example of contouring pelvis defect after removal of a giant tumor with the use of 3D models is provided.

  7. Piezoelectric materials as stimulatory biomedical materials and scaffolds for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Biranche; Blaker, Jonny J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2018-04-16

    The process of bone repair and regeneration requires multiple physiological cues including biochemical, electrical and mechanical - that act together to ensure functional recovery. Myriad materials have been explored as bioactive scaffolds to deliver these cues locally to the damage site, amongst these piezoelectric materials have demonstrated significant potential for tissue engineering and regeneration, especially for bone repair. Piezoelectric materials have been widely explored for power generation and harvesting, structural health monitoring, and use in biomedical devices. They have the ability to deform with physiological movements and consequently deliver electrical stimulation to cells or damaged tissue without the need of an external power source. Bone itself is piezoelectric and the charges/potentials it generates in response to mechanical activity are capable of enhancing bone growth. Piezoelectric materials are capable of stimulating the physiological electrical microenvironment, and can play a vital role to stimulate regeneration and repair. This review gives an overview of the association of piezoelectric effect with bone repair, and focuses on state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials (polymers, ceramics and their composites), the fabrication routes to produce piezoelectric scaffolds, and their application in bone repair. Important characteristics of these materials from the perspective of bone tissue engineering are highlighted. Promising upcoming strategies and new piezoelectric materials for this application are presented. Electrical stimulation/electrical microenvironment are known effect the process of bone regeneration by altering the cellular response and are crucial in maintaining tissue functionality. Piezoelectric materials, owing to their capability of generating charges/potentials in response to mechanical deformations, have displayed great potential for fabricating smart stimulatory scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The growing

  8. Bone scaffolds with homogeneous and discrete gradient mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelen, C; Mattei, G; Montemurro, F; De Maria, C; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Vozzi, G

    2013-01-01

    Bone TE uses a scaffold either to induce bone formation from surrounding tissue or to act as a carrier or template for implanted bone cells or other agents. We prepared different bone tissue constructs based on collagen, gelatin and hydroxyapatite using genipin as cross-linking agent. The fabricated construct did not present a release neither of collagen neither of genipin over its toxic level in the surrounding aqueous environment. Each scaffold has been mechanically characterized with compression, swelling and creep tests, and their respective viscoelastic mechanical models were derived. Mechanical characterization showed a practically elastic behavior of all samples and that compressive elastic modulus basically increases as content of HA increases, and it is strongly dependent on porosity and water content. Moreover, by considering that gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues, we developed discrete functionally graded scaffolds (discrete FGSs) in order to mimic the graded structure of bone tissue. These new structures were mechanically characterized showing a marked anisotropy as the native bone tissue. Results obtained have shown FGSs could represent valid bone substitutes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-02-01

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d33 of HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics.

  10. Correlations Between Bone Mechanical Properties and Bone Composition Parameters in Mouse Models of Dominant and Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta and the Response to Anti-TGF-β Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Grafe, Ingo; Ding, Hao; Flores, Rene; Munivez, Elda; Jiang, Ming Ming; Dawson, Brian; Lee, Brendan; Ambrose, Catherine G

    2017-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by brittle bones that are prone to fracture. Although previous studies in animal models investigated the mechanical properties and material composition of OI bone, little work has been conducted to statistically correlate these parameters to identify key compositional contributors to the impaired bone mechanical behaviors in OI. Further, although increased TGF-β signaling has been demonstrated as a contributing mechanism to the bone pathology in OI models, the relationship between mechanical properties and bone composition after anti-TGF-β treatment in OI has not been studied. Here, we performed follow-up analyses of femurs collected in an earlier study from OI mice with and without anti-TGF-β treatment from both recessive (Crtap -/- ) and dominant (Col1a2 +/P.G610C ) OI mouse models and WT mice. Mechanical properties were determined using three-point bending tests and evaluated for statistical correlation with molecular composition in bone tissue assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Statistical regression analysis was conducted to determine significant compositional determinants of mechanical integrity. Interestingly, we found differences in the relationships between bone composition and mechanical properties and in the response to anti-TGF-β treatment. Femurs of both OI models exhibited increased brittleness, which was associated with reduced collagen content and carbonate substitution. In the Col1a2 +/P.G610C femurs, reduced hydroxyapatite crystallinity was also found to be associated with increased brittleness, and increased mineral-to-collagen ratio was correlated with increased ultimate strength, elastic modulus, and bone brittleness. In both models of OI, regression analysis demonstrated that collagen content was an important predictor of the increased brittleness. In summary, this work provides new insights into the relationships between bone composition and material properties in

  11. Assessment of compressive failure process of cortical bone materials using damage-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Theng Pin; R Koloor, S S; Djuansjah, J R P; Abdul Kadir, M R

    2017-02-01

    The main failure factors of cortical bone are aging or osteoporosis, accident and high energy trauma or physiological activities. However, the mechanism of damage evolution coupled with yield criterion is considered as one of the unclear subjects in failure analysis of cortical bone materials. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the structural response and progressive failure process of cortical bone using a brittle damaged plasticity model. For this reason, several compressive tests are performed on cortical bone specimens made of bovine femur, in order to obtain the structural response and mechanical properties of the material. Complementary finite element (FE) model of the sample and test is prepared to simulate the elastic-to-damage behavior of the cortical bone using the brittle damaged plasticity model. The FE model is validated in a comparative method using the predicted and measured structural response as load-compressive displacement through simulation and experiment. FE results indicated that the compressive damage initiated and propagated at central region where maximum equivalent plastic strain is computed, which coincided with the degradation of structural compressive stiffness followed by a vast amount of strain energy dissipation. The parameter of compressive damage rate, which is a function dependent on damage parameter and the plastic strain is examined for different rates. Results show that considering a similar rate to the initial slope of the damage parameter in the experiment would give a better sense for prediction of compressive failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell response of calcium phosphate based ceramics, a bone substitute material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize calcium phosphate ceramics with different Ca/P ratios and evaluate cell response of these materials for use as a bone substitute. Bioceramics consisting of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HAp and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powders in different proportions were pressed and sintered. The physical and chemical properties of these bioceramics were then characterized. Characterization of the biological properties of these materials was based on analysis of cell response using cultured fibroblasts. The number of cells attached to the samples was counted from SEM images of samples exposed to cell culture solution for different periods. These data were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA complemented by the Tukey's test. The TCP sample had higher surface roughness and lower density. The adherence and growth of FMM1 cells on samples from all groups was studied. Even though the different calcium based ceramics exhibited properties which made them suitable as bone substitutes, those with higher levels of β-TCP revealed improved cell growth on their surfaces. These observations indicated two-phase calcium phosphate based materials with a β-TCP surface layer to be a promising bone substitute.

  13. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC

    1997-01-01

    We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...... strain and failure energy showed maxima at younger ages. These age-related variations (except for failure energy) were non-linear. Tissue density and mineral concentration were constant throughout life, whereas apparent density (the amount of bone) varied with ultimate stress. Collagen density (the...... amount of collagen) varied with failure energy. Collagen concentration was maximal at younger ages but varied little with age. Our results suggest that the decrease in mechanical properties of trabecular bone such as Young's modulus and ultimate stress is mainly a consequence of the loss of trabecular...

  14. Mechanical properties of femoral trabecular bone in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Ingo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mechanical properties of canine trabecular bone is important for a better understanding of fracture mechanics or bone disorders and is also needed for numerical simulation of canine femora. No detailed data about elastic moduli and degrees of anisotropy of canine femoral trabecular bone has been published so far, hence the purpose of this study was to measure the elastic modulus of trabecular bone in canine femoral heads by ultrasound testing and to assess whether assuming isotropy of the cancellous bone in femoral heads in dogs is a valid simplification. Methods From 8 euthanized dogs, both femora were obtained and cubic specimens were cut from the centre of the femoral head which were oriented along the main pressure and tension trajectories. The specimens were tested using a 100 MHz ultrasound transducer in all three orthogonal directions. The directional elastic moduli of trabecular bone tissue and degrees of anisotropy were calculated. Results The elastic modulus along principal bone trajectories was found to be 11.2 GPa ± 0.4, 10.5 ± 2.1 GPa and 10.5 ± 1.8 GPa, respectively. The mean density of the specimens was 1.40 ± 0.09 g/cm3. The degrees of anisotropy revealed a significant inverse relationship with specimen densities. No significant differences were found between the elastic moduli in x, y and z directions, suggesting an effective isotropy of trabecular bone tissue in canine femoral heads. Discussion This study presents detailed data about elastic moduli of trabecular bone tissue obtained from canine femoral heads. Limitations of the study are the relatively small number of animals investigated and the measurement of whole specimen densities instead of trabecular bone densities which might lead to an underestimation of Young's moduli. Publications on elastic moduli of trabecular bone tissue present results that are similar to our data. Conclusion This study provides data about directional elastic

  15. Journey of bone graft materials in periodontal therapy: A chronological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone, the basic building block of the healthy periodontium, is affected in most of the periodontal diseases and can be managed either by mechanically recontouring it or by grafting techniques, which encourages regeneration where it has been lost. Bone replacement grafts are widely used to promote bone formation and periodontal regeneration. Bone grafting, placing bone or bone substitutes into defects created by the disease process, acts like a scaffold upon which the body generates its own, new bone. A wide range of bone grafting materials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes, have been applied and evaluated clinically, including autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts. This review provides an overview of the clinical application, biologic function, and advantages and disadvantages of various types of bone graft materials used in periodontal therapy till date with emphasis on recent advances in this field.

  16. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  17. Effects of bone substitute architecture and surface properties on cell response, angiogenesis, and structure of new bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F.S.L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The success of bone substitutes used to repair bone defects such as critical sized defects depends on the architecture of the porous biomaterial. The architectural parameters and surface properties affect cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and eventually bone formation. The

  18. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano; Nele, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2011-04-15

    Artificial bone cements (BCs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA) liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and acrylic acid (AA) to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired. (author)

  19. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. F. Santos Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bone cements (BCs based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in-situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA and acrylic acid (AA to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired.

  20. PMMA-hydroxyapatite composite material retards fatigue failure of augmented bone compared to augmentation with plain PMMA: in vivo study using a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabmotlagh, Mohammad; Bachmaier, Samuel; Geiger, Florian; Rauschmann, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used void filler for augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral fracture, but the differing mechanical features of PMMA and osteoporotic bone result in overload and failure of adjacent bone. The aim of this study was to compare fatigue failure of bone after augmentation with PMMA-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) composite material or with plain PMMA in a sheep model. After characterization of the mechanical properties of a composite material consisting of PMMA and defined amounts (10, 20, and 30% volume fraction) of HA, the composite material with 30% volume fraction HA was implanted in one distal femur of sheep; plain PMMA was implanted in the other femur. Native non-augmented bone served as control. Three and 6 months after implantation, the augmented bone samples were exposed to cyclic loading and the evolution of damage was investigated. The fatigue life was highest for the ovine native bone and lowest for bone-PMMA specimens. Bone-composite specimens showed significantly higher fatigue life than the respective bone-PMMA specimens in both 3- and 6-month follow-up groups. These results suggest that modification of mechanical properties of PMMA by addition of HA to approximate those of cancellous bone retards fatigue failure of the surrounding bone compared to augmented bone with plain PMMA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Xi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lian, Xiaojie [College of Mechanics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guo, Zhongwu [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Hong-Jiang [Wendeng Hospital of Traditional Chinese Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shandong 264400 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration.

  2. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Lian, Xiaojie; Guo, Zhongwu; Jiang, Hong-Jiang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration

  3. Thermoluminescence dosimetry materials: properties and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Moscovitch, M.; Townsend, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    This book selects a range of the most popular thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) materials in use today and provides a critical account of their thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric properties. The information provided includes in-depth discussions of TL mechanisms, including an account of luminescence properties, and relevant information regarding dosimetric characteristics. The book is intended for those involved in TLD materials research, and for technicians and workers involved in the practical application of these materials in TL dosimetry. The advent of modern spectroscopic methods for measuring TL emission spectra (the so-called ''3-D'' presentation) seemed to the authors to be an invitation to compile such spectra for all the major TLD materials. Further consideration led to an expansion of the initial idea to include a compilation of dosimetric properties. One intention is to provide a synopsis of the TL and dosimetric properties of the most widely used TLD materials currently available and to form a link between the solid state defect properties of these materials and their actual dosimetric properties. A second intention is to provide a solid framework from which future studies of TLD materials could be launched. Too often in the past research into TLD materials has been haphazard, to say the least. By illustrating the links between solid state physics and the radiation dosimetry properties of these materials the book points to the future and to the pressing need for enhanced research on TLD materials. (Author)

  4. [Ex Vivo Testing of Mechanical Properties of Canine Metacarpal/Metatarsal Bones after Simulated Implant Removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, R; Fedorová, P; Pěnčík, J; Vojtová, L; Sedlinská, M; Nečas, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In a long-term perspective, it is better to remove implants after fracture healing. However, subsequent full or excessive loading of an extremity may result in refracture, and the bone with holes after screw removal may present a site with predilection for this. The aim of the study was to find ways of how to decrease risk factors for refracture in such a case. This involved support to the mechanical properties of a bone during its remodelling until defects following implant removal are repaired, using a material tolerated by bone tissue and easy to apply. It also included an assessment of the mechanical properties of a bone after filling the holes in it with a newly developed biodegradable polymer-composite gel ("bone paste"). The composite also has a prospect of being used to repair bony defects produced by pathological processes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Experiments were carried out on intact weight-bearing small bones in dogs. A total of 27 specimens of metacarpal/metatarsal bones were used for ex vivo testing. They were divided into three groups: K1 (n = 9) control undamaged bones; K2 (n = 9) control bones with iatrogenic damage simulating holes left after cortical screw removal; EXP (n = 9) experimental specimens in which simulated holes in bone were filled with the biodegradable self-hardening composite. The bone specimens were subjected to three-point bending in the caudocranial direction by a force acting parallel to the direction of drilling in their middiaphyses. The value of maximum load achieved (N) and the corresponding value of a vertical displacement (mm) were recorded in each specimen, then compared and statistically evaluated. RESULTS On application of a maximum load (N), all bone specimens broke in the mid-part of their diaphyses. In group K1 the average maximum force of 595.6 ± 79.5 N was needed to break the bone; in group K2 it was 347.6 ± 58.6 N; and in group EXP it was 458.3 ± 102.7 N. The groups with damaged bones, K2 and

  5. PMMA/Ca2+ bone cements. Hydrolytic properties and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone cements of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA have been used for about 40 years to fix artificial prosthesis to bone structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption, solubility, degradation and bioactivity of novel formulations of PMMA/Ca2+ bone cements. These properties were evaluated using a fractional experimental design. Hydrolytic parameters were determined, from which we found that 7/8 of the formulations for absorption and 6/8 for solubility fulfill the ISO 4049:2000 requirements. The final degradation values ranged between 1 and 5%, except for one of the formulations. Besides, some formulations showed bioactivity after seven days of immersion in SBF solution.

  6. Hard tissue regeneration using bone substitutes: an update on innovations in materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byong Taek

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a unique organ composed of mineralized hard tissue, unlike any other body part. The unique manner in which bone can constantly undergo self-remodeling has created interesting clinical approaches to the healing of damaged bone. Healing of large bone defects is achieved using implant materials that gradually integrate with the body after healing is completed. Such strategies require a multidisciplinary approach by material scientists, biological scientists, and clinicians. Development of materials for bone healing and exploration of the interactions thereof with the body are active research areas. In this review, we explore ongoing developments in the creation of materials for regenerating hard tissues.

  7. Bone Geometry as a Predictor of Tissue Fragility and Stress Fracture Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jepsen, Karl

    2003-01-01

    ... and bone quality, such that slender bones are associated with more damageable bone tissue. We postulate that a similar reciprocal relationship between bone mass and bone material properties exists in the human skeleton...

  8. Bone Geometry as a Predictor of Tissue Fragility and Stress Fracture Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jepsen, Karl J

    2004-01-01

    ... and bone quality, such that slender bones are associated with more damageable bone tissue. We postulate that a similar reciprocal relationship between bone mass and bone material properties exists in the human skeleton...

  9. Bone Geometry as a Predictor of Tissue Fragility and Stress Fracture Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jepsen, Karl J

    2006-01-01

    ... and bone quality, such that slender bones are associated with more damageable bone tissue. We postulate that a similar reciprocal relationship between bone mass and bone material properties exists in the human skeleton...

  10. Bone Geometry as a Predictor of Tissue Fragility and Stress Fracture Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jepsen, Karl

    2002-01-01

    ... and bone quality, such that slender bones are associated with more damageable bone tissue. We postulate that a similar reciprocal relationship between bone mass and bone material properties exists in the human skeleton...

  11. Nanomechanical properties of bone around cement-retained abutment implants. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.M. de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.

  12. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n = 12) to 1000 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90 days while control group (n = 8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant.

  13. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-02-15

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The in vitro viability and growth of fibroblasts cultured in the presence of different bone grafting materials (NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, E; Rumpel, E; Fanghänel, J; Bayerlein, T; Gedrange, T; Proff, P

    2006-02-01

    Different clinical applications, including dentistry, are making increasing demands on bone grafting material. In the present study we have analysed the viability, proliferation and growth characteristics of fibroblasts cultured in vitro together with two different bone grafting materials, NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic, over a period of 24 and 28 days respectively. Viability was measured at least every 72 hours by using the alamarBlue assay, a test that measures quantitatively cell proliferation and viability but does not require cell fixation or extraction. After one week of culture fibroblast viability was as high as in controls for both grafting materials and remained high (> 90%) for the duration of the experiment. Cell growth was evaluated microscopically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a dense fibroblast growth at the surface of both bone grafting materials after three weeks of in vitro culture. Generally, our in vitro analyses contribute to further insights into cell - scaffold interactions.

  15. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  16. Effect of Nanoparticle Incorporation and Surface Coating on Mechanical Properties of Bone Scaffolds: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Corona-Gomez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of a scaffold play an important role in its in vivo performance in bone tissue engineering, due to the fact that implanted scaffolds are typically subjected to stress including compression, tension, torsion, and shearing. Unfortunately, not all the materials used to fabricate scaffolds are strong enough to mimic native bones. Extensive research has been conducted in order to increase scaffold strength and mechanical performance by incorporating nanoparticles and/or coatings. An incredible improvement has been achieved; and some outstanding examples are the usage of nanodiamond, hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass particles, SiO2, MgO, and silver nanoparticles. This review paper aims to present the results, to summarize significant findings, and to give perspective for future work, which could be beneficial to future bone tissue engineering.

  17. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process

  18. Mechanical properties of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.M.; Robach, J.; Wirth, B.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties of metals is considered with particular attention being paid to the development of defect-free channels following uniaxial tensile loading. The in situ transmission electron microscope deformation technique is coupled with dislocation dynamic computer simulations to reveal the fundamental processes governing the elimination of defects by glissile dislocations. The observations of preliminary experiments are reported.(author)

  19. Properties and characterization of modern materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on robust characterization and prediction methods for materials in technical applications as well as the materials’ safety features during operation. In particular, it presents methods for reliably predicting material properties, an aspect that is becoming increasingly important as engineering materials are pushed closer and closer to their limits to boost the performance of machines and structures. To increase their engineering value, components are now designed under the consideration of their multiphysical properties and functions, which requires much more intensive investigation and characterization of these materials. The materials covered in this monograph range from metal-based groups such as lightweight alloys, to advanced high-strength steels and modern titanium alloys. Furthermore, a wide range of polymers and composite materials (e.g. with micro- and nanoparticles or fibres) is covered. The book explores methods for property prediction from classical mechanical characterization-...

  20. Research of footwear lining materials thermoconductive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksudova, U.; Ilkhamova, M.; Mirzayev, N.; Pazilova, D.

    2017-11-01

    Protective properties of footwear are influenced by a number of factors and the most important of them are: design features of the top and the bottom of the footwear, it’s shape, physical and mechanical properties of the components of which they are made. In course of work there were researched thermoconductive properties of different lining membrane materials used for production of high temperature protective footwear. Research results allow to select the appropriate materials by reference to thermoconductive properties during design of protective footwear for extreme conditions to prolong the wearer’s time of comfortable stay in conditions of exposure of elevated temperatures to a stack.

  1. Magnetic materials fundamentals, products, properties, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hilzinger, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    At a practical level, this compendium reviews the basics of soft and hard magnetic materials, discusses the advantages of the different processing routes for the exploitation of the magnetic properties and hence assists in proper, fail-safe and economic application of magnetic materials. Essential guidelines and formulas for the calculation of the magnetic and electrical properties, temperature and long-term stability of permanent magnets, of inductive components and magnetic shielding are compiled. Selected fields of application and case studies illustrate the large diversity of technical applications. Application engineers will appreciate the comprehensive compilation of the properties and detailed characteristic curves of modern soft and hard magnetic materials. Materials scientists will enjoy the presentation of the different processing routes and their impact on the magnetic properties and students will profit from the survey from the basics of magnetism down to the applications in inductive components, ...

  2. The Development of Biomimetic Spherical Hydroxyapatite/Polyamide 66 Biocomposites as Bone Repair Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biomedical material composed of spherical hydroxyapatite (s-HA and polyamide 66 (PA biocomposite (s-HA/PA was prepared, and its composition, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that HA distributed uniformly in the s-HA/PA matrix. Strong molecule interactions and chemical bonds were presented between the s-HA and PA in the composites confirmed by IR and XRD. The composite had excellent compressive strength in the range between 95 and 132 MPa, close to that of natural bone. In vitro experiments showed the s-HA/PA composite could improve cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the developed s-HA/PA composites in this study might be used for tissue engineering and bone repair.

  3. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    , such as apparent, apparent ash and collagen densities of human tibial trabecular bone have significant relationships with age. Tissue density and mineral concentration remain constant throughout life. Trabecular bone is tougher in the younger age, i.e. fracture requires more energy. Collagen density was the single......Initiated and motivated by clinical and scientific problems such as age-related bone fracture, prosthetic loosening, bone remodeling, and degenerative bone diseases, much significant research on the properties of trabecular bone has been carried out over the last two decades. This work has mainly...... focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...

  4. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  5. Virtual materials design using databases of calculated materials properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munter, T R; Landis, D D; Abild-Pedersen, F; Jones, G; Wang, S; Bligaard, T

    2009-01-01

    Materials design is most commonly carried out by experimental trial and error techniques. Current trends indicate that the increased complexity of newly developed materials, the exponential growth of the available computational power, and the constantly improving algorithms for solving the electronic structure problem, will continue to increase the relative importance of computational methods in the design of new materials. One possibility for utilizing electronic structure theory in the design of new materials is to create large databases of materials properties, and subsequently screen these for new potential candidates satisfying given design criteria. We utilize a database of more than 81 000 electronic structure calculations. This alloy database is combined with other published materials properties to form the foundation of a virtual materials design framework (VMDF). The VMDF offers a flexible collection of materials databases, filters, analysis tools and visualization methods, which are particularly useful in the design of new functional materials and surface structures. The applicability of the VMDF is illustrated by two examples. One is the determination of the Pareto-optimal set of binary alloy methanation catalysts with respect to catalytic activity and alloy stability; the other is the search for new alloy mercury absorbers.

  6. [Children, Collect Bones! : Teaching Aids and Propaganda Material on Bone-Collections and Bone-Utilisation Used in German Schools During the "Third Reich"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, Elisabeth; Preiß, Florian

    2018-06-05

    In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries bones were an essential raw material for the German chemical industry, vital to the production of fertilizer, glue, gelatine, soap and other products. As most of this material was imported, the German school system during the "Third Reich" took the utilisation of bones as an example to illustrate the relevance of the four-year plan of 1936 and its policy of economic self-sufficiency. The school children were encouraged to collect bones from domestic sources and bring them to the collecting points in the schools. Several NS-institutions developed a variety of teaching aids and materials to support school education on this economically and politically important topic. Focussing on the example of bone-utilisation, this paper examines the messages and intentions of these educational materials. It also demonstrates how even apparently ideologically unbiased school subjects, such as chemistry, were instrumentalised for the political indoctrination of the pupils.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Optimized Diamond Lattice Structure for Bone Scaffolds Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Z.; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Miao; Jafar, Salman

    2018-01-01

    Developments in selective laser melting (SLM) have enabled the fabrication of periodic cellular lattice structures characterized by suitable properties matching the bone tissue well and by fluid permeability from interconnected structures. These multifunctional performances are significantly affected by cell topology and constitutive properties of applied materials. In this respect, a diamond unit cell was designed in particular volume fractions corresponding to the host bone tissue and optimized with a smooth surface at nodes leading to fewer stress concentrations. There were 33 porous titanium samples with different volume fractions, from 1.28 to 18.6%, manufactured using SLM. All of them were performed under compressive load to determine the deformation and failure mechanisms, accompanied by an in-situ approach using digital image correlation (DIC) to reveal stress–strain evolution. The results showed that lattice structures manufactured by SLM exhibited comparable properties to those of trabecular bone, avoiding the effects of stress-shielding and increasing longevity of implants. The curvature of optimized surface can play a role in regulating the relationship between density and mechanical properties. Owing to the release of stress concentration from optimized surface, the failure mechanism of porous titanium has been changed from the pattern of bottom-up collapse by layer (or cell row) to that of the diagonal (45°) shear band, resulting in the significant enhancement of the structural strength. PMID:29510492

  8. Mechanical Properties of Optimized Diamond Lattice Structure for Bone Scaffolds Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, David Z; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Miao; Jafar, Salman

    2018-03-03

    Developments in selective laser melting (SLM) have enabled the fabrication of periodic cellular lattice structures characterized by suitable properties matching the bone tissue well and by fluid permeability from interconnected structures. These multifunctional performances are significantly affected by cell topology and constitutive properties of applied materials. In this respect, a diamond unit cell was designed in particular volume fractions corresponding to the host bone tissue and optimized with a smooth surface at nodes leading to fewer stress concentrations. There were 33 porous titanium samples with different volume fractions, from 1.28 to 18.6%, manufactured using SLM. All of them were performed under compressive load to determine the deformation and failure mechanisms, accompanied by an in-situ approach using digital image correlation (DIC) to reveal stress-strain evolution. The results showed that lattice structures manufactured by SLM exhibited comparable properties to those of trabecular bone, avoiding the effects of stress-shielding and increasing longevity of implants. The curvature of optimized surface can play a role in regulating the relationship between density and mechanical properties. Owing to the release of stress concentration from optimized surface, the failure mechanism of porous titanium has been changed from the pattern of bottom-up collapse by layer (or cell row) to that of the diagonal (45°) shear band, resulting in the significant enhancement of the structural strength.

  9. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  10. Optical properties of low-dimensional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, T

    1998-01-01

    This book surveys recent theoretical and experimental studies of optical properties of low-dimensional materials. As an extended version of Optical Properties of Low-Dimensional Materials (Volume 1, published in 1995 by World Scientific), Volume 2 covers a wide range of interesting low-dimensional materials including both inorganic and organic systems, such as disordered polymers, deformable molecular crystals, dilute magnetic semiconductors, SiGe/Si short-period superlattices, GaAs quantum wires, semiconductor microcavities, and photonic crystals. There are excellent review articles by promis

  11. Femoral Cortical Bone Mineral Density and Biomechanical Properties in Sheep Consuming an Acidifying Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen S. Hackett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary acidity is a likely contributor to the development of osteoporosis. Dietary acidosis in an ovine model has effects on trabecular bone that have been previously shown to mimic human osteoporosis. Effects on cortical bone using this model have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary acidosis on cortical bone mineral density and material properties. Skeletally mature ovariectomized (OVX sheep consumed either a normal diet (ND or a metabolic acidosis diet (MA for 6 or 12 months. Whole femoral and cortical bone beam BMD was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Beams were then subjected to three point flexure monotonically to failure to determine strength and modulus and then ashed to determine percent mineralization. Femoral BMD in adult OVX ND 6 mo sheep was significantly greater than those in the non-OVX ND group. The BMD in the MA groups was lower than the control non-OVX ND group. Cortical beams had significantly decreased modulus in all MA and OVX groups when compared with the non-OVX ND group and a tendency towards decreased strength in all groups with significance only in the OVX ND 6 mo sheep. Percent mineralization increased in MA and OVX groups when compared to the non-OVX ND group and was significantly increased in the OVX ND 6 mo and OVX MA 12 mo groups. A significant correlation was seen between BMD of the beam and breaking strength and modulus. Dietary acidity impacts cortical bone and results in reduced material properties that may contribute to failure.

  12. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of dynamic triaxial tests, measurement of elastic wave velocity and liquefaction tests that aim at getting hold of dynamic mechanical properties. We can get hold of dependency on the shearing strain of the shearing modulus and hysteresis damping constant, the application for the mechanical model etc. by dynamic triaxial tests, the acceptability of maximum shearing modulus obtained from dynamic triaxial tests etc. by measurement of elastic wave velocity and dynamic strength caused by cyclic stress etc. by liquefaction tests. (author)

  14. Bone material strength index as measured by impact microindentation is altered in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgo, F; Hamdy, N A T; Rabelink, T J; Kroon, H M; Claessen, K M J A; Pereira, A M; Biermasz, N R; Appelman-Dijkstra, N M

    2017-03-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excess growth hormone (GH) production by the pituitary adenoma. The skeletal complications of GH and IGF-1 excess include increased bone turnover, increased cortical bone mass and deteriorated microarchitecture of trabecular bone, associated with a high risk of vertebral fractures in the presence of relatively normal bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate tissue-level properties of bone using impact microindentation (IMI) in well-controlled patients with acromegaly aged ≥18 years compared to 44 controls from the outpatient clinic of the Centre for Bone Quality. In this cross-sectional study, bone material strength index (BMSi) was measured in 48 acromegaly patients and 44 controls with impact microindentation using the osteoprobe. Mean age of acromegaly patients (54% male) was 60.2 years (range 37.9-76.5), and 60.5 years (range 39.8-78.6) in controls (50% male). Patients with acromegaly and control patients had comparable BMI (28.2 kg/m 2  ± 4.7 vs 26.6 kg/m 2  ± 4.3, P = 0.087) and comparable BMD at the lumbar spine (1.04 g/cm 2  ± 0.21 vs 1.03 g/cm 2  ± 0.13, P = 0.850) and at the femoral neck (0.84 g/cm 2  ± 0.16 vs 0.80 g/cm 2  ± 0.09, P = 0.246). BMSi was significantly lower in acromegaly patients than that in controls (79.4 ± 0.7 vs 83.2 ± 0.7; P acromegaly after reversal of long-term exposure to pathologically high GH and IGF-1 levels. Our findings also suggest that methods other than DXA should be considered to evaluate bone fragility in patients with acromegaly. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Mechanical Properties of 3d Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deividas Mizeras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern tissue engineering is a creation 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Until now, in order to restore bone defects are used various bone substitutes (autologous and allogeneic, however, their usage is limited because is required additional surgery, possible complications, also limited their use is associated with ethical point of view. In this work we aim to determine the mechanical properties of 3D printed PLA objects having various orientation woodpile microarchitectures. In this work we chose three different 3D microarchitectures: woodpile BCC (each layer consists of parallel logs which are rotated 90 deg every next layer, woodpile FCC (every layer is additionally shifted half of the period in respect to the previous parallel log layer and a rotating woodpile 60 deg (each layer is rotated 60 deg in respect to the previous one. Compressive and bending tests were carried out with TIRAtest2300 universal testing machine. We found that 60 deg rotating woodpile geometry had the highest mechanical values which were approximately about 3 times higher than the BCC or FCC microstructures.

  16. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    : medial arthrosis, lateral control, normal medial and normal lateral controls. The specimens were tested in compression to determine mechanical properties and then physical/compositional properties. Compared to the normal medial control, we found reductions in ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and failure...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests...

  17. Influence of Nano-HA Coated Bone Collagen to Acrylic (Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement on Mechanical Properties and Bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available This research investigated the mechanical properties and bioactivity of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA bone cement after addition of the nano-hydroxyapatite(HA coated bone collagen (mineralized collagen, MC.The MC in different proportions were added to the PMMA bone cement to detect the compressive strength, compression modulus, coagulation properties and biosafety. The MC-PMMA was embedded into rabbits and co-cultured with MG 63 cells to exam bone tissue compatibility and gene expression of osteogenesis.15.0%(wt impregnated MC-PMMA significantly lowered compressive modulus while little affected compressive strength and solidification. MC-PMMA bone cement was biologically safe and indicated excellent bone tissue compatibility. The bone-cement interface crosslinking was significantly higher in MC-PMMA than control after 6 months implantation in the femur of rabbits. The genes of osteogenesis exhibited significantly higher expression level in MC-PMMA.MC-PMMA presented perfect mechanical properties, good biosafety and excellent biocompatibility with bone tissues, which has profoundly clinical values.

  18. TiO2/bone composite materials for the separation of heavy metal impurities from waste water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakroury, G.; Labib, Sh.; Abou El-Nour, F. H.

    2012-09-01

    Pure bone material obtained from cow meat, as apatite-rich material, and TiO2-bone composite materials are prepared and studied to be used for heavy metal ions separation from waste water solutions. Meat wastes are chemically and thermally treated to control their microstructure in order to prepare the composite materials that fulfill all the requirements to be used as selective membranes with high performance, stability and mechanical strength. The prepared materials are analyzed using Hg-porosimetry for surface characterization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical composition investigation. Structural studies are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural properties are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area studies are performed using Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. XRD studies show that multiphase structures are obtained as a result of 1h sintering at 700-1200 °C for both pure bone and TiO2-bone composite materials. The factors affecting the transport of different heavy metal ions through the selected membranes are determined from permeation flux measurements. It is found that membrane pore size, membrane surface roughness and membrane surface charge are the key parameters that control the transport or rejection of heavy metal ions through the selected membranes.

  19. Poly (glycerol sebacate) elastomer supports bone regeneration by its mechanical properties being closer to osteoid tissue rather than to mature bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, S H; Lee, K W; Gao, J; Jensen, A; Verdelis, K; Wang, Y; Almarza, A J; Sfeir, C

    2017-05-01

    Mechanical load influences bone structure and mass. Arguing the importance of load-transduction, we investigated the mechanisms inducing bone formation using an elastomeric substrate. We characterized Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) in vitro for its mechanical properties, compatibility with osteoprogenitor cells regarding adhesion, proliferation, differentiation under compression versus static cultures and in vivo for the regeneration of a rabbit ulna critical size defect. The load-transducing properties of PGS were compared in vitro to a stiffer poly lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLA/PGA) scaffold of similar porosity and interconnectivity. Under cyclic compression for 7days, we report focal adhesion kinase overexpression on the less stiff PGS and upregulation of the transcription factor Runx2 and late osteogenic markers osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein (1.7, 4.0 and 10.0 folds increase respectively). Upon implanting PGS in the rabbit ulna defect, histology and micro-computed tomography analysis showed complete gap bridging with new bone by the PGS elastomer by 8weeks while minimal bone formation was seen in empty controls. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the new bone to be primarily regenerated by recruited osteoprogenitors cells expressing periostin protein during early phase of maturation similar to physiological endochondral bone development. This study confirms PGS to be osteoconductive contributing to bone regeneration by recruiting host progenitor/stem cell populations and as a load-transducing substrate, transmits mechanical signals to the populated cells promoting differentiation and matrix maturation toward proper bone remodeling. We hence conclude that the material properties of PGS being closer to osteoid tissue rather than to mineralized bone, allows bone maturation on a substrate mechanically closer to where osteoprogenitor/stem cells differentiate to develop mature load-bearing bone. The development of effective therapies for bone and

  20. Bone-repair properties of biodegradable hydroxyapatite nano-rod superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elía, Noelia L.; Mathieu, Colleen; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Laiuppa, Juan A.; Santillán, Graciela E.; Messina, Paula V.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures for the in vitro conditions of bone-repair. Experiments are underway to investigate the effects of the material microstructure, surface roughness and hydrophilicity on their osseo-integration, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction abilities. Materials were tested in the presence of both, rat primary osteoblasts and rabbit mesenchymal stem cells. The following aspects are discussed: (i) cytotoxicity and material degradation; (ii) rat osteoblast spreading, proliferation and differentiation; and (iii) rabbit mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on nano-HAp and nano-HAp/collagen type I coatings. We effectively prepared a material based on biomimetic HAp nano-rods displaying the appropriate surface topography, hydrophilicity and degradation properties to induce the in vitro desired cellular responses for bone bonding and healing. Cells seeded on the selected material readily attached, proliferated and differentiated, as confirmed by cell viability, mitochondrial metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cytoskeletal integrity analysis by immunofluorescence localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein. These results highlight the influence of material's surface characteristics to determine their tissue regeneration potential and their future use in engineering osteogenic scaffolds for orthopedic implants.Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures

  1. THE STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Karpiński

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The work contains basic information on the anatomy and physiology of bone tissue. Basic concepts related to the structure of bone tissue are presented. General issues related to bone reconstruction processes and biomechanical structural adaptations processes were described. Mechanical parameters of bone tissue were presented.

  2. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V. [Riga Technical Univ., Biomedical Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute (Latvia)

    2006-07-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  3. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  4. Modelling of Cortical Bone Tissue as a Fluid Saturated Double-Porous Material - Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana TURJANICOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cortical bone tissue is considered as a poroelastic material with periodic structure represented at microscopic and mesoscopic levels. The pores of microscopic scale are connected with the pores of mesoscopic scale creating one system of connected network filled with compressible fluid. The method of asymptotic homogenization is applied to upscale the microscopic model of the fluid-solid interaction under a static loading. Obtained homogenized coefficients describe material properties of the poroelastic matrix fractured by fluid-filled pores whose geometry is described at the mesoscopic level. The second-level upscaling provides homogenized poroelastic coefficients relevant on the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, we study the dependence of these coefficients on geometrical parameters on related microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  5. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of porous titanium scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunhui; Frith, Jessica Ellen; Dehghan-Manshadi, Ali; Attar, Hooyar; Kent, Damon; Soro, Nicolas Dominique Mathieu; Bermingham, Michael J; Dargusch, Matthew S

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human cortical bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 44.2GPa, 24.7GPa and 15.4GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 221.7MPa and 117MPa are superior to that of human cortical bone (130-180MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  7. Synthetic bone substitute material comparable with xenogeneic material for bone tissue regeneration in oral cancer patients: First and preliminary histological, histomorphometrical and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Stuebinger, Stefan; Seitz, Oliver; Landes, Constantin; Kovács, Adorján F; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    The present study was first to evaluate the material-specific cellular tissue response of patients with head and neck cancer to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute NanoBone (NB) in comparison with a deproteinized bovine bone matrix Bio-Oss (BO) after implantation into the sinus cavity. Eight patients with tumor resection for oral cancer and severely resorbed maxillary bone received materials according to a split mouth design for 6 months. Bone cores were harvested prior to implantation and analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically. Implant survival was followed-up to 2 years after placement. Histologically, NB underwent a higher vascularization and induced significantly more tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP-positive) multinucleated giant cells when compared with BO, which induced mainly mononuclear cells. No significant difference was observed in the extent of new bone formation between both groups. The clinical follow-up showed undisturbed healing of all implants in the BO-group, whereas the loss of one implant was observed in the NB-group. Within its limits, the present study showed for the first time that both material classes evaluated, despite their induction of different cellular tissue reactions, may be useful as augmentation materials for dental and maxillofacial surgical applications, particularly in patients who previously had oral cancer.

  8. Thermal Expansion Properties of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E. F.

    1969-01-01

    Thermal expansion properties of materials used in aerospace systems are compiled into a single handbook. The data, derived from experimental measurements supplemented by information from literature sources, are presented in charts and tables arranged in two sections, covering cryogenic and elevated temperatures.

  9. ESR dosimetric properties of some biomineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Gamal M.; Sharaf, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of g-irradiated modern coral and bioactive glass (Bio-G) samples analyzed with electron spin resonance (ESR) have been separately reported (Hassan et al., 2004; Sharaf and Hassan, 2004) and compared with alanine. These are combined here to allow a three-way comparison between these materials

  10. ESR dosimetric properties of some biomineral materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Gamal M. [Department of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Tersa Street, El-Haram, El-Giza, P.O. Box 136 Giza, El-Giza (Egypt)]. E-mail: gamalhassan65@hotmail.com; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Tersa Street, El-Haram, El-Giza, P.O. Box 136 Giza, El-Giza (Egypt)

    2005-02-01

    Dosimetric properties of g-irradiated modern coral and bioactive glass (Bio-G) samples analyzed with electron spin resonance (ESR) have been separately reported (Hassan et al., 2004; Sharaf and Hassan, 2004) and compared with alanine. These are combined here to allow a three-way comparison between these materials.

  11. Modern permanent magnetic materials - preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodewald, W.

    1989-01-01

    First of all, the basic properties of the classical (steel, AlNiCo) permanent magnetic materials and the modern rare-earth (RE) permanent magnetic materials are compared. Since the properties of RE permanent magnets depend on the particular production process, the fundamentals of the main industrial processes (powder metallurgy, rapid-solidification technique) are described and the typical properties are explained. Furthermore the production processes in development such as mechanical alloying, melt spinning technique and extrusion upsetting are briefly outlined. For applying the permanent magnets, they have to be completely magnetized. The magnetization behaviour of the various RE permanent magnets is discussed by means of the internal demagnetization curve. Finally the various influences on the temperature stability of RE permanent magnets are compiled. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Microstructures and mechanical properties of aging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, P.K.; Viswanathan, R.; Murty, K.L.; Simonen, E.P.; Frear, D.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains a collection of papers presented at the symposium on ''Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials,'' that was held in Chicago, IL. November 2-5, 1992 in conjunction with the Fall Meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS). The subjects of interest in the symposium included: (1) mechanisms of microstructural degradation, (2) effects of microstructural degradation on mechanical behavior, (3) development of life prediction methodology for in-service structural and electronic components, (4) experimental techniques to monitor degradation of microstructures and mechanical properties, and (5) effects of environment on microstructural degradation and mechanical properties. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  13. Informatics derived materials databases for multifunctional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Scott; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the development of quantitative structure–property relationships incorporating the impact of data uncertainty from small, limited knowledge data sets from which we rapidly develop new and larger databases. Unlike traditional database development, this informatics based approach is concurrent with the identification and discovery of the key metrics controlling structure–property relationships; and even more importantly we are now in a position to build materials databases based on design ‘intent’ and not just design parameters. This permits for example to establish materials databases that can be used for targeted multifunctional properties and not just one characteristic at a time as is presently done. This review provides a summary of the computational logic of building such virtual databases and gives some examples in the field of complex inorganic solids for scintillator applications. (review)

  14. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many...... orthopaedic procedures, whereas allograft is the gold standard by replacement of extensive bone loss. However, the use of autograft is associated with donor site morbidity, especially chronic pain. In addition, the limited supply is a significant clinical challenge. Limitations in the use of allograft include...... the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking...

  15. Data base on structural materials aging properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where long-term and environment-dependent properties of concretes and other structural materials are being collected and assembled into a data base. These properties will be used to evaluate the current condition of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to estimate the future performance of these materials during the continued service period

  16. Limited Associations between Keel Bone Damage and Bone Properties Measured with Computer Tomography, Three-Point Bending Test, and Analysis of Minerals in Swiss Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine G. Gebhardt-Henrich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage is a wide-spread welfare problem in laying hens. It is unclear so far whether bone quality relates to keel bone damage. The goal of the present study was to detect possible associations between keel bone damage and bone properties of intact and damaged keel bones and of tibias in end-of-lay hens raised in loose housing systems. Bones were palpated and examined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (PQCT, a three-point bending test, and analyses of bone ash. Contrary to our expectations, PQCT revealed higher cortical and trabecular contents in fractured than in intact keel bones. This might be due to structural bone repair after fractures. Density measurements of cortical and trabecular tissues of keel bones did not differ between individuals with and without fractures. In the three-point bending test of the tibias, ultimate shear strength was significantly higher in birds with intact vs. fractured keel bones. Likewise, birds with intact or slightly deviated keel bones had higher mineral and calcium contents of the keel bone than birds with fractured keel bones. Calcium content in keel bones was correlated with calcium content in tibias. Although there were some associations between bone traits related to bone strength and keel bone damage, other factors such as stochastic events related to housing such as falls and collisions seem to be at least as important for the prevalence of keel bone damage.

  17. Mechanical properties of human bone-tendon-bone grafts preserved by different methods and radiation sterilised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, A.; Gut, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Patellar tendon auto and allografts are commonly used in orthopaedic surgery for reconstruction of the anterior crucial ligaments (ACL). Autografts are mainly used for primary reconstruction, while allografts are useful for revision surgery. To avoid the risk of infection diseases transmission allografts should be radiation-sterilised. As radiation-sterilisation is supposed to decrease the mechanical strength of tendon tissue, it is important to establish methods of allografts preservation and sterilisation resulting in their best quality and safety. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength of the central one third of human patellar tendon (as used for ACL reconstruction), preserved by different methods (deep fresh freezing, lyophilisation) and subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. Bone-tendon-bone grafts were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendon with both patellar and tibial attachments. BTB grafts were preserved by deep freezing, glicerolisation or lyophilisation and radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. To estimate mechanical properties all samples were subjected to tensile tests to failure using Instron system. Before these tests all lyophilised grafts were rehydrated. We found decrease of tensile strength of irradiated grafts compared to non-irradiated controls. Obtained results of the mechanical testing of studied grafts indicate their potential usefulness for clinical applications.(Author)

  18. Chronic alcohol abuse in men alters bone mechanical properties by affecting both tissue mechanical properties and microarchitectural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruel, M; Granke, M; Bosser, C; Audran, M; Hoc, T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-induced secondary osteoporosis in men has been characterized by higher fracture prevalence and a modification of bone microarchitecture. Chronic alcohol consumption impairs bone cell activity and results in an increased fragility. A few studies highlighted effects of heavy alcohol consumption on some microarchitectural parameters of trabecular bone. But to date and to our knowledge, micro- and macro-mechanical properties of bone of alcoholic subjects have not been investigated. In the present study, mechanical properties and microarchitecture of trabecular bone samples from the iliac crest of alcoholic male patients (n=15) were analyzed and compared to a control group (n=8). Nanoindentation tests were performed to determine the tissue's micromechanical properties, micro-computed tomography was used to measure microarchitectural parameters, and numerical simulations provided the apparent mechanical properties of the samples. Compared to controls, bone tissue from alcoholic patients exhibited an increase of micromechanical properties at tissue scale, a significant decrease of apparent mechanical properties at sample scale, and significant changes in several microarchitectural parameters. In particular, a crucial role of structure model index (SMI) on mechanical properties was identified. 3D microarchitectural parameters are at least as important as bone volume fraction to predict bone fracture risk in the case of alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in physicochemical and biological properties of porcine bone derived hydroxyapatite induced by the incorporation of fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Liu, Quan; Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Hanqing; Chen, Zhuofan

    2017-12-01

    As the main inorganic component of xenogenic bone graft material, bone-derived biological apatite (BAp) has been widely used in implant dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery and orthopedics. However, BAp produced via calcination of animal bones still suffers from some drawbacks, such as insufficient mechanical strength and inadequate degradation rate, which impede its application. Fluoride is known to play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes of human hard tissues for its double effects on bones and teeth. In order to understand the effects of fluoride on the properties of BAp, as well as the mechanism behind them, porcine bone derived hydroxyapatite (PHAp) was prepared via thermal treatment, which was then fluoride incorporated at a series concentrations of sodium fluoride, and noted as 0.25-FPHAp, 0.50-FPHAp, and 0.75-FPHAp respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the materials, including crystal morphology, crystallinity, functional groups, elemental composition, compressive strength, porosity and solubility, were then determined. The biological properties, such as protein adsorption and cell attachment, were also evaluated. It was found that the spheroid-like crystals of PHAp were changed into rod-like after fluoride substitution, resulting in a fluoride concentration-dependent increase in compressive strength, as well as a decreased porosity and solubility of the apatite. However, even though the addition of fluoride was demonstrated to enhance protein adsorption and cell attachment of the materials, the most favorable results were intriguingly achieved in FPHAp with the least fluoride content. Collectively, low level of fluoride incorporation is proposed promising for the modification of clinically used BAp based bone substitute materials, because of its being able to maintain a good balance between physicochemical and biological properties of the apatite.

  20. Beyond local effective material properties for metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnasri, K.; Khrabustovskyi, A.; Stohrer, C.; Plum, M.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2018-02-01

    To discuss the properties of metamaterials on physical grounds and to consider them in applications, effective material parameters are usually introduced and assigned to a given metamaterial. In most cases, only weak spatial dispersion is considered. It allows to assign local material properties, e.g., a permittivity and a permeability. However, this turned out to be insufficient. To solve this problem, we study here the effective properties of metamaterials with constitutive relations beyond a local response and take strong spatial dispersion into account. This research requires two contributions. First, bulk properties in terms of eigenmodes need to be studied. We particularly investigate the isofrequency surfaces of their dispersion relation are investigated and compared to those of an actual metamaterial. The significant improvement to effectively describe it provides evidence for the necessity to use nonlocal material laws in the effective description of metamaterials. Second, to be able to capitalize on such constitutive relations, also interface conditions need to be known. They are derived in this contribution for our form of the nonlocality using a generalized (weak) formulation of Maxwell's equations. Based on such interface conditions, Fresnel expressions are obtained that predict the amplitude of the reflected and transmitted plane wave upon illuminating a slab of such a nonlocal metamaterial. This all together offers the necessary means for the in-depth analysis of metamaterials characterized by strong spatial dispersion. The general formulation we choose here renders our approach applicable to a wide class of metamaterials.

  1. Mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the human mandibular condyle are anisotropic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesen, EB; Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was (1) to test the hypothesis that the elastic and failure properties of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle depend on the loading direction, and (2) to relate these properties to bone density parameters. Uniaxial compression tests were performed......). Archimedes' principle was applied to determine bone density parameters. The cancellous bone was in axial loading 3.4 times stiffer and 2.8 times stronger upon failure than in transverse loading. High coefficients of correlation were found among the various mechanical properties and between them...

  2. Novel biocompatible polymeric blends for bone regeneration: Material and matrix design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng

    characterized for miscibility, mechanical properties, degradation kinetics, and in vitro osteocompatibility. Primary rat osteoblasts (PRO) isolated from rat calvaria were used to evaluate their in vitro osteocompatibility. The blends were also characterized for in vivo biodegradability and biocompatibility using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Successful in vivo scaffold-based tissue regeneration greatly depends on the scaffold material biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and scaffold architecture to promote tissue in-growth. The other part of the work in the dissertation is focused on the development of mechanically competent bioresorbable nano-structured three-dimensional (3D) hiomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Scaffold material selection was based on achieving improved mechanical stability, in vitro osteoblast performance, and in vivo biocompatibility. A miscible PNGEGPhPh-PLAGA blend system developed and characterized in the first part of the thesis work was chosen to fabricate a nanofiber-based mechanically competent biomimetic scaffold via electrospinning. Due to its versatility, controllability and reproducibility, the technique of electrospinning was adopted to produce blend nanofibers. The polymer solution concentration and electrospinning parameters were optimized to produce blend fibers in the range of 50-500 nm to mimic dimensions of collagen fibrils present in the natural extracellular matrix of native bone. These blend nanofiber matrices supported PRO adhesion, proliferation and showed an elevated phenotype expression compared to PLAGA nanofibers. Orienting electrospun nanofibers in a concentric manner with an open central cavity created a mechanically competent 3D scaffold mimicking the bone marrow cavity, as well as, the lamellar structure of bone. The 3D biomimetic scaffold exhibited a similar characteristic mechanical behavior to that of native bone. Compressive modulus of the scaffold was found to be within the range of

  3. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  4. The European Fusion Material properties database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karditsas, P.J. [UKAEA Fusion, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: panos.karditsas@ukaea.org.uk; Lloyd, G. [Tessella Support Services plc, 3 Vineyard Chambers, Abingdon OX14 3PX (United Kingdom); Walters, M. [Tessella Support Services plc, 3 Vineyard Chambers, Abingdon OX14 3PX (United Kingdom); Peacock, A. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching D-85748 (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Materials research represents a significant part of the European and world effort on fusion research. A European Fusion Materials web-based relational database is being developed to collect, expand and preserve for the future the data produced in support of the NET, DEMO and ITER. The database allows understanding of material properties and their critical parameters for fusion environments. The system uses J2EE technologies and the PostgreSQL relational database, and flexibility ensures that new methods to automate material design for specific applications can be easily implemented. It runs on a web server and allows users access via the Internet using their preferred web browser. The database allows users to store, browse and search raw tests, material properties and qualified data, and electronic reports. For data security, users are issued with individual accounts, and the origin of all requests is checked against a list of trusted sites. Different user accounts have access to different datasets to ensure the data is not shared unintentionally. The system allows several levels of data checking/cleaning and validation. Data insertion is either online or through downloaded templates, and validation is through different expert groups, which can apply different criteria to the data.

  5. The effect of patient age on bone formation using a fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material in maxillary sinus grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Wurm, Alexander; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Gerber, Thomas; Reichert, Christoph; Jäger, Andreas; Götz, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus floor augmentation is a treatment that has been proposed for patients in whom the alveolar bone height is insufficient. This procedure is commonly used in patients aged 40 to 70 years and older. However, little information exists whether the factor of age might influence the outcome of augmentation procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the patient's age has an effect on bone formation and incorporation in maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures. A fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material (NanoBone, Artoss) was used for sinus floor augmentation in patients with a subantral vertical bone height of at least 3 mm and maximum of 7 mm. After 7 months healing time, biopsy specimens were taken and were divided into two groups according to the patient's age. Exclusion criteria were poor general health (eg, severe renal/and or liver disease), history of a radiotherapy in the head region, chemotherapy at the time of surgical procedure, noncompensated diabetes mellitus, symptoms of a maxillary sinus disease, active periodontal or systemic diseases, smoking, and poor oral hygiene. Histologic analyses with hematoxylin-eosin stain were performed. Multinucleated osteoclast-like cells were identified by histochemical staining (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]). Quantitative and age-dependent assessment of bone formation, residual bone grafting material, and soft tissue formation following sinus augmentation was performed using histomorphometric analysis and the Bonferroni adjustment of the Student t test. Twenty biopsy specimens from 17 patients were taken and divided into two groups according to age (group 1: 41 to 52 years; group 2: 66 to 71 years) containing 10 specimens each, which were analyzed in triplicate resulting in a total of 30 specimens per group. A regeneration process with varying amounts of newly formed bone surrounded by marrow-like tissue was present in all augmented regions. No signs of

  6. Bone Adaptation Around Orthopaedic Implants of Varying Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading......The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading...

  7. Bone cell-material interactions on metal-ion doped polarized hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of Mg 2+ and Sr 2+ dopants on in vitro bone cell-material interactions of electrically polarized hydroxyapatite [HAp, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] ceramics with an aim to achieve additional advantage of matching bone chemistry along with the original benefits of electrical polarization treatment relevant to biomedical applications. To achieve our research objective, commercial phase pure HAp has been doped with MgO, and SrO in single, and binary compositions. All samples have been sintered at 1200 deg. C for 2 h and subsequently polarized using an external d.c. field (2.0 kV/cm) at 400 deg. C for 1 h. Combined addition of 1 wt.% MgO/1 wt.% SrO in HAp has been most beneficial in enhancing the polarizability in which stored charge was 4.19 μC/cm 2 compared to pure HAp of 2.23 μC/cm 2 . Bone cell-material interaction has been studied by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) for a maximum of 7 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of cell morphology reveal that favorable surface properties and dopant chemistry lead to good cellular adherence and spreading on negatively charged surfaces of both Sr 2+ and Mg 2+ doped HAp samples over undoped HAp. MTT assay results at 7 days show the highest viable cell densities on the negatively charged surfaces of binary doped HAp samples, while positive charged doped HAp surfaces exhibit limited cellular growth in comparison to neutral surfaces.

  8. Nanotechnologies. Properties and applications of nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, A A

    2007-01-01

    The review summarises the main methods for the preparation of nanostructured metals, alloys, semiconductors and ceramics. The formation mechanisms of nanostructures based on two different principles, viz. the assembly principle (bottom-up) and the disintegration principle (top-down), are analysed. Isolated nanoparticles, nanopowders and compact nanomaterials produced by these methods possess different properties. The scope of application of various classes of nanostructured materials is considered and the topicality of the development of nanoindustry is emphasised.

  9. A smart predictor for material property testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wilson; Kanneg, Derek

    2008-01-01

    A reliable predictor is very useful for real-world industrial applications to forecast the future behavior of dynamic systems. A smart predictor, based on a novel recurrent neural fuzzy (RNF) scheme, is developed in this paper for multi-step-ahead prediction of material properties. A systematic investigation based on two benchmark data sets is conducted in terms of performance and efficiency. Analysis results reveal that, of the data-driven forecasting schemes, predictors based on step input patterns outperform those based on sequential input patterns; the RNF predictor outperforms those based on recurrent neural networks and ANFIS schemes in multi-step-ahead prediction of nonlinear time series. An adaptive Levenberg–Marquardt training technique is adopted to improve the robustness and convergence of the RNF predictor. Furthermore, the proposed smart predictor is implemented for material property testing. Investigation results show that the developed RNF predictor is a reliable forecasting tool for material property testing; it can capture and track the system's dynamic characteristics quickly and accurately. It is also a robust predictor to accommodate different system conditions

  10. Immobilization and long-term recovery results in large changes in bone structure and strength but no corresponding alterations of osteocyte lacunar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Wittig, Nina Kølln; Brüel, Annemarie; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    The ability of osteocytes to demineralize the perilacunar matrix, osteocytic osteolysis, and thereby participate directly in bone metabolism, is an aspect of osteocyte biology that has received increasing attention during the last couple of years. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether osteocyte lacunar properties change during immobilization and subsequent recovery. A rat cortical bone model with negligible Haversian remodeling effects was used, with temporary immobilization of one hindlimb induced by botulinum toxin. Several complementary techniques covering multiple length scales enabled correlation of osteocyte lacunar properties to changes observed on the organ and tissue level of femoral bone. Bone structural parameters measured by μCT and mechanical properties were compared to sub-micrometer resolution SR μCT data mapping an unprecedented number (1.85 million) of osteocyte lacunae. Immobilization induced a significant reduction in aBMD, bone volume, tissue volume, and load to fracture, as well as the muscle mass of rectus femoris. During the subsequent recovery period, the bone structural and mechanical properties were only partly regained in spite of a long-term (28weeks) study period. No significant changes in osteocyte lacunar volume, density, oblateness, stretch, or orientation were detected upon immobilization or subsequent recovery. In conclusion, the bone architecture and not osteocyte lacunar properties or bone material characteristics dominate the immobilization response as well as the subsequent recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sterilisation of allograft cortical bone using gamma irradiation: effect on strength and material ultrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Walters, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of allograft bone in revision joint and limb salvage surgery is widespread and increasing (Buck B.E. et al, Clin Orthop 303: 8-17, 1994). To reduce the risk of disease transmission from donor graft contamination (particularly HIV and hepatitis) sterilisation is practiced worldwide. Gamma (γ)-irradiation using a dose of 1.5 - 2.5 Mrads is common. However, γ-irradiation is known to reduce bone strength, though the extent and mechanisms are controversial (eg Bright RW et al, Trans Orthop Res Soc 3: 210, 1978). We measured the effect of γ-irradiation on bone strength and properties reflecting bone material ultrastructure. Diaphyseal bone was obtained from the femur of a 47 year-old male would-be donor with suspicious hepatitis serology. Beams of cortical bone (long axes parallel to the femur) were cut using a low speed diamond saw bathed in Ringer's solution. Four groups were irradiated with γ-rays (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5.0±0.5[SD] Mrads). Blinded investigations were performed: Ultimate stress (Ult Stress, N= 16 replicates in each dose group). Each beam was loaded at its midpoint at a rate of 25 mm/min until failure, while its ends were supported 40 mms apart. Ult stress was calculated from 3-point bending theory using the load vs displacement curve and the cross-sectional area of the break (Power RA et al, submitted to J Bone and Joint Surg). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed over the range -15 to +5 deg C. Samples were demineralized and small (7-10 mg) blocks were cut and sealed in stainless steel calorimetry capsules. The enthalpy (reflecting the normalised free water content) was calculated from the sample mass plus area under the heat capacity curve. Pyridinoline collagen (acid-insoluble) crosslinks (Pyrid, N=10) (Randall D et al, JBone and Min Res, 1996, in press) were determined from 5-mm 3 demineralised, freeze dried samples. Small and medium angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, N=5). Demineralised bone was sliced into thin

  12. Properties of nanoclay PVA composites materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/ Na-rich Montmorillonite (MMT nanocomposites were prepared using solution method to create polymer-clay nanocomposite (PCN material. The PCN material was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, demonstrating polymer-clay intercalation that has a high d-spacing (lower diffraction angles in the PCN XRD pattern, compared to the pure MMT clay XRD pattern, which has a low d-spacing (high diffraction angles. The nano-scanning electron microscope (NSEM was used to study the morphological image of the PVA, MMT and PCN materials. The results showed that intercalation that took place between the PVA and MMT produced the PCN material. The mechanical properties of the pure PVA and the intercalated polymer material were studied. It was found that the small amount of MMT clay made the tensile modulus and percentage of the total elongation of the nano-composite significantly higher than the pure PVA polymer value, due to polymer-clay intercalation. The thermal stability of the intercalated polymer has been studied using thermal analytical techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results showed that the PCN material is more thermally stable than the pure PVA polymer.

  13. Structural material properties for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A-A. F.

    2008-10-15

    Materials properties requirements for structural applications in the forthcoming and future fusion machines are analyzed with emphasis on safety requirements. It is shown that type 316L(N) used in the main structural components of ITER is code qualified and together with limits imposed on its service conditions and neutron radiation levels, can adequately satisfy ITER vacuum vessel licensing requirements. For the in-vessel components, where nonconventional fabrication methods, such as HIPing, are used, design through materials properties, data is combined with tests on representative mockups to meet the requirements. For divertor parts, where the operating conditions are too severe for components to last throughout the reactor life, replacement of most exposed parts is envisaged. DEMO operating conditions require extension of ITER design criteria to high temperature and high neutron dose rules, as well as to compatibility with cooling and tritium breeding media, depending on the blanket concept retained. The structural material favoured in EU is Eurofer steel, low activation martensitic steel with good ductility and excellent resistance to radiation swelling. However, this material, like other ferritic / martensitic steels, requires post-weld annealing and is sensitive to low temperature irradiation embrittlement. Furthermore, it shows cyclic softening during fatigue, complicating design against fatigue and creep-fatigue. (au)

  14. Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E

    2014-05-01

    A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone density, trace elements, biomechanical properties and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Korkusuz, F.; Akkas, N.; Laleli, Y.; Kuscu, L.; Gunel, U.

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as an absolute decrease in the amount of bone to a level below required for mechanical support. It is an important bone disease in elderly people in many countries. Unfortunately, there is no reliable statistical data in Turkey for the incidence of osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mass is the important cause in fractures in osteoporosis. Therefore, we intend to study both bone density and other variables such as trace elements, biomechanical properties and other immunocytochemicals in bone, all combined might give an information about the cause and prevention of osteoporosis. (author)

  16. Torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Shannon M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Garcia, Tanya C; Robinson, Duane A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Stover, Susan M

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). SAMPLE 16 cadaveric tibiotarsal bones from 8 red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES 1 tibiotarsal bone from each bird was randomly assigned to be tested in torsion, and the contralateral bone was tested in axial compression. Intact bones were monotonically loaded in either torsion (n = 8) or axial compression (8) to failure. Mechanical variables were derived from load-deformation curves. Fracture configurations were described. Effects of sex, limb side, and bone dimensions on mechanical properties were assessed with a mixed-model ANOVA. Correlations between equivalent torsional and compressive properties were determined. RESULTS Limb side and bone dimensions were not associated with any mechanical property. During compression tests, mean ultimate cumulative energy and postyield energy for female bones were significantly greater than those for male bones. All 8 bones developed a spiral diaphyseal fracture and a metaphyseal fissure or fracture during torsional tests. During compression tests, all bones developed a crushed metaphysis and a fissure or comminuted fracture of the diaphysis. Positive correlations were apparent between most yield and ultimate torsional and compressive properties. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones described in this study can be used as a reference for investigations into fixation methods for tibiotarsal fractures in red-tailed hawks. Although the comminuted and spiral diaphyseal fractures induced in this study were consistent with those observed in clinical practice, the metaphyseal disruption observed was not and warrants further research.

  17. Multi-material 3D Models for Temporal Bone Surgical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Austin S; Kimbell, Julia S; Webster, Caroline E; Harrysson, Ola L A; Formeister, Eric J; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-07-01

    A simulated, multicolor, multi-material temporal bone model can be created using 3-dimensional (3D) printing that will prove both safe and beneficial in training for actual temporal bone surgical cases. As the process of additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has become more practical and affordable, a number of applications for the technology in the field of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery have been considered. One area of promise is temporal bone surgical simulation. Three-dimensional representations of human temporal bones were created from temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans using biomedical image processing software. Multi-material models were then printed and dissected in a temporal bone laboratory by attending and resident otolaryngologists. A 5-point Likert scale was used to grade the models for their anatomical accuracy and suitability as a simulation of cadaveric and operative temporal bone drilling. The models produced for this study demonstrate significant anatomic detail and a likeness to human cadaver specimens for drilling and dissection. Simulated temporal bones created by this process have potential benefit in surgical training, preoperative simulation for challenging otologic cases, and the standardized testing of temporal bone surgical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  19. Porous Polyethylene Coated with Functionalized Hydroxyapatite Particles as a Bone Reconstruction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fouad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were examined as bone substitutes in vitro and in vivo in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats. A microscopic examination revealed that the pores appeared to be interconnected across the material, making them suitable for cell growth. The creep recovery behavior of porous polyethylene at different loads indicated that the creep strain had two main portions. In both portions, strain increased with increased applied load and temperature. In terms of the thermographic behavior of the material, remarkable changes in melting temperature and heat fusion were revealed with increased the heating rates. The tensile strength results showed that the material was sensitive to the strain rate and that there was adequate mechanical strength to support cell growth. The in vitro cell culture results showed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells attached to the porous polyethylene scaffold. Calcium sulfate–hydroxyapatite (CS–HA coating of the scaffold not only improved attachment but also increased the proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo, histological analysis showed that the study groups had active bone remodeling at the border of the defect. Bone regeneration at the border was also evident, which confirmed that the polyethylene acted as an osteoconductive bone graft. Furthermore, bone formation inside the pores of the coated polyethylene was also noted, which would enhance the process of osteointegration.

  20. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of phosphocalcic bone substitute using the chemical wet method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Latifa; Bahloul, Lynda; Azzi, Afef; Guerfi, Souad; Ismail, Fadhel; Chaoui, Kamel

    2018-05-01

    Selection of calcium phosphate base materials in reconstructive bone surgery is justified by the surprising similarities in chemical compositions with human bones. The closest to natural apatite material is the hydroxyapatite (HAp) which has a chemical composition based on calcium and phosphate (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). In this study, HAp is synthesized using the wet precipitation method from hydrated calcium chloride (CaCl2,12H2O) and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate di-hydrate (HNa2PO4,2H2O). The powder is calcinated at 900°C and 1200°C in order to compare with sintered condition at 1150°C. Vickers microhardness tests and X-ray diffraction analyzes are used for the characterization of the crystalline material. Mechanical properties (Hv, σe, σr, and KC) and the degree of crystallinity (Xc) are discussed according to heat treatment temperatures. Results indicate that heat treating the powder at 1200°C increased crystallinity up to 72%. At the same time, microhardness increased with temperature and even outmatched the sintered case at 1150°C. Fracture toughness is ameliorated with increasing heat treatment temperature by more than two folds.

  1. Inclusions in bone material as a source of error in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.; Ortner, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopic examination were conducted on bone material from several archaeological sites in order to identify post-burial inclusions which, if present, may affect radiocarbon dating of bone. Two types of inclusions were identified: (1) precipitates from ground water solutions, and (2) solid intrusion. The first type consists of calcite, pyrite, humates and an unknown material. The second type includes quartz grains, hyphae, rootlets, wood and charcoal. Precipitation of calcite in a macro-molecular level in bone may lead to erroneaous dating of bone apatite if such calcite was not removed completely. A special technique, therefore, must be employed to remove calcite comletely. Hyphae and rootlets also are likely to induce errors in radiocarbon dating of bone collagen. These very fine inclusions require more than hand picking. (author)

  2. In ovo feeding with minerals and vitamin D3 improves bone properties in hatchlings and mature broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, R; Shahar, R; Uni, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo feeding (IOF) with inorganic minerals or organic minerals and vitamin D3 on bone properties and mineral consumption. Eggs were incubated and divided into 4 groups: IOF with organic minerals, phosphate, and vitamin D3 (IOF-OMD); IOF with inorganic minerals and phosphate (IOF-IM); sham; and non-treated controls (NTC). IOF was performed on embryonic day (E) 17; tibiae and yolk samples were taken on E19 and E21. Post-hatch, only chicks from the IOF-OMD, sham, and NTC were raised, and tibiae were taken on d 10 and 38. Yolk mineral content was examined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Tibiae were tested for their whole-bone mechanical properties, and mid-diaphysis bone sections were indented in a micro-indenter to determine bone material stiffness (Young's modulus). Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to examine cortical and trabecular bone structure. Ash content analysis was used to examine bone mineralization. A latency-to-lie (LTL) test was used to measure standing ability of the d 38 broilers. The results showed that embryos from both IOF-OMD and IOF-IM treatments had elevated Cu, Mn, and Zn amounts in the yolk on E19 and E21 and consumed more of these minerals (between E19 and E21) in comparison to the sham and NTC. On E21, these hatchlings had higher whole-bone stiffness in comparison to the NTC. On d 38, the IOF-OMD had higher ash content, elevated whole-bone stiffness, and elevated Young's modulus (in males) in comparison to the sham and NTC; however, no differences in standing ability were found. Very few structural differences were seen during the whole experiment. This study demonstrates that mineral supplementation by in ovo feeding is sufficient to induce higher mineral consumption from the yolk, regardless of its chemical form or the presence of vitamin D3. Additionally, IOF with organic minerals and vitamin D3 can increase bone ash content, as well as stiffness of the whole

  3. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimised mechanical properties: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    This work establishes the in vivo performance of modified calcium phosphate bone cements for vertebroplasty of spinal fractures using a lapine model. A non-modified calcium phosphate bone cement and collagen-calcium phosphate bone cements composites with enhanced mechanical properties, utilising either bovine collagen or collagen from a marine sponge, were compared to a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Conical cement samples (8 mm height × 4 mm base diameter) were press-fit into distal femoral condyle defects in New Zealand White rabbits and assessed after 5 and 10 weeks. Bone apposition and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity around cements were assessed. All implants were well tolerated, but bone apposition was higher on calcium phosphate bone cements than on poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Incorporation of collagen showed no evidence of inflammatory or immune reactions. Presence of positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining within cracks formed in calcium phosphate bone cements suggested active osteoclasts were present within the implants and were actively remodelling within the cements. Bone growth was also observed within these cracks. These findings confirm the biological advantages of calcium phosphate bone cements over poly(methyl methacrylate) and, coupled with previous work on enhancement of mechanical properties through collagen incorporation, suggest collagen-calcium phosphate bone cement composite may offer an alternative to calcium phosphate bone cements in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important.

  4. AGC 2 Irradiated Material Properties Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technologies Graphite Research and Development Program is conducting an extensive graphite irradiation experiment to provide data for licensing of a high temperature reactor (HTR) design. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor designs. , Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphite grades have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for new HTR reactor designs. To support the design and licensing of HTR core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade, with a specific emphasis on data accounting for the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the HTR candidate graphite grades. Further details on the research and development activities and associated rationale required to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the HTR are documented in the graphite technology research and development plan.

  5. Measurement of material mechanical properties in microforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Wang; Xu, Zhenying; Hui, Huang; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2006-02-01

    As the rapid market need of micro-electro-mechanical systems engineering gives it the wide development and application ranging from mobile phones to medical apparatus, the need of metal micro-parts is increasing gradually. Microforming technology challenges the plastic processing technology. The findings have shown that if the grain size of the specimen remains constant, the flow stress changes with the increasing miniaturization, and also the necking elongation and the uniform elongation etc. It is impossible to get the specimen material properties in conventional tensile test machine, especially in the high precision demand. Therefore, one new measurement method for getting the specimen material-mechanical property with high precision is initiated. With this method, coupled with the high speed of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and high precision of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), the elongation and tensile strain in the gauge length are obtained. The elongation, yield stress and other mechanical properties can be calculated from the relationship between the images and CCD camera movement. This measuring method can be extended into other experiments, such as the alignment of the tool and specimen, micro-drawing process.

  6. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Danielsen, CC

    2002-01-01

    structure and mechanical properties. In this study, 160 cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal human tibiae aged from 16 to 85 years at post-mortem. The specimens underwent micro-CT and the microstructural properties were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods. The specimens...... were tested to determine the mechanical properties and the physical/compositional properties were evaluated. The type of structure together with anisotropy correlated well with Young's modulus of human tibial cancellous bone. The plate-like structure reflected high mechanical stress and the rod......-like structure low mechanical stress. There was a strong correlation between the type of trabecular structure and the bone-volume fraction. The most effective microstructural properties for predicting the mechanical properties of cancellous bone seem to differ with age....

  7. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  8. Materials and scaffolds in medical 3D printing and bioprinting in the context of bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin; Bauer, Heide-Katharina; Goetze, Elisabeth; Gielisch, Matthias; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Moncal, Kazim K; Rizk, Elias; Seitz, Hermann; Gelinsky, Michael; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong H; Müller, Werner E G; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    The structural and functional repair of lost bone is still one of the biggest challenges in regenerative medicine. In many cases, autologous bone is used for the reconstruction of bone tissue; however, the availability of autologous material is limited, which always means additional stress to the patient. Due to this, more and more frequently various biocompatible materials are being used instead for bone augmentation. In this context, in order to ensure the structural function of the bone, scaffolds are implanted and fixed into the bone defect, depending on the medical indication. Nevertheless, for the surgeon, every individual clinical condition in which standardized scaffolds have to be aligned is challenging, and in many cases the alignment is not possible without limitations. Therefore, in the last decades, 3D printing (3DP) or additive manufacturing (AM) of scaffolds has become one of the most innovative approaches in surgery to individualize and improve the treatment of patients. Numerous biocompatible materials are available for 3DP, and various printing techniques can be applied, depending on the process conditions of these materials. Besides these conventional printing techniques, another promising approach in the context of medical AM is 3D bioprinting, a technique which makes it possible to print human cells embedded in special carrier substances to generate functional tissues. Even the direct printing into bone defects or lesions becomes possible. 3DP is already improving the treatment of patients, and has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine in future.

  9. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  10. Basic radiation sterilization properties of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouharova, A.; Kolarova, J.; Olbrichova, D.

    1984-01-01

    The foils of various materials were irradiated with 60 Co with an activity of 11,538 TBq. The minimum radiation dose was 25 kGy. Changes in chemico-physical properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and were not detected after irradiation with 25 kGy. Packing foils were subjected to the following tests: mechanical tests, tests of weld strength, tests of impact resistance, free fall tests, permeability tests for water vapour and microbiological tests. The results of all tests were tabulated. The tests showed that the foils are impermeable for microorganisms and provided the welds are airtight the packed products remain sterile. (J.P.)

  11. Properties of materials based on polybenzimidazopyrrolone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshak, L L; Lekaye, I A; Vinogradova, O V; Chatova, L L; Lekaye, T V; Rusanov, A L

    1980-01-01

    Polymers based on polyheteroarylene compounds are characterized by high radiation and ablation resistance and are prepared by a two-stage synthesis:preparation of the soluble polyamidoamino acids (PAAA's), and polycondensation by thermal intramolecular polycyclodehydration of the PAAA's. Three types of polymers were prepared by the reaction in dimethylformamide of 3,3',4,4'-tetraminodiphenyl-oxide with the dianhydrides of diphenyloxide-, benzophenone-, and diphenylsulfon-tetracarbonic acids and pyromellitic acid. An evaluation was made of the optimum regimes for extruding these polymers and of the properties of the extruded material. (JMT)

  12. Cement replacement materials. Properties, durability, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the latest findings in the properties and application of Supplementary Cementing Materials and blended cements currently used in the world in concrete. Sustainability is an important issue all over the world. Carbon dioxide emission has been a serious problem in the world due to the greenhouse effect. Today many countries agreed to reduce the emission of CO2. Many phases of cement and concrete technology can affect sustainability. Cement and concrete industry is responsible for the production of 7% carbon dioxide of the total world CO2 emission. The use of supplementary cementing materials (SCM), design of concrete mixtures with optimum content of cement and enhancement of concrete durability are the main issues towards sustainability in concrete industry.

  13. Photorefractive optics materials, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Francis T S

    1999-01-01

    The advances of photorefractive optics have demonstrated many useful and practical applications, which include the development of photorefractive optic devices for computer communication needs. To name a couple significant applications: the large capacity optical memory, which can greatly improve the accessible high-speed CD-ROM and the dynamic photorefractive gratings, which can be used for all-optic switches for high-speed fiber optic networks. This book is an important reference both for technical and non-technical staffs who are interested in this field. * Covers the recent development in materials, phenomena, and applications * Includes growth, characterization, dynamic gratings, and liquid crystal PR effect * Includes applications to photonic devices such as large capacity optical memory, 3-D interconnections, and dynamic holograms * Provides the recent overall picture of current trends in photorefractive optics * Includes optical and electronic properties of the materials as applied to dynamic photoref...

  14. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanxuan; Zheng, Yudong; Huang, Xiaoshan; Xi, Tingfei; Lin, Xiaodan; Han, Dongfei; Song, Wenhui

    2010-04-01

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  15. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.c, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.u [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  16. Onlay bone augmentation on mouse calvarial bone using a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with total blood or platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Umebayashi, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kimura, Hideki; Asahina, Izumi; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess newly formed onlay bone on mouse calvarial bone using a new artificial bone material, a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite, with total blood or platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with normal saline, total blood or platelet-rich plasma was transplanted on mouse calvarial bone. The mice were sacrificed and the specimens were harvested four weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone area was measured on hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens using Image J software. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma induced a significantly greater amount of newly formed bone than that with normal saline. Moreover, bone marrow was observed four weeks after surgery in the transplanted materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma but not with normal saline. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between materials used with total blood versus platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material was valid for onlay bone augmentation and this material should be soaked in total blood or platelet-rich plasma prior to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molybdenum silicide based materials and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Stiglich, J.; Sudarshan, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) is a promising candidate material for high temperature structural applications. It is a high melting point (2030 C) material with excellent oxidation resistance and a moderate density (6.24 g/cm 3 ). However, low toughness at low temperatures and high creep rates at elevated temperatures have hindered its commercialization in structural applications. Much effort has been invested in MoSi 2 composites as alternatives to pure molybdenum disilicide for oxidizing and aggressive environments. Molybdenum disilicide-based heating elements have been used extensively in high-temperature furnaces. The low electrical resistance of silicides in combination with high thermal stability, electron-migration resistance, and excellent diffusion-barrier characteristics is important for microelectronic applications. Projected applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include turbine airfoils, combustion chamber components in oxidizing environments, missile nozzles, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing. On this paper, synthesis, fabrication, and properties of the monolithic and composite molybdenum silicides are reviewed

  18. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  19. Analysis of Bone Meal (NIST 1486) and Bone Ash (NIST 1400) reference materials by neutron activation method; Analise de materiais de referencia Bone Meal (NIST 1486) e Bone Ash (NIST 1400) pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Marcelo K.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Borelli, Aurelio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1999-11-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine Ba, ca, Cl, Cr, fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sb, Sc, Sr and Zn in two biological reference materials NIST 1486 Bone Meal and NIST 1400 Bone Ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of the results as well as to give a contribution to certificate these materials. Interferences found in the determination of some elements were also discussed. (author) 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. International nuclear safety center database on material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    International nuclear safety center database on the following material properties is described: fuel, cladding,absorbers, moderators, structural materials, coolants, concretes, liquid mixtures, uranium dioxide

  1. Emergent material properties of developing epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro F; Duque, Julia; Étienne, Jocelyn; Martinez-Arias, Alfonso; Blanchard, Guy B; Gorfinkiel, Nicole

    2015-11-23

    Force generation and the material properties of cells and tissues are central to morphogenesis but remain difficult to measure in vivo. Insight is often limited to the ratios of mechanical properties obtained through disruptive manipulation, and the appropriate models relating stress and strain are unknown. The Drosophila amnioserosa epithelium progressively contracts over 3 hours of dorsal closure, during which cell apices exhibit area fluctuations driven by medial myosin pulses with periods of 1.5-6 min. Linking these two timescales and understanding how pulsatile contractions drive morphogenetic movements is an urgent challenge. We present a novel framework to measure in a continuous manner the mechanical properties of epithelial cells in the natural context of a tissue undergoing morphogenesis. We show that the relationship between apicomedial myosin fluorescence intensity and strain during fluctuations is consistent with a linear behaviour, although with a lag. We thus used myosin fluorescence intensity as a proxy for active force generation and treated cells as natural experiments of mechanical response under cyclic loading, revealing unambiguous mechanical properties from the hysteresis loop relating stress to strain. Amnioserosa cells can be described as a contractile viscoelastic fluid. We show that their emergent mechanical behaviour can be described by a linear viscoelastic rheology at timescales relevant for tissue morphogenesis. For the first time, we establish relative changes in separate effective mechanical properties in vivo. Over the course of dorsal closure, the tissue solidifies and effective stiffness doubles as net contraction of the tissue commences. Combining our findings with those from previous laser ablation experiments, we show that both apicomedial and junctional stress also increase over time, with the relative increase in apicomedial stress approximately twice that of other obtained measures. Our results show that in an epithelial

  2. Relevant optical properties for direct restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; do Amaral, Erika A Navarro; Cardona, Juan C; Della Bona, Alvaro; Pérez, María M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate relevant optical properties of esthetic direct restorative materials focusing on whitened and translucent shades. Enamel (E), body (B), dentin (D), translucent (T) and whitened (Wh) shades for E (WhE) and B (WhB) from a restorative system (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE) were evaluated. Samples (1 mm thick) were prepared. Spectral reflectance (R%) and color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C* and h°) were measured against black and white backgrounds, using a spectroradiometer, in a viewing booth, with CIE D65 illuminant and d/0° geometry. Scattering (S) and absorption (K) coefficients and transmittance (T%) were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. Translucency (TP) and opalescence (OP) parameters and whiteness index (W*) were obtained from differences of CIELAB color coordinates. R%, S, K and T% curves from all shades were compared using VAF (Variance Accounting For) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Color coordinates and optical parameters were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.0007). Spectral behavior of R% and S were different for T shades. In addition, T shades showed the lowest R%, S and K values, as well as the highest T%, TP an OP values. In most cases, WhB shades showed different color and optical properties (including TP and W*) than their corresponding B shades. WhE shades showed similar mean W* values and higher mean T% and TP values than E shades. When using whitened or translucent composites, the final color is influenced not only by the intraoral background but also by the color and optical properties of multilayers used in the esthetic restoration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials are a class of their own. Their properties are quite different to those of the corresponding crystalline materials. This book gives systematic insight into their physical properties, structure, behaviour, and design for special advanced applications.

  4. Characterization of Redox properties of humic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of humic materials is the presence of stable free radicals as shown by the width of 1 H-NMR lines of humic acid in solution as well as ESR spectra of solid samples. Presumably, these are due to quinohdrone functional groups in the humic structure. These free radicals are assumed to be a source of the redox effects of humics in metal cations. Phenolic groups have also been proposed as a source of reduction potential in these substances. The reduction potential of humic material is 0.5-0.7 V (vs. the normal hydrogen electrode). In addition to this inherent redox property, humics undergo photolysis by sunlight in surface waters which results in the production of hydrogen peroxide. The latter can also result in redox reactions with metal cations. Such direct and indirect redox capability can have significant effects on the migration of reducible cations. Studies of the reduction of hexavalent actinide cations by humic acid showed the reactions Np O 2 2+ -> Np O 2 + (E 1/2 0 = 1.47 V) and Pu O 2 2+ -> Pu +4 (E 1/2 0 = 1.04 V) while U O 2 2+ was not reduced. The reduction of plutonium in sea water by humics is discussed. Evidence of the effects of redox by humic material on metal cations in natural waters and sediments are also reviewed. (authors). 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Porous poly(vinyl alcohol)/sepiolite bone scaffolds: Preparation, structure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, Derek; Frydrych, Martin; Chen Biqiong

    2012-01-01

    Porous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sepiolite nanocomposite scaffolds containing 0–10 wt.% sepiolite were prepared by freeze-drying and thermally crosslinked with poly(arylic acid). The microstructure of the obtained scaffolds was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography, which showed a ribbon and ladder like interconnected structure. The incorporation of sepiolite increased the mean pore size and porosity of the PVA scaffold as well as the degree of anisotropy due to its fibrous structure. The tensile strength, modulus and energy at break of the PVA solid material that constructed the scaffold were found to improve with additions of sepiolite by up to 104%, 331% and 22% for 6 wt.% clay. Such enhancements were attributed to the strong interactions between the PVA and sepiolite, the good dispersion of sepiolite nanofibres in the matrix and the intrinsic properties of the nanofibres. However, the tensile properties of the PVA scaffold deteriorated in the presence of sepiolite because of the higher porosity, pore size and degree of anisotropy. The PVA/sepiolite nanocomposite scaffold containing 6 wt.% sepiolite was characterised by an interconnected structure, a porosity of 89.5% and a mean pore size of 79 μm and exhibited a tensile strength of 0.44 MPa and modulus of 14.9 MPa, which demonstrates potential for this type of materials to be further developed as bone scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Novel PAA-crosslinked PVA/sepiolite nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared. ► They were highly porous with interconnected structures and exhibited good mechanical properties. ► The effects of sepiolite nanofibres on structure and properties of the scaffolds were investigated. ► Sepiolite nanofibres improved the mechanical properties of the solid material significantly.

  6. Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time monitoring of structural transformations and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = 0 wt %, 0.6 wt % and 1.0 wt % was performed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP phase into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD took place in all the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its metallic form was found, whereas for CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, CaAg(PO33 was detected and Ag (met. was no longer present. The CPC-Ag 0 wt % cement exhibited a compressive strength of 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas for the doped cements (CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % the reduced values of the compressive strength 4.0 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively, were detected. Silver-ion release from CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, measured by the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the average values of 25 µg/L and 43 µg/L, respectively, rising a plateau after 15 days. The results of the antibacterial test proved the inhibitory effect towards pathogenic Escherichia coli for both CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, better performances being observed for the cement with a higher Ag-content.

  7. Field-Induced Texturing of Ceramic Materials for Unparalleled Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Texturing of Ceramic Materials for Unparalleled Properties by...influence over many properties , such as optical transparency, strength, electrical conductivity, and piezoelectricity .19 Highly textured materials are... Ceramic Materials for Unparalleled Properties by Raymond Brennan, Victoria Blair, Nicholas Ku, Krista Limmer, Tanya Chantawansri, Mahesh

  8. Development of a Moldable, Biodegradable Polymeric Bone Repair Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-30

    26% Cellulose 2 85% PCL 1250 15% Calcium Carbonate 2 85% PCL 1250 15% Carnauba Wax 3 80% PCL 1250 20% Carboxymethyl 4 Cellulose 85% PCL 1250 15% Gum...Tragacanth 4 83% PCL 1250 17% Gelatin 5 83% PCL 1250 17% Gum Xanthan 7 79% PCL 2000 21% Carnauba Wax 7 85% PCL 2000 15% Calcium Stearate 7 83% PLA 2000...azaum 200 wo ) After the revision of the statement of work, the objective of this contract was the development of a biodegradable bone wax . It would be

  9. Comparison about the bone material examination of JIS and ISO; Honezai shiken ni kansuru JIS to ISO no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Sumie.; Yanagi, Kei.; Shimura, Akiharu.; Murohoshi, Shiori. [Japan Testing Center for Construction Materials, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    There are various things in slug bone material and so on manufactured from the macadam, crumble sand. Which crushed rock including gravel, sand to produce in the nature and which was manufactured, and a lightweight bone material and the industry by-product with the bone material used for the concrete. It is necessary with a bone material to grasp the nature of the bone material itself properly to occupy about 70% of the capacity in the concrete and to manufacture the good concrete of the quality from the influence that influence to the various concrete materiality that quality being big. When the quality of a bone material to use for the concrete is confirmed, an examination is being done in accordance with the way of examining it established as the Japanese industry standard in our country. (NEDO)

  10. Development of bone-lead reference materials for validating in vivo XRF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.J.; Zong, Y.Y.; Matthews, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of biological reference materials (RM) have been prepared in our laboratory specifically for validating analytical methods for the determination of Pb in biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, liver, and bone). The RM's were developed using animal (goats and cows) that are routinely dosed with lead acetate to produce proficiency test samples for blood lead (and erythrocyte protoporphyrin). In cases where an animal becomes injured or infirm, the veterinarian in charge may recommend that the animal be euthanized. In such cases, samples of bone, brain, liver, and other tissues containing lead are removed at autopsy. Currently, we have collected bone samples from nine goats and one cow that were dosed with lead over periods ranging from 1 to 10 years. During the autopsy, the epiphyses (bone joints) are separated from each long bone. Skin, muscle, and other adhering tissues are dissected or scraped from each bone. Bone marrow is also removed. All bare bones are currently stored at -70 degrees C until analyses for Pb are conducted

  11. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation With Synthetic Bone Substitutes Compared With Other Grafting Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Mordenfeld, Arne; Becktor, Jonas Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses of no differences in implant treatment outcome after maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) with synthetic bone substitutes (SBS) compared with other grafting materials applying the lateral window technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and ...

  12. Multiscale mechanics of hierarchical structure/property relationships in calcified tissues and tissue/material interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J. Lawrence; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette; Wang, Yong; Bumrerraj, Sauwanan; Nomura, Tsutomu; Eppell, Steven J.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a review plus new data that describes the role hierarchical nanostructural properties play in developing an understanding of the effect of scale on the material properties (chemical, elastic and electrical) of calcified tissues as well as the interfaces that form between such tissues and biomaterials. Both nanostructural and microstructural properties will be considered starting with the size and shape of the apatitic mineralites in both young and mature bovine bone. Microstructural properties for human dentin and cortical and trabecular bone will be considered. These separate sets of data will be combined mathematically to advance the effects of scale on the modeling of these tissues and the tissue/biomaterial interfaces as hierarchical material/structural composites. Interfacial structure and properties to be considered in greatest detail will be that of the dentin/adhesive (d/a) interface, which presents a clear example of examining all three material properties, (chemical, elastic and electrical). In this case, finite element modeling (FEA) was based on the actual measured values of the structure and elastic properties of the materials comprising the d/a interface; this combination provides insight into factors and mechanisms that contribute to premature failure of dental composite fillings. At present, there are more elastic property data obtained by microstructural measurements, especially high frequency ultrasonic wave propagation (UWP) and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) techniques. However, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation (NI) of cortical and trabecular bone and the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) among others have become available allowing correlation of the nanostructural level measurements with those made on the microstructural level

  13. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F.; Pullar, R.C.; Braga da Cruz, I.; Jorge, R.; Pintado, M.M.E.; Castro, P.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 and β-Ca(PO 4 ) 3 ) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 ) and fluorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 ) were obtained using CaCl 2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: ► Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bonesBone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production ► Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. ► Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. ► Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications

  14. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pullar, R.C. [Dept. Engenharia de Materiais e Ceramica/CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Braga da Cruz, I. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Jorge, R. [WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pintado, M.M.E. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Castro, P.M.L., E-mail: plcastro@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 Degree-Sign C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}) and fluorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}) were obtained using CaCl{sub 2} and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications.

  15. Explorations in the application of nanotechnology to improve the mechanical properties of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng

    2007-12-01

    This thesis presents the research achievements on the design, preparation, characterization, and analysis of a series of composite materials. By studying the interface interaction of the composite materials using nanotechnology, we developed composite materials that achieve satisfactory mechanical properties in two classes of materials. Durable press (DP) natural textiles are important consumer products usually achieved by erosslinking the molecules in the textiles to achieve long-term wrinkle resistance, which, however, also leads to the simultaneous significant drop of mechanical properties. Herein, a series of polymeric nanoparticl es were investigated, the application of as little as ˜0.14 wt% addition of the nanoparticles improved the mechanical property of the DP cotton fabric by 56% in tearing resistance and 100% in abrasion resistance; the loss in recovery angle is negligible. The author also studied the enzyme-triggered DP treatments of silk fabrics, as a green process method. After the treatment of enzymes, excellent DP property was achieved with improved strain property. Injectable calcium phosphate powder containing acrylic bone cements are widely used in orthopedic surgery to fix artificial prostheses. However, the bending strength is still unsatisfactory. The author modified the surface of the strontium (Sr) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) filler powders with acrylolpamidronate in order to improve the overall mechanical performance of the bone cement composites. By adding 0.25 wt% of acrylolpamidronate to the Sr-HA nanopowders, more than 19% of the bending strength and more than 23% compression strength of the Sr-HA bone cement were improved. Biological evaluations revealed that these bone cement composites were biocompatible and bioactive in cell culture. The results obtained in this thesis work show an effective method to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of composite materials. Different from other available methods, by developing a

  16. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  17. Severely impaired bone material quality in Chihuahua zebrafish resembles classical dominant human osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Imke A K; Schmidt, Felix N; Wölfel, Eva M; Plumeyer, Christine; Milovanovic, Petar; Gioia, Roberta; Tonelli, Francesca; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Jähn, Katharina; Besio, Roberta; Forlino, Antonella; Busse, Björn

    2018-04-17

    Excessive skeletal deformations and brittle fractures in the vast majority of patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are a result of substantially reduced bone quality. Since the mechanical competence of bone is dependent on the tissue characteristics at small length scales, it is of crucial importance to assess how osteogenesis imperfecta manifests at the micro- and nanoscale of bone. In this context, the Chihuahua (Chi/ +) zebrafish, carrying a heterozygous glycine substitution in the α1 chain of collagen type I, has recently been proposed as suitable animal model of classical dominant OI, showing skeletal deformities, altered mineralization patterns and a smaller body size. This study assessed the bone quality properties of Chi/+ at multiple length scales using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry, quantitative back-scattered electron imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoindentation and X-ray microscopy. At the skeletal level, Chi/+ display smaller body size, deformities and fracture calli in the ribs. Morphological changes at the whole bone level showed that the vertebrae in Chi/+ had a smaller size, smaller thickness and distorted shape. At the tissue level, Chi/+ displayed a higher degree of mineralization, lower collagen maturity, lower mineral maturity, altered osteoblast morphology, and lower osteocyte lacunar density compared to WT. The alterations in the cellular, compositional and structural properties of Chi/+ bones bear an explanation for the impaired local mechanical properties, which promote an increase in overall bone fragility in Chi/ +. The quantitative assessment of bone quality in Chi/+ thus further validates this mutant as an important model reflecting osseous characteristics associated with human classical dominant osteogenesis imperfecta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepika

    Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear

  19. Time Course of Influence by Ovariectomy and Calcium Diet on Bone Properties in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Minematsu, Akira; Yoshimura, Osamu; Yotsuji, Hirofumi; Ichigo, Hirozo; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Sasaki, Hisato; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kanemura, Naohiko; Shirahama, Kunji; Miyamoto, Hidetaka

    2001-01-01

    This study was investigated the influence by ovariectomy (OVX) and calcium diet on bone properties in eighty-one female ICR strain mice with age of 5 weeks. The animals were randomly assigned to sham operation (SHAM), OVX, SHAM+low Ca intake (L.Ca) and OVX+L.Ca group. They were euthanized with lethal dose of pentobarbital sodium at day 50, 100 and 140 post-operatively. For determining the bone properties, both femur and tibial bones were excised from the hind limb, and removed off surrounding...

  20. Bone properties of the humeral head and resistance to screw cutout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, L. H.; Jensen, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of fractures involving the proximal humeral head is hampered by complications. Screw cutout is the major pitfall seen in connection with rigid plating. We have exploited a bony explanation for this phenomenon. Materials and Methods: We examined the convex surface of the humeral...... sectioning technique. Results: The bone strength and bone density correlated well and revealed large regional variations across the humeral head. Bone strength and stiffness of the trabecular bone came to a maximum in the most medial anterior and central parts of the humeral head, where strong textural...... screw directions will predictably place screws in areas of the humeral head comprising low density and low strength cancellous bone. New concepts of plates and plating techniques for the surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus should take bone distribution, strength...

  1. Relationships among ultrasonic and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in human calcaneus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Keith A; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Dreher, Maureen L; Sadoughi, Saghi; Zhu, Shan; Keaveny, Tony M

    2017-10-01

    Clinical bone sonometers applied at the calcaneus measure broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound. However, the relation of ultrasound measurements to bone strength is not well-characterized. Addressing this issue, we assessed the extent to which ultrasonic measurements convey in vitro mechanical properties in 25 human calcaneal cancellous bone specimens (approximately 2×4×2cm). Normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, and broadband ultrasound backscatter were measured with 500kHz transducers. To assess mechanical properties, non-linear finite element analysis, based on micro-computed tomography images (34-micron cubic voxel), was used to estimate apparent elastic modulus, overall specimen stiffness, and apparent yield stress, with models typically having approximately 25-30 million elements. We found that ultrasound parameters were correlated with mechanical properties with R=0.70-0.82 (pmechanical properties beyond that provided by bone quantity alone (p≤0.05). Adding ultrasound variables to linear regression models based on bone quantity improved adjusted squared correlation coefficients from 0.65 to 0.77 (stiffness), 0.76 to 0.81 (apparent modulus), and 0.67 to 0.73 (yield stress). These results indicate that ultrasound can provide complementary (to bone quantity) information regarding mechanical behavior of cancellous bone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Biomaterials with Antibacterial and Osteoinductive Properties to Repair Infected Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiping; Liu, Yi; Guo, Jing; Wu, Huiling; Wang, Jingxiao; Wu, Gang

    2016-03-03

    The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity. Infected bone defects are conventionally treated by a systemic/local administration of antibiotics to control infection and a subsequent implantation of bone grafts, such as autografts and allografts. However, these treatment options are time-consuming and usually yield less optimal efficacy. To approach these problems, novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties have been developed. The antibacterial property can be conferred by antibiotics and other novel antibacterial biomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles. Bone morphogenetic proteins are used to functionalize the biomaterials with a potent osteoinductive property. By manipulating the carrying modes and release kinetics, these biomaterials are optimized to maximize their antibacterial and osteoinductive functions with minimized cytotoxicity. The findings, in the past decade, have shown a very promising application potential of the novel biomaterials with the dual functions in treating infected bone defects. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties.

  3. Biomaterials with Antibacterial and Osteoinductive Properties to Repair Infected Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity. Infected bone defects are conventionally treated by a systemic/local administration of antibiotics to control infection and a subsequent implantation of bone grafts, such as autografts and allografts. However, these treatment options are time-consuming and usually yield less optimal efficacy. To approach these problems, novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties have been developed. The antibacterial property can be conferred by antibiotics and other novel antibacterial biomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles. Bone morphogenetic proteins are used to functionalize the biomaterials with a potent osteoinductive property. By manipulating the carrying modes and release kinetics, these biomaterials are optimized to maximize their antibacterial and osteoinductive functions with minimized cytotoxicity. The findings, in the past decade, have shown a very promising application potential of the novel biomaterials with the dual functions in treating infected bone defects. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties.

  4. Bone cells in cultures on nanocarbon-based materials for potential bone tissue engineering: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bačáková, Lucie; Kopová, Ivana; Staňková, Ľubica; Lišková, Jana; Vacík, Jiří; Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Kromka, Alexander; Potocký, Štěpán; Stránská, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 12 (2014), s. 2688-2702 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1168; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : biocompatibility * bone implants * carbon * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2014

  5. The relationship of whole human vertebral body creep to geometric, microstructural, and material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Daniel; Kim, Woong; Flynn, Michael J; Yeni, Yener N

    2018-05-17

    Creep, the time dependent deformation of a structure under load, is an important viscoelastic property of bone and may play a role in the development of permanent deformity of the vertebrae in vivo leading to clinically observable spinal fractures. To date, creep properties and their relationship to geometric, microstructural, and material properties have not been described in isolated human vertebral bodies. In this study, a range of image-based measures of vertebral bone geometry, bone mass, microarchitecture and mineralization were examined in multiple regression models in an effort to understand their contribution to creep behavior. Several variables, such as measures of mineralization heterogeneity, average bone density, and connectivity density persistently appeared as significant effects in multiple regression models (adjusted r 2 : 0.17-0.56). Although further work is needed to identify additional tissue properties to fully describe the portion of variability not explained by these models, these data are expected to help understand mechanisms underlying creep and improve prediction of vertebral deformities that eventually progress to a clinically observable fracture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  7. Gender-dependence of bone structure and properties in adult osteogenesis imperfecta murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaomei; Carleton, Stephanie M; Kettle, Arin D; Melander, Jennifer; Phillips, Charlotte L; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformities. Though the oim mouse model has been the most widely studied of the OI models, it has only recently been suggested to exhibit gender-dependent differences in bone mineralization. To characterize the impact of gender on the morphometry/ultra-structure, mechanical properties, and biochemical composition of oim bone on the congenic C57BL/J6 background, 4-month-old oim/oim, +/oim, and wild-type (wt) female and male tibiae were evaluated using micro-computed tomography, three-point bending, and Raman spectroscopy. Dramatic gender differences were evident in both cortical and trabecular bone morphological and geometric parameters. Male mice had inherently more bone and increased moment of inertia than genotype-matched female counterparts with corresponding increases in bone biomechanical strength. The primary influence of gender was structure/geometry in bone growth and mechanical properties, whereas the mineral/matrix composition and hydroxyproline content of bone were influenced primarily by the oim collagen mutation. This study provides evidence of the importance of gender in the evaluation and interpretation of potential therapeutic strategies when using mouse models of OI.

  8. The Effect of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Coated Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft Material on Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jin-Ju; Bae, Eun-Bin; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun; Han, Dong-Wook; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-08-08

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as bone graft materials on bone regeneration. The rGO-coated BCP bone graft material was fabricatied by mixing rGO and BCP at various concentrations. The surface charge of rGO-coated BCP was measured to be -14.43 mV, which formed a static electrostatic interaction. Cell viabilities were significantly diminished at higher concentrations of ≥100 μg/mL. The calvarial defects of 48 rats were implanted rGO-coated BCPs at a weight ratio of 2:1000 (rGO2), 4:1000 (rGO4), and 10:1000 (rGO10), repectively. BCP was used as a control group. The micro-CT and histological analysis were performed to evaluate new bone formation at 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. The results showed that the new bone volume (mm³) was significantly higher in the experimental groups than in the control group. Histological analysis showed that new bone areas (%) were significantly higher in the rGO2 and rGO10 than in the control, and significantly higher in rGO4 than in the rGO2 and rGO10. Conclusively, the rGO-coated BCP was found to be effective on osteogenesis and the concentration of the composite was an important factor.

  9. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I; Temchenko, Volodymyr P; Kyselov, Vitalii S; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO2) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Material properties of novel polymeric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gene

    This dissertation will study the material properties of two types of novel polymer films (polyelectrolyte multilayer films and photolithographic polymer films). The formation of polylelectrolyte multilayer films onto functionalized aluminum oxide surfaces and functionalized poly(ethylene terephthaltate) (PET) were studied. Functionalization of the aluminum oxide surfaces was achieved via silane coupling. Functionalization of PET surfaces was achieved via hydrolysis and amidation. Surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to monitor the polyelectrolyte multilayer formation. Mechanical properties of the aluminum oxide supported polyelectrolyte multilayer films were tested using a simplified peel test. XPS was used to analyze the surfaces before and after peel. Single lap shear joint specimens were constructed to test the adhesive shear strength of the PET-supported polyelectrolyte multilayer film samples with the aid of a cyanoacrylate adhesive. The adhesive shear strength and its relation with the type of functionalization, number of polyelectrolyte layers, and the effect of polyelectrolyte conformation using added salt were explored. Also, characterization on the single lap joints after adhesive failure was carried out to determine the locus of failure within the multilayers by using XPS and SEM. Two types of photolithographic polymers were formulated and tested. These two polymers (photocrosslinkable polyacrylate (PUA), and a photocrosslinkable polyimide (HRP)) were used to investigate factors that would affect the structural integrity of these particular polymers under environmental variables such as processing (time, UV cure, pressure, and temperature) and ink exposure. Thermomechanical characterization was carried out to see the behavior of these two polymers under these environmental variables. Microscopic techniques were employed to study the morphological behavior of

  11. Effect of sodium carbonate solution on self-setting properties of tricalcium silicate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiguang Huan; Jiang Chang

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the effects of sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3) ) solution with different concentrations (10, 15, 20, and 25 wt%) as liquid phase on the setting time and compressive strength of tricalcium silicate bone cements are investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and degradability of the resultant Ca(3)SiO(5)-Na(2)CO(3) solution paste was also studied. The results indicate that as the concentration of Na(2)CO(3) solution varies from 0 to 25 wt%, the initial and final setting time of the cement decrease significantly from 90 to 20 min and from 180 to 45 min, respectively. After setting for 24 h, the compressive strength of Ca(3)SiO(5)-Na(2)CO(3) solution paste reaches 5.1 MPa, which is significantly higher than that of Ca( 3)SiO(5)-water cement system. The in vitro bioactivity of the cements is investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. The results show that the Ca(3)SiO(5)-Na(2)CO( 3) solution bone cement has a good bioactivity and can degrade in Ringer's solution. The results indicate that Na(2)CO(3) solution as a liquid phase significantly improves the self-setting properties of Ca( 3)SiO(5) cement as compared to water. The Ca(3)SiO( 5) cement paste prepared using Na(2)CO(3) solution shows good bioactivity and moderate degradability, and the Ca(3)SiO( 5)-Na(2)CO(3) solution system may be used as degradable and bioactive bone defect filling materials.

  12. Targeting the LRP5 pathway improves bone properties in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christina M; Barber, Lauren A; Ayturk, Ugur M; Roberts, Heather J; Deal, Lauren E; Schwartz, Marissa A; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Zurakowski, David; Robling, Alexander G; Warman, Matthew L

    2014-10-01

    The cell surface receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is a key regulator of bone mass and bone strength. Heterozygous missense mutations in LRP5 cause autosomal dominant high bone mass (HBM) in humans by reducing binding to LRP5 by endogenous inhibitors, such as sclerostin (SOST). Mice heterozygous for a knockin allele (Lrp5(p.A214V) ) that is orthologous to a human HBM-causing mutation have increased bone mass and strength. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal fragility disorder predominantly caused by mutations that affect type I collagen. We tested whether the LRP5 pathway can be used to improve bone properties in animal models of OI. First, we mated Lrp5(+/p.A214V) mice to Col1a2(+/p.G610C) mice, which model human type IV OI. We found that Col1a2(+/p.G610C) ;Lrp5(+/p.A214V) offspring had significantly increased bone mass and strength compared to Col1a2(+/p.G610C) ;Lrp5(+/+) littermates. The improved bone properties were not a result of altered mRNA expression of type I collagen or its chaperones, nor were they due to changes in mutant type I collagen secretion. Second, we treated Col1a2(+/p.G610C) mice with a monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin activity (Scl-Ab). We found that antibody-treated mice had significantly increased bone mass and strength compared to vehicle-treated littermates. These findings indicate increasing bone formation, even without altering bone collagen composition, may benefit patients with OI. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. CT assisted biomimetic artificial bone des

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.

  14. Design and properties of 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, S; Vlad, M D; López, J; Fernández, E

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the Voronoi tessellation method has been used to design novel bone like three dimension (3D) porous scaffolds. The Voronoi method has been processed with computer design software to obtain 3D virtual isotropic porous interconnected models, exactly matching the main histomorphometric indices of trabecular bone (trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, bone volume to total volume ratio, bone surface to bone volume ratio, etc.). These bone like models have been further computed for mechanical (elastic modulus) and fluid mass transport (permeability) properties. The results show that the final properties of the scaffolds can be controlled during their microstructure and histomorphometric initial design stage. It is also shown that final properties can be tuned during the design stage to exactly match those of trabecular natural bone. Moreover, identical total porosity models can be designed with quite different specific bone surface area and thus, this specific microstructural feature can be used to favour cell adhesion, migration and, ultimately, new bone apposition (i.e. osteoconduction). Once the virtual models are fully characterized and optimized, these can be easily 3D printed by additive manufacturing and/or stereolitography technologies. The significance of this article goes far beyond the specific objectives on which it is focussed. In fact, it shows, in a guided way, the entire novel process that can be followed to design graded porous implants, whatever its external shape and geometry, but internally tuned to the exact histomorphometric indices needed to match natural human tissues microstructures and, consequently, their mechanical and fluid properties, among others. The significance is even more relevant nowadays thanks to the available new computing and design software that is easily linked to the 3D printing new technologies. It is this transversality, at the frontier of different disciplines, the main characteristic

  15. Tissue level material composition and mechanical properties in Brtl/+ mouse model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta after sclerostin antibody treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William R.; Sinder, Benjamin P.; Salemi, Joseph; Ominsky, Michael S.; Marini, Joan C.; Caird, Michelle S.; Morris, Michael D.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder resulting in defective collagen or collagen-associated proteins and fragile, brittle bones. To date, therapies to improve OI bone mass, such as bisphosphonates, have increased bone mass in the axial skeleton of OI patients, but have shown limited effects at reducing long bone fragility. Sclerostin antibody (Scl- Ab), currently in clinical trials for osteoporosis, stimulates bone formation and may have the potential to reduce long bone fracture rates in OI patients. Scl-Ab has been investigated as an anabolic therapy for OI in the Brtl/+ mouse model of moderately severe Type IV OI. While Scl-Ab increases long bone mass in the Brtl/+ mouse, it is not known whether material properties and composition changes also occur. Here, we report on the effects of Scl-Ab on wild type and Brtl/+ young (3 week) and adult (6 month) male mice. Scl-Ab was administered over 5 weeks (25mg/kg, 2x/week). Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation are used for bone composition and biomechanical bone property measurements in excised bone. Fluorescent labels (calcein and alizarin) at 4 time points over the entire treatment period are used to enable measurements at specific tissue age. Differences between wild type and Brtl/+ groups included variations in the mineral and matrix lattices, particularly the phosphate v1, carbonate v1, and the v(CC) proline and hydroxyproline stretch vibrations. Results of Raman spectroscopy corresponded to nanoindentation findings which indicated that old bone (near midcortex) is stiffer (higher elastic modulus) than new bone. We compare and contrast mineral to matrix and carbonate to phosphate ratios in young and adult mice with and without treatment.

  16. Unsaturated hydraulic property of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Fujita, Tomoo

    1999-09-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanism, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock into the EBS, generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration and the stress imposed by the overburden pressure. These phenomena are not all independent, but can be strongly influenced by, and coupled with, each other. Evaluating these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the engineered barrier system within the near-field. This report describes the results on measurement of chemical potential, water diffusivity, and thermal water diffusivity of bentonite that is considered as a candidate material of buffer and on comparison between measurements and theoretical studies for these properties. The following results are identified; (l) The hysteresis of chemical potential in wet and dry conditions for compacted bentonite is not shown clearly. The chemical potential depends on temperature and amount of montmorillonite. When chemical potential of compacted bentonite is zero, the specimen is saturated. The van Genuchten model is applicable to the measured chemical potential of compacted bentonite. (2) The Darcy's law and Philip and de Vries model are applicable to the measured water diffusivity and thermal water diffusivity of compacted bentonite. (author)

  17. Investigation of novel bioactive rapidly resorbable bone substitute materials and their influence on osteoblastic cell differentiation in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jonscher, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Among the various techniques to reconstruct or enlarge a deficient alveolar ridge, the concept of guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a predictable and well-documented surgical approach. At present, autogenous bone grafts are preferably combined with barrier membranes. Using synthetic biodegradable bone substitute materials, however, is advantageous, since it avoids second-site surgery for autograft harvesting. A bone substitute for alveolar ridge augmentation must be rapidly resorbable...

  18. Content Validity of Temporal Bone Models Printed Via Inexpensive Methods and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, T Michael; Mowry, Sarah E

    2016-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the 3-D printed temporal bone models will be within 15% accuracy of the CT scans of the cadaveric temporal bones. Previous studies have evaluated the face validity of 3-D-printed temporal bone models designed to train otolaryngology residents. The purpose of the study was to determine the content validity of temporal bone models printed using inexpensive printers and materials. Four cadaveric temporal bones were randomly selected and clinical temporal bone CT scans were obtained. Models were generated using previously described methods in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic using the Makerbot Replicator 2× and Hyrel printers. Models were radiographically scanned using the same protocol as the cadaveric bones. Four images from each cadaveric CT series and four corresponding images from the model CT series were selected, and voxel values were normalized to black or white. Scan slices were compared using PixelDiff software. Gross anatomic structures were evaluated in the model scans by four board certified otolaryngologists on a 4-point scale. Mean pixel difference between the cadaver and model scans was 14.25 ± 2.30% at the four selected CT slices. Mean cortical bone width difference and mean external auditory canal width difference were 0.58 ± 0.66 mm and 0.55 ± 0.46 mm, respectively. Expert raters felt the mastoid air cells were well represented (2.5 ± 0.5), while middle ear and otic capsule structures were not accurately rendered (all averaged bones for training residents in cortical mastoidectomies, but less effective for middle ear procedures.

  19. Sinus Floor Elevation and Augmentation Using Synthetic Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute Materials: Preliminary Histologic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouka, Sofia-Maria; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    To compare the tissue composition of augmented sites after using two different synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous hydroxyapatite (HA), for sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Forty-four patients received 88 titanium screw implants (Camlog Promote plus) of 4.3-mm diameter and 11- or 13-mm length, placed simultaneously during sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Nanocrystalline (Ostim) or nanoporous (NanoBone) HA were used exclusively. Bone substitute materials and implant lengths were allocated by randomization. Bone biopsy specimens were obtained from the former area of the lateral access window at implant exposure during healing abutment placement after 6 months. Biopsy specimens were prepared and examined histologically and histomorphometrically. All implants were osseointegrated at the time of exposure. Clinically and histologically, no signs of inflammation in the augmented sites were present. The histomorphometric analysis of 44 biopsy specimens revealed 31.8% ± 11.6% newly formed bone for sites augmented with nanocrystalline HA and 34.6% ± 9.2% for nanoporous HA (P = .467). The proportion of remaining bone substitute material was 28.4% ± 18.6% and 30% ± 13%, respectively (P = .453). The proportion of soft tissue within the biopsy specimens was 39.9% ± 11.1% and 35.4% ± 6.8%, respectively (P = .064). No significant differences were found between the area fractions of bone, bone substitute material, and soft tissue concerning the bone substitute material utilized. Within the present study, both synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous HA, were found to support bone formation in sinus floor elevation and augmentation procedures by osteoconductivity. They were not completely resorbed after 6 months. The amounts of newly formed bone, soft tissue, and bone substitute material remnants were found to be similar, indicating that both materials are likewise suitable for sinus floor elevation and

  20. Synthesis Properties and Electron Spin Resonance Properties of Titanic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jung Min; Lee, Jun; Kim, Tak Hee; Sun, Min Ho; Jang, Young Bae; Cho, Sung June

    2009-01-01

    Titanic materials were synthesized by hydrothermal method of TiO 2 anatase in 10M LiOH, 10M NaOH, and 14M KOH at 130 deg. C for 30 hours. Alkaline media were removed from the synthesized products using 0.1N HCl aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, and electron spin resonance. Different shapes of synthesized products were observed through the typical electron microscope and indicated that the formation of the different morphologies depends on the treatment conditions of highly alkaline media. Many micropores were observed in the cubic or octahedral type of TiO 2 samples through the typical electron microscope and Langmuir adsorption-desorption isotherm of liquid nitrogen at 77 deg. K. Electron spin resonance studies have also been carried out to verify the existence of paramagnetic sites such as oxygen vacancies on the titania samples. The effect of alkali metal ions on the morphologies and physicochemical properties of nanoscale titania are discussed.

  1. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M. Jayed, E-mail: zed.hossain06@gmail.com; Rahman, M. Moshiur, E-mail: razib-121@yahoo.com; Alam, Morshed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  2. Characterisation of β-tricalcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Ivo; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Babić-Ivančić, Vesna; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna

    2012-10-01

    β-TCP based materials are frequently used as dental implants. Due to their resorption in the body and direct contact with tissues, in order to inactivate bacteria, fungal spores and viruses, they are usually sterilized by γ-irradiation. However, the current literature provides little information about effects of the γ-irradiation on the formation and stability of the free radicals in the bone graft materials during and after sterilization procedure. In this work five different bone graft substitution materials, composed of synthetic beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) present in the market were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Paramagnetic species Mn2+, Fe3+, trapped H-atoms and CO2- radicals were detected in the biphasic material (60% HAP, 40% β-TCP), while in β-TCP materials only Mn2+ andor trapped hydrogen atoms were detected. EPR analysis revealed the details of the structure of these materials at the atomic level. The results have shown that EPR spectroscopy is a method which can be used to improve the quality control of bone graft materials after syntering, processing and sterilization procedure.

  3. Reactions and Surface Transformations of a Bone-Bioactive Material in a Simulated Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, S.; Ducheyne, P.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive program to investigate the expeditious in vitro formation of three-dimensional bone-like tissue is currently underway at the University of Pennsylvania. The study reported here forms a part of that program. Three-dimensional bone-like tissue structures may be grown under the simulated microgravity conditions of NASA designed Rotating Wall Bioreactor Vessels (RWV's). Such tissue growth will have wide clinical applications. In addition, an understanding of the fundamental changes that occur to bone cells under simulated microgravity would yield important information that will help in preventing or minimizing astronaut bone loss, a major health issue with travel or stay in space over long periods of time. The growth of three-dimensional bone-like tissue structures in RWV's is facilitated by the use of microcarriers which provide structural support. If the microcarrier material additionally promotes bone cell growth, then it is particularly advantageous to employ such microcarriers. We have found that reactive, bone-bioactive glass (BBG) is an attractive candidate for use as microcarrier material. Specifically, it has been found that BBG containing Ca- and P- oxides upregulates osteoprogenitor cells to osteoblasts. This effect on cells is preceded by BBG reactions in solution which result in the formation of a Ca-P surface layer. This surface further transforms to a bone-like mineral (i.e., carbonated crystalline hydroxyapatite (c-HA)). At normal gravity, time-dependent, immersion-induced BBG reactions and transformations are greatly affected both by variations in the composition of the milieu in which the glass is immersed and on the immersion conditions. However, the nature of BBG reactions and phase transformations under the simulated microgravity conditions of RWV's are unknown, and must be understood in order to successfully use BBG as microcarrier material in RWV'S. In this paper, we report some of our recent findings in this regard using

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different bone substitute materials for socket preservation after tooth extraction: a controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie-M, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two bone substitute materials for socket preservation after tooth extraction. Extraction sockets in 10 patients were filled with either inorganic bovine bone material (Bio-Oss) or with synthetic material consisting of hydroxyapatite and silicon dioxide (NanoBone). Extraction sockets without filling served as the control. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented protocol for socket preservation and that the choice of a suitable bone substitute material is crucial. The dimensions of the alveolar ridge were significantly better preserved with Bio-Oss than with NanoBone or without treatment. Bio-Oss treatment resulted in better bone quality and quantity for successful implant placement.

  5. Finite Element Method for Analysis of Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauhe, Jens Christian

    and the finite element method. The material microstructure of the heterogeneous material is non-destructively determined using X-ray microtomography. A software program has been generated which uses the X-ray tomographic data as an input for the mesh generation of the material microstructure. To obtain a proper...... which are used for the determination of the effective properties of the heterogeneous material. Generally, the properties determined using the finite element method coupled with X-ray microtomography are in good agreement with both experimentally determined properties and properties determined using......The use of cellular and composite materials have in recent years become more and more common in all kinds of structural components and accurate knowledge of the effective properties is therefore essential. In this wok the effective properties are determined using the real material microstructure...

  6. Structural and mechanical properties of the coral and nacre and the potentiality of their use as bone substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Samir; Slimane, Noureddine; Azari, Zitouni; Pluvinage, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The structural and mechanical properties of coral and nacre used as bone substitute. ► The chemical composition of the nacre and coral are qualitatively similar to a bone. ► The percentage of porosity influences significantly the mechanical properties. ► A stress-life curve revealed an endurance limit to coral and nacre. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to develop resistant compact material samples with different porosities from coral and nacre adapted to the filling of bone cavities. The characterization of materials was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and laser granulometry. The micro-hardness and the influence of porosity on the mechanical behavior of these biomaterials under compression as well as three-points bending tests were also assessed. Both materials showed similar particles size ranging from 50 to 100 μm in diameter, distributed according to the Gauss curve. The modal particle size, the median D 50 and D 90 –D 10 are the most important parameters which allow for the distinction between coral and nacre samples. The two biomaterials showed a micro hardness (138–167 HV for coral and 261–340 HV for nacre) higher than that of bovine bones (55–70 HV). The maximum compression stresses were 32.82 MPa for coral and 37.06 MPa for nacre at 50% of porosity. S–N curve with ASME format is constructed to predict the fatigue life extended from 10 1 to 10 6 cycles, which reveals an endurance limit at a compression stress ratio of about 10.

  7. Pneumatization of the Temporal Bones in a Greenlandic Inuit Anthropological Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N

    1991-01-01

    The degree of pneumatization of the temporal bones correlates with exposure during childhood and adolescence to infectious middle ear diseases (IMED), both acute and chronic. The pneumatized area as seen on cranial X-rays can be measured. This was applied to an anthropological material in order...

  8. Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; Van Der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw

  9. Role of subchondral bone properties and changes in development of load-induced osteoarthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, O O; Ko, F C; Wan, P T; Goldring, S R; Goldring, M B; Wright, T M; van der Meulen, M C H

    2017-12-01

    Animal models recapitulating post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) suggest that subchondral bone (SCB) properties and remodeling may play major roles in disease initiation and progression. Thus, we investigated the role of SCB properties and its effects on load-induced OA progression by applying a tibial loading model on two distinct mouse strains treated with alendronate (ALN). Cyclic compression was applied to the left tibia of 26-week-old male C57Bl/6 (B6, low bone mass) and FVB (high bone mass) mice. Mice were treated with ALN (26 μg/kg/day) or vehicle (VEH) for loading durations of 1, 2, or 6 weeks. Changes in articular cartilage and subchondral and epiphyseal cancellous bone were analyzed using histology and microcomputed tomography. FVB mice exhibited thicker cartilage, a thicker SCB plate, and higher epiphyseal cancellous bone mass and tissue mineral density than B6 mice. Loading induced cartilage pathology, osteophyte formation, and SCB changes; however, lower initial SCB mass and stiffness in B6 mice did not attenuate load-induced OA severity compared to FVB mice. By contrast, FVB mice exhibited less cartilage damage, and slower-growing and less mature osteophytes. In B6 mice, inhibiting bone remodeling via ALN treatment exacerbated cartilage pathology after 6 weeks of loading, while in FVB mice, inhibiting bone remodeling protected limbs from load-induced cartilage loss. Intrinsically lower SCB properties were not associated with attenuated load-induced cartilage loss. However, inhibiting bone remodeling produced differential patterns of OA pathology in animals with low compared to high SCB properties, indicating that these factors do influence load-induced OA progression. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The mechanical properties of broiler chicken bones affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first group (Zn50) was fed commercial basal diet with no Zn additives (zinc content- 50 mg/kg feed). The second group ... In group Zn100, significantly increased values of bone cross-section area (Ar) were observed on days 14 and 35 and moment of inertia (I) on days 14, 21 and 35 (P<0.05). Results suggested that the ...

  11. Response of Primary Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Dermal Keratinocytes to Thermal Printer Materials In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Over, Patrick; Gridelli, Bruno; Gerlach, Jörg C

    Advancement in thermal three-dimensional printing techniques has greatly increased the possible applications of various materials in medical applications and tissue engineering. Yet, potential toxic effects on primary human cells have been rarely investigated. Therefore, we compared four materials commonly used in thermal printing for bioengineering, namely thermally printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, MED610, polycarbonate, and polylactic acid, and investigated their effects on primary human adult skin epidermal keratinocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro. We investigated indirect effects on both cell types caused by potential liberation of soluble substances from the materials, and also analyzed BM-MSCs in direct contact with the materials. We found that even in culture without direct contact with the materials, the culture with MED610 (and to a lesser extent acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) significantly affected keratinocytes, reducing cell numbers and proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and increasing glucose consumption, lactate secretion, and expression of differentiation-associated genes. BM-MSCs had decreased metabolic activity, and exhibited increased cell death in direct culture on the materials. MED610 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene induced the strongest expression of genes associated to differentiation and estrogen receptor activation. In conclusion, we found strong cell-type-specific effects of the materials, suggesting that materials for applications in regenerative medicine should be carefully selected not only based on their mechanical properties but also based on their cell-type-specific biological effects.

  12. Prenatal nutritional manipulation by in ovo enrichment influences bone structure, composition, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, R; Shahar, R; Uni, Z

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of embryonic nutritional enrichment on the development and properties of broiler leg bones (tibia and femur) from the prenatal period until maturity. To accomplish the objective, 300 eggs were divided into 2 groups: a noninjected group (control) and a group injected in ovo with a solution containing minerals, vitamins, and carbohydrates (enriched). Tibia and femur from both legs were harvested from chicks on embryonic days 19 (E19) and 21 (E21) and d 3, 7, 14, 28, and 54 posthatch (n = 8). The bones were mechanically tested (stiffness, maximal load, and work to fracture) and scanned in a micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanner to examine the structural properties of the cortical [cortical area, medullary area, cortical thickness, and maximal moment of inertia (Imax)] and trabecular (bone volume percent, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number) areas. To examine bone mineralization, bone mineral density (BMD) of the cortical area was obtained from the μCT scans, and bones were analyzed for the ash and mineral content. The results showed improved mechanical properties of the enriched group between E19 and d 3 and on d 14 (P bones), greater femoral cortical area on d 3, and greater Imax of both bones on d 14 (P bone trabecular architecture were that the enriched group had greater bone volume percent and trabecular thickness in the tibia on d 7 and the femur on d 28 (P mineralization between E19 and d 54 showed improved mineralization in the enriched group on E19 whereas on d 3 and 7, the control group showed a mineralization advantage, and on d 28 and 54, the enriched group showed again greater mineralization (P bone properties pre- and postnatally and showed that avian embryos are a good model for studying the effect of embryonic nutrition on natal and postnatal development. Most importantly, the enrichment led to improved mechanical properties until d 14 (roughly third of the lifespan of the bird), a big

  13. Effect of a Particulate and a Putty-Like Tricalcium Phosphate-Based Bone-grafting Material on Bone Formation, Volume Stability and Osteogenic Marker Expression after Bilateral Sinus Floor Augmentation in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Knabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of a hyaluronic acid (HyAc containing tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold material (TCP-P and of a particulate tricalcium phosphate (TCP-G graft on bone formation, volume stability and osteogenic marker expression in biopsies sampled 6 months after bilateral sinus floor augmentation (SFA in 7 patients applying a split-mouth design. 10% autogenous bone chips were added to the grafting material during surgery. The grain size of the TCP granules was 700 to 1400 µm for TCP-G and 125 to 250 µm and 500 to 700 µm (ratio 1:1 for TCP-P. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemical analysis of resin-embedded sections. Sections were stained for collagen type I (Col I, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteocalcin (OC and bone sialoprotein (BSP. Furthermore, the bone area and biomaterial area fraction were determined histomorphometrically. Cone-beam CT data recorded after SFA and 6 months later were used for calculating the graft volume at these two time points. TCP-P displayed more advantageous surgical handling properties and a significantly greater bone area fraction and smaller biomaterial area fraction. This was accompanied by significantly greater expression of Col I and BSP and in osteoblasts and osteoid and a less pronounced reduction in grafting volume with TCP-P. SFA using both types of materials resulted in formation of sufficient bone volume for facilitating stable dental implant placement with all dental implants having been in function without any complications for 6 years. Since TCP-P displayed superior surgical handling properties and greater bone formation than TCP-G, without the HyAc hydrogel matrix having any adverse effect on bone formation or graft volume stability, TCP-P can be regarded as excellent grafting material for SFA in a clinical setting. The greater bone formation observed with TCP-P may be related to the difference in grain size of the TCP granules and/or the addition of the HyAc.

  14. Electron beam irradiation to the allogeneic, xenogenic and synthetic bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Jeong, Hyun Oh [School of Dentistry Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-07-01

    For the development of the biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bone were irradiated by electron beam to change the basic components and structures. For the efficient electron beam irradiating condition of these allogenic, xenogenic and artificial bone substitutes, the optimal electron beam energy and their individual dose were established, to maximize the bony regeneration capacity. Commercial products of four allogenic bones, such as Accell (ISOTIS OrthogBiologics Co., USA), Allotis (Korea Bone Bank Co., Korea), Oragraft (LifeNet Co., USA), and Orthoblast (Integra Orthobiologics Inc., USA), six xenogenic bones, such as BBP (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-oss (Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland), Indu-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), OCS-B (Nibec Co., Korea), and OCS-H (Nibec Co., Korea), and six synthetic bones, such as BMP (Couellmedi Co., Korea), BoneMedik (Meta Biomed Co., Korea), Bone plus (Megagen Co., Korea), MBCP (Biomatlante Co., France), Osteon (Genoss Co., Korea), and Osteogen (Impladent LTD., USA), were used. We used 1.0 and 2.0 MeV superconduction accelerator, and/or microtrone with different individual 60, 120 kGy irradiation dose. Different dose irradiated specimens were divided 6 portions each, so total 360 groups were prepared. 4 portions were analyzed each by elementary analysis using FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Microscopy) and another 2 portions were grafted to the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rat, following histologic, immunohistochemical analysis and TEM study were processed at the 8th and 16th weeks, in vivo. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST)

  15. OSTEOCALCIN DINAMIC OF DISTROPHICAL BONE KISTS BY TITANIUM NIKELID POROUS MATERIALS IMPLANTATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kuzhelivsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of bone kists treatment by porous granular titanium nikelid materials and dynamic of osteokalcin. A comparative examination with standard treatment technology group demonstrated high efficiency of a proposed method. Porous granular titanium nikelid materials possess mechanical strength, optimization of regeneration at the expense of osteoinductivity by osteokalcin and allow you to effectively fill the cavity with a complex anatomical structure. 

  16. OSTEOCALCIN DINAMIC OF DISTROPHICAL BONE KISTS BY TITANIUM NIKELID POROUS MATERIALS IMPLANTATION IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Kuzhelivsky; M. A. Akselrov; L. A. Sitko

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of bone kists treatment by porous granular titanium nikelid materials and dynamic of osteokalcin. A comparative examination with standard treatment technology group demonstrated high efficiency of a proposed method. Porous granular titanium nikelid materials possess mechanical strength, optimization of regeneration at the expense of osteoinductivity by osteokalcin and allow you to effectively fill the cavity with a complex anatomical structure. 

  17. A biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability for bone tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Alves, Luís C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N.10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-01

    The increasing interest in the effect of strontium in bone tissue repair has promoted the development of bioactive materials with strontium release capability. According to literature, hybrid materials based on the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2} have been considered a plausible alternative as they present a mechanical behavior similar to the one of the human bone. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability. A hybrid material, in the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO, was prepared with the incorporation of 0.05 mol of titanium per mol of SiO{sub 2}. Calcium and strontium were added using the respective acetates as sources, following a sol–gel technique previously developed by the present authors. The obtained samples were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state NMR, and SAXS, and surface roughness was analyzed by 3D optical profilometry. In vitro studies were performed by immersion of the samples in Kokubo's SBF for different periods of time, in order to determine the bioactive potential of these hybrids. Surfaces of the immersed samples were observed by SEM, EDS and PIXE, showing the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Supernatants were analyzed by ICP, revealing the capability of the material to simultaneously fix phosphorus ions and to release calcium and strontium, in a concentration range within the values reported as suitable for the induction of the bone tissue repair. The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with MG63 osteoblastic cells, exhibiting an inductive effect on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. - Highlights: • A hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO material was prepared with the incorporation of Ti. • Sr was released in concentrations suitable for the induction of bone tissue repair. • The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with osteoblastic cells.

  18. [Preparation of sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material for bone repair and its biocompatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmei; He, Jiacai; Li, Quanli; Shen, Jijia

    2014-02-01

    To prepare sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material and to explore its feasibility as a bone repair material. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material was prepared using chemical cross-linking and freeze-drying technology. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and its porosity was measured by liquid displacement method. The fifth passage of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) were incubated on the composite material and then growth was observed by inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs were cultured with liquid extracts of the material, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to calculate the relative growth rate (RGR) on 1, 3, 5 d and to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Fresh dog blood was added into the liquid extracts to conduct hemolysis test, the spectrophotometer was used to determine the optical density (OD) and to calculate the hemolysis rate. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material displayed porosity, the porous pore rate was (88.6 +/- 4.5)%. BMSCs showed full stretching and vigorous growth under inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs cultured with liquid extracts of the material had good activities. The toxicity of composite material was graded as 1. Hemolysis test results showed that the hemolysis rate of the composite material was 1.28%, thus meeting the requirement of medical biomaterials. The composite material fabricated in this study has high porosity and good biocompatibility.

  19. Fresh-frozen bone: case series of a new grafting material for sinus lift and immediate implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Viscioni, A

    2010-08-01

    Although autologous bone is considered to be the gold standard grafting material, it needs to be harvested from patients, a process that can be off-putting and can lead to donor site morbidity. For this reason, homologous fresh-frozen bone (FFB) was used in the current study as an alternative graft material.

  20. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedrange, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions. PMID:27597965

  1. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunath, Franziska; Gedrange, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  2. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt, were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  3. Biomineralization of Engineered Spider Silk Protein-Based Composite Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Materials based on biodegradable polyesters, such as poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT or poly(butylene terephthalate-co-poly(alkylene glycol terephthalate (PBTAT, have potential application as pro-regenerative scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Herein, the preparation of films composed of PBT or PBTAT and an engineered spider silk protein, (eADF4(C16, that displays multiple carboxylic acid moieties capable of binding calcium ions and facilitating their biomineralization with calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate is reported. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on films mineralized with calcium phosphate show enhanced levels of alkaline phosphatase activity suggesting that such composites have potential use for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayron, Romain; Mathieu, Vincent; Haiat, Guillaume; Matsukawa, Mami; Tsubota, Ryo; Barthel, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey–Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization. (paper)

  5. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent

  6. Data analytics and parallel-coordinate materials property charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Jeffrey M.

    2018-01-01

    It is often advantageous to display material properties relationships in the form of charts that highlight important correlations and thereby enhance our understanding of materials behavior and facilitate materials selection. Unfortunately, in many cases, these correlations are highly multidimensional in nature, and one typically employs low-dimensional cross-sections of the property space to convey some aspects of these relationships. To overcome some of these difficulties, in this work we employ methods of data analytics in conjunction with a visualization strategy, known as parallel coordinates, to represent better multidimensional materials data and to extract useful relationships among properties. We illustrate the utility of this approach by the construction and systematic analysis of multidimensional materials properties charts for metallic and ceramic systems. These charts simplify the description of high-dimensional geometry, enable dimensional reduction and the identification of significant property correlations and underline distinctions among different materials classes.

  7. Dielectric properties of agricultural materials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Materials and Their Applications provides an understanding of the fundamental principles governing dielectric properties of materials, describes methods for measuring such properties, and discusses many applications explored for solving industry problems. The information in this reference stimulates new research for solving problems associated with production, handling, and processing of agricultural and food products. Anyone seeking a better understanding of dielectric properties of materials and application of radio-frequency and microwave electromagnetic energy for solution of problems in agriculture and related fields will find this an essential resource. Presents applications of dielectric properties for sensing moisture in grain and seed and the use of such properties in radio-frequency and microwave dielectric heating of agricultural materials Offers information for finding correlations between dielectric properties and quality attributes such as sweetness in melon...

  8. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  9. The effect of hydroxyapatite addition on the mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan biomaterials for bone scaffolds application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramahdita, Ghiska; Puspita, Debie Maya; Albab, Muh Fadhil; Alfata, Rowi; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman

    2018-02-01

    The increasing number of bone fracture incident in Indonesia from year to year needs an urgent problem solving of the limited bone substitute which can meet the necessary criteria for that purpose. Motivated by this, therefore, the current study is focusing on the optimization of material properties used as bone scaffold. A biomaterial of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite was successfully made by wet chemistry method, followed by freeze thawing and freeze drying. For comparison purposes, the percentage of HA has been varied from 0, 25 and 40 % (wt/v). The resulting composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, and swelling behavior. The results showed that the addition of HA up to 40% (wt/v) has yielded a porous structure with an average pore size of 42.39 µm. In addition, the compressive modulus was enhanced from 14 MPa for 0% HA to 143, and 191 MPa for composites with the addition of HA from 25 to 40% (wt/v). The addition of HA has also reduced the swelling ratio from 296% for the sample without HA to 85 and 78 % for sample with addition of HA from 25 to 40 (wt/v), respectively. The obtained results show that PVA/chitosan-HA in this study is potential to be used as scaffold in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Novel cerium doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite with antibacterial and osteoconductive properties for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, D S; Fernandes, S; Santos, J D; Lopes, M A; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Sampaio, P; Ferraz, M P; Sooraj Hussain, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a bioactive bone substitute with an effective antibacterial ability based on a cerium (Ce) doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (GR-HA) composite. Developed composites were physicochemically characterized, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and flexural bending strength (FBS) tests. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was performed to analyze the oxidation state of Ce in the prepared doped glass. The antimicrobial activity of the composites was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; whether the cytocompatibility profile was assayed with human osteoblastic-like cells (Mg-63 cell line). The results revealed that the Ce inclusion in the GR-HA matrix induced the antimicrobial ability of the composite. In addition, Ce-doped materials reported an adequate biological behavior following seeding of osteoblastic populations, by inducing cell adhesion and proliferation. Developed materials were also found to enhance the expression of osteoblastic-related genes. Overall, the developed GR-HA-Ce composite is a prospective candidate to be used within the clinical scenario with a successful performance due to the effective antibacterial properties and capability of enhancing the osteoblastic cell response. (paper)

  11. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  12. Optimization of Sample Preparation processes of Bone Material for Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhani, Madelen; Wuhrer, Richard; Green, Hayley

    2018-03-30

    Raman spectroscopy has recently been investigated for use in the calculation of postmortem interval from skeletal material. The fluorescence generated by samples, which affects the interpretation of Raman data, is a major limitation. This study compares the effectiveness of two sample preparation techniques, chemical bleaching and scraping, in the reduction of fluorescence from bone samples during testing with Raman spectroscopy. Visual assessment of Raman spectra obtained at 1064 nm excitation following the preparation protocols indicates an overall reduction in fluorescence. Results demonstrate that scraping is more effective at resolving fluorescence than chemical bleaching. The scraping of skeletonized remains prior to Raman analysis is a less destructive method and allows for the preservation of a bone sample in a state closest to its original form, which is beneficial in forensic investigations. It is recommended that bone scraping supersedes chemical bleaching as the preferred method for sample preparation prior to Raman spectroscopy. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Marker for the pre-clinical development of bone substitute materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wild Michael

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin mechanically stable Ti-cages have been developed for the in-vivo application as X-ray and histology markers for the optimized evaluation of pre-clinical performance of bone graft materials. A metallic frame defines the region of interest during histological investigations and supports the identification of the defect site. This standardization of the procedure enhances the quality of pre-clinical experiments. Different models of thin metallic frameworks were designed and produced out of titanium by additive manufacturing (Selective Laser Melting. The productibility, the mechanical stability, the handling and suitability of several frame geometries were tested during surgery in artificial and in ex-vivo bone before a series of cages was preclinically investigated in the female Göttingen minipigs model. With our novel approach, a flexible process was established that can be adapted to the requirements of any specific animal model and bone graft testing.

  14. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  15. Age- and gender-related distribution of bone mineral density and mechanical properties of the proximal humerus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, H.; Hepp, P.; Korner, J.; Josten, C.; Gowin, W.; Oestmann, J.W.; Haas, N.P.; Duda, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate age- and gender-related mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus at different levels and regions. Materials and methods: Mechanical indentation testing, DXA, QCT, pQCT and the radiogrammetry (Cortical Index, CI) were carried out in 70 freshly harvested humeri from 46 human cadavers (23 females, 23-males; median age 70.5 years). Results: In the female group, a high correlation between age and BMD was found (ρ=0.62 to -0.70, p [de

  16. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material [1]. It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral [3], [14]. These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone [13], similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that

  17. Dietary phosphorus concentrations related to breaking load and chemical bone properties in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S N; Lawrence, L A; McDowell, L R; Warnick, A C; Wilkinson, N S

    1990-04-01

    Effects of dietary P on breaking load and chemical properties of bone were evaluated in growing beef heifers. Initially, 14 weaned Angus heifers received ad libitum a low P diet (.10% P dry basis) for 270 d. Heifers were subsequently randomly allotted into two groups (7 heifers/group) and received ad libitum either .12 or .20% P (dry basis). The experimental endpoint was 245 d of the treatment phase for nonpregnant and 3 wk postpartum for pregnant heifers. Results indicate that chemical and physical properties of bovine bones are sensitive to dietary P. Mineralization of rib bones was less at .12% P (dry basis). Rib bone density (g/cm3) and mineral content expressed on a per unit volume basis (mg/cm3) were the most sensitive parameters measured. Breaking load results of 12th ribs also indicated a greater amount of mineral present in heifers receiving .20% P (153.8 vs. 114.3 kg). Vertebral bone density and mineral concentrations on a per unit volume basis were also sensitive to dietary P and clearly ranked the two dietary P amounts, whereas percentage of bone ash or mineral concentration expressed on an ash basis did not.

  18. Physical and chemical properties of fish and chicken bones as calcium source for mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of two bones of two species of fish, hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae and giant seaperch (Lates calcarifer Bloch., were compared with chicken bone to evaluate their composition for use as natural calcium supplement. The information could be useful for waste utilization in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Physical testing and chemical analyses were performed according to the USP 24 and BP 1998 standards under calcium carbonate monograph. Loss on drying found in hoki, giant seaperch and chicken bones was 12.4, 11.3 and 5.9 % w/w, calculated on dried basis, respectively. Total calcium determined by complexometric titration was 31.8, 28.1 and 32.2% w/w in hoki, giant seaperch and chicken bones, respectively. All samples contained carbonate and phosphate anion residues but gluconate, acetate and citrate were absent. The presence of calcium carbonate was confirmed by thermogravimetry. Results from all bones showed that limit tests for heavy metals, arsenic and iron complied with the USP standard, whereas barium, chloride and sulfate conformed to the BP standard. The magnesium and alkali metals in giant seaperch bone were within the BP limit (1.5%, but those of hoki and chicken bone exceeded the limit.

  19. The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and modified atmosphere on quality changes of dried apricot is shown in this paper. In our investigation, we used four different characteristic combinations of packaging materials with different barrier properties for packaging of dried apricot: ...

  20. Operculum bone carp (cyprinus carprio sp.) scaffold is a new potential xenograft material: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiwa, A.; Abbas, B.; Pandansari, P.; Prahasta, A.; Nandini, M.; Fadhlillah, M.; Subroto, T.; Panigoro, R.

    2017-02-01

    Orbital floor fracture with extensive bone loss, would cause herniation of the orbital tissue into the maxillary sinus. Graft implantation should be done on the orbital fracture with extensive bone loss. Different types of grafts have their own characteristics and advantages. Xenograft has been widely studied for use in bone defects. This study was to investigate cyprinus carprio sp. opercula bone as a potential xenograft. The aim of this study was to investigate based on EDS chemical analysis using a ZAF Standardless Method of Quantitative Analysis (Oxide) and SEM examination conducted in the laboratory of Mathematics, Institute of Technology Bandung. Particularly the mass ratio of Ca and P (5.8/3:47), the result is 1.67. This is equivalent to the stoichiometric Hydroxyapatite (HA) (Aoki H, 1991, Science and medical applications of hydroxyapatite, Tokyo: Institute for Medical and Engineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University). C N O that there is an element of protein/amino acid collagen compound, serves as a matrix together with HA. As shown in the SEM analysis that the matrix is a porous sheet-shaped (oval) that interconnect with each other, which is good scaffold. The pore is composed of large pores >200 microns and smaller pores between the large pores with a size smaller or equal to 10 microns that can serve for the attachment of osteoblast cell. In conclusion, Opercula bone carp (cyprinus carprio sp.) scaffold could be a new potential xenograft material.

  1. Evaluation of Three Bone Substitute Materials in the Treatment of Experimentally Induced Defects in Rabbit Calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paknejad

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the quality, density and thickness of newly formed bone in experimental defects treated with Combi-Pack®, Bio-Oss® and Biostite®.Materials and Methods: Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized,blinded study. Four equal 3×6 mm bone defects were created on the frontal and parietal bones of each animal and three were immediately grafted with Bio-Oss®, Combi-Pack® and Biostite® while one was left untreated, serving as negative control. Histologic and histomorphometric analysis was performed four weeks after surgery.Results: Histomorphometric bone area and trabecular maturity was significantly higher in the Bio-Oss® and Combi-Pack® samples as compared to the Biostite® and control cases.The amount of remaining biomaterial was almost equal in the three experimental groups at the end of the study period. Neither foreign body reaction nor severe inflammation was seen in any of the specimens except for the Biostite® samples.Conclusion: It may be suggested that implantation of Bio-Oss® particles and Combi-Pack® blocks can promote bone regeneration more effectively than Biostite®.

  2. Material properties and purity of C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.; Bublak, D.; Goebel, U.; Henschke, B.; Bensch, W.; Schloegl, R.

    1992-01-01

    The fullerenes can be described as molecular analogues of activated charcoal with a large inner surface. Accordingly, in the solid state, C 60 adsorbs organic molecules and oxygen from the air. The conditions of the production, purification, and storage therefore dictate the electronic and dynamic properties of the van der Waals crystals. Obtaining fullerene samples with defined and reproducible properties is more difficult than previously thought. (orig.) [de

  3. Modulation of Host Osseointegration during Bone Regeneration by Controlling Exogenous Stem Cells Differentiation Using a Material Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping; Xia, Zengmin; Chen, Li; Jiang, Xi; Rowe, David; Wei, Mei

    2014-02-01

    Stem cell-based tissue engineering for large bone defect healing has attracted enormous attention in regenerative medicine. However, sufficient osseointegration of the grafts combined with exogenous stem cells still remains a major challenge. Here we developed a material approach to modulate the integration of the grafts to the host tissue when exogenous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used as donor cells. Distinctive osseointegration of bone grafts was observed as we varied the content of hydroxyapatite (HA) in the tissue scaffolds implanted in a mouse femur model. More than 80% of new bone was formed in the first two weeks of implantation in high HA content scaffold but lack of host integration while only less than 5% of the new bone was formed during this time period in the no HA group but with much stronger host integration. Cell origin analysis leveraging GFP reporter indicates new bone in HA containing groups was mainly derived from donor BMSCs. In comparison, both host and donor cells were found on new bone surface in the no HA groups which led to seamless bridging between host tissue and the scaffold. Most importantly, host integration during bone formation is closely dictated to the content of HA present in the scaffolds. Taken together, we demonstrate a material approach to modulate the osseointegration of bone grafts in the context of exogenous stem cell-based bone healing strategy which might lead to fully functional bone tissue regeneration.

  4. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N H; Bay, N; Grivel, J C [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  5. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T c superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB 2 , CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  6. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  7. Diffuse scattering and the fundamental properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    EIce, Gene; Barabash, Rozaliya

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse Scattering-the use of off-specular X-Rays and neutrons from surfaces and interfaces-has grown rapidly as a tool for characterizing the surface properties of materials and related fundamental structural properties. It has proven to be especially useful in the understanding of local properties within materials. This book reflects the efforts of physicists and materials scientists around the world who have helped to refine the techniques and applications of diffuse scattering. Major topics specifically covered include: -- Scattering in Low Dimensions -- Elastic and Thermal Diffuse Scattering from Alloys -- Scattering from Complex and Disordered Materials -- Scattering from Distorted Crystals.

  8. Quasi-static and ratcheting properties of trabecular bone under uniaxial and cyclic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Lan; Wei, Chao-Lei; Zhang, Chun-Qiu; Gao, Hong; Yang, Nan; Dong, Li-Min

    2017-08-01

    The quasi-static and ratcheting properties of trabecular bone were investigated by experiments and theoretical predictions. The creep tests with different stress levels were completed and it is found that both the creep strain and creep compliance increase rapidly at first and then increase slowly as the creep time goes by. With increase of compressive stress the creep strain increases and the creep compliance decreases. The uniaxial compressive tests show that the applied stress rate makes remarkable influence on the compressive behaviors of trabecular bone. The Young's modulus of trabecular bone increases with increase of stress rate. The stress-strain hysteresis loops of trabecular bone under cyclic load change from sparse to dense with increase of number of cycles, which agrees with the change trend of ratcheting strain. The ratcheting strain rate rapidly decreases at first, and then exhibits a relatively stable and small value after 50cycles. Both the ratcheting strain and ratcheting strain rate increase with increase of stress amplitude or with decrease of stress rate. The creep model and the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model of trabecular bone were proposed and used to predict its creep property and rate-dependent compressive property. The results show that there are good agreements between the experimental data and predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr, E-mail: gryshkov@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Klyui, Nickolai I., E-mail: klyuini@ukr.net [College of Physics, Jilin University, 130012 Changchun (China); V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Temchenko, Volodymyr P., E-mail: tvp@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kyselov, Vitalii S., E-mail: kyselov@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Chatterjee, Anamika, E-mail: chatterjee@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Belyaev, Alexander E., E-mail: belyaev@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Lauterboeck, Lothar, E-mail: lauterboeck@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Iarmolenko, Dmytro, E-mail: iarmolenko.dmytro@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Glasmacher, Birgit, E-mail: glasmacher@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO{sub 2}) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO{sub 2} using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO{sub 2} to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO{sub 2} coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO{sub 2} coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from wood • Successful deposition of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using gas detonation deposition • Porosity and pore size of Si

  10. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I.; Temchenko, Volodymyr P.; Kyselov, Vitalii S.; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E.; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO 2 ) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO 2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO 2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO 2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO 2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from wood • Successful deposition of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using gas detonation deposition • Porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on wood

  11. [Mastoid obliteration with a highly porous bone grafting material in combination with cartilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, C; Goetz, W; Just, T; Pau, H-W

    2012-09-01

    An open mastoid cavity might lead to various problems for the patient. Chronic inflammation of the cavity with secretion, changes in the acoustic behavior, vertigo in restricted situations and an impaired self-cleaning function might affect the patient. For surgical treatment reducing of the size of such cavities have been described. Besides autologous materials such as hydroxyapatite or alloplastic substances as tricalcium phosphate have been previously used. A very slow resorption of these materials with rejection has been described. The new ceramic NanoBone® was fabricated in a sol-gel process at 700 °C depositing unsintered hydroxylapatite in a SiO2 structure. This method provides a nano/microstructure of high porosity of the resulting matrix. 20 patients were reexamined after an average of 2 years and 5 months after obliteration of the open mastoid cavity with NanoBone®. We compared pre- and postoperative findings in terms of otorrhea, frequency of medical consultation, vertigo and otoscopic findings. In 5 patients, in addition, a postoperative CT scan of the temporal bones was used for evaluation of osteoinduction and osteointegration. After obliteration of the open mastoid cavity with NanoBone ® we observed an uneventfully healing. After surgery we achieved a reduction of vertigo, otorrhea and frequency of medical consultations for the single patient. The obliteration of an open mastoid cavity with NanoBone ® is a safe alternative method relative to the surgical techniques with autologous materials. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Human Studies of Vertical and Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Comparing Different Types of Bone Graft Materials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Suraj; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). Currently, autogenous bone is labeled as the "gold standard" because of faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. No systematic review has currently determined whether there is a difference in implant success between various bone augmentation materials. The purpose of this article was to systematically review comparative human studies of vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation comparing different types of bone graft materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). A MEDLINE search was conducted under the 3 search concepts of bone augmentation, dental implants, and alveolar ridge augmentation. Studies pertaining to socket grafts or sinus lifts were excluded. Case reports, small case series, and review papers were excluded. A bias assessment tool was applied to the final articles. Overall, 219 articles resulted from the initial search, and 9 articles were included for final analysis. There were no discernible differences in implant success between bone augmentation materials. Generally, patients preferred nonautogenous bone sources as there were fewer hospital days, less pain, and better recovery time. Two articles had industrial support; however, conclusions of whether that support influenced the outcomes could not be determined. Future comparative studies should compare nonautogenous bone sources and have longer follow-up times.

  13. Dielectric properties of materials at microwave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Křivánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the review of the present state of art in the measurement of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with different kinds of materials. It is analysis of the possibilities of the mea­surement of the interaction of high frequencies waves (microwaves with materials and proposal of the experimental method for the studies mentioned above.The electromagnetic field consists of two components: electric and magnetic field. The influence of these components on materials is different. The influence of the magnetic field is negligible and it has no impact on practical use. The influence of the electric field is strong as the interaction between them results in the creation of electric currents in the material (Křivánek and Buchar, 1993.Experiments focused on the evaluation of the complex dielectric permitivity of different materials have been performed. The permitivity of solid material is also measurable by phasemethod, when the specimen is a part of transmission sub-circuit. Microwave instrument for complex permittivity measurement works in X frequency band (8.2–12.5 GHz, the frequency 10.1 GHz was used for all the measurement in the laboratory of physics, Mendel University in Brno. The extensive number of experimental data have been obtained for different materials. The length of the square side of the ae­rial open end was 50 mm and internal dimensions of waveguides were 23 mm × 10 mm. The samples have form of the plate shape with dimensions 150 mm × 150 mm × 4 mm.

  14. Types and properties of elastomer materials used in CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Ho Sik; Jeong, Jin Kon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Properties and kinds of elastomer materials used in a CANDU power plant have been described. The elastomer materials have been used as a sealing material in the components f nuclear power plant since they have many excellent properties that can not be seen in other materials. It is very important to select proper elastomer materials used in the nuclear power plant are required to have resistance to temperature as well as radiation. According to the experimental results performed at some laboratories including the Chalk River Laboratory of AECL, elastomer materials with high resistance to temperature and radiation are Nitrile, Ethylene, Propylene and Butyl. These materials have been used in a lot of components of Wolsong unit 1 and Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 which are under elastomer material. Therefore, the studies on the standardization are currently under way to limit about 10 different kinds of elastomer materials to be used in the plant. 16 tabs., 1 fig., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  15. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending...... and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group....... Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between...

  16. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...... by glucocorticoid treatment and the changes in properties of cancellous bone were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term glucocorticoid treatment. However, the influence on cortical bone has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid on sheep...

  17. Pulsed electromagnetic fields preserve bone architecture and mechanical properties and stimulate porous implant osseointegration by promoting bone anabolism in type 1 diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J; Li, W; Sun, T; Li, X; Luo, E; Jing, D

    2018-05-01

    The effects of exogenous pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on T1DM-associated osteopathy were investigated in alloxan-treated rabbits. We found that PEMF improved bone architecture, mechanical properties, and porous titanium (pTi) osseointegration by promoting bone anabolism through a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism, and revealed the clinical potential of PEMF stimulation for the treatment of T1DM-associated bone complications. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with deteriorated bone architecture and impaired osseous healing potential; nonetheless, effective methods for resisting T1DM-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and promoting bone defect/fracture healing are still lacking. PEMF, as a safe and noninvasive method, have proven to be effective for promoting osteogenesis, whereas the potential effects of PEMF on T1DM osteopathy remain poorly understood. We herein investigated the effects of PEMF stimulation on bone architecture, mechanical properties, bone turnover, and its potential molecular mechanisms in alloxan-treated diabetic rabbits. We also developed novel nontoxic Ti2448 pTi implants with closer elastic modulus with natural bone and investigated the impacts of PEMF on pTi osseointegration for T1DM bone-defect repair. The deteriorations of cancellous and cortical bone architecture and tissue-level mechanical strength were attenuated by 8-week PEMF stimulation. PEMF also promoted osseointegration and stimulated more adequate bone ingrowths into the pore spaces of pTi in T1DM long-bone defects. Moreover, T1DM-associated reduction of bone formation was significantly attenuated by PEMF, whereas PEMF exerted no impacts on bone resorption. We also found PEMF-induced activation of osteoblastogenesis-related Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T1DM skeletons, but PEMF did not alter osteoclastogenesis-associated RANKL/RANK signaling gene expression. We reveal that PEMF improved bone architecture, mechanical properties, and

  18. Mechanical properties of structural materials in HLM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisa, A. E.; Valeca, S.; Pitigoi, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Generation IV nuclear systems are nowadays in the design stage, and this is one of the reasons of testing stage for candidate materials. The purpose of this paper is to present the tensile tests, for candidate materials. The studied test are: on temperature of 500°C in air, on mechanical testing machine Walter + Bie by using the furnace of the testing machine, and environmental molten lead using testing machine Instron, equipped with a lead testing device attached to it. Also the mechanical parameters will be determined on tensile strength and yield strength for steel 316L material to be used as candidate in achieving LFR reactor vessel type, and the microstructural analysis of surface breaking will be performed by electronic microscopy. The paper will present the main components, the operating procedure of the testing system, and the results of tensile tests in molten lead. (authors)

  19. Study of material properties using channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, R.H.; Kephart, J.O.; Klein, R.K.; Park, H.; Berman, B.L.; Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    A possible application for channeling radiation is for investigating the properties of crystals in which the channeling occurs. In this paper we present some general considerations concerning channeling radiation as a measurement technique, and then we proceed to describe several specific examples

  20. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    /gas adsorption properties of synthetic calcium carbonate phases (calcite, vaterite and aragonite) with chalk, which is composed of biogenic calcite (>98%). In combination with data from nanotechniques, the results demonstrate the complexity of chalk behavior and the role of nanoscale clay particles. The results...

  1. Handbook of the Properties of Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    EFFECTIVE MASS - - MOBILITY - - A-2 ARSEWIC SELENIOE (As2 Se3 ) OPTICAL PROPERTIES TRANSMISSION RANGE: 9 - 11n Optical Absorption Coefficient = 0.079...of 55 KRS-5 as a function of wavelength. A-2120 ZINC SELENIOE ZnSe 0 STRUCTURE CRYSTALLINE SYMMETRY = Cubic, 43m LATTICE CONSTANTS (A) = a = 5.667

  2. Material, compressional and mechanical properties of Borassus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compressional and mechanical properties of tablet formulations incorporating native and modified Borassus aethiopum starches as binder were evaluated. The native Borassus aethiopum starch (BAS) was modified to yield fully gelatinised starch (FGBAS) and microcrystalline starch (MBAS). The compressional ...

  3. Tissue-Level Mechanical Properties of Bone Contributing to Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Granke, Mathilde; Singleton, Robert C; Pharr, George M

    2016-08-01

    Tissue-level mechanical properties characterize mechanical behavior independently of microscopic porosity. Specifically, quasi-static nanoindentation provides measurements of modulus (stiffness) and hardness (resistance to yielding) of tissue at the length scale of the lamella, while dynamic nanoindentation assesses time-dependent behavior in the form of storage modulus (stiffness), loss modulus (dampening), and loss factor (ratio of the two). While these properties are useful in establishing how a gene, signaling pathway, or disease of interest affects bone tissue, they generally do not vary with aging after skeletal maturation or with osteoporosis. Heterogeneity in tissue-level mechanical properties or in compositional properties may contribute to fracture risk, but a consensus on whether the contribution is negative or positive has not emerged. In vivo indentation of bone tissue is now possible, and the mechanical resistance to microindentation has the potential for improving fracture risk assessment, though determinants are currently unknown.

  4. The role of an effective isotropic tissue modulus in the elastic properties of cancellous bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, J.; Rietbergen, van B.; Dalstra, M.; Odgaard, A.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Conceptually, the elastic characteristics of cancellous bone could be predicted directly from the trabecular morphology-or architecture-and by the elastic properties of the tissue itself. Although hardly any experimental evidence exists, it is often implicitly assumed that tissue anisotropy has a

  5. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Material properties under intensive dynamic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cherne, Frank J; Zhernokletov, Mikhail V; Glushak, B L; Zocher, Marvin A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the physical and thermomechanical response of materials subjected to intensive dynamic loading is a challenge of great significance in engineering today. This volume assumes the task of gathering both experimental and diagnostic methods in one place, since not much information has been previously disseminated in the scientific literature.

  7. Study of the toughening mechanisms in bone and biomimetic hydroxyapatite materials using Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Sakakura, Seiji

    2003-05-01

    A Raman microprobe spectroscopy characterization of microscopic fracture mechanisms is presented for a natural hydroxyapatite material (cortical bovine femur) and two synthetic hydroxyapatite-based materials with biomimetic structures-a hydroxyapatite skeleton interpenetrated with a metallic (silver) or a polymeric (nylon-6) phase. In both the natural and synthetic materials, a conspicuous amount of toughening arose from a microscopic crack-bridging mechanism operated by elasto-plastic stretching of unbroken second-phase ligaments along the crack wake. This mechanism led to a rising R-curve behavior. An additional micromechanism, responsible for stress relaxation at the crack tip, was recognized in the natural bone material and was partly mimicked in the hydroxyapatite/silver composite. This crack-tip mechanism conspicuously enhanced the cortical bone material resistance to fracture initiation. A piezo-spectroscopic technique, based on a microprobe measurement of 980 cm(-1) Raman line of hydroxyapatite, enabled us to quantitatively assess in situ the microscopic stress fields developed during fracture both at the crack tip and along the crack wake. Using the Raman piezo-spectroscopy technique, toughening mechanisms were assessed quantitatively and rationally related to the macroscopic fracture characteristics of hydroxyapatite-based materials. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relleno de cavidades óseas en cirugía maxilofacial con materiales autólogos Bone cavity augmentation in maxillofacial surgery using autologous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Infante-Cossío

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Aunque se han descrito numerosos materiales para rellenar una cavidad ósea, el mejor material sigue siendo el hueso autólogo corticoesponjoso o particulado, que puede formar hueso nuevo por mecanismos de osteogénesis, osteinducción y osteoconducción. El cirujano oral y maxilofacial debe conocer las propiedades biológicas y las características fundamentales de los materiales autólogos, las diferentes técnicas de obtención y sus aplicaciones clínicas. Como zonas donantes se emplean preferentemente las intraorales, el filtro de hueso y los raspadores para pequeños defectos, y el hueso ilíaco, tibia o calota cuando se requiere más cantidad. No existen estudios concluyentes respecto a la asociación de injertos óseos con membranas. La combinación de injertos autólogos con otros materiales de relleno, ha desembocado en múltiples estudios, sin que se puedan establecer conclusiones definitivas por el momento. El hueso autólogo es de elección para el relleno de cavidades óseas, ya que es útil para dar solución a variadas situaciones clínicas de forma simple, rápida y segura.Although a large number of materials have been described for augmenting bone cavities, the best material is still autologous cortical-cancellous bone or bone chip, which can form new bone through osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduct ion mechanisms. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon needs to be familiar with the biological properties and the fundamental characteristics of autologous material, the different techniques for obtaining it and its clinical application. Donor sites should preferably be intraoral. Bone filters and scrapers should be used for small defects, and the iliac, tibial or calvaria bones [should be used] when more quantity is required. There are no conclusive studies with regard to combining bone grafts with membranes. The combination of autologous grafts with other augmentation material has led to multiple studies, although

  9. Broadband optical characterization of material properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann

    the applicability of optical techniques for this purpose, the fermentation of milk into yogurt has been used as a model system. Studies have been conducted on commercially available products, but also of on-line measurement of the fermentation process. The second process is from the aquaculture industry...... reports on the design and operation of the different measurement techniques together with the necessary theoretical background for the industrial applications. For the purpose of milk fermentation this work has demonstrated that the reduced scattering properties of milk change significantly throughout...... the fermentation process. It has also been shown that the optical inspection methods sense changes to structural properties before any are detected by traditional mechanical rheology. Finally, the developed hyperspectral imaging system was used to quantify the content of astaxanthin in fish feed, and performed...

  10. Thermal and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites, Including Material Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochetov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is part of a state-funded IOP-EMVT project in cooperation with industrial companies, aiming at the design, assessment and implementation of new, environmental friendly (e.g. oil and SF6 - free) solid dielectric materials. A large disadvantage of solid polymer

  11. Collagen and mineral deposition in rabbit cortical bone during maturation and growth: effects on tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Harjula, Terhi; Koistinen, Arto; Iivarinen, Jarkko; Seppänen, Kari; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J

    2010-12-01

    We characterized the composition and mechanical properties of cortical bone during maturation and growth and in adult life in the rabbit. We hypothesized that the collagen network develops earlier than the mineralized matrix. Growth was monitored, and the rabbits were euthanized at birth (newborn), and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18 months of age. The collagen network was assessed biochemically (collagen content, enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-links) in specimens from the mid-diaphysis of the tibia and femur and biomechanically (tensile testing) from decalcified whole tibia specimens. The mineralized matrix was analyzed using pQCT and 3-point bend tests from intact femur specimens. The collagen content and the Young's modulus of the collagen matrix increased significantly until the rabbits were 3 months old, and thereafter remained stable. The amount of HP and LP collagen cross-links increased continuously from newborn to 18 months of age, whereas PEN cross-links increased after 6 months of age. Bone mineral density and the Young's modulus of the mineralized bone increased until the rabbits were at least 6 months old. We concluded that substantial changes take place during the normal process of development in both the biochemical and biomechanical properties of rabbit cortical bone. In cortical bone, the collagen network reaches its mature composition and mechanical strength prior to the mineralized matrix. © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation on Bending Properties of Biomaterial GUM Metal Meshed Plates for Bone Graft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; He, Jianmei

    2017-11-01

    There are three bone graft methods for bone defects caused by diseases such as cancer and accident injuries: Autogenous bone grafts, Allografts and Artificial bone grafts. In this study, meshed GUM Metal plates with lower elasticity, high strength and high biocompatibility are introduced to solve the over stiffness & weight problems of ready-used metal implants. Basic mesh shapes are designed and applied to GUM Metal plates using 3D CAD modeling tools. Bending properties of prototype meshed GUM Metal plates are evaluated experimentally and analytically. Meshed plate specimens with 180°, 120° and 60° axis-symmetrical types were fabricated for 3-point bending tests. The pseudo bending elastic moduli of meshed plate specimens obtained from 3-point bending test are ranged from 4.22 GPa to 16.07 GPa, within the elasticity range of natural cortical bones from 2.0 GPa to 30.0 GPa. Analytical approach method is validated by comparison with experimental and analytical results for evaluation on bending property of meshed plates.

  13. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , and the electrochemical reactions take place at elevated temperatures from 300 and up to 1000 C. This has as consequence that the region around the threephase- boundary (TPB), where the electron conducting electrode, the electrolyte and the gas phase reactants meet, is the region where the electrochemical processes take...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  14. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be quantified and compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics plays...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and their format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures....

  16. Probabilistic Modelling of Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2001-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for grading of timber in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics play an important role...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and the format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures...

  17. IMAP: Interferometry for Material Property Measurement in MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.D.; Miller, S.L.; de Boer, M.P.

    1999-03-10

    An interferometric technique has been developed for non-destructive, high-confidence, in-situ determination of material properties in MEMS. By using interferometry to measure the full deflection curves of beams pulled toward the substrate under electrostatic loads, the actual behavior of the beams has been modeled. No other method for determining material properties allows such detailed knowledge of device behavior to be gathered. Values for material properties and non-idealities (such as support post compliance) have then been extracted which minimize the error between the measured and modeled deflections. High accuracy and resolution have been demonstrated, allowing the measurements to be used to enhance process control.

  18. Size-Dependent Materials Properties Toward a Universal Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisbiers G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the lack of experimental values concerning some material properties at the nanoscale, it is interesting to evaluate this theoretically. Through a “top–down” approach, a universal equation is developed here which is particularly helpful when experiments are difficult to lead on a specific material property. It only requires the knowledge of the surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial, its size as well as the statistic (Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein followed by the particles involved in the considered material property. Comparison between different existing theoretical models and the proposed equation is done.

  19. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  20. Semiconductor properties of solid combustible materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrushev, S G; Kamneva, A I; Galaktionov, S S; Aleksandrov, I V

    1980-01-01

    The photoelectric e.m.f. with p-type conductivity and the photodielectric effect were examined in specimens of a number of coals and coal microcomponents. These effects are largest in hard coal fusinite. Photosensitive materials show increased dielectric losses in the dark. The authors determined charge carrier mobility, and showed that the charge carriers are injected by oxygen in the presence of an electrolyte, and that the coals oxidise as in electrochemical corrosion.

  1. Microstructural properties of trabecular bone autografts: comparison of men and women with and without osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fen; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Tang; Wu, Xiyu; Fang, Rui; Kang, Yijun; Dai, Ruchun

    2018-03-05

    The microstructure of autologous bone grafts from men over 50 years old and postmenopausal women undergoing spinal fusion were evaluated using micro-CT. We demonstrated postmenopausal women, especially those with osteoporosis (OP) presented more serious microarchitectural deterioration of bone grafts. This study was undertaken to determine microstructural properties of cancellous bone used as autologous bone grafts from osteoporosis patients undergoing lumbar fusion by comparing microstructural indices to controls. Cancellous bone specimens from spinous processes were obtained from 41 postmenopausal women (osteoporosis women, n = 19; controls, n = 22) and 26 men over 50 years old (osteoporosis men, n = 8; controls, n = 18) during lumbar fusion surgery. The microstructural parameters were measured using micro-CT. Significant difference in bone volume fraction (BV/TV), specific bone surface (BS/BV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and structure model index (SMI) value existed between postmenopausal women with OP and controls. Significant difference in trabecular number (Tb.N) existed between men over 50 years old with OP and controls. Postmenopausal women exhibited lower BV/TV, Tb.Th, and higher SMI value than men over 50 years old. Postmenopausal women with OP exhibited lower BV/TV, Tb.Th, and higher BS/BV than men over 50 years old with OP. Post-menopausal women and older men with OP have worse bone quality in autografts than non-osteoporotic men and women. Postmenopausal women with OP presented serious microarchitectural deterioration in older population.

  2. Comparative study on inorganic composition and crystallographic properties of cortical and cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zuo, Yi; Huang, Di; Hou, Xian-Deng; Li, Yu-Bao

    2010-12-01

    To comparatively investigate the inorganic composition and crystallographic properties of cortical and cancellous bone via thermal treatment under 700 °C. Thermogravimetric measurement, infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and X-ray photo-electron spectrometer were used to test the physical and chemical properties of cortical and cancellous bone at room temperature 250 °C, 450 °C, and 650 °C, respectively. The process of heat treatment induced an extension in the a-lattice parameter and changes of the c-lattice parameter, and an increase in the crystallinity reflecting lattice rearrangement after release of lattice carbonate and possible lattice water. The mineral content in cortical and cancellous bone was 73.2wt% and 71.5wt%, respectively. For cortical bone, the weight loss was 6.7% at the temperature from 60 °C to 250 °C, 17.4% from 250 °C to 450 °C, and 2.7% from 450 °C to 700 °C. While the weight loss for the cancellous bone was 5.8%, 19.9%, and 2.8 % at each temperature range, the Ca/P ratio of cortical bone was 1.69 which is higher than the 1.67 of stoichiometric HA due to the B-type CO₃²⁻ substitution in apatite lattice. The Ca/P ratio of cancellous bone was lower than 1.67, suggesting the presence of more calcium deficient apatite. The collagen fibers of cortical bone were arrayed more orderly than those of cancellous bone, while their mineralized fibers ollkded similar. The minerals in both cortical and cancellous bone are composed of poorly crystallized nano-size apatite crystals with lattice carbonate and possible lattice water. The process of heat treatment induces a change of the lattice parameter, resulting in lattice rearrangement after the release of lattice carbonate and lattice water and causing an increase in crystal size and crystallinity. This finding is helpful for future biomaterial design, preparation and application. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences

  3. Long-term leisure time physical activity and properties of bone: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongqiang; Leskinen, Tuija; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin; Sipilä, Sarianna; Heinonen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Suominen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of physical activity on bone properties, when controlled for genetic effects, are not fully understood. We aimed to study the association between long-term leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and bone properties using twin pairs known to be discordant for leisure time physical activity for at least 30 yr. Volumetric BMD and geometric properties were measured at the tibia shaft and distal end using pQCT in 16 middle-aged (50-74 yr) same-sex twin pairs (seven monozygotic [MZ] and nine dizygotic [DZ] pairs) selected from a population-based cohort. Paired differences between active and inactive co-twins were studied. Active members of MZ twin pairs had larger cortical bone cross-sectional area (intrapair difference: 8%, p = 0.006), thicker cortex (12%, p = 0.003), and greater moment of inertia (I(max), 20%, p = 0.024) at the tibia shaft than their inactive co-twins. At the distal tibia, trabecular BMD (12%, p = 0.050) and compressive strength index (18%, p = 0.038) were also higher in physically active MZ pair members than their inactive co-twins. The trends were similar, but less consistently so, in DZ pairs as in MZ pairs. Our genetically controlled study design shows that LTPA during adulthood strengthens bones in a site-specific manner, that is, the long bone shaft has a thicker cortex, and thus higher bending strength, whereas the distal bone has higher trabecular density and compressive strength. These results suggest that LTPA has a potential causal role in decreasing the long-term risk of osteoporosis and thus preventing osteoporotic fractures.

  4. Influence of mesh density, cortical thickness and material properties on human rib fracture prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoping; Kindig, Matthew W; Subit, Damien; Kent, Richard W

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the sensitivity of the structural responses and bone fractures of the ribs to mesh density, cortical thickness, and material properties so as to provide guidelines for the development of finite element (FE) thorax models used in impact biomechanics. Subject-specific FE models of the second, fourth, sixth and tenth ribs were developed to reproduce dynamic failure experiments. Sensitivity studies were then conducted to quantify the effects of variations in mesh density, cortical thickness, and material parameters on the model-predicted reaction force-displacement relationship, cortical strains, and bone fracture locations for all four ribs. Overall, it was demonstrated that rib FE models consisting of 2000-3000 trabecular hexahedral elements (weighted element length 2-3mm) and associated quadrilateral cortical shell elements with variable thickness more closely predicted the rib structural responses and bone fracture force-failure displacement relationships observed in the experiments (except the fracture locations), compared to models with constant cortical thickness. Further increases in mesh density increased computational cost but did not markedly improve model predictions. A ±30% change in the major material parameters of cortical bone lead to a -16.7 to 33.3% change in fracture displacement and -22.5 to +19.1% change in the fracture force. The results in this study suggest that human rib structural responses can be modeled in an accurate and computationally efficient way using (a) a coarse mesh of 2000-3000 solid elements, (b) cortical shells elements with variable thickness distribution and (c) a rate-dependent elastic-plastic material model. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of Heat Resistant Shielding Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    This project was aimed at determining thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal expansion of a heat resistant shielding material for neutron absorption applications. These data are critical in predicting the structural integrity of the shielding under thermal cycling and mechanical load. The measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat were conducted in air at five different temperatures (-31 F, 73.4 F, 140 F, 212 F and 302 F). The transient plane source (TPS) method was used in the tests. Thermal expansion tests were conducted using push rod dilatometry over the continuous range from -40 F (-40 C) to 302 F (150 C)

  6. Properties of Sealing Materials in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köser, Claus

    pellets as sealing material in groundwater wells. The way and the pattern, in which bentonite pellets are deposited, have been shown to have an effect on the swelling pressure of the bentonite seal. During the transport phase of pellets from the terrain to a given sedimentation depth, a sorting process......) into densities for clay/water systems has been developed. This method has successfully been used to evaluate e.g., macroporosity, homogenization of the bentonite seal during the hydration of water, hydraulic conductivity and the creation of channels in the bentonite seals. Based on the results obtained...

  7. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Porous Mg-6 wt.% Zn Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yang; Kang, Yijun; Li, Ding; Yu, Kun; Xiao, Tao; Wang, Qiyuan; Deng, Youwen; Fang, Hongjie; Jiang, Dayue; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Porous Mg-based scaffolds have been extensively researched as biodegradable implants due to their attractive biological and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, porous Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds were prepared by powder metallurgy using ammonium bicarbonate particles as space-holder particles. The effects of space-holder particle content on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds were studied. The mean porosity and pore size of the open-cellular scaffolds were within the range 6.7-52.2% and 32.3-384.2 µm, respectively. Slight oxidation was observed at the grain boundaries and on the pore walls. The Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds were shown to possess mechanical properties comparable with those of natural bone and had variable in vitro degradation rates. Increased content of space-holder particles negatively affected the mechanical behavior and corrosion resistance of the Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds, especially when higher than 20%. These results suggest that porous Mg-6 wt.% Zn scaffolds are promising materials for application in bone tissue engineering.

  8. The synthesis and properties of nanoscale ionic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert Salgado; Herrer, Rafael; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Li, Ruipeng; Amassian, Aram; Archer, Lynden A.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss the effect of constituents on structure, flow, and thermal properties of nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs). NIMs are a new class of nanohybrids consisting of a nanometer-sized core, a charged corona covalently attached

  9. Development of Composite Materials with High Passive Damping Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crocker, Malcolm J

    2006-01-01

    .... However their fatigue, vibration and acoustic properties are known less. This is a problem since such composite materials tend to be more brittle than metals because of the possibility of delamination and fiber breakage...

  10. Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Jürgen; Osgood, R; Warlimont, Hans; Liu, Guokui; Jacquier, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at researchers and graduate students, this book provides up-to-date information for understanding electronic interactions that impact the optical properties of rare earth ions in solids. Its goal is to establish a connection between fundamental principles and the materials properties of rare-earth activated luminescent and laser optical materials. The theoretical survey and introduction to spectroscopic properties include electronic energy level structure, intensities of optical transitions, ion-phonon interactions, line broadening, and energy transfer and up-conversion. An important aspect of the book lies in its deep and detailed discussions on materials properties and the potential of new applications such as optical storage, information processing, nanophotonics, and molecular probes that have been identified in recent experimental studies. This volume will be a valuable reference book on advanced topics of rare earth spectroscopy and materials science.

  11. Hydroxyapatite from fish scale for potential use as bone scaffold or regenerative material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon-On, Weeraphat, E-mail: fsciwpp@ku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suntornsaratoon, Panan [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Thongbunchoo, Jirawan [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Tang, I. Ming [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    The present paper studies the physico-chemical, bioactivity and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is derived from fish scale (FS) (FSHA) and compares them with those of synthesized HA (sHA) obtained by co-precipitation from chemical solution as a standard. The analysis shows that the FSHA is composed of flat-plate nanocrystal with a narrow width size of about 15–20 nm and having a range of 100 nm in length and that the calcium phosphate ratio (Ca/P) is 2.01 (Ca-rich CaP). Whereas, synthesized HA consists of sub-micron HA particle having a Ca/P ratio of 1.65. Bioactivity test shows that the FSHA forms more new apatite than does the sHA after being incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Moreover, the biocompatibility study shows a higher osteoblast like cell adhesion on the FSHA surface than on the sHA substrate after 3 days of culturing. Our results also show the shape of the osteoblast cells on the FSHA changes from being a rounded shape to being a flattened shape reflecting its spreading behavior on this surface. MTT assay and ALP analysis show significant increases in the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts over the FSHA scaffold after 5 days of culturing as compared to those covering the sHA substrates. These results confirm that the bio-materials derived from fish scale (FSHA) are biologically better than the chemically synthesized HA and have the potential for use as a bone scaffold or as regenerative materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is derived from fish scale (FS) (FSHA) and their bioactivities • The FSHA is composed of flat-plate nanocrystal with a narrow size of 15–20 nm. • Bioactivity test shows that the FSHA forms more new apatite than does the sHA after being incubated SBF. • In vitro cell availability tests show a higher cell adhesion on the FSHA surface.

  12. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  13. Material property changes of stainless steels under PWR irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Koji; Nishioka, Hiromasa; Fujii, Katsuhiko; Kamaya, Masayuki; Miura, Terumitsu; Torimaru, Tadahiko

    2009-01-01

    Structural integrity of core structural materials is one of the key issues for long and safe operation of pressurized water reactors. The stainless steel components are exposed to neutron irradiation and high-temperature water, which cause significant property changes and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in some cases. Understanding of irradiation induced material property changes is essential to predict integrity of core components. In the present study, microstructure and microchemistry, mechanical properties, and IASCC behavior were examined in 316 stainless steels irradiated to 1 - 73 dpa in a PWR. Dose-dependent changes of dislocation loops and cavities, grain boundary segregation, tensile properties and fracture mode, deformation behavior, and their interrelation were discussed. Tensile properties and deformation behavior were well coincident with microstructural changes. IASCC susceptibility under slow strain rate tensile tests, IASCC initiation under constant load tests in simulated PWR primary water, and their relationship to material changes were discussed. (author)

  14. Dairy product intake and bone properties in 70-year-old men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallkvist, Olle M; Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter; Hult, Andreas

    2018-01-29

    In the present population-based study including 70-year-old men and women, total dairy product intake was associated with a weak positive association with tibia trabecular and cortical cross-sectional areas. Milk consumption has recently been suggested to increase fracture risk. Therefore, we aimed to investigate associations between dairy product consumption and peripheral bone properties. Furthermore, we explored whether consumption of milk and fermented dairy products affected bone properties differently. The Healthy Aging Initiative is a population-based, cross-sectional study investigating the health of 70-year-old men and women. Out of the 2904 individuals who met the inclusion criteria, data on self-reported daily dairy product consumption (dl/day), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) examinations at the 4 and 66% scan sites of the tibia and radius, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were collected from 2040 participants. Associations between dairy product consumption and bone properties were examined using multiple linear regression models adjusted for sex, muscle area, meal size, dietary protein proportion, current smoking status, and objectively measured physical activity. Total dairy product intake was associated with larger trabecular (2.296 (95% CI, 0.552-4.039) mm 2 , per dl/day increase, p = 0.01) and cortical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in the tibia (1.757 (95% CI, 0.683-2.830 mm 2 , p = 0.001) as measured by pQCT and higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the radius (3.231 (95% CI, 0.764-5.698) mg/cm 2 , p = 0.01) as measured by DXA. No other measurement in the tibia, radius, femoral neck, or lower spine was associated significantly with dairy product intake. Bone properties did not differ according to the type of dairy product consumed. No evidence of a negative association between dairy product consumption and bone health was found. Furthermore, total dairy product consumption was associated with

  15. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  16. Promoted new bone formation in maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a tissue-engineered osteogenic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Hibi, Hideharu; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral maxillary distraction was performed at a higher rate in rabbits to determine whether locally applied tissue-engineered osteogenic material (TEOM) enhances bone regeneration. The material was an injectable gel composed of autologous mesenchymal stem cells, which were cultured then induced to be osteogenic in character, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). After a 5-day latency period, distraction devices were activated at a rate of 2.0 mm once daily for 4 days. Twelve rabbits were divided into 2 groups. At the end of distraction, the experimental group of rabbits received an injection of TEOM into the distracted tissue on one side, whereas, saline solution was injected into the distracted tissue on the contralateral side as the internal control. An additional control group received an injection of PRP or saline solution into the distracted tissue in the same way as the experimental group. The distraction regenerates were assessed by radiological and histomorphometric analyses. The radiodensity of the distraction gap injected with TEOM was significantly higher than that injected with PRP or saline solution at 2, 3, and 4 weeks postdistraction. The histomorphometric analysis also showed that both new bone zone and bony content in the distraction gap injected with TEOM were significantly increased when compared with PRP or saline solution. Our results demonstrated that the distraction gap injected with TEOM showed significant new bone formation. Therefore, injections of TEOM may be able to compensate for insufficient distraction gaps.

  17. Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors Materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Stephen; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of t...

  18. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  19. Cellular and Porous Materials Thermal Properties Simulation and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; de Lemos, Marcelo J S

    2008-01-01

    Providing the reader with a solid understanding of the fundamentals as well as an awareness of recent advances in properties and applications of cellular and porous materials, this handbook and ready reference covers all important analytical and numerical methods for characterizing and predicting thermal properties. In so doing it directly addresses the special characteristics of foam-like and hole-riddled materials, combining theoretical and experimental aspects for characterization purposes.

  20. A Reference Guide for Cryogenic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisend, John G

    2003-09-16

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures is critical for the design of successful cryogenic systems. Over the past 50 years, a tremendous amount of material properties at cryogenic temperatures have been measured and published. This guide lists resources for finding these properties. It covers online databases, computer codes, conference proceedings, journals, handbooks, overviews and monographs. It includes references for finding reports issued by government laboratories and agencies. Most common solids and fluids used in cryogenics are covered.

  1. Studies of the dynamic properties of materials using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Windsor, C.G.

    1985-09-01

    The dynamic properties of materials using the neutron scattering technique is reviewed. The basic properties of both nuclear scattering and magnetic scattering are summarized. The experimental methods used in neutron scattering are described, along with access to neutron sources, and neutron inelastic instruments. Applied materials science using inelastic neutron scattering; rotational tunnelling of a methyl group; molecular diffusion from quasi-elastic scattering; and the diffusion of colloidal particles and poly-nuclear complexes; are also briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Structure and transport properties of nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, C G; Li, Q

    2005-03-31

    In the present manuscript, we have presented the simulation of nanoporous aluminum oxide using a molecular-dynamics approach with recently developed dynamic charge transfer potential using serial/parallel programming techniques (Streitz and Mintmire Phys. Rev. B 1994, 50, 11996). The structures resembling recently invented ordered nanoporous crystalline material, MCM-41/SBA-15 (Kresge et al. Nature 1992, 359, 710), and inverted porous solids (hollow nanospheres) with up to 10 000 atoms were fabricated and studied in the present work. These materials have been used for separation of gases and catalysis. On several occasions including the design of the reactor, the knowledge of surface diffusion is necessary. In the present work, a new method for estimating surface transport of gases based on a hybrid Monte Carlo method with unbiased random walk of tracer atom on the pore surface has been introduced. The nonoverlapping packings used in the present work were fabricated using an algorithm of very slowly settling rigid spheres from a dilute suspension into a randomly packed bed. The algorithm was modified to obtain unimodal, homogeneous Gaussian and segregated bimodal porous solids. The porosity of these solids was varied by densification using an arbitrary function or by coarsening from a highly densified pellet. The surface tortuosity for the densified solids indicated an inverted bell shape curve consistent with the fact that at very high porosities there is a reduction in the connectivity while at low porosities the pores become inaccessible or dead-end. The first passage time distribution approach was found to be more efficient in terms of computation time (fewer tracer atoms needed for the linearity of Einstein's plot). Results by hybrid discrete-continuum simulations were close to the discrete simulations for a boundary layer thickness of 5lambda.

  3. The effect of distal ulnar implant stem material and length on bone strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austman, Rebecca L; Beaton, Brendon J B; Quenneville, Cheryl E; King, Graham J W; Gordon, Karen D; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2007-01-01

    Implant design parameters can greatly affect load transfer from the implant stem to the bone. We have investigated the effect of length or material of distal ulnar implant stems on the surrounding bone strains. Eight cadaveric ulnas were instrumented with 12 strain gauges and secured in a customized jig. Strain data were collected while loads (5-30 N) were applied to the medial surface of the native ulnar head. The native ulnar head was removed, and a stainless steel implant with an 8-cm-long finely threaded stem was cemented into the canal. After the cement had cured, the 8-cm stem was removed, leaving a threaded cement mantle in the canal that could accept shorter threaded stems of interest. The loading protocol was then repeated for stainless steel stems that were 7, 5, and 3 cm in length, as well as for a 5-cm-long titanium alloy (TiAl(6)V(4)) stem. Other stainless steel stem lengths between 3 and 7 cm were tested at intervals of 0.5 cm, with only a 20 N load applied. No stem length tested matched the native strains at all gauge locations. No significant differences were found between any stem length and the native bone at the 5th and 6th strain gauge positions. Strains were consistently closer to the native bone strains with the titanium stem than the stainless steel stem for each gauge pair that was positioned on the bone overlying the stem. The 3-cm stem results were closer to the native strains than the 7-cm stem for all loads at gauges locations that were on top of the stem. The results from this study suggest that the optimal stem characteristics for distal ulnar implants from a load transfer point of view are possessed by shorter (approximately 3 to 4 cm) titanium stems.

  4. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  5. Bone strength and muscle properties in postmenopausal women with and without a recent distal radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, K; Arnold, C M; Farthing, J P; Chilibeck, P D; Johnston, J D; Bath, B; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Kontulainen, S A

    2015-10-01

    Distal radius (wrist) fracture (DRF) in women over age 50 years is an early sign of bone fragility. Women with a recent DRF compared to women without DRF demonstrated lower bone strength, muscle density, and strength, but no difference in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures, suggesting DXA alone may not be a sufficient predictor for DRF risk. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in bone and muscle properties between women with and without a recent DRF. One hundred sixty-six postmenopausal women (50-78 years) were recruited. Participants were excluded if they had taken bone-altering medications in the past 6 months or had medical conditions that severely affected daily living or the upper extremity. Seventy-seven age-matched women with a fracture in the past 6-24 months (Fx, n = 32) and without fracture (NFx, n = 45) were measured for bone and muscle properties using the nondominant (NFx) or non-fractured limb (Fx). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to estimate bone strength in compression (BSIc) at the distal radius and tibia, bone strength in torsion (SSIp) at the shaft sites, muscle density, and area at the forearm and lower leg. Areal bone mineral density at the ultradistal forearm, spine, and femoral neck was measured by DXA. Grip strength and the 30-s chair stand test were used as estimates of upper and lower extremity muscle strength. Limb-specific between-group differences were compared using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). There was a significant group difference (p lower leg, with the Fx group demonstrating 16 and 19% lower BSIc, 3 and 6% lower muscle density, and 20 and 21% lower muscle strength at the upper and lower extremities, respectively. There were no differences between groups for DXA measures. Women with recent DRF had lower pQCT-derived estimated bone strength at the distal radius and tibia and lower muscle density and strength at both extremities.

  6. Molecular modeling of polycarbonate materials: Glass transition and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczynski, Karol; Wilke, Andreas; Paeschke, Manfred; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Linking the experimentally accessible macroscopic properties of thermoplastic polymers to their microscopic static and dynamic properties is a key requirement for targeted material design. Classical molecular dynamics simulations enable us to study the structural and dynamic behavior of molecules on microscopic scales, and statistical physics provides a framework for relating these properties to the macroscopic properties. We take a first step toward creating an automated workflow for the theoretical prediction of thermoplastic material properties by developing an expeditious method for parameterizing a simple yet surprisingly powerful coarse-grained bisphenol-A polycarbonate model which goes beyond previous coarse-grained models and successfully reproduces the thermal expansion behavior, the glass transition temperature as a function of the molecular weight, and several elastic properties.

  7. 脱蛋白松质骨作为异种骨移植材料的修复作用%Repair effect of deproteinised cancellous bone as xenogeneic bone graft material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春阳; 姜宏春; 金春明

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unequal size, mutual communication, and open pore network structure can be seen in cancellous bone treated with deproteinization. Its inorganic component is hydroxyapatite, and the organic component is collagen, which has a good mechanical property and biocompatibility. It may be a new type of bone graft material.OBJECTIVE: To study the properties of xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone being carrier of bone tissue engineering in bone fusion.METHODS: Taking “xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone, bone fusion, carrier” in Chinese as search terms, the articles from January 1998 to December 2009 in VIP database, CNKI database, Pubmed database were retrieved by computer. The relevant literatures were included, the literature of irrelevant purpose and repetitive content were excluded, and 33 of them were involved for further analysis.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with synthetic bone material, animal bones have similar biomaterial structure, modeling, excellent cell attachment, and cell growth and proliferation environment. However, the compatibility of bone tissue is poor, because of the differences in species when xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone transplantation, and gravis immune rejection, the key question is implantation of immune problems. How to overcome immunogenicity, xenogeneic deproteinised cancellous bone is a good carrier of bone tissue engineering, which can provide a stable environment for revascularization and differentiation of osteoblasts.%背景:采用脱蛋白处理后的松质骨可见大小不等、相互交通、开放孔隙的网架结构,其无机成分为羟基磷灰石,有机成分为胶原,力学性能保存良好,有良好的细胞相容性,可能是一种新型骨移植材料.目的:介绍异种脱蛋白松质骨作为骨组织工程载体的性能,以及其用于骨融合的作用.方法:分别以"异种脱蛋白松质骨、骨融合、载体",为检索词,应用计算机检索重庆

  8. Mechanical properties of bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds fabricated by robotic deposition for structural bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Hilmas, Gregory E; Bal, B Sonny

    2013-06-01

    There is a need to develop synthetic scaffolds to repair large defects in load-bearing bones. Bioactive glasses have attractive properties as a scaffold material for bone repair, but data on their mechanical properties are limited. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of strong porous scaffolds of silicate 13-93 bioactive glass fabricated by robocasting. As-fabricated scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (porosity 47%, filament diameter 330μm, pore width 300μm) were tested in compressive and flexural loading to determine their strength, elastic modulus, Weibull modulus, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Scaffolds were also tested in compression after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro or implanted in a rat subcutaneous model in vivo. As fabricated, the scaffolds had a strength of 86±9MPa, elastic modulus of 13±2GPa, and a Weibull modulus of 12 when tested in compression. In flexural loading the strength, elastic modulus, and Weibull modulus were 11±3MPa, 13±2GPa, and 6, respectively. In compression, the as-fabricated scaffolds had a mean fatigue life of ∼10(6) cycles when tested in air at room temperature or in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C under cyclic stresses of 1-10 or 2-20MPa. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased markedly during the first 2weeks of immersion in SBF or implantation in vivo, but more slowly thereafter. The brittle mechanical response of the scaffolds in vitro changed to an elasto-plastic response after implantation for longer than 2-4weeks in vivo. In addition to providing critically needed data for designing bioactive glass scaffolds, the results are promising for the application of these strong porous scaffolds in loaded bone repair. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement for bone repair by dicalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Chien-Wen; Hsueh, Nai-Shuo; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate can improve osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement. • The higher the calcium sulfate content, the shorter the setting time in the composite cement. • The results were useful for designing calcium-based cement with optimal properties. -- Abstract: An ideal bone graft substitute should have the same speed of degradation as formation of new bone tissue. To improve the properties of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) featured for its rapid resorption, a low degradation material of dicalcium silicate (DCS) was added to the CSH cement. This study examined the effect of DCS (20, 40, 60 and 80 wt%) on the in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities of the calcium-based composite cements. The diametral tensile strength, porosity and weight loss of the composite cements were evaluated before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteogenic activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on cement surfaces were also examined. As a result, the greater the DCS amount, the higher the setting time was in the cement. Before soaking in SBF, the diametral tensile strength of the composite cements was decreased due to the introduction of DCS. On 180-day soaking, the composite cements containing 20, 40, 60 and 80 wt% DCS lost 80%, 69%, 61% and 44% in strength, respectively. Regarding in vitro bioactivity, the DCS-rich cements were covered with clusters of apatite spherulites after soaking for 7 days, while there was no formation of apatite spherulites on the CSH-rich cement surfaces. The presence of DCS could reduce the degradation of the CSH cements, as evidenced in the results of weight loss and porosity. More importantly, DCS may promote effectively the cell proliferation, proliferation and mineralization. The combination of osteogenesis of DCS and degradation of CSH made the calcium-based composite cements an attractive choice for

  10. Connection between microstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of soft magnetic materials is discussed with some emphasis on the connection between macroscopic properties and underlying micromagnetic energy aspects. It is shown that important conceptual gaps still exist in the interpretation of macroscopic magnetic properties in terms of the micromagnetic formulation. Different aspects of hysteresis modeling, power loss prediction and magnetic non-destructive evaluation are discussed in this perspective

  11. Elastic properties of various ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, H.

    1992-09-01

    The Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of various ceramics have been investigated at room temperature and compared with data from the literature. The ceramic materials investigated are Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 , MgAl 2 O 4 , LiAlO 2 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 , UO 2 , AlN, SiC, B 4 C, TiC, and TiB 2 . The dependence of the elastic moduli on porosity and temperature have been reviewed. Measurements were also performed on samples of Al 2 O 3 , AlN, and SiC, which had been irradiated to maximum neutron fluences of 1.6.10 26 n/m 2 (E>0.1 MeV) at different temperatures. The Young's modulus is nearly unaffected at fluences up to about 4.10 24 n/m 2 . However, it decreases with increasing neutron fluence and seems to reach a saturation value depending upon the irradiation temperature. The reduction of the Young's modulus is lowest in SiC. (orig.) [de

  12. Opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Hoon; Yu, Bin; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-08-01

    To measure the opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials before and after polymerization, and to determine the influence of the material and shade group combination on these properties. BelleGlass NG (BG, indirect resin) and Estelite Sigma (ES, direct resin), each composed in 3 shade groups (EN, OD and TL for BG; BS, AS and OP for ES) out of a total of 16 shades were investigated. Resin material was packed into a mold (the BEC condition) and polymerized with a light-polymerization unit (CWL). Secondary polymerization (CIC) was performed for BG. Color was measured in the BEC, CWL, and CIC conditions, and the opalescence parameter (OP) and fluorescence parameter (FL) were calculated. For the OP, the mean for BG material was 24.3 before polymerization, which changed to 19.9 after polymerization (CIC). In the case of ES, the mean OP before polymerization was 25.6, which changed to 12.4 after polymerization (CWL). For the FL, the mean FL for BG was 2.5 before polymerization, which changed to 0.7 after polymerization. In the case of ES, the mean FL before polymerization was 1.2, which did not change after polymerization. Material and shade group combination influenced the OP and FL values (popalescence and fluorescence properties of resin materials varied depending on the material, shade group, and polymerization. Clinically, these properties should be considered when neighboring teeth are restored with different types of material.

  13. The design and modeling of periodic materials with novel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonathan Bernard

    Cellular materials are ubiquitous in our world being found in natural and engineered systems as structural materials, sound and energy absorbers, heat insulators and more. Stochastic foams made of polymers, metals and even ceramics find wide use due to their novel properties when compared to monolithic materials. Properties of these so called hybrid materials, those that combine materials or materials and space, are derived from the localization of thermomechanical stresses and strains on the mesoscale as a function of cell topology. The effects of localization can only be generalized in stochastic materials arising from their inherent potential complexity, possessing variations in local chemistry, microstructural inhomogeneity and topological variations. Ordered cellular materials on the other hand, such as lattices and honeycombs, make for much easier study, often requiring analysis of only a single unit-cell. Theoretical bounds predict that hybrid materials have the potential to push design envelopes offering lighter stiffer and stronger materials. Hybrid materials can achieve very low and even negative coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) while retaining a relatively high stiffness -- properties completely unmatched by monolithic materials. In the first chapter of this thesis a two-dimensional lattice is detailed that possess near maximum stiffness, relative to the tightest theoretical bound, and low, zero and even appreciably negative thermal expansion. Its CTE and stiffness are given in closed form as a function of geometric parameters and the material properties. This result is confirmed with finite elements (FE) and experiment. In the second chapter the compressive stiffness of three-dimensional ordered foams, both closed and open cell, are predicted with FE and the results placed in property space in terms of stiffness and density. A novel structure is identified that effectively achieves theoretical bounds for Young's, shear and bulk modulus

  14. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E

    2005-01-01

    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  15. Eu contributions to the ITER materials properties data assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, A.T. [EFDA CSU, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: alan.peacock@tech.efda.org; Barabash, V. [IT, ITER Joint Work Site, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: barabav@itereu.de; Gillemot, F. [ASI Consulting, Budafoki ut 21, H 2040 Budaors (Hungary)]. E-mail: gillemot@sunserv.kfki.hu; Karditsas, P. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Panos.Karditsas@ukaea.org.uk; Lloyd, G. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Rensman, J.-W. [NRG Petten, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: rensman@nrg-nl.com; Tavassoli, A.-A.F. [DMN/Dir, CEA/Saclay, CEA, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr; Walters, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    In order to fully organise the materials property data from the European next Fusion programme, a database of materials properties has been established. With the help of the database application and resulting data organisation, European materials experts have supported the recent activities within ITER aimed at updating and re-organising the ITER materials documentation. A European web based database application is described and its main features are detailed. In addition, we report on the details and the status of the work aimed at updating the ITER materials documentation. An outline of the future planned activities in the development of the European database and in the revision of the ITER materials documentation is also given.

  16. SiC/SiC Cladding Materials Properties Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Mary A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Gyanender P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    When a new class of material is considered for a nuclear core structure, the in-pile performance is usually assessed based on multi-physics modeling in coordination with experiments. This report aims to provide data for the mechanical and physical properties and environmental resistance of silicon carbide (SiC) fiber–reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites for use in modeling for their application as accidenttolerant fuel cladding for light water reactors (LWRs). The properties are specific for tube geometry, although many properties can be predicted from planar specimen data. This report presents various properties, including mechanical properties, thermal properties, chemical stability under normal and offnormal operation conditions, hermeticity, and irradiation resistance. Table S.1 summarizes those properties mainly for nuclear-grade SiC/SiC composites fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). While most of the important properties are available, this work found that data for the in-pile hydrothermal corrosion resistance of SiC materials and for thermal properties of tube materials are lacking for evaluation of SiC-based cladding for LWR applications.

  17. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling, E-mail: whl_hm@163.com [Key Laboratory of Coastal Disaster and Defence, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); LML, University of Lille, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing [Institutes of Geotechnical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO{sub 2,} shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10{sup −19} m{sup 2}; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  18. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  19. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xiong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR, transmission electron microscope(TEM, scanning electron microscope(SEM, universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material.

  20. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Yubao, Li; Chengdong, Xiong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR), transmission electron microscope(TEM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material. PMID:19594953

  1. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  2. Impact of carbonation on water transport properties of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Carbonation is a very well-known cementitious materials pathology. It is the major cause of reinforced concrete structures degradation. It leads to rebar corrosion and consequent concrete cover cracking. In the framework of radioactive waste management, cement-based materials used as building materials for structures or containers would be simultaneously submitted to drying and atmospheric carbonation. Although scientific literature regarding carbonating is vast, it is clearly lacking information about the influence of carbonation on water transport properties. This work then aimed at studying and understanding the change in water transport properties induced by carbonation. Simultaneously, the representativeness of accelerated carbonation (in the laboratory) was also studied. (author) [fr

  3. Stochasticity in materials structure, properties, and processing—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Robert; Keblinski, Pawel; Lewis, Dan; Maniatty, Antoinette; Meunier, Vincent; Oberai, Assad A.; Picu, Catalin R.; Samuel, Johnson; Shephard, Mark S.; Tomozawa, Minoru; Vashishth, Deepak; Zhang, Shengbai

    2018-03-01

    We review the concept of stochasticity—i.e., unpredictable or uncontrolled fluctuations in structure, chemistry, or kinetic processes—in materials. We first define six broad classes of stochasticity: equilibrium (thermodynamic) fluctuations; structural/compositional fluctuations; kinetic fluctuations; frustration and degeneracy; imprecision in measurements; and stochasticity in modeling and simulation. In this review, we focus on the first four classes that are inherent to materials phenomena. We next develop a mathematical framework for describing materials stochasticity and then show how it can be broadly applied to these four materials-related stochastic classes. In subsequent sections, we describe structural and compositional fluctuations at small length scales that modify material properties and behavior at larger length scales; systems with engineered fluctuations, concentrating primarily on composite materials; systems in which stochasticity is developed through nucleation and kinetic phenomena; and configurations in which constraints in a given system prevent it from attaining its ground state and cause it to attain several, equally likely (degenerate) states. We next describe how stochasticity in these processes results in variations in physical properties and how these variations are then accentuated by—or amplify—stochasticity in processing and manufacturing procedures. In summary, the origins of materials stochasticity, the degree to which it can be predicted and/or controlled, and the possibility of using stochastic descriptions of materials structure, properties, and processing as a new degree of freedom in materials design are described.

  4. Nuclear materials thermo-physical property database and property analysis using the database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Seok

    2002-02-01

    It is necessary that thermo-physical properties and understand of nuclear materials for evaluation and analysis to steady and accident states of commercial and research reactor. In this study, development of nuclear materials thermo-properties database and home page. In application of this database, it is analyzed of thermal conductivity, heat capacity, enthalpy, and linear thermal expansion of fuel and cladding material and compared thermo-properties model in nuclear fuel performance evaluation codes with experimental data in database. Results of compare thermo-property model of UO 2 fuel and cladding major performance evaluation code, both are similar

  5. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W.; Boyd, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD) mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal) or late (postpubertal) time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostruc...

  6. Tribological properties of silicate materials on nano and microscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordjeman, Ph.; Morel, N.; Ramonda, M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the friction properties of four model silicate materials at the nanoscale and microscale. From nanotribology, we characterized the tribological properties at single asperity contact scale and from microtribology, we characterized the tribological properties at multi asperity contact scale. First, for each material we measured chemical composition by XPS, Young's modulus by acoustical microscopy and roughness σ by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Second, we measured the nanofriction coefficients with an AFM and the microfriction coefficients with a ball probe tribometer, for three hardnesses of the ball probe. We identified one friction mechanism at the nanoscale (sliding friction) and two friction mechanisms at the microscale (sliding friction and yielding friction). Comparison of the nano and microfriction coefficients at the same sliding friction regime shown, that the tribological properties of these materials didn't depend on roughness.

  7. Electromechanical actuation of buckypaper actuator: Material properties and performance relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottinet, P.-J.; Souders, C.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Liang, R.; Wang, B.; Zhang, C.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes can be assembled into macroscopic thin film materials called buckypapers. To incorporate buckypaper actuators into engineering systems, it is of high importance to understand their material property-actuation performance relationships in order to model and predict the behavior of these actuators. The electromechanical actuation of macroscopic buckypaper structures and their actuators, including single and multi-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers and aligned single-walled nanotube buckypapers, were analyzed and compared. From the experimental evidence, this Letter discusses the effects of the fundamental material properties, including Young modulus and electrical double layer properties, on actuation performance of the resultant actuators. -- Highlights: ► In this study we identified the figure of merit of the electromechanical conversion. ► Different type of buckypaper was realized and characterized for actuation properties. ► The results demonstrated the potential of Buckypapers/Nafion for actuation

  8. Extremes in vitamin K status of bone are related to bone ultrasound properties in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Summeren, M. J. H.; Vermeer, C.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Schurgers, L. J.; Takken, T.; Fischer, K.; Kuis, W.

    2008-01-01

    Osteopenia is a common complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In adults, low bone density and increased fracture risk are associated with low vitamin K status of bone. The vitamin K-dependent protein osteocalcin plays an important role in bone metabolism. Its activity depends upon

  9. Effects of Coal Gangue on Cement Grouting Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Y.; Chen, H. X.

    2018-05-01

    The coal gangue is one of the most abundant industrial solid wastes and pollute source of air and water. The use of coal gangue in the production of cement grouting material comforms to the basic state policy of environment protection and the circular using of natural resources. Through coal gangue processing experiment, coal gangue cement grouting materials making test, properties detection of properties and theoretical analysis, the paper studied the effects of coal gangue on the properties of cement grouting materials. It is found that at the range of 600 to 700 °C, the fluidity and the compressive and flexural strengths of the cement grouting materials increase with the rising up of the calcination temperatures of coal gangue. The optimum calcination temperature is around 700 °C. The part substitution of cement by the calcined coal gangue in the cement grouting material will improve the mechanical properties of the cement grouting material, even thought it will decrease its fluidity. The best substitution amount of cement by coal gangue is about 30%. The fluidity and the long term strength of the ordinary silicate cement grouting material is obviously higher than that of the sulphoaluminate cement one as well as that of the silicate-sulphoaluminate complex cement one.

  10. Silk coating on a bioactive ceramic scaffold for bone regeneration: effective enhancement of mechanical and in vitro osteogenic properties towards load-bearing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao Jiao; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Kim, Kyungsook; Kaplan, David L; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive ceramic scaffolds represent competitive choices for clinical bone reconstruction, but their widespread use is restricted by inherent brittleness and weak mechanical performance under load. This study reports the development of strong and tough bioactive scaffolds suitable for use in load-bearing bone reconstruction. A strong and bioactive ceramic scaffold (strontium-hardystonite-gahnite) is combined with single and multiple coating layers of silk fibroin to enhance its toughness, producing composite scaffolds which match the mechanical properties of cancellous bone and show enhanced capacity to promote in vitro osteogenesis. Also reported for the first time is a comparison of the coating effects obtained when a polymeric material is coated on ceramic scaffolds with differing microstructures, namely the strontium-hardystonite-gahnite scaffold with high-density struts as opposed to a conventional ceramic scaffold, such as biphasic calcium phosphate, with low-density struts. The results show that silk coating on a unique ceramic scaffold can lead to simple and effective enhancement of its mechanical and biological properties to suit a wider range of applications in clinical bone reconstruction, and also establish the influence of ceramic microstructure on the effectiveness of silk coating as a method of reinforcement when applied to different types of ceramic bone graft substitutes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Preparation of gelatin based porous biocomposite for bone tissue engineering and evaluation of gamma irradiation effect on its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Minhajul [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology (IRPT), Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), P. O. Box No. 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur, E-mail: mizanur.rahman@du.ac.bd [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradable porous hybrid polymer composites were prepared by using gelatin as base polymer matrix, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and calcium sulfate (CS) as cementing materials, chitosan as an antimicrobial agent, and glutaraldehyde and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as crosslinkers at different mass ratios. Thereafter, the composites were subjected to γ-radiation sterilization. The structure and properties of these composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical properties testing (compressive, bending, tensile and impact), thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and physical stability test in simulated body fluid (SBF). We found that TCP rich composites showed enhanced mechanical properties among all the crosslinked composites. γ-Radiation sterilization triggered further cross linking in polymer matrix resulting a decrease in pore size of the composites and an increase in pore wall thickness with improved mechanical and thermal properties. The chemically crosslinked composite with 40% TCP followed by γ-radiation sterilization showed the smallest pore size distribution with a mean pore diameter of 159.22 μm, which falls in the range of 100–350 μm — known to be suitable for osteoconduction. Considering its improved mechanical and thermal properties along with osteoconduction ability without cytotoxicity, we propose this biocomposite as a viable candidate for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds were prepared from biopolymers (gelatin and chitosan). • β-TCP and CS were used as bioactive cementing materials at different ratios. • γ-Sterilization improved the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. • γ-Sterilization reduced the cytotoxicity and induced high antimicrobial properties. • Composite having 40% TCP has the proper pore size distribution for osteoconduction.

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of castor oil polyurethane bone cement after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, E.C.; Chierice, G.O.; Claro Neto, S.; Lepiesnki, C.M.; Nascimento, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Polyurethanes from castor oil are being employed as bone cement in medical applications. In this work the thermal and mechanical properties of gamma irradiated polyurethanes derivative from castor oil were investigated by instrumented indentation, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. A slightly increase in hardness is observed only for doses as high as 100 kGy. Thermal analysis indicates stability at human body temperature. The glass transition temperature has small changes after gamma irradiation. (author)

  13. On some properties of bone functional adaptation phenomenon useful in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michał

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses some unique properties of trabecular bone functional adaptation phenomenon, useful in mechanical design. On the basis of the biological process observations and the principle of constant strain energy density on the surface of the structure, the generic structural optimisation system has been developed. Such approach allows fulfilling mechanical theorem for the stiffest design, comprising the optimisations of size, shape and topology, using the concepts known from biomechanical studies. Also the biomimetic solution of multiple load problems is presented.

  14. Material physical properties of 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) wrapper tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Shinichi

    2012-09-01

    It is necessary to develop core materials for fast reactors in order to achieve high-burnup. Ferritic steels are expected to be good candidate core materials to achieve this objective because of their excellent void swelling resistance. Therefore, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel and 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) have been respectively developed for cladding and wrapper tube materials in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, various physical properties of PNC-FMS wrapper materials were measured and equations and future standard measurement technique of physical properties for the design and evaluation were conducted. (author)

  15. A Summary of the Fatigue Properties of Wind Turbine Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, HERBERT J.

    1999-10-07

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue critical structures, e.g., an airplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. In this paper, I review these fatigue data. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for wood, metals (primarily aluminum) and fiberglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fiberglass discussion because this material is current the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The paper focuses on the data developed in the U.S., but cites European references that provide important insights.

  16. The influence of different loads on the remodeling process of a bone and bioresorbable material mixture with voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Ivan; Andreaus, Ugo; Madeo, Angela

    2016-03-01

    A model of a mixture of bone tissue and bioresorbable material with voids was used to numerically analyze the physiological balance between the processes of bone growth and resorption and artificial material resorption in a plate-like sample. The adopted model was derived from a theory for the behavior of porous solids in which the matrix material is linearly elastic and the interstices are void of material. The specimen—constituted by a region of bone living tissue and one of bioresorbable material—was acted by different in-plane loading conditions, namely pure bending and shear. Ranges of load magnitudes were identified within which physiological states become possible. Furthermore, the consequences of applying different loading conditions are examined at the end of the remodeling process. In particular, maximum value of bone and material mass densities, and extensions of the zones where bone is reconstructed were identified and compared in the two different load conditions. From the practical view point, during surgery planning and later rehabilitation, some choice of the following parameters is given: porosity of the graft, material characteristics of the graft, and adjustment of initial mixture tissue/bioresorbable material and later, during healing and remodeling, optimal loading conditions.

  17. Porous calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes: additive manufacturing versus conventional gravity sinter processing-effect on structure and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youxin; Shanjani, Yaser; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Grynpas, Marc; Wang, Rizhi; Pilliar, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures proposed as bone-substitute implants and made by sintering CPP powders to form bending test samples of approximately 35 vol % porosity were machined from preformed blocks made either by additive manufacturing (AM) or conventional gravity sintering (CS) methods and the structure and mechanical characteristics of samples so made were compared. AM-made samples displayed higher bending strengths (≈1.2-1.4 times greater than CS-made samples), whereas elastic constant (i.e., effective elastic modulus of the porous structures) that is determined by material elastic modulus and structural geometry of the samples was ≈1.9-2.3 times greater for AM-made samples. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples made by either method displayed the same crystal structure forming β-CPP after sinter annealing. The material elastic modulus, E, determined using nanoindentation tests also showed the same value for both sample types (i.e., E ≈ 64 GPa). Examination of the porous structures indicated that significantly larger sinter necks resulted in the AM-made samples which presumably resulted in the higher mechanical properties. The development of mechanical properties was attributed to the different sinter anneal procedures required to make 35 vol % porous samples by the two methods. A primary objective of the present study, in addition to reporting on bending strength and sample stiffness (elastic constant) characteristics, was to determine why the two processes resulted in the observed mechanical property differences for samples of equivalent volume percentage of porosity. An understanding of the fundamental reason(s) for the observed effect is considered important for developing improved processes for preparation of porous CPP implants as bone substitutes for use in high load-bearing skeletal sites. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mechanical properties and antibiotic release characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement formulated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchmanan, Kumaran; Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Kingshuk, Poddar; Shi, Zhilong; Wang, Wilson; Tan, Reginald B H

    2017-08-01

    The influence of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with antibiotics on the mechanical properties of functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-(PMMA) based bone cements is investigated. The incorporation of MSNs to the bone cements (8.15wt%) shows no detrimental effects on the biomechanical properties of the freshly solidified bone cements. Importantly, there are no significant changes in the compression strength and bending modulus up to 6 months of aging in PBS buffer solution. The preserved mechanical properties of MSN-functionalized bone cements is attributed to the unchanged microstructures of the cements, as more than 96% of MSNs remains in the bone cement matrix to support the cement structures after 6 months of aging. In addition, the MSN-functionalized bone cements are able to increase the drug release of gentamicin (GTMC) significantly as compared with commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cements. It can be attributed to the loaded nano-sized MSNs with uniform pore channels which build up an effective nano-network path enable the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. The combination of excellent mechanical properties and sustainable drug delivery efficiency demonstrates the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized PMMA bone cements for orthopedic surgery to prevent post-surgery infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrophilicity, Viscoelastic, and Physicochemical Properties Variations in Dental Bone Grafting Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Branko; Jaunich, Matthias; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Beuer, Florian; Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George; Houshmand, Alireza

    2018-01-30

    The indication-oriented Dental Bone Graft Substitutes (DBGS) selection, the correct bone defects classification, and appropriate treatment planning are very crucial for obtaining successful clinical results. However, hydrophilic, viscoelastic, and physicochemical properties' influence on the DBGS regenerative potential has poorly been studied. For that reason, we investigated the dimensional changes and molecular mobility by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) of xenograft (cerabone ® ), synthetic (maxresorb ® ), and allograft (maxgraft ® , Puros ® ) blocks in a wet and dry state. While no significant differences could be seen in dry state, cerabone ® and maxresorb ® blocks showed a slight height decrease in wet state, whereas both maxgraft ® and Puros ® had an almost identical height increase. In addition, cerabone ® and maxresorb ® blocks remained highly rigid and their damping behaviour was not influenced by the water. On the other hand, both maxgraft ® and Puros ® had a strong increase in their molecular mobility with different damping behaviour profiles during the wet state. A high-speed microscopical imaging system was used to analyze the hydrophilicity in several naturally derived (cerabone ® , Bio-Oss ® , NuOss ® , SIC ® nature graft) and synthetic DBGS granules (maxresorb ® , BoneCeramic ® , NanoBone ® , Ceros ® ). The highest level of hydrophilicity was detected in cerabone ® and maxresorb ® , while Bio-Oss ® and BoneCeramic ® had the lowest level of hydrophilicity among both naturally derived and synthetic DBGS groups. Deviations among the DBGS were also addressed via physicochemical differences recorded by Micro Computed Tomography, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder Diffractometry, and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Such DBGS variations could influence the volume stability at the grafting site, handling as well as the speed of vascularization and bone regeneration. Therefore, this

  20. The research of establishing reactor materials thermophysical properties data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Danhui; Zhong Jianguo; Zhang Lili; Zhao Yongming

    1992-01-01

    In the process of nuclear reactor design and safety analysis, the reactor materials thermophysical properties parameters are very important as the main input data of reactor design and calculation. The goal of this work is to establish a practical, reliable data base of reactor materials thermophysical properties parameters with obvious function in reactor design, operation and safety analysis. At present phase, the focal point of this data base is to collect the materials thermophysical properties data based on the need of safety analysis in light water reactor and heavy water reactor. The materials to be chosen are as follows: Uranium, U-Al alloy, UO 2 , UO 2 -PuO 2 mixture, Zr-2, Zr-4, Zr-1% Ni alloy, Inconel-625, ZrO 2 (oxidic layer), boron carbide, cadmium in stainless steel, silver-indium-cadmium alloy, light water and heavy water, etc. The following thermophysical properties parameters are mainly included in the data base: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, heat of melting, coefficient of thermal expansion, emittance, density, heat of vaporization, kinematic viscosity etc. The first phase of this work has been finished, which includes the method of establishing reactor materials thermophysical properties data base, the requirement of data collection, the requirement of establishing data base and the method of the data evaluation. This data base has been established and used on PC computer

  1. Effects of spaceflight and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 on rat bone properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, T.A.; Ayers, R.A.; Spetzler, M.L.; Simske, S.J. [BioServe Space Technologies University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado80309-0429 (United States); Zimmerman, R.J. [Chiron Corporation 4560 Horton Street Emeryville, California94608-2916 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight induces bone degradation which is analogous to an accelerated onset of osteoporosis in humans (Tilton {ital et al.}, 1980). In rats, decreased bone formation is indicative of reduced osteoblast activity (Morey and Baylink, 1978). Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, CA) is interested in using the microgravity environment of low-Earth-orbit to test its therapeutic drug, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). This pharmaceutic is known to promote osteoblast activity (Schmid {ital et al.}, 1984) and therefore may encourage bone growth in rats. Chiron sponsored the Immune.3 payload on STS-73 (May 19{endash}29, 1996) through its Center for Space Commercialization (CSC) partner BioServe Space Technologies (University of Colorado and Kansas State University) to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on mitigating the skeletal degradation that affects rats and humans during spaceflight. Twelve rats were flown for 10 days using two Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames Research Center. Of the twelve, six received 1.4 mg/day of IGF-1; the other six saline. Sixteen vivarium ground controls received the same treatment on a one day delay. Rat femora and tibiae were examined for bone mineral density via DXA scan. Femora and humeri were measured for physical and compositional properties, as well as mechanically tested in three point flexure. Quantitative histomorphometric examination of tibiae, humeri, fibulae, ribs and cranial bone; and microhardness testing on tibiae and humeri are currently in progress. Flight humeri and vivarium femora were significantly larger than their counterparts; however, significant differences in mechanical properties and mineral density were not concurrent to these mass changes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2014-01-01

    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...... the basic code, which computes the effective elasticity tensor of a two material composite, where one material could be void, is easily extended to include more materials. Furthermore, extensions to homogenization of conductivity, thermal expansion, and fluid permeability are described in detail. The unit...

  3. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H U [ed.

    1991-12-15

    The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Specialists Meeting on Properties of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment was held during June 18 to June 20, 1991, at the Nuclear Research Centre (Kernforschungszentrum) in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Specialists Meeting was divided into five technical sessions which addressed topics as follows: Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environments under Off-Normal Conditions;Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium; and Conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    The present paper was focused on the development of a new method of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) fabrication via a chemical treatment of a native bone tissue. Particular attention was paid to the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of native bones, sterility, and biological performance in vivo using the syngeneic heterotopic and orthotopic implantation models. The obtained data indicated that after a chemical decellularization treatment in 4% aqueous sodium chlorite, no noticeable signs of the erosion of compact cortical bone surface or destruction of trabeculae of spongy bone in spinal channel were observed. The histological studies showed that the chemical treatment resulted in the decellularization of both bone and cartilage tissues. The DECM samples demonstrated no signs of chemical and biological degradation in vivo. Thorough structural characterization revealed that after decellularization, the mineral frame retained its integrity with the organic phase; however clotting and destruction of organic molecules and fibers were observed. FTIR studies revealed several structural changes associated with the destruction of organic molecules, although all organic components typical of intact bone were preserved. The decellularization-induced structural changes in the collagen constituent resulted changed the deformation under compression mechanism: from the major fracture by crack propagation throughout the sample to the predominantly brittle fracture. Although the mechanical properties of radius bones subjected to decellularization were observed to degrade, the mechanical properties of ulna bones in compression and humerus bones in bending remained unchanged. The compressive strength of both the intact and decellularized ulna bones was 125-130 MPa and the flexural strength of humerus bones was 156 and 145 MPa for the intact and decellularized samples, respectively. These results open new avenues for the use of DECM samples as

  5. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  6. Effect of the Interposition of Calcium Phosphate Materials on Tendon-Bone Healing During Repair of Chronic Rotator Cuff Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Peng, Lingjie; Xie, Guoming; Li, Dingfeng; Zhao, Jinzhong; Ning, Congqin

    2014-08-01

    The current nature of tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff (RC) repair is still the formation of granulation tissue at the tendon-bone interface rather than the formation of fibrocartilage, which is the crucial structure in native tendon insertion and can be observed after knee ligament reconstruction. The interposition of calcium phosphate materials has been found to be able to enhance tendon-bone healing in knee ligament reconstruction. However, whether the interposition of these kinds of materials can enhance tendon-bone healing or even change the current nature of tendon-bone healing after RC repair still needs to be explored. The interposition of calcium phosphate materials during RC repair would enhance tendon-bone healing or change its current nature of granulation tissue formation into a more favorable process. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 144 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral detachment of the supraspinatus tendon, followed by delayed repair after 3 weeks. The animals were allocated into 1 of 3 groups: (1) repair alone, (2) repair with Ca5(PO4)2SiO4 (CPS) bioceramic interposition, or (3) repair with hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic interposition at the tendon-bone interface. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, or 8 weeks postoperatively, and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was used to quantify the new bone formation at the repair site. New fibrocartilage formation and collagen organization at the tendon-bone interface was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. Biomechanical testing of the supraspinatus tendon-bone complex was performed. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance. Significance was set at P repair, CPS bioceramic significantly increased the area of fibrocartilage at the tendon-bone interface compared with the control and HA groups. Moreover, CPS and HA bioceramics had significantly improved collagen organization. Biomechanical tests indicated that the CPS and HA groups have greater ultimate

  7. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  8. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing

  9. Thermophysical properties of materials for water cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to establish a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials was organized within the framework of the IAEA`s International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The work within the CRP started in 1990. The objective of the CRP was to collect and systemaize a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials under normal operating, transient and accident conditions. The important thermophysical properties include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, thermal expansion and others. These properties as well as the oxidation of zirconium-based alloys, the thermophysical characteristics of high temperature concrete-core melt interaction and the mechanical properties of construction materials are presented in this report. It is hoped that this report will serve as a useful source of thermophysical properties data for water cooled reactor analyses. The properties data are maintained on the THERSYST system at the University of Stuttgart, Germany and are internationally available. Refs, figs, tabs.

  10. Thermophysical properties of materials for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to establish a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials was organized within the framework of the IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The work within the CRP started in 1990. The objective of the CRP was to collect and systemaize a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials under normal operating, transient and accident conditions. The important thermophysical properties include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, thermal expansion and others. These properties as well as the oxidation of zirconium-based alloys, the thermophysical characteristics of high temperature concrete-core melt interaction and the mechanical properties of construction materials are presented in this report. It is hoped that this report will serve as a useful source of thermophysical properties data for water cooled reactor analyses. The properties data are maintained on the THERSYST system at the University of Stuttgart, Germany and are internationally available. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  12. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  13. Effect of mechanical properties on erosion resistance of ductile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris Feliksovih

    Solid particle erosion (SPE) resistance of ductile Fe, Ni, and Co-based alloys as well as commercially pure Ni and Cu was studied. A model for SPE behavior of ductile materials is presented. The model incorporates the mechanical properties of the materials at the deformation conditions associated with SPE process, as well as the evolution of these properties during the erosion induced deformation. An erosion parameter was formulated based on consideration of the energy loss during erosion, and incorporates the material's hardness and toughness at high strain rates. The erosion model predicts that materials combining high hardness and toughness can exhibit good erosion resistance. To measure mechanical properties of materials, high strain rate compression tests using Hopkinson bar technique were conducted at strain rates similar to those during erosion. From these tests, failure strength and strain during erosion were estimated and used to calculate toughness of the materials. The proposed erosion parameter shows good correlation with experimentally measured erosion rates for all tested materials. To analyze subsurface deformation during erosion, microhardness and nanoindentation tests were performed on the cross-sections of the eroded materials and the size of the plastically deformed zone and the increase in materials hardness due to erosion were determined. A nanoindentation method was developed to estimate the restitution coefficient within plastically deformed regions of the eroded samples which provides a measure of the rebounding ability of a material during particle impact. An increase in hardness near the eroded surface led to an increase in restitution coefficient. Also, the stress rates imposed below the eroded surface were comparable to those measured during high strain-rate compression tests (10sp3-10sp4 ssp{-1}). A new parameter, "area under the microhardness curve" was developed that represents the ability of a material to absorb impact energy. By

  14. Effect of six-month hypokinesia in dogs on mineral component, reconstruction and mechanical properties of bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Pavlova, M. P.; Muradov, I. S.; Stupakov, G. P.; Korzhenyants, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    Ca45 incorporation into the bones of the limbs, particularly in the area of the muscle attachment increased in dogs as a result of 6 month hypokinesia. There were no phenomena of osteoporosis in the cortical layer of the diaphyses; however, changes in the form of osteons, an increase in the number of anastomoses between the channels and the thinning of the subperiosteal layer pointed to disturbances of the bone tissue reconstruction. Mineral saturation of the bone microstructures of the experimental dogs had a tendency to rise. No changes in the mechanical properties of the long bones occurred as a result of hypokinesia in dogs.

  15. Elastic properties of synthetic materials for soft tissue modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansy, H A; Grahe, J R; Sandler, R H

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical models of soft tissue are useful for studying vibro-acoustic phenomena. They may be used for validating mathematical models and for testing new equipment and techniques. The objective of this study was to measure density and visco-elastic properties of synthetic materials that can be used to build such models. Samples of nine different materials were tested under dynamic (0.5 Hz) compressive loading conditions. The modulus of elasticity of the materials was varied, whenever possible, by adding a softener during manufacturing. The modulus was measured over a nine month period to quantify the effect of ageing and softener loss on material properties. Results showed that a wide range of the compression elasticity modulus (10 to 1400 kPa) and phase (3.5 0 -16.7 0 ) between stress and strain were possible. Some materials tended to exude softener over time, resulting in a weight loss and elastic properties change. While the weight loss under normal conditions was minimal in all materials (<3% over nine months), loss under accelerated weight-loss conditions can reach 59%. In the latter case an elasticity modulus increase of up to 500% was measured. Key advantages and limitations of candidate materials were identified and discussed

  16. Effect of porosity, tissue density, and mechanical properties on radial sound speed in human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneh, C. T. M., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi; Töyräs, J., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi; Jurvelin, J. S., E-mail: jukka.jurvelin@uef.fi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland and Diagnostic Imaging Center, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, Kuopio FI-70029 (Finland); Malo, M. K. H., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi; Liukkonen, J., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio FI-70211 (Finland); Karjalainen, J. P., E-mail: chibuzor.eneh@uef.fi, E-mail: markus.malo@uef.fi, E-mail: janne.karjalainen@boneindex.fi, E-mail: jukka.liukkonen@gmail.com, E-mail: juha.toyras@uef.fi [Bone Index Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1188, Kuopio FI-70211 (Finland)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous changes in cortical porosity, tissue mineral density, and elastic properties on radial speed of sound (SOS) in cortical bone. The authors applied quantitative pulse-echo (PE) ultrasound techniques that hold much potential especially for screening of osteoporosis at primary healthcare facilities. Currently, most PE measurements of cortical thickness, a well-known indicator of fracture risk, use a predefined estimate for SOS in bone to calculate thickness. Due to variation of cortical bone porosity, the use of a constant SOS value propagates to an unknown error in cortical thickness assessment by PE ultrasound. Methods: The authors conducted 2.25 and 5.00 MHz focused PE ultrasound time of flight measurements on femoral diaphyses of 18 cadavers in vitro. Cortical porosities of the samples were determined using microcomputed tomography and related to SOS in the samples. Additionally, the effect of cortical bone porosity and mechanical properties of the calcified matrix on SOS was investigated using numerical finite difference time domain simulations. Results: Both experimental measurements and simulations demonstrated significant negative correlation between radial SOS and cortical porosity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.493, p < 0.01 and R{sup 2} ≥ 0.989, p < 0.01, respectively). When a constant SOS was assumed for cortical bone, the error due to variation of cortical bone porosity (4.9%–16.4%) was about 6% in the cortical thickness assessment in vitro. Conclusions: Use of a predefined, constant value for radial SOS in cortical bone, i.e., neglecting the effect of measured variation in cortical porosity, propagated to an error of 6% in cortical thickness. This error can be critical as characteristic cortical thinning of 1.10% ± 1.06% per yr decreases bending strength of the distal radius and results in increased fragility in postmenopausal women. Provided that the cortical porosity can be estimated

  17. Effect of porosity, tissue density, and mechanical properties on radial sound speed in human cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneh, C. T. M.; Töyräs, J.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Malo, M. K. H.; Liukkonen, J.; Karjalainen, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous changes in cortical porosity, tissue mineral density, and elastic properties on radial speed of sound (SOS) in cortical bone. The authors applied quantitative pulse-echo (PE) ultrasound techniques that hold much potential especially for screening of osteoporosis at primary healthcare facilities. Currently, most PE measurements of cortical thickness, a well-known indicator of fracture risk, use a predefined estimate for SOS in bone to calculate thickness. Due to variation of cortical bone porosity, the use of a constant SOS value propagates to an unknown error in cortical thickness assessment by PE ultrasound. Methods: The authors conducted 2.25 and 5.00 MHz focused PE ultrasound time of flight measurements on femoral diaphyses of 18 cadavers in vitro. Cortical porosities of the samples were determined using microcomputed tomography and related to SOS in the samples. Additionally, the effect of cortical bone porosity and mechanical properties of the calcified matrix on SOS was investigated using numerical finite difference time domain simulations. Results: Both experimental measurements and simulations demonstrated significant negative correlation between radial SOS and cortical porosity (R"2 ≥ 0.493, p < 0.01 and R"2 ≥ 0.989, p < 0.01, respectively). When a constant SOS was assumed for cortical bone, the error due to variation of cortical bone porosity (4.9%–16.4%) was about 6% in the cortical thickness assessment in vitro. Conclusions: Use of a predefined, constant value for radial SOS in cortical bone, i.e., neglecting the effect of measured variation in cortical porosity, propagated to an error of 6% in cortical thickness. This error can be critical as characteristic cortical thinning of 1.10% ± 1.06% per yr decreases bending strength of the distal radius and results in increased fragility in postmenopausal women. Provided that the cortical porosity can be estimated in vivo

  18. Bone substitute material composition and morphology differentially modulate calcium and phosphate release through osteoclast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, A; Staubwasser, M; Dirk, C; Keilig, L; Bourauel, C; Götz, W; Jäger, A; Reichert, C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the material composition and cell-mediated remodelling of different calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Osteoclasts were cultivated on bone substitutes (Cerabone, Maxresorb, and NanoBone) for up to 5 days. Bafilomycin A1 addition served as the control. To determine cellular activity, the supernatant content of calcium and phosphate was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Cells were visualized on the materials by scanning electron microscopy. Material composition and surface characteristics were assessed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Osteoclast-induced calcium and phosphate release was material-specific. Maxresorb exhibited the highest ion release to the medium (P = 0.034; calcium 40.25mg/l day 5, phosphate 102.08 mg/l day 5) and NanoBone the lowest (P = 0.021; calcium 8.43 mg/l day 5, phosphate 15.15 mg/l day 5); Cerabone was intermediate (P = 0.034; calcium 16.34 mg/l day 5, phosphate 30.6 mg/l day 5). All investigated materials showed unique resorption behaviours. The presented methodology provides a new perspective on the investigation of bone substitute biodegradation, maintaining the material-specific micro- and macrostructure. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal elastic properties and porosity of cortical bone tissue vary with age in human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, M K H; Rohrbach, D; Isaksson, H; Töyräs, J; Jurvelin, J S; Tamminen, I S; Kröger, H; Raum, K

    2013-04-01

    Tissue level structural and mechanical properties are important determinants of bone strength. As an individual ages, microstructural changes occur in bone, e.g., trabeculae and cortex become thinner and porosity increases. However, it is not known how the elastic properties of bone change during aging. Bone tissue may lose its elasticity and become more brittle and prone to fractures as it ages. In the present study the age-dependent variation in the spatial distributions of microstructural and microelastic properties of the human femoral neck and shaft were evaluated by using acoustic microscopy. Although these properties may not be directly measured in vivo, there is a major interest to investigate their relationships with the linear elastic measurements obtained by diagnostic ultrasound at the most severe fracture sites, e.g., the femoral neck. However, before the validity of novel in vivo techniques can be established, it is essential to understand the age-dependent variation in tissue elastic properties and porosity at different skeletal sites. A total of 42 transverse cross-sectional bone samples were obtained from the femoral neck (Fn) and proximal femoral shaft (Ps) of 21 men (mean±SD age 47.1±17.8, range 17-82years). Samples were quantitatively imaged using a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) equipped with a 50MHz ultrasound transducer. Distributions of the elastic coefficient (c33) of cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tr) tissues and microstructure of cortex (cortical thickness Ct.Th and porosity Ct.Po) were determined. Variations in c33 were observed with respect to tissue type (c33Trc33(Ct.Fn)=35.3GPa>c33(Tr.Ps)=33.8GPa>c33(Tr.Fn)=31.9GPa), and cadaver age (R(2)=0.28-0.46, pbone tissue were observed. These findings may explain in part the increase in susceptibility to suffer low energy fractures during aging and highlight the potential of ultrasound in clinical osteoporosis diagnostics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Elastic properties of woven bone: effect of mineral content and collagen fibrils orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, J; Martínez-Reina, J

    2017-02-01

    Woven bone is a type of tissue that forms mainly during fracture healing or fetal bone development. Its microstructure can be modeled as a composite with a matrix of mineral (hydroxyapatite) and inclusions of collagen fibrils with a more or less random orientation. In the present study, its elastic properties were estimated as a function of composition (degree of mineralization) and fibril orientation. A self-consistent homogenization scheme considering randomness of inclusions' orientation was used for this purpose. Lacuno-canalicular porosity in the form of periodically distributed void inclusions was also considered. Assuming collagen fibrils to be uniformly oriented in all directions led to an isotropic tissue with a Young's modulus [Formula: see text] GPa, which is of the same order of magnitude as that of woven bone in fracture calluses. By contrast, assuming fibrils to have a preferential orientation resulted in a Young's modulus in the preferential direction of 9-16 GPa depending on the mineral content of the tissue. These results are consistent with experimental evidence for woven bone in foetuses, where collagen fibrils are aligned to a certain extent.

  1. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  2. Physicomechanical properties of porous fiber materials and prediction of them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostornov, A.G.; Galstyan, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is presented of the experimentally determined values of certain properties of porous fiber materials obtained by the optimum method from monodisperse fibers of copper, nickel, and Nichrome of different diameters with the corresponding theoretical values. The electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity, the basic properties of a porous body, which are determined both by the structural characteristics of the elements and by the condition of the interparticle contacts, were considered

  3. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    chosen so as to illustrate the large variety of physico-chemical properties encountered in inorganic materials, and to provide practical experience covering a wide range of preparative methods, with an emphasis on high-temperature techniques. The majority of the materials described in the book relate...... in extending their repertoire of teaching material into the realms of high-temperature synthesis. It is also of interest to professional chemists, physicists, materials scientists and technologists, ceramicists, mineralogists, geologists, geochemists, archaeologists, metallurgists, engineers, and non......-specialists, who are interested in learning more about how technological ceramic materials and artificial minerals are made. Finally, the author assumes that the reader is familiar with the basic principles and concepts of materials chemistry (or at least has access to such knowledge), such as; thermodynamic...

  4. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  5. Handbook on dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials

    CERN Document Server

    Komarov, Vyacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    The application of microwave energy for thermal processing of different materials and substances is a rapidly growing trend in modern science and engineering. In fact, optimal design work involving microwaves is impossible without solid knowledge of the properties of these materials. Here s a practical reference that collects essential data on the dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials, saving you countless hours on projects in a wide range of areas, including microwave design and heating, applied electrodynamics, food science, and medical technology. This unique book provides hard-to-find information on complex dielectric permittivity of media at industrial, scientific, and medical frequencies (430 MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8 GHz, and 24.125GHz). Written by a leading expert in the field, this authoritative book does an exceptional job at presenting critical data on various materials and explaining what their key characteristics are concerning microwaves.

  6. Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, A K; Rotaru, G-M; Derler, S; Spano, F; Camenzind, M; Annaheim, S; Stämpfli, R; Schmid, M; Rossi, R M

    2016-02-01

    For many applications in research, material development and testing, physical skin models are preferable to the use of human skin, because more reliable and reproducible results can be obtained. This article gives an overview of materials applied to model physical properties of human skin to encourage multidisciplinary approaches for more realistic testing and improved understanding of skin-material interactions. The literature databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'skin model', 'skin phantom', 'skin equivalent', 'synthetic skin', 'skin substitute', 'artificial skin', 'skin replica', and 'skin model substrate.' Articles addressing material developments or measurements that include the replication of skin properties or behaviour were analysed. It was found that the most common materials used to simulate skin are liquid suspensions, gelatinous substances, elastomers, epoxy resins, metals and textiles. Nano- and micro-fillers can be incorporated in the skin models to tune their physical properties. While numerous physical skin models have been reported, most developments are research field-specific and based on trial-and-error methods. As the complexity of advanced measurement techniques increases, new interdisciplinary approaches are needed in future to achieve refined models which realistically simulate multiple properties of human skin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fabrication and properties of submicrometer structures of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.I.; Velez, M.; Nogues, J.; Schuller, I.K.

    1998-01-01

    The method of electron beam lithography is described. This technique allows to fabricate well defined submicrometer structures of magnetic materials, that are suitable to show and study interesting physical properties by transport measurements either in Superconductivity or in Magnetism. In particular, using these structures, we have analyzed pinning effects of the vortex lattice in superconductors and magnetization reversal processes in magnetic materials. (Author) 15 refs

  8. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  9. Overview of European Community (Activity 3) work on materials properties of fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year

  10. Design, Materials, and Mechanobiology of Biodegradable Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Marco A.; Narváez-Tovar, Carlos A.; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    A review about design, manufacture, and mechanobiology of biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is given. First, fundamental aspects about bone tissue engineering and considerations related to scaffold design are established. Second, issues related to scaffold biomaterials and manufacturing processes are discussed. Finally, mechanobiology of bone tissue and computational models developed for simulating how bone healing occurs inside a scaffold are described. PMID:25883972

  11. Mechanical properties of bovine cortical bone based on the automated ball indentation technique and graphics processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Airong; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong

    2018-02-01

    Cortical bone provides the main form of support in humans and other vertebrates against various forces. Thus, capturing its mechanical properties is important. In this study, the mechanical properties of cortical bone were investigated by using automated ball indentation and graphics processing at both the macroscopic and microstructural levels under dry conditions. First, all polished samples were photographed under a metallographic microscope, and the area ratio of the circumferential lamellae and osteons was calculated through the graphics processing method. Second, fully-computer-controlled automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed to explore the micro-mechanical properties of the cortical bone at room temperature and a constant indenter speed. The indentation defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Finally, the macroscopic mechanical properties of the cortical bone were estimated with the graphics processing method and mixture rule. Combining ABI and graphics processing proved to be an effective tool to obtaining the mechanical properties of the cortical bone, and the indenter size had a significant effect on the measurement. The methods presented in this paper provide an innovative approach to acquiring the macroscopic mechanical properties of cortical bone in a nondestructive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tribological and Wear Properties of Multi-Layered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The usage of fabrics as reinforcements in composites is spreading due to fabrics’ properties. The use of fabrics allows obtaining of sinuous surfaces, for instance, unlike the use of prepregs. Using fabrics as reinforcements it is also possible to obtain laminate-like materials having the same matrix in all their volume. In the case of pre-pregs usage always it is necessary to discuss about the bonding between individual plies. For this study eight materials were formed. The forming method consisted in placing the pre-polymer imbued fabric pieces into a mould to obtain plates of composites. Two types of fabric were used: one simple type of untwisted tows of carbon fibres and the second one simple type of alternated untwisted tows of carbon and aramide fibres. Both fabrics were prepared in order to ensure the matrix adherence. The polymer matrix is realised from epoxy system EPIPHEN RE 4020 / EPIPHEN DE 4020 filled with clay and talc in equal amounts of 5% (weight ratio. The use of clay and talc were meant to improve the thermal dimensional stability of final materials. Tribological properties of formed materials were studied using pin-on-disk method with steel disk and pins made of materials. Both orientation of reinforcement fibres relative to friction direction were taken into account. Results are encouraging further studies in order to identify the best solution of forming a multi-component material with more than one designable property.

  13. Effects of porcine somatotropin and dietary phosphorus on growth performance and bone properties of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, T L; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Hansen, J A; Fitzner, G E; Friesen, K G; Laurin, J L

    1993-10-01

    One hundred eight gilts (initial weight = 58.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of porcine somatotropin (pST) and dietary P on growth performance and bone mechanical properties and mineralization during the finishing phase (58 to 105 kg) and a 35-d postfinishing phase. Gilts were injected daily with placebo (control) or 4 mg of pST and fed diets containing .4, .8, or 1.2% P in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. From 58 to 105 kg, administration of pST increased (P properties and bone ash. A pST x P interaction was observed (P < .05) for rib bending moment and modulus of elasticity; maximum rib bending moment was attained by control gilts at .8% P and rib modulus of elasticity values remained constant across P levels, whereas rib bending moment and modulus of elasticity increased as dietary P increased from .4 to 1.2% in pST-treated gilts. Administration of pST decreased (P < .05) stress of the rib, femur, and metacarpals compared with control gilts. Increasing dietary P resulted in a linear (P < .10) increase in bending moment, stress, and ash content for rib, femur, and metacarpal bones. The remaining 54 gilts were individually fed 1.8 kg/d of a common diet for 35 d postfinishing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The synthesis and properties of nanoscale ionic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert Salgado

    2010-02-17

    In this article we discuss the effect of constituents on structure, flow, and thermal properties of nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs). NIMs are a new class of nanohybrids consisting of a nanometer-sized core, a charged corona covalently attached to the core, and an oppositely charged canopy. The hybrid nature of NIMs allows for their properties to be engineered by selectively varying their components. The unique properties associated with these systems can help overcome some of the issues facing the implementation of nanohybrids to various commercial applications, including carbon dioxide capture,water desalinization and as lubricants. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Sun, Mei; Wei, Xianlong; Shan, Chongxin; Chen, Qing

    2018-03-23

    Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced.

  16. Antioxidant and bone repair properties of quercetin-functionalized hydroxyapatite: An in vitro osteoblast-osteoclast-endothelial cell co-culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Boanini, Elisa; Gazzano, Massimo; Rubini, Katia; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy-flavone) is a flavonoid known for its pharmacological activities, which include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as possible beneficial action on diseases involving bone loss. In this work, we explored the possibility to functionalize hydroxyapatite (HA) with quercetin in order to obtain new materials for bone repair through local administration of the flavonoid. HA was synthesized in presence of different concentrations of quercetin according to two different procedures: direct synthesis and phase transition from monetite. Direct synthesis lead to composite nanocrystals containing up to 3.1 wt% quercetin, which provokes a reduction of the crystals mean dimensions and of the length of the coherently scattering domains. Synthesis conditions provoke a partial oxidation of quercetin and, as a consequence, a significant reduction of its radical scavenging activity (RSA). On the other hand, synthesis through phase transition yields samples containing up to 1.3 wt% of quercetin incorporated into hydroxyapatite, with minor structural modifications, which exhibit relevant anti-oxidant activities, as testified by their high RSA levels, (slightly lower than that of pure quercetin). The biological response to these materials was tested using an innovative triculture model involving osteoblast, osteoclast and endothelial cells, in order to mimic bone microenvironment. The results show that the presence of quercetin in the composite materials enhances human osteoblast-like MG63 proliferation and differentiation, whereas it downregulates osteoclastogenesis of osteoclast precursors 2T-110, and supports proliferation and differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The pharmacological activities of the flavonoid quercetin include anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory properties, as well as capability to prevent bone loss. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize hydroxyapatite

  17. Effects of Zoledronate and Mechanical Loading during Simulated Weightlessness on Bone Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. T.; Nalavadi, M. O.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Castillo, A. B.; Alwood, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Space flight modulates bone remodeling to favor bone resorption. Current countermeasures include an anti-resorptive drug class, bisphosphonates (BP), and high-force loading regimens. Does the combination of anti-resorptives and high-force exercise during weightlessness have negative effects on the mechanical and structural properties of bone? In this study, we implemented an integrated model to mimic mechanical strain of exercise via cyclical loading (CL) in mice treated with the BP Zoledronate (ZOL) combined with hindlimb unloading (HU). Our working hypothesis is that CL combined with ZOL in the HU model induces additive structural and mechanical changes. Thirty-two C57BL6 mice (male,16 weeks old, n8group) were exposed to 3 weeks of either HU or normal ambulation (NA). Cohorts of mice received one subcutaneous injection of ZOL (45gkg), or saline vehicle, prior to experiment. The right tibia was axially loaded in vivo, 60xday to 9N in compression, repeated 3xweek during HU. During the application of compression, secant stiffness (SEC), a linear estimate of slope of the force displacement curve from rest (0.5N) to max load (9.0N), was calculated for each cycle once per week. Ex vivo CT was conducted on all subjects. For ex vivo mechanical properties, non-CL left femurs underwent 3-point bending. In the proximal tibial metaphysis, HU decreased, CL increased, and ZOL increased the cancellous bone volume to total volume ratio by -26, +21, and +33, respectively. Similar trends held for trabecular thickness and number. Ex vivo left femur mechanical properties revealed HU decreased stiffness (-37),and ZOL mitigated the HU stiffness losses (+78). Data on the ex vivo Ultimate Force followed similar trends. After 3 weeks, HU decreased in vivo SEC (-16). The combination of CL+HU appeared additive in bone structure and mechanical properties. However, when HU + CL + ZOL were combined, ZOL had no additional effect (p0.05) on in vivo SEC. Structural data followed this trend with

  18. A comprehensive study on the fabrication and properties of biocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/ceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Saeid; Hajiali, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of a suitable scaffold material is one of the major challenges for bone tissue engineering. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most favorable matrix materials in bone tissue engineering owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, PLA suffers from some shortcomings including low degradation rate, low cell adhesion caused by its hydrophobic property, and inflammatory reactions in vivo due to its degradation product, lactic acid. Therefore, the incorporation of bioactive reinforcements is considered as a powerful method to improve the properties of PLA. This review presents a comprehensive study on recent advances in the synthesis of PLA-based biocomposites containing ceramic reinforcements, including various methods of production and the evaluation of the scaffolds in terms of porosity, mechanical properties, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and bioactivity for bone tissue engineering applications. The production routes range from traditional approaches such as the use of porogens to provide porosity in the scaffolds to novel methods such as solid free-form techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the sterilization process on physical and mechanical properties of the bonacryl bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morejon, L.; Delgado, J.A.; Aguero, L.; Rapado, M.; Ginebra, M.P.; Gil, F.J.; Mendizabal, E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of bone cements of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fix artificial prosthesis to the human body is a habitual method in orthopedic surgery. The hip and the knee joints have a very complex biomechanics and support high loads, for these reasons, acrylic bone cements have to comply with international standards in order to secure the biofuncionality and durability of the implant. In this work we report the effect of sterilization by ethylene oxide or gamma radiation on the BONACRYL Cuban cement. We determined how sterilization methods affect the molecular weight of the polymer as well as its quasi-static mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the gamma radiation modifies the molecular weight of the PMMA although the compression and bending strength were not affected by the sterilization process applied. (authors)

  20. Stretchable polyurethane sponge reinforced magnetorheological material with enhanced mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liao, Guojiang; Yin, Tiantian; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-01-01

    A stretchable magnetorheological material (SMRM) consisting of micro-meter carbonyl iron (CI) particles, low cross-linking polyurethane (PU) polymer and porous PU sponge has been developed. Due to the presence of the PU sponge, the high-performance MR material can be reversibly stretched or bent, just as MR elastomers. When the CI content increases to 80 wt%, the magnetic induced modulus of the MR material can reach as high as 7.34 MPa and the corresponding relative MR effect increases to 820%. A possible strengthening mechanism of the SMRM was proposed. The attractive mechanical properties make the SMRM a promising candidate for future high-performance devices. (technical note)

  1. Microencapsulation of rifampicin: A technique to preserve the mechanical properties of bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ruiz, Pablo; Carbó-Laso, Esther; Del Real-Romero, Juan Carlos; Arán-Ais, Francisca; Ballesteros-Iglesias, Yolanda; Paz-Jiménez, Eva; Sánchez-Navarro, Magdalena; Pérez-Limiñana, María Ángeles; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Two-stage exchange with antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers remains the gold standard for chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Rifampicin is highly efficient on stationary-phase staphylococci in biofilm; however, its addition to PMMA to manufacture spacers prevents polymerization and reduces mechanical properties. Isolation of rifampicin during polymerization by microencapsulation could allow manufacturing rifampicin-loaded bone cement maintaining elution and mechanical properties. Microcapsules of rifampicin with alginate, polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate (PHBV), ethylcellulose and stearic acid (SA) were synthesized. Alginate and PHBV microcapsules were added to bone cement and elution, compression, bending, hardness, setting time and microbiological tests were performed. Repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were performed, considering a p cement specimens containing alginate microcapsules eluted more rifampicin than PHBV microcapsules or non-encapsulated rifampicin over time (p Cement with alginate microcapsules showed similar behavior in hardness tests to control cement over the study period (73 ± 1.68H D ). PMMA with alginate microcapsules exhibited the largest zones of inhibition in microbiological tests. Statistically significant differences in mean diameters of zones of inhibition between PMMA loaded with alginate-rifampicin (p = 0.0001) and alginate-PHBV microcapsules (p = 0.0001) were detected. Rifampicin microencapsulation with alginate is the best choice to introduce rifampicin in PMMA preserving mechanical properties, setting time, elution, and antimicrobial properties. The main applicability of this study is the opportunity for obtaining rifampicin-loaded PMMA by microencapsulation of rifampicin in alginate microparticles, achieving high doses of rifampicin in infected tissues, increasing the successful of PJI treatment. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res

  2. The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications. Part II: milled bone powders, reprecipitated hydroxyapatite and the potential uses of these materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G S; Mucalo, M R; Lorier, M A; Gieland, U; Mucha, H

    2000-11-01

    Further studies on the processing and use of animal-bone-derived calcium phosphate materials in biomedical applications are presented. Bone powders sourced either from the direct crushing and milling of bovine, ovine and cervine bone or after being subjected to defatting and acid digestion/NaOH reprecipitation and sodium hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide treatment of animal bones were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 13C solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometric techniques. Bone powders were trialled for their potential use as a substrate for phosphine coupling and enzyme immobilization as well as a feedstock powder for plasma spraying on titanium metal substrates. Results indicated that enzyme immobilization by phosphine coupling could be successfully achieved on milled cervine bone with the immobilized enzyme retaining some activity. It was found that the presence of impurities normally carried down with the processing of the bone materials (viz., fat and collagen) played an important role in influencing the adsorbency and reactivity of the powders. Plasma spraying studies using reprecipitated bovine-derived powders produced highly adherent coatings on titanium metal, the composition of which was mostly hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) with low levels of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-Ca3(PO4)2) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4P2O9) also detected. In general, animal derived calcium phosphate materials constitute a potentially cheaper source of calcium phosphate materials for biomedical applications and make use of a largely under-utilized resource from abattoir wastes. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  3. Learning to Apply Models of Materials While Explaining Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpin, Tiia; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying structural models is important to chemistry education at the upper secondary level, but it is considered one of the most difficult topics to learn. Purpose: This study analyses to what extent in designed lessons students learned to apply structural models in explaining the properties and behaviours of various materials.…

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiC materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarahmadi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of SiC materials of different chemical composition (SSiC, SiSiC, and RSiC) was investigated. Furthermore, the creep strength was determined on oxidized samples and on non-pretreated samples. (HSCH)

  5. Adjustment of Part Properties for an Elastomeric Laser Sintering Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, A.; Ünlü, T.

    2018-03-01

    Laser sintering of polymers is gaining more and more importance within the field of small series productions. Polyamide 12 is predominantly used, although a variety of other materials are also available for the laser sintering process. For example, elastomeric, rubberlike materials offer very different part property profiles. Those make the production of flexible parts like, e.g., sealings, flexible tubes or shoe soles possible because they offer high part ductility and low hardness. At the chair for manufacturing technology, a new elastomeric laser sintering material has been developed and then commercialized by a spin-off from university. The aim of the presented study was the analysis of the new material's properties. Proof was found that Shore hardness can be modified by varying the parameter settings. Therefore, the correlation between process parameters, energy input, Shore hardness and other part properties like mechanical properties were analyzed. Based on these results, suitable parameter settings were established which lead to the possibility of producing parts with different Shore hardnesses.

  6. Low temperature radiative properties of materials used in cryogenics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Věra; Hanzelka, Pavel; Králík, Tomáš; Srnka, Aleš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2005), s. 529-536 ISSN 0011-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2065109 Keywords : structural materials * radiant properties * cryostats Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.762, year: 2005

  7. Mechanics of advanced materials analysis of properties and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Matveenko, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The last decades have seen a large extension of types of materials employed in various applications. In many cases these materials demonstrate mechanical properties and performance that vary significantly from those of their traditional counterparts. Such uniqueness is sought – or even specially manufactured – to meet increased requirements on modern components and structures related to their specific use. As a result, mechanical behaviors of these materials under different loading and environmental conditions are outside the boundaries of traditional mechanics of materials, presupposing development of new characterization techniques, theoretical descriptions and numerical tools. The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc.

  8. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Re; Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao; Qin Qinghua; Liu Jianlin

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  9. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Re [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Qinghua [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu Jianlin, E-mail: fengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  10. Properties of selected superconductive materials, 1978 supplement. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.W.

    1978-10-01

    This report includes data on additional superconductive materials extracted from the world literature up to fall 1977 and is an addendum to the data set published in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, no. 3, 581-821 (1976) (Reprint no. 84). The data presented are new values and have not been selected or compared to values (except for selected values of the elements) previously assembled by the Superconductive Materials Data Center. The properties included are composition, critical temperature, critical magnetic field, crystal structure and the results of negative experiments. Special tabulations of high magnetic field materials with Type II behavior and materials with organic components are included. All entries are keyed to the literature. A list of recent reviews centered on superconductive materials is included

  11. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  12. Mechanical properties of freeze-dried and irradiated bone chips, fascia lata and dura mater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Guzman, Z.M.; Vajaradul, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The comparison strengths of freeze-dried and irradiated bone chips such as three-dimensional cortex (3DC) and two-cortico cancellous (2CC) are investigated. The results show that the (3DC) exhibits a higher compression strength (1.2kN cm -2 in deep frozen states. Rehydration of the freeze-dried bone chips after 15 min with normal saline solution restores the strength of materials by 30%. The tensile strengths of fascia lata and dura mater are also studied. A marked decrease of tensile strength is noted in the irradiated and freeze-dried samples, however, reconstitution with normal saline solution restores the tensile strength of the tissues to about 40-56%. (author). 8 refs., 6figs

  13. Effects of pore shape and porosity on the properties of porous LNKN ceramics as bone substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Chen Qiang; Zhu Jianguo; Huang Chunpeng; Darvell, Brian W.; Chen Zhiqing

    2008-01-01

    A porous lead-free piezoelectric ceramic is investigated as direct bone substitute. Porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (Li 0.06 Na 0.5 K 0.44 )NbO 3 specimens were prepared by pore-forming method. Different volume fraction of ammonium oxalate monohydrate and poly(methyl methacrylate) were used as porogens to obtain different pore shape and porosity. Scanning electron microscopy showed a bicontinuous 3-3 structure of interconnected pores 150-250 μm in size. The piezoelectric constants and electromechanical coupling coefficients may be controlled by both size and shape of the porogens to tune for the best biological response. Such materials show promise for use as a piezoelectric composite bone substitute

  14. Identification of material