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Sample records for bone marrow scintigraphy

  1. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.; Altmeyer, P.; Chilf, G.; Schlesinger, G.; Holzmann, H.; Hoer, G.

    1982-01-01

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  2. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  3. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortynova, J.; Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111 InCl 3 ;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111 InCl 3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111 InCl 3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  4. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortynova, J. (Ustav Hematologie a Krevni Transfuze, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav)

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/; some patients were examined using both indicators. /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia.

  5. Bone marrow scintigraphy vs bone scintigraphy and radiography in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feggi, M.; Prandini, N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Scutellari, P.N.; Spanedda, R.; Gennari, M.; Scapoli, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiography patterns of the skeleton of 73 patients affected by multiple myeloma (MM) were compared to the correspondent scintigraphic findings. Whole body scans were performed using Tc-diphosphonates 99m (bone scintigraphy). And Tc-microcolloides 99m (bone marrow scintigraphy). The results indicate that: a) radiography is more sensitive and accurate than scintigraphy in detecting typical myeloma-related bone lesions; b) bone scintigraphy is useful in detecting alterations in particular locations-i.e. sternum, ribs, scapulae, etc.-which are difficult to demonstrate by plain X-rays; moreover, the recovery of the fractures can be visualized; c) bone marrow scintigraphy is employed to demonstrate the presence of marrow expasion, of cold/hot spots, and relative marrow uptake, related to phagocytic activity. Since in adult men red marrow is confined to the epiphysis of long bones and to the spine, all the diseases affecting bone marrow cause medullary expansion/reduction, which are both easily detected by specific radiopharmaceuticals. The peripheral expasions is clearly documented especially in distal humeri and femora since marrow uptake is included, in healthy adults, in the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton. In spite of its yielding unique informetion, bone marrow scintigraphy remains an additional technique of bone scan, because of its low diagnoditc accuracy

  6. Patterns of bone-marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.J.; Lee, G.S.; Narvaez, M.; Marciano, D.

    1977-01-01

    111 In-transferrin, radiocolloid and bone scans were performed within one week on 105 from more than 250 scanned patients with different haematological disorders. All patients had complete haematological workups and confirmed final diagnoses. From the comparison of the 111 In-transferrin marrow scan with the radiocolloid marrow scan and bone scan, eight basic patterns of localized or generalized disorders in the bone marrow cell production were delineated. The first pattern was called a cold area and two sub-patterns were distinguished in it. A cold area in the erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial scans associated with cold or normal areas in the bone scan corresponded to radiation damage of the marrow or multiple myeloma; a cold area in both marrow scans with a hot area in the bone scan to tumour, infarct and bone trauma. The second pattern was called a hot area. A hot area in the two marrow scans with a normal bone scan was observed in islands of active bone-marrow. Hot areas in both 111 In-transferrin and bone scan associated with a cold area in the radiocolloid scan were observed in tumours growing in bones with or without little active bone marrow. Hot areas on the three scans were observed in osteomyelitis of bones of the extremities. The third pattern was bone-marrow expansion, which was observed in hereditary haemolytic anaemias, in myeloproliferative disorders and in patients with bone-marrow damage following irradiation. The fourth pattern was saturation of the serum iron-binding capacity and it was manifested by increased activity in the kidneys in the 111 In-transferrin scan. The fifth pattern was bone-marrow failure which consists of decreased accumulation in the marrow and increased accumulation in the liver of marrow-seeking agents associated with normal bone scan. The sixth pattern, pure red cell aplasia, was characterized by less accumulation of 111 In-transferrin than radiocolloid in the bone marrow. The seventh pattern, bone-marrow siderosis

  7. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Jae Tae; Baek, Jin Ho

    1998-01-01

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99m Tc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  8. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Masayasu; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1977-01-01

    111 In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  9. Scintigraphy of bone marrow for neoplastic lesions in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, J.; Zimacek, J.; Wagnerova, M.; Szabova, J.; Sirakova, I.; Frolo, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 259 patients including 124 females with breast carcinoma using the technique of 99m Tc-labelled colloid retention by phagocytizing cells, thus visualizing the reticuloendothelial component of the bone marrow. The objective was to early diagnose hematogenic metastases. In five patients, simultaneous skeleton scintiscanning was not performed. The technique was shown to play a role in early diagnosis of bone metastases and of bone lesions in less usual loci and especially in the differential diagnosis of nonmalignant bone disease, such as arthrosis. Its constraints include an intensive cumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the liver and the splenic reticuloendothelial systems, which precludes the assessment of the bone marrow in the adjacent areas; further a difficult interpretation of the results, high cost and long time of examination. It has no role in patients with disseminated forms of the disease with multiple bone metastases already shown by scintigraphy. Bone marrow scintigraphy alone is not a reliable method for early diagnosis of breast carcinoma (L.O.)

  10. The usefulness of bone marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Rikushi

    1985-01-01

    A combination study of bone and bone marrow scintigraphy was performed on 25 pts with prostatic cancer, and, in order to study the usefulness in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, the findings of 2 scintigraphies were compared with those of skeletal roentgenography. Out of the 18 cases with the hot spots of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in the lower lumbar spine or/and the pelvic bone, 8 showed normal bone marrow scintigrams which were eventually proved to have degenerative changes of the spine accompanied by aging. On the other hand, nine cases of the ten, who had accumulation defects on the bone marrow scintigrams were finally proved having bone metastasis. All six cases with extensive bone metastases shown by bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP, demonstrated multiple accumulation defects on bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. In conclusion, bone marrow scintigraphy was thought to be helpful in distinguishing the metastatic lesions from the benign spinal degenerative changes in the cases with suspicions bone involvement and in evaluating equivocal lesions in the pelvis. Therefore, it was shown that, in the detection and diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer, bone scintigraphy alone was insufficient, and that combination with bone marrow scintigraphy was found to be useful. (author)

  11. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Ueno, Kyoichi; Sugihara, Masami; Tada, Akira; Tonami, Norihisa

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that 111 In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111 In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111 In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111 In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111 In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111 In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111 In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111 In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  12. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki

    1986-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99m Tc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  13. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 3. The bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride

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    Fujimori, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    A study was made to determine wheter or not bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In chloride delineates the real distribution of hematopoietic cells. In a patient with acute myelogenous luekemia at the stage of complete remission, there was a significant incorporation of /sup 111/In into bone marrow cells (20 - 28% compared with 6% in the controls). Incorporation of /sup 111/In into peripheral blood cells was 0 at after 10 hours and 5% to 6% after 7 days. The plasma disappearance curve of /sup 111/In consisted of 2 exponential components, one with a half-life of 6.5 to 9.5 hours followed by a slow component with a half-life of 20 to 30 hours. 5 to 7% of the injected dose was excreted in the urine in 24 hours. The distribution of active marrow was investigated with bone marrow scintigraphy in various hematological disorders and the results were compared with those obtained with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid. The results obtained in this study suggest that /sup 111/In is incorporated into erythroid precursors, and that this property of /sup 111/In makes in an ideal bone marrow scanning agent for observation of real hematopoietic bone marrow distribution in blood disease.

  14. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 2. The bone marrow distribution in leukemia

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    Fujimori, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    Distribution of the leukemic marrow was investigated in 42 cases by bone marrow scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in association with clinical findings and ferrokinetics studies in order to clarify hematopoietic function in leukemia. 17 of chronic myelogenous leukemia, 3 of lymphatic leukemia, 2 of monocytic leukemia, 7 of atypical leukemia and one of erythroleukemia. 12 acute myelogenous leukemia were classified into 3 types A, B and C. Type A showed the distribution similar to those obtained with normal controls. Ferrokinetics studies, however, indicated complete absence of erythropoiesis. Type B showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites, although ferrokinetics data showed normal erythropoeitic function. Type C showed abnormal concentration of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the tibiae. 17 chronic myelogenous leukemia showed reduced sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites and remarkable expanded marrow extending into distal femurs, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of feet. 2 acute lymphotic leukemia patients showed complete absence of sup(99m)Tc activity. The one chronic type showed almost normal distribution. Monocytic leukemia showed decreased marrow distribution in the sternum and vertebrae. Of 6 atypical leukemias one showed almost normal distribution. The others, including a case with hypoplastic luekemia, demonstrated marrow extension similar to that observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia or monocytic leukemia. Erythroleukemia showed increased concentrations of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites and marked marrow expansion throughout all long bones. These results suggest that there is a discrepancy between bone marrow distribution and hematopoietic function in the cases of acute myelogenous leukemia.

  15. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, B.; Aspelin, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in relation to clinical outcome in bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: A total of 70 radiographies and 70 bone scintigraphies were compared in 35 patients. Results: The skull, the extremities, the iliac and public bones were better assessed with radiography. For new vertebral lesions and for lesions in the ribs and sternum, bone scintigraphy proved superior. For the sacrum, the methods were equal. When bone scintigraphy was used as a complement to radiography, 4% more pathological sites were found. No patient had both a normal radiography and a pathological bone scintigraphy, but 5 patients had both a normal bone scintigraphy and a pathological radiography. The results of the radiological examinations did not always correlate with the clinician's grading of the patient's disease. The radiological examinations had no prognostic value for the 7 patients examined on several occasions. Conclusion: The ability of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy to disclose myeloma lesions varies, depending on location and size of the lesions. Radiography should remain the primary examination modality also for bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients. Bone scintigraphy can severe as a complement for investigating unexplained pain, e.g. caused by lesions in vertebrae or ribs. (orig.)

  16. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuhiko

    1976-01-01

    Distribution of the leukemic marrow was investigated in 42 cases by bone marrow scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in association with clinical findings and ferrokinetics studies in order to clarify hematopoietic function in leukemia. 17 of chronic myelogenous leukemia, 3 of lymphatic leukemia, 2 of monocytic leukemia, 7 of atypical leukemia and one of erythroleukemia. 12 acute myelogenous leukemia were classified into 3 types A, B and C. Type A showed the distribution similar to those obtained with normal controls. Ferrokinetics studies, however, indicated complete absence of erythropoiesis. Type B showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites, although ferrokinetics data showed normal erythropoeitic function. Type C showed abnormal concentration of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the tibiae. 17 chronic myelogenous leukemia showed reduced sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites and remarkable expanded marrow extending into distal femurs, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of feet. 2 acute lymphotic leukemia patients showed complete absence of sup(99m)Tc activity. The one chronic type showed almost normal distribution. Monocytic leukemia showed decreased marrow distribution in the sternum and vertebrae. Of 6 atypical leukemias one showed almost normal distribution. The others, including a case with hypoplastic luekemia, demonstrated marrow extension similar to that observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia or monocytic leukemia. Erythroleukemia showed increased concentrations of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites and marked marrow expansion throughout all long bones. These results suggest that there is a discrepancy between bone marrow distribution and hematopoietic function in the cases of acute myelogenous leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  17. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy in the diagnosis of neoplastic involvement of the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, S.; Marietta, M.; Rinaldi, G.; Torelli, U.; Pantusa, M.; Romani, F.; Zaniol, P.

    1987-01-01

    Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy has been performed in 16 patients with epithelial tumor or lymphoproliferative diseases and in 22 patients affected by multiple myeloma. The first technique revealed skeletal alterations in 60.5% of all the patients; the second in 42.1%. In 21 cases, however, there was agreement between bone and bone marrow radionuclide imaging, making possible a more accurate etiological diagnosis of the hot areas found in skeletal scintigraphy. In patients with multiple myeloma we found a high correlation between the marrow distribution pattern and the plasmocytoma staging accoding to Durie and Salmon. It is thoght therefore that bone marrow scintigraphy may be useful sice it provides a further diagnostic tool for a better clinical staging of patients with multiple myeloma

  18. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  19. The clinical experience of radiocolloid bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaev, S.V.; Novikov, S.N.; Zhukova, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of the bone marrow (BM) scintigraphy in 129 patients with various malignant neoplasms and 10 practically healthy persons are discussed. Domestic preparations Technefit and Koren labelled with 99m Tc and injected intravenously were used as radiopharmaceuticals. Apex-SP6 gamma camers (Eliscint company, Israel) was applied. The possibility of obtaining BM qualitative pattern permitting to perform the efficient diagnosis o BM metastases in oncological patients is shown. Dependence between the expansion of colloid radiopharmaceuticals concentration area (hemopoiesis peripheric expansion rate) and the BM metastases availability was not confirmed

  20. The usefulness of bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki; Yoneda, Masaya; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Muranaka, Akira; Morita, Rikushi; Saito, Noriaki; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1985-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 25 patients with prostatic cancer. Of the 18 cases whose sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed hot spots in the lower lumbar region of the spine and/or the pelvic bone, 8 had normal bone-marrow scintigrams. These 8 patients, were subsequently shown to have senile, degenerative changes of the spine. On the other hand, in 9 of the 10 patients whose bone-marrow scintigrams showed accumulation defects, follow-up study and characteristic X-ray findings confirmed the presence of metastases. In all 6 cases with extensive bone metastases shown by sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc-sulphur-colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy showed multiple accumulation defects. In conclusion, bone-marrow scintigraphy was found to be useful in distinguishing metastatic lesions from benign degenerative changes in the cases with suspected bone involvement, as well as in evaluating equivocal lesions in the pelvis. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, S.; Cordes, M.; Friedrichs, R.; Hosten, N.; Neumann, K.; Langer, R.; Nagel, R.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [ 99m Tc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.) [de

  2. Bone marrow scintigraphy in the diagnosis of post-traumatic avascular necrosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, D.J.; Watt, I.

    1989-01-01

    A series of 19 patients, suspected of developing avascular necrosis of bone following fracture, were entered into a pilot study comparing the use of bone marrow scintigraphy with conventional skeletal scintigraphy. Two-phase bone scintigraphy, using 600 MBq of 99 Tc m -HMDP, and perfusion and late-phase nanocolloid scintigraphy, using 370 MBq of 99 Tc m -nanocolloid, were performed on each patient. Photon deficiency at the site of interest was taken to indicate avascularity. The perfusion phase of both methods was found to be unhelpful. Agreement between methods was obtained in 18 patients (95%). Six patients had abnormal nanocolloid scans, one of which was normal on the conventional bone scintigram. The remaining 13 patients had no evidence to suggest avascularity in either method. Three patients with abnormal scans have had hip replacement survey following which avascularity of the femoral head was confirmed. (author)

  3. Bone marrow scintigraphy in the diagnosis of post-traumatic avascular necrosis of bone

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    Tawn, D J; Watt, I [Bristol Royal Infirmary (UK)

    1989-09-01

    A series of 19 patients, suspected of developing avascular necrosis of bone following fracture, were entered into a pilot study comparing the use of bone marrow scintigraphy with conventional skeletal scintigraphy. Two-phase bone scintigraphy, using 600 MBq of {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMDP, and perfusion and late-phase nanocolloid scintigraphy, using 370 MBq of {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-nanocolloid, were performed on each patient. Photon deficiency at the site of interest was taken to indicate avascularity. The perfusion phase of both methods was found to be unhelpful. Agreement between methods was obtained in 18 patients (95%). Six patients had abnormal nanocolloid scans, one of which was normal on the conventional bone scintigram. The remaining 13 patients had no evidence to suggest avascularity in either method. Three patients with abnormal scans have had hip replacement survey following which avascularity of the femoral head was confirmed. (author).

  4. Central and peripheral distribution of bone marrow on bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocytic antibody in hematologic malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young [Dong-A University College of Medicne, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Tae; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy has been used to evaluate the status of bone marrow in various hematologic disorders. We have analyzed the peripheral distribution pattern and central uptake ratio of bone marrow using anti-NCA-95 monoclonal antibody and the their correlation in patients with various hematologic malignancy. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m anti-granulocyte monoclonal mouse antibody BW 250/183. Fifty patients were classified into four groups; 11 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 12 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 15 with lymphoma and 12 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Th extension of peripheral bone marrow was categorized into four grades: I, II, III and IV. The activity of central bone marrow was expressed as sacroiliac uptake ratio. The patient's number was 4 in grade I, 27 in grade II, 15 in grade III and 4 in grade IV according to extension of peripheral bone marrow. The extension of peripheral bone marrow was marked (58% in grade III and IV) in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukemia and mild (93% in grade I and II) in lymphoma. Sacroiliac uptake ratio was highest (8.5{+-}4.0) in myelodysplastic syndrome and lowest (5.9{+-}3.6) in acute myelogenous leukemia, but not significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). Sacroiliac uptake ratio of whole patients was significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). The pattern of peripheral bone marrow extension and activity of central hemopoietic marrow were not specific to the disease entities. Response of hemopoietic bone marrow may be evaluated on both peripheral and central bone marrow in patients with hematologic malignancy.

  5. Central and peripheral distribution of bone marrow on bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocytic antibody in hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2002-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy has been used to evaluate the status of bone marrow in various hematologic disorders. We have analyzed the peripheral distribution pattern and central uptake ratio of bone marrow using anti-NCA-95 monoclonal antibody and the their correlation in patients with various hematologic malignancy. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m anti-granulocyte monoclonal mouse antibody BW 250/183. Fifty patients were classified into four groups; 11 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 12 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 15 with lymphoma and 12 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Th extension of peripheral bone marrow was categorized into four grades: I, II, III and IV. The activity of central bone marrow was expressed as sacroiliac uptake ratio. The patient's number was 4 in grade I, 27 in grade II, 15 in grade III and 4 in grade IV according to extension of peripheral bone marrow. The extension of peripheral bone marrow was marked (58% in grade III and IV) in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukemia and mild (93% in grade I and II) in lymphoma. Sacroiliac uptake ratio was highest (8.5±4.0) in myelodysplastic syndrome and lowest (5.9±3.6) in acute myelogenous leukemia, but not significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). Sacroiliac uptake ratio of whole patients was significantly different among four grades (p=0.003), but there was not correlated between grade of peripheral bone marrow and sacroiliac uptake ratio (r=0.05). The pattern of peripheral bone marrow extension and activity of central hemopoietic marrow were not specific to the disease entities. Response of hemopoietic bone marrow may be evaluated on both peripheral and central bone marrow in patients with hematologic malignancy

  6. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of {sup 69}Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  7. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of 67 Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of 69 Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  8. Bone marrow NMR imaging and scintigraphy in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, P.; Waters, W.; Schicha, H.; Rasokat, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    The examinations were carried out in order to ascertain whether bone marrow abnormalities can be detected in AIDS patients by means of magnetic resonance imaging or scintiscanning. In 16 of the 19 patients the NMR image and/or the scintiscan distinctly revealed bone marrow abnormalities, but there was no exact correlation to be found to immunological parameters, the peripheral blood picture, or the clinical stage of the HIV infection. (orig.) [de

  9. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  10. Bone marrow scintigraphy. An aid to the diagnosis and prognosis of myelofibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rain, J.D.; Najean, Y.

    1993-01-01

    During the last three years 77 patients with myelofibrosis were studied by scintigraphy, using 99m Tc colloids and 111 in transferring as tracers. Low axial uptake of the colloids, extension of the indium uptake beyond the axis towards the knees and sometimes the ankles and elbows, and splenic indium uptake are valuable diagnostic criteria, particularly useful to exclude myelofibrosis associated with a malignant disorder. The clinical severity of the disease, and in particular the disappearance of physiologically active bone marrow (indium uptake) can be predicted from isotopic studies. Bone marrow scintigraphy could contribute to the difficult decision of splenectomy

  11. Bone marrow radioimmune scintigraphy in the assessment of breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klissarova, A.; Georgieva, Zh.; Tsekov, H.; Temelkov, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Breast cancer is the most common cancer, affecting women in all developed countries of the world. 60 to 70% of women who die with breast cancer have bone metastases. These metastases are currently detected by means of bone scintigraphy and X-ray examinations. Serial bone scans provide significant prognostic information but the assessment of the treatment response remains a problem as the 'flare phenomena' seen shortly after treatment causes difficulty in interpretation of the bone scan. Moreover, an unchanged bone scan findings do not always indicate poor / absent response to therapy. The assessment of bone marrow regeneration in patients with breast cancer is important because it is the primary site of metastases. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy treatment in patients with breast cancer by means of radioimmuno bone marrow scintigraphy. We studied 15 patients (mean age 63 years) with advanced breast cancer (II - III stage) and bone metastases revealed by whole body bone scintigraphy and X-ray examination. All patients were treated with two courses of chemotherapy with FEC (Farmorubicin, Cyclophosphamide and 5-Fuoracil) at an interval of four weeks. After the treatment, all patients underwent bone marrow radioimmuno scintigraphy with AGMoAb BW 250/183 (Granulozyt). The AGMoAb was injected by slow intravenous injection in a dose 0.5 mg labelled with 740 Mbq of Tc-99m in a volume of 2 ml of. The images were obtained between 5 - 6 hours after the injection. Whole body scan was performed in anterior and posterior views under a gamma camera (DIACAM-Siemens) coupled with low energy collimator. Radioimmuno imaging before surgery and chemotherapy showed absence of granulopoeitic bone marrow in many areas of the skeleton coinciding with the bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy. Radioimmuno imaging performed after chemotherapy demonstrated presence of bone marrow in 8 patients (53%) in areas where it was previously absent

  12. Scintigraphy of the bone marrow with 111In-citrin in polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhod'ko, A.G.; Sheptun, A.N.; Vikman, Ya.Eh.; Sorokin, I.N.; Rozdil'skij, S.I.; Zabobonina, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the bone marrow with 111 In-citrin was performed in 32 patients with polycythemia vera and 8 controls. The method ensured an objective assessment of bone marrow function in patients with polycythemia vera. A characteristic RP scintigraphic picture corresponded to different clinical stages of the disease. A degree of a decrease in the blood radioactivity within 24 h after i.v. administration of 111 In-citrin reflected the summary erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow and could serve as a differential diagnostic criterion in determining a stage of polycythemia vera

  13. Studies on 99Tcm-sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Zhang Yifan; Jia Fangxian; Kang Fu; Jian Shiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the imaging features and changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) as well as its clinical significance. Methods: Bone marrow scintigraphy using 99 Tc m -sulfur colloid 370-550 MBq was performed on 85 MPD patients, including 40 cases of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), 15 of polycythemia vera (PV), 5 of essential thrombocythaemia (ET), 30 of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Also, 40 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were observed in this study. Results: Abnormal bone marrow imaging was found in 88.2% of the 85 patients. The suppression rate of central bone marrow (CBM) and expansion rate of peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in these MPD patients were 61.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The imaging patterns was classified into three types according to the distribution and activity of bone marrow. 1) reduced imaging (31.8%); 2) increased and expanded imaging (27.1%); 3) depressed and expanded imaging (29.4%). Splenomegaly with minimal residual marrow activity was typical for late stages of MPD. Expansion of PBM was the further feature, but of no major importance for improving hematopoiesis of MPD, and it tended to retract during clinical recovery in chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). With expanding PBM, unmatched peripheral blood decreasing was found in MDS. The expansion pattern of PBM in different MPD was of relatively definite features. Conclusions: The imaging pattern of bone marrow was correlated with blood work-up data and clinical course or stages of MPD. Bone marrow scintigraphy may be proven useful in differential diagnosis and evaluation of clinical staging and prognosis of MPD

  14. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuhiko

    1976-01-01

    In 42 patients with hypoplastic anemia, 10 mCi of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was injected intravenously, and scanning was performed one hour later with a Pho/Gamma III scintillation camera. Active bone marrow was usually found in the sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, and the poximal ends of humeri and femurs. These 42 cases were classified into 5 types according to distribution pattern. Type 1 (4 cases) showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites. Ferrokinetic studies indicated remarkable erythropoietic hypofunction. Type 2 (18 cases) showed island-like distribution of marrow in the pelvis or in the heads of humeri and femurs. Type 3 (6 cases) showed approximately normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the sternum and the vertebrae, but no activity in the pelvis; or showed the apposite distribution. Marrow specimens obtained from the sternum and the pelvis showed differences in cellularity in such cases. Type 4 (8 cases) were divided into two groups, A and B. Four patients of group A showed decreased uptake of the colloid in the usual marrow sites, but expanded marrow extending into distal femous, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of the feet. These patients subsequently developed leukemia. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy or when leukemic features appeared during the clinical course. The remaining cases, group B, showed island-like sup(99m)Tc activity in the tibia. Until then, there had been no signs of leukemia. Type 5 (6 cases) showed normal distribution with below-normal uptake. It is concluded that the reduction of hematopoietic tissue mass is the main cause of decreased hematopoiesis in hypoplastic anemia. (J.P.N.)

  15. Combined use of bone and bone marrow scintigraphies for the diagnosis of active sacroiliitis. A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, M.F.; Ugur, O.; Ertenli, I.; Caner, B. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Diagnosis of sacroiliitis (SI) with bone scintigraphy may involve difficulties even with a quantitative approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined use of bone and bone marrow scintigraphies for the diagnosis of active sacroiliitis. Thirty-one patients who were clinically suspected to have SI were included in the study. Bone and marrow scintigraphies were done after injections of 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (MDP) and 370 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid (SC) respectively with a 2-day interval. Both visual and quantitative assessment of MDP uptake and visual assessment of SC uptake in sacroiliac joints were performed. Also sacroiliac joint radiographic findings for each patient were evaluated and graded from 0 to 4 according to the New York grading system. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their x-ray findings (Group A: grade 0-2, Group B: grade 3-4). A total of 14 patients (10 bilateral, 4 unilateral) had increased MDP uptake with decreased/normal SC uptake. Twelve of 14 patients had grade 0-2 radiographic changes while only 2 patients had grade 3-4 radiographic changes. Increased MDP uptake with decreased/normal SC uptake is the most common scintigraphic pattern seen in acute phase SI in which radiographic findings are generally found to be normal or slightly changed. In at least in 8 patients the decreased bone marrow uptake of SC was demonstrated, supporting the diagnosis. Although our results did not reveal any significant superiority of bone marrow scintigraphy to bone scan for the detection of active sacroiliitis, combined use of bone and bone marrow scintigraphies was presented as an alternative method to characterize patients with active sacroiliitis. (author)

  16. Bone marrow scintigraphy: evaluation of damage caused by cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciambellotti, E.; Cartia, G.L.; Coda, C.

    1988-01-01

    For various reasons the well-known myelopoietic damage caused by cancer chemotherapy is not easy to quantify by means of usual diagnostic procedures. The bone marrow scan with 99m Tc-nanocolloid rapidly cleared by the phagocitic action of the RES, which has a topographic extension similar to red marrow, has been used for many years to evaluate the inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, both localized and diffuse. Such examination was thus performed in patients undergoing cytostatic therapy, either to follow-up metastatic lesions or to evaluate a tissue damage due to different drugs. The BMS is easily performed and has no side-effects. It consists of a dinamic and a static part. Moreover, it helped pointing out important diagnostic data, such as the reduction of the sacroiliac uptake index below the normal values (3.7) in 33 out of 57 cases, and an abnormal distribution of nanocolloid in the skeleton (Munz's classification, 1983) in 37 out of 69 cases, higher in more myelotoxic cytostatic, which could be detected even after a few months

  17. Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111Indium chloride in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Kumano, Machiko; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Arita, Shigehiro; Nakagawa, Kenichi; Fujii, Koichi; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111 Indium chloride ( 111 In-chloride) was performed in 18 patients with aplastic anemia. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after an intravenous injection of 111 In-chloride 3 mCi. The distribution patterns on scintigram were classified into 5 types: Type I (4 cases) showed no accumulation, Type II (6 cases) showed low accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Type III (7 cases) showed island-like distribution in bone marrow sites. Type IV, although no case was included in the 18 patients, shows uneven distribution between pelvis and sternum or vertebrae. Type V (one case) showed almost normal accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Bone marrow uptake of 111 In-chloride correlated well with the cellularity of bone marrow. There was a tendency for the cases of markedly increased saturated iron-binding capacity to show increased renal activity. In type III, both the percentage of cases who had been treated and the count of reticulocytes were higher than those in the other types, which suggested that island-like distribution on scintigram showed the regeneration responded to the therapy, and related to the erythropoietic function. (author)

  18. Bone marrow scintigraphy using /sup 111/Indium chloride in patients with aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Kumano, Machiko; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Arita, Shigehiro; Nakagawa, Kenichi; Fujii, Koichi; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1987-12-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using /sup 111/Indium chloride (/sup 111/In-chloride) was performed in 18 patients with aplastic anemia. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after an intravenous injection of /sup 111/In-chloride 3 mCi. The distribution patterns on scintigram were classified into 5 types: Type I (4 cases) showed no accumulation, Type II (6 cases) showed low accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Type III (7 cases) showed island-like distribution in bone marrow sites. Type IV, although no case was included in the 18 patients, shows uneven distribution between pelvis and sternum or vertebrae. Type V (one case) showed almost normal accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Bone marrow uptake of /sup 111/In-chloride correlated well with the cellularity of bone marrow. There was a tendency for the cases of markedly increased saturated iron-binding capacity to show increased renal activity. In type III, both the percentage of cases who had been treated and the count of reticulocytes were higher than those in the other types, which suggested that island-like distribution on scintigram showed the regeneration responded to the therapy, and related to the erythropoietic function.

  19. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy in a patient with sickle cell-thalassemia and recurrent pain attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.-J.; Lind, P.; Jauk, B.; Kaulfersch, W.

    2003-01-01

    The case of an eight years old African boy who suffers from sickle cell-thalassemia is presented. In the course of the disease frequent pain attacks occurred within the abdomen and extremities, recently also within the trunk. Local pain, at some occasions in combination with local swelling and always positive laboratory parameters for inflammation, hindered a solely clinical differentiation between bone infarcts and osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy, eventually in combination with bone marrow scintigraphy, can assist the clinician in the differentiation of aseptic bone infarcts versus secondary osteomyelitis. Based on the presented case scintigraphic results for bone infarcts, osteomyelitis and special scintigraphic pattern seen in sickle cell disease are presented. Furthermore, problems regarding the interpretation of the scintigraphies in relation to the delayed time after the beginning of pain attacks are discussed. (author)

  20. Bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride. A clinical value for the hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-10-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride (/sup 111/In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific.

  1. Bone marrow scintigraphy. An aid to the diagnosis and prognosis of myelofibrosis. Scintigraphie medullaire. Apport pour le diagnostic et le pronostic des myelofibroses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rain, J.D.; Najean, Y. (Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-05-01

    During the last three years 77 patients with myelofibrosis were studied by scintigraphy, using 99m Tc colloids and 111 in transferring as tracers. Low axial uptake of the colloids, extension of the indium uptake beyond the axis towards the knees and sometimes the ankles and elbows, and splenic indium uptake are valuable diagnostic criteria, particularly useful to exclude myelofibrosis associated with a malignant disorder. The clinical severity of the disease, and in particular the disappearance of physiologically active bone marrow (indium uptake) can be predicted from isotopic studies. Bone marrow scintigraphy could contribute to the difficult decision of splenectomy.

  2. Studies on the clinical usefulness of the 111indium chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Teruo; Ito, Naoya; Takeda, Nobuhide

    1985-01-01

    111 Indium chloride ( 111 In-Cl 3 ) appears to be a radionuclide appropriate for a bone marrow scanning because of its physical and chemical characteristics; it is, like iron, bound to and transported by transferrin and it has a photopeak suitable for scintigraphy. This study was undertaken to assess the bone marrow function by 111 In-Cl 3 bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with asplastic anemia. Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 21 patients with aplastic anemia with varying degrees of severity including 15 who had no previous treatments. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after intravenous injection of 111 MBq(3 mCi) of 111 In-Cl 3 . All of them showed various degrees of reduction in uptake of 111 In-Cl 3 by the marrow. The abnormal scan grade was classified into 3 types: Type I, non-accumulation (5); Type II, low-accumulation (15); Type III, uneven accumulation (1). In type III, degree of radioisotope accumulation between the sternum and the ilium was different, and this difference correlated with that of bone marrow cellularity. In 2 patients of type II, hematological improvement occurred after treatment, which was also accompanied by simultaneous increase of 111 In-Cl 3 uptake by the marrow. These findings suggested that the degree of radioisotope accumulation in the marrow reflects that of bone marrow cellularity. Type I patients were clinically severe and poor in prognosis as compared to type II and type III patients; four out of 5 died within 2 months. Bone marrow transplantation may be the treatment of choice in type I patients when feasible. (author)

  3. Comparison of thallium-201 and gallium-67 scintigraphy in soft tissue and bone marrow multiple myeloma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, P.J.; Arthur, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    A 68 year old female was referred for assessment of multiple myeloma. A large myelomatous infiltrate involving the left triceps muscle showed avid uptake on both thallium-201 and gallium-67 scintigraphy. Following radiotherapy, imaging with both radiopharmaceuticals showed resolution of disease; however, tumour recurrence in the bone marrow was seen only on thallium-201 imaging. This observation suggests that while soft-tissue myleoma shows similar appearances on thallium-201 and gallium-67 scintigraphy, both at baseline and following therapy, gallium-67 may not demonstrate bone marrow infiltration which is visualized on thallium-201 imaging. Therefore, thallium-201 appears to be superior to gallium-67 in evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma when soft tissues and bone marrow are involved. 17 refs., 3 figs

  4. Bone marrow imaging with MR and indium-111-chloride scintigraphy in patients with myelodysplasia and aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Juneja, H.S.; Sayle, B.A.; Johnson, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports twenty-one patients with myelodysplasia and aplastic anemia studied with MR and bone marrow radionuclide imaging to determine the roles of these imaging modalities, with seven normal patients serving as controls. All patients underwent In-111 chloride bone marrow scintigraphy prior to MR imaging. MR studies of the lumbar spine were acquired at 0.6 T with a T1-weighted (500/24 [repetition time (TR) msec/echo time (TE) msec]) spin-echo technique and an inversion-recovery technique (200/26/148 [TR msec/TE msec/inversion time msec])

  5. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  6. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-rhenium-colloid and 111In-indiumcitrate in the bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.; Haberland, K.; Knoch, K.; Fejer, F.L.; Zachariah, S.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Krefeld

    1975-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111 In-Indium-citrate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid was compared with each other in 6 male and 3 female patients. Our results in all patients were in favour of 111 In-citrate which caused a better delineation of morphological details than sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid did. In the first days after intravenous administration of 111 In-citrate, radioindium accumulated markedly in the pudendal region, this finding being more distinct in male patients than in female ones. On account of these results a considerable radiation dose has to be assumed in bone marrow scintigraphy using 111 In-citrate as long as the absorbed dose from 111 In has not been estimated under consideration of the radioindium accumulation in the pudendal region. 111 In-citrate should be applied in bone marrow scanning only exceptionally and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid be preferred in the routine diagnostics of bone marrow. (orig.) [de

  7. A comparison of iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and single bone marrow aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and follow-up of 26 children with neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanagaoglu, K.; Lippens, M.; Benoit, Y.; Obrie, E.; Schelstraete, K.; Simons, M.

    1993-01-01

    In staging neuroblastomas, the demonstration of tumoural invasion of the bone marrow is an important criterion with regard to the therapeutic prospects and the prognosis. Iliac crest aspiration sampling has been used routinely for the detection of bone marrow metastases in neuroblastoma, but due to the limited character of the sampling it sometimes leads to false-negative results. Another procedure used to determine the extent of neuroblastoma is metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy. To establish the respective merits of both diagnostic techniques, 148 iodine-123 mIBG scans of 26 children with neuroblastoma were re-evaluated and compared with the results of routine bone marrow samples obtained within a 4-week period before or after scanning. The results indicate that for the assessment of bone marrow infiltration by neuroblastoma, 123 I-mIBG scintigraphy is more sensitive than the conventional cytological examination of bone marrow smears routinely obtained from the iliac crest, has a very high sensitivity in excluding bone marrow invasion, has a high specificity for detecting bone marrow invasion, appears to be able to detect early tumoural deposits in the bone marrow before osseous invasion occurs as shown on the MDP scans and is superior to 99m Tc-MDP bone scan in detecting bone/bone marrow metastases of neuroblastoma

  8. Study of /sup 201/Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. With special reference to bone marrow abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Handa, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Yano, Kesato; Ueda, Hitoshi

    1989-04-01

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K).

  9. Significance of bone-marrow scintigraphy in aplastic anemia: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.; Le Danvic, M.; Le Mercier, N.; Pecking, A.; Colonna, P.; Rain, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Tc-99m colloid and In-111 transferrin were used in a semiquantitative scintigraphic study of bone-marrow activity in 76 patients with aplastic anemia, the majority of which were severe cases. The results are compared with other known prognostic parameters and with a predictive index formulated from a prior multiparametric analysis performed in 352 cases. In 47 cases parallel abnormality of Tc and In uptakes was noted and was well correlated with other prognostic factors. Indium uptake is apparently a good indicator of the severity of aplasia; extension of active erythroid tissue, demonstrated with this method, is correlated with prognosis. In nine cases, excessive in uptake is explained by dyserythropoiesis associated with granulo- and thrombocytopenia (Fanconi's anemia in most cases). In 20 of our patients, TcSC uptake was excessive compared with that of In and with other prognostic factors. Statistically, this phenomenon carries an unfavorable prognosis but its physiological meaning remains to be defined

  10. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  11. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  12. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)

  13. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  14. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  15. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  16. The Clinical usefulness of 99mTc HMPAO Leukocyte/99mTc phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/ 99mT c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of 99mT c phytate, a substitute for 99mT c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72±6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both 99mT c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/ 99ms ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections

  17. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  18. Thalassemia paravertebral tumors and bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huglo, D.; Rose, C.; Deveaux, M.; Bauters, F.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    Two first cousins with thalassemia and with a paravertebral mass had had an indium 111 chloride bone marrow scan. Result of scan influenced therapy: medical treatment in one case where an extramedullary erythropoiesis was confirmed, surgical treatment in the other case. The use of dual-isotope SPECT (indium 111 chloride, HDP -99 Tc) constitutes a contribution to the establishment of diagnosis of extramedullary erythropoiesis, giving to bone marrow scintigraphy a merited importance, avoiding the biopsy. (authors). 15 refs., 5 figs

  19. [Acute unclassified leukemia with bone marrow necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uoshima, N; Yamazaki, N; Iinuma, S; Kimura, S; Wada, K; Kobayashi, Y; Ozawa, M; Horiuchi, H; Maruo, N; Kondo, M

    1991-01-01

    Massive bone marrow necrosis was seen in a 42-year-old male with acute leukemia. In December, 1988, on admission, laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and a high level of serum LDH and ALKP. Bone marrow aspiration resulted in dry-tap and showed bone marrow necrosis in the bone marrow biopsy specimen. A bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In faintly visualized the bone marrow but visualized area was expanded in the extremities compared with normal subjects. The second bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of blasts. In the middle of March, blasts began to appear in peripheral blood. The blasts were cytochemically negative for POX, Es, PAS, AcP, TdT and had surface markers CD3-, CD19-, CD33-, CD13-, LCA-, HLA-DR-. Even by investigation on rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain region, an origin of the blasts could not be determined. In April, the number of blasts in peripheral blood increased and hepatosplenomegaly developed rapidly. Therefore, he was put on the chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone, but he died of cerebral hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed widespread bone marrow necrosis. It has rarely been reported that massive bone marrow necrosis is found prior to the occurrence of acute unclassified leukemia.

  20. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  1. Bone marrow scintigraphy in lung carcinomas using nanosized colloids: when is it useful and how useful is it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, P.; Thimpont, J.; Feremans, W.; Malarme, M.

    1992-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigrams (MS) combined with single photon emission computed tomographic investigation of the liver (liver SPECT) were obtained using 99 Tc m -labelled human serum albumin nanosized colloids in 52 patients with histologically proven lung carcinomas (adenocarcinomas = 17, squamous cell = 16, small cell = 14, large cell 5,31 generalized cases at the time of the first MS investigation among whom 13 patients had proven skeletal metastases). They were compared with conventional bone scintigrams (BS) as well as clinical, biological, radiological and follow-up data obtained for the same patients. In the present series, MS appeared as sensitive as BS in diagnosing skeletal metastases (77%) if all abnormal MS and BS presentations are considered as diagnostic, but more sensitive (77% versus 54%) if more restrictive analytical criteria are applied. The two investigations yielded the same specificities whatever the analytical criteria applied. The most striking differences between BS and MS were observed in the case of small-cell lung carcinomas (14 cases), with more lesions detected by MS than by BS. Liver SPECT also made it possible to diagnose seven and to suspect one out of the ten hepatic metastases. (author)

  2. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  3. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  4. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  5. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing [fr

  6. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.J.; Gahl, G.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    25 patients with chronic renal disease are investigated. In 16 cases with conservative treatment the bone scintigram showed pathological uptake according to the creatinine level, mainly in the joints of iliosacrum, hip, knee and ankles. In three patients increased uptake in the skull was found. The bone uptake found by scintigraphy was highly pronounced in the patients treated by dialysis. The most frequently involved regions were the joints of iliocacrum and hip, facial cranium, skull, pelvis and metatarsus. The count-rate ratio of cranium to chest was significantly increased in 6 patients. The investigations 6 months later showed in 4 cases a further increase compared with the first values. Count-rates of the skull were found to be comparable to the highly increased uptake in Paget's disease. Bone scintigraphy is a suitable method to estimate semiquantitatively the bone turnover in renal disease. (orig.) [de

  7. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing

  8. Scintigraphic findings of bone and bone-marrow and determination of bone mineral density using photon absorptiometry in osteopetrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    On a 15-year-old girl with osteopetrosis, bone and bonemarrow scintigraphy were performed. Also, bone mineral density (BMD) with quantitative CT (QCT), single photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) were measured. On bone scintigraphy the diffusely increased skeletal uptake and relatively diminished renal uptake were noted. On the other hand, on bone marrow scintigraphy poor accumulation in central marrow and peripheral expansion were shown. BMD value by QCT and DPA (mainly trabecular bone) was markedly high, while BMD by SPA (mainly cortical bone) was within normal range. Thus, it was shown that bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy combined with BMD measurement by photon absorptiometry were useful and essential in evaluating the pathophysiology of osteosclerosis. (author)

  9. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  10. Bone scintigraphy in craniosysnostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchandise, X.; Dhellemmes, P.; Steinling, M.; Pellerin, P.; Dujardin, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    The scintigraphy of the skull has been studied in 49 children. This investigation is awkward to be performed and to be interpretated. The hyperactivity over a suture is far to be univocal. The hypoactivity over a suture can only be picked up under some circumstances. Abnormal parasagittal activities may be seen in craniostenosis. The interest of the scan in the establishment of the diagnosis or surgical indication seems to be limited above 5 years. Pronostic and physiopathologic interest needs more complete investigation [fr

  11. Value of scintigraphic examinations in bone marrow disease. Report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokomizo, Yu; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Taku; Matsuura, Takashi [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-08-01

    We reported 2 cases in which bone scintigraphy and /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy with or without bone-marrow scintigraphy were useful in determining the nature and extent of bone marrow abnormalities. Case 1 was a 1 1/12-year-old male infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and case 2 was a 58-year-old man with the final diagnosis of leukemic transformation of myelofibrosis.

  12. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  13. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections.

  14. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99 sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.) [de

  15. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  16. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  17. Extraosseus enrichments in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Schumacher, T.; Amthauer, H.; Wolter, M.; Stock, W.; Stroszczynski, C.; Moersler, J.P.; Eichstaedt, H.

    1996-01-01

    Extraosseus enrichments are common findings in bone scintigraphy. Main causes are artifacts by skin or cloth contamination, paravenous and subcutaneous injection. Physical examination, removal of cloths, skin cleaning or further images in differing projections lead to the correct diagnosis artefact or extraosseous enrichments. Further on, extraosseous enrichments are seen in physiological variants. In different diseases extraosseous enrichments are common, especially in urinary tract, liver and extremities. Further diagnostics, e.g. conventional radiologic procedures, sonography and CT scans, have to be performed. In individual cases side results in bone scintigraphy lead to formerly unknown diagnosis, further diagnostic procedure is influenced decisively. Own cases show for example a cerebral apoplectic insult, formerly unknown liver metastasis or metastasis in extraosseous Ewings's sarcoma. (orig.) [de

  18. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; te Velde, J.; de Graeff, J.

    1978-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m HEDP was performed in 30 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and the results of quantitative analysis were compared wth those of a normal group. To permit this comparison, elevated background activity due to the absence of renal radiotracer excretion was reduced by hemodialysis to levels found in the normals. Histologic proof of renal osteodystrophy had been obtained in all patients. the incidence of radiographic abnormalities was 46%, whereas abnormal scans were found in 25 patients (83%); skeletal lesions were also more pronounced and detected earlier. However, even when the scans appeared normal, the quantitative analysis showed increased skeletal activity in all patients. The total skeletal activity proved to be a good index of the severity of renal osteodystrophy and appeared dependent on both osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. These findings show that bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method to detect skeletal involvement in renal osteodystrophy

  19. Characteristic focal hot spots of bone marrow scintigraphic finding in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong

    1991-01-01

    The bone marrow scintigraphy with 99m Tc sulfur colloid has been performed in 168 patients with Aplastic anemia(AA) and 100 patients with others hematological disorders. Bone marrow imaging is a useful method to demonstrate the existence of active hematopoietic foci in living body. The features and clinical significance of these focal hot spots have been discussed. The bone marrow scintigraphy is proved to be helpful in diagnosis, therapy and assessing prognosis of A.A

  20. Evaluation of renal uptake on [sup 111]InCl[sub 3] bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Goto, Masafumi; Nomura, Toshiharu; Watari, Tsutomu; Saito, Kenji (Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    High renal uptake on bone marrow scan with indium-111 chloride is often shown in patients with bone marrow abnormality. We evaluated the renal uptake on bone marrow scan in 27 cases of aplastic anemia, 20 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 10 cases of other diseases. The high renal uptake was observed in patients not only with aplastic anemia but also with MDS. The renal uptake correlated with blood transfusion units, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), blood pool imaging and bone marrow uptake. The renal uptake correlated with UIBC better than with the blood transfusion units. Following mechanism of the renal uptake is proposed that frequent blood transfusion makes low UIBC, and the low UIBC causes the failure to chelate indium with transferrin. The fast blood clearance of un-chelated indium via kidneys is followed. Hypoplastic bone marrow may also play an important role for the high renal uptake because all patients with the high renal uptake could not be explained by above mentioned mechanism. Caution should be paid to the scans with the high renal uptake because both aplastic anemia and MDS patients show the high renal uptake. (author).

  1. Evaluation of renal uptake on 111InCl3 bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Goto, Masafumi; Nomura, Toshiharu; Watari, Tsutomu; Saito, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    High renal uptake on bone marrow scan with indium-111 chloride is often shown in patients with bone marrow abnormality. We evaluated the renal uptake on bone marrow scan in 27 cases of aplastic anemia, 20 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 10 cases of other diseases. The high renal uptake was observed in patients not only with aplastic anemia but also with MDS. The renal uptake correlated with blood transfusion units, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), blood pool imaging and bone marrow uptake. The renal uptake correlated with UIBC better than with the blood transfusion units. Following mechanism of the renal uptake is proposed that frequent blood transfusion makes low UIBC, and the low UIBC causes the failure to chelate indium with transferrin. The fast blood clearance of un-chelated indium via kidneys is followed. Hypoplastic bone marrow may also play an important role for the high renal uptake because all patients with the high renal uptake could not be explained by above mentioned mechanism. Caution should be paid to the scans with the high renal uptake because both aplastic anemia and MDS patients show the high renal uptake. (author)

  2. Marrow uptake index (MUI): A quantitative scintigraphic study of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Garg, A.; Kochupillai, V.; Gopinath, P.G.; Basu, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia affects the entire bone marrow. This prospective study was undertaken to develop and standardise a new nuclear medicine technique called 'dynamic bone marrow imaging'. Eleven patients and ten controls were studied. Serial images of the pelvis were obtained in frame mode following intravenous injection of 185-370 mBq of 99m Tc S. Colloid, and an index, called the bone marrow uptake index was calculated by taking into consideration the time activity curve obtained over the iliac crest. This was followed by static imaging of the entire bone marrow in all cases. It was possible to obtain excellent information regarding topographic distribution of bone marrow as well as detect early changes in bone marrow function following treatment. An attempt was also made to correlate bone marrow cellularity as obtained by bone marrow biopsy with results of dynamic bone marrow scintigraphy. On the basis of the encouraging results obtained in the present study, the authors feel that dynamic bone marrow imaging is an excellent technique for the objective evaluation of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremerius, U.

    1997-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.) [de

  4. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  5. The Clinical usefulness of {sup 99mT}c HMPAO Leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99mT}c phytate, a substitute for {sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72{+-}6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both {sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/{sup 99ms}ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections.

  6. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  7. Indications and value of bone scintigraphy in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, A.; Hacker, M.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K.; Pfluger, T.

    2006-01-01

    With increasing use of cross-sectional imaging (CT/MRI) in radiology as well as PET and PET/CT in nuclear medicine, remaining indications for bone scintigraphy are in question. Recently introduced whole-body MRI represents an attractive alternative to bone scintigraphy, as MRI is additionally able to assess lesions that are limited to bone marrow and are located extraosseously. In this overview, indication-related strengths and limitations of MRI and bone scintigraphy are presented and discussed. Furthermore, complementary use of both modalities for special clinical questions is demonstrated. (orig.)

  8. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  9. Whole-body MR imaging of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.P.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F.; Baur-Melnyk, A.

    2005-01-01

    In clinical routine, multimodality algorithms, including X-ray, computed tomography, scintigraphy and MRI, are used in case of suspected bone marrow malignancy. Skeletal scintigraphy is widely used to asses metastatic disease to the bone, CT is the technique of choice to assess criteria of osseous destruction and bone stability. MRI is the only imaging technique that allows direct visualization of bone marrow and its components with high spatial resolution. The combination of unenhanced T1-weighted-spin echo- and turbo-STIR-sequences have shown to be most useful for the detection of bone marrow abnormalities and are able to discriminate benign from malignant bone marrow changes. Originally, whole-body MRI bone marrow screening was performed in sequential scanning techniques of five body levels with time consuming coil rearrangement and repositioning of the patient. The introduction of a rolling platform mounted on top of a conventional MRI examination table facilitated whole-body MR imaging and, with the use of fast gradient echo, T1-weighted and STIR-imaging techniques, for the first time allowed whole-body imaging within less than one hour. With the development of parallel imaging techniques (PAT) in combination with global matrix coil concepts, acquisition time could be reduced substantially without compromises in spatial resolution, enabling the implementation of more complex and flexible examination protocols. Whole-body MRI represents a new alternative to the stepwise multimodality concept for the detection of metastatic disease, multiple myeloma and lymphoma of the bone with high diagnostic accuracy

  10. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  11. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references

  12. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  13. THE PATHOLOGY OF BONE MARROW FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Leguit , Roos; Van Den Tweel , Jan G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerable between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group, inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children a...

  14. Bone scintigraphy in lesions of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Wasilewski, A.; Deitmer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The value of 3-phase-scintigraphy in bone lesions of the skull with a new seeking agent 99mTc-2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD) is studied. A high soft tissue-bone-ratio of DPD is emphasized. For this reason DPD is used for bone scintigraphy of the skull, because the mass of soft tissue in relation to bone is high and a higher clearance improves the interpretation of the images of the first two phases. An increased tracer uptake is found for skeletal neoplasms (malignant and benign lesions) and for acute osteomyelitis. By contrast, the chronic inflammatory bone lesions showed normal tracer uptake. This new bone seeking agent allows to localize and differentiate tumorous or acute inflammatory lesions and chronic inflammatory bone lesions of the skull

  15. Granulocyte-mobilized bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcese, William; De Angelis, Gottardo; Cerretti, Raffaella

    2012-11-01

    In the last few years, mobilized peripheral blood has overcome bone marrow as a graft source, but, despite the evidence of a more rapid engraftment, the incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease is significantly higher with, consequently, more transplant-related mortality on the long follow-up. Overall, the posttransplant outcome of mobilized peripheral blood recipients is similar to that of patients who are bone marrow grafted. More recently, the use of bone marrow after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) donor priming has been introduced in the transplant practice. Herein, we review biological acquisitions and clinical results on the use of G-CSF-primed bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. G-CSF the increases the HSC compartment and exerts an intense immunoregulatory effect on marrow T-cells resulting in the shift from Th1 to Th2 phenotype with higher production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The potential advantages of these biological effects have been translated in the clinical practice by using G-CSF primed unmanipulated bone marrow in the setting of transplant from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor with highly encouraging results. For patients lacking an HLA-identical sibling, the transplant of G-CSF primed unmanipulated bone marrow from a haploidentical donor combined with an intense in-vivo immunosuppression is a valid alternative achieving results that are well comparable with those reported for umbilical cord blood, HLA-matched unrelated peripheral blood/bone marrow or T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplant.

  16. Bone scintigraphy on chronic hemodialyzed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yoshiko

    1990-01-01

    Patients with renal osteodystrophy (ROD) are classified into four types (secondary hyperparathyroidism: HPT, osteomalasia, ectopic calcification and normal bone scintigram type) according to findings of whole body bone scintigrams. Markedly high accumulations of Tc-99m-MDP are seen in the skull, especially in patients with HPT. For a quantitative evaluation of bone mineral dynamics, factor analysis (FA) was performed on bone scintigraphy in 36 patients with ROD and in 17 controls. Four were examined before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX). In the early phase (20 min) of bone scintigraphy, the bone factor was clearly extracted by FA. Two original parameters were calculated, one is bone radionuclide (RN) uptake count (BUC), the product of the total RN uptake count of the head and the contribution ratio, the other is bone RN uptake count ratio (BUR) derived by the time activity curve (physiological component of bone) of FA. Bone factor shown by FA is significantly different among patients with HPT, osteomalasia and controls. The value of BUC in patients with HPT is high compared to findings in the controls. The results of FA of ROD correlate well with planar images of bone scintigrams and with data on bone minerals, measured by quantitative methods such as single photon absorptiometry, CT attenuation number of the frontal bone, RN activity ratio ([frontal bone]/[brain]), using SPECT of bone scan. In the cases of PTX, the value of BUC was improved compared to preoperative data. FA of bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and useful method for quantitative evaluation of bone mineral dynamics and to assess the therapeutic effects in ROD. (author)

  17. Value of bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Chikashi; Nakata, Hajime; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi; Yokomizo, Yu

    1982-01-01

    We performed bone scintigraphy on 16 cases of psoriasis to evaluate its possible value in this disease and obtained the following results: 1) Bone scintigraph was abnormal in 15 of 16 cases and the frequent association of arthritis in psoriasis was confirmed. 2) Abnormal uptake on bone scintigraph was noted in various joints including peripheral joints of extremities, sternoclavicular joint, shoulder and rib. Abnormality of sacroiliac joint or ankle was less frequent than previously reported. 3) Findings of bone scintigraph were not necessarily related with clinical symptoms or laboratory data. Abnormal uptake was also noted in many joints whose X-ray examinations were negative. Bone scintigraphy thus seems to be useful in early detection of arthritis and to become an initial therapeutic indicator of arthritis in psoriasis. (author)

  18. Bone scintigraphy in systemic and metabolic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, H.J.; Schmidt, H.A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive method to identify pathological processes affecting the bone. Its specificity is, however, considerably lower than its sensitivity, particularly in systemic diseases. We therefore investigated the possibilities of differential diagnosis based on typical sites or patterns of distribution. The Paget syndrome with characteristic manifestation in the pelvic region, including crutch-shaped accumulation in the proximal femur, may be diagnosed by scintigraphy alone. If these typical sites are absent, however, differential diagnosis is difficult. Differential diagnosis for multiple myeloma, fibrous dysplasia, enchondromatosis, hyperparathyroidism, osteopathies, osteomalacia, inflammatory rheumatic diseases is also required and should be based on further examinations, taking into consideration the history, clinical signs and course. In this connexion scintigraphy is relevant both for early assessment and documentation of the spread of pathological processes and for the follow-up. (orig.) [de

  19. The effect of radiation therapy on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Bunmei; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Sakura, Mizuyoshi; Ishihara, Akinori; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Nagai, Teruo.

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate effect of radiation therapy on bone scintigraphy, ninety nine bone scans and Ga-67 citrate tumor scans were performed on 67 patients, including 42 with lung cancer, 5 with esophageal cancer, 4 malignant lymphoma and 15 with other malignancy. The spinal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate and Ga-67 citrate were evaluated during or after radiation therapy involving thoracic and lumbar spines. The correlation among the spinal uptake of radioactivity in the radiation field, the irradiation dose and the interval after radiotherapy was investigated. The results revealed that 34 of 99 bone scans (34%) showed ''decreased'' radioactivity in the irradiated spines. Twenty six of 41 bone scans (63%) performed more than three months after radiotherapy showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake. Among the same 41 bone scans, 16 of 21 bone scans (76%) taken in patients who received more than 5000 rads showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake. The decreased spinal uptake was irreversible. Eight cases changed to ''decreased'' from ''equilibrated'' during follow up study after radiotherapy. Twenty two of 31 cases (71%) with Ga tumor scans, which were performed in the earlier periods and with less dose of radiotherapy as compared with bone scans, showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake, which suggests impaired Ga-67 uptake by the bone marrow rather than the spinal bone. The factors causing decreased uptake of radioactivity in bone scan after irradiation were discussed in view of irradiation effect on bone tissue. The descrepancy of uptake of radioactivity between bone scan and Ga tumor scan was also discussed reviewing difference of radiation effect on bone and bone marrow cells. (author)

  20. The EANM practice guidelines for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyngaert, T.V. den; Strobel, K.; Kampen, W.U.; Kuwert, T.; Bruggen, W. van der; Mohan, H.K.; Gnanasegaran, G.; Delgado-Bolton, R.; Weber, W.A.; Beheshti, M.; Langsteger, W.; Giammarile, F.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Paycha, F.

    2016-01-01

    The radionuclide bone scan is the cornerstone of skeletal nuclear medicine imaging. Bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging technique that uses a radiotracer to evaluate the distribution of active bone formation in the skeleton related to malignant and benign disease, as well as physiological processes. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) has written and approved these guidelines to promote the use of nuclear medicine procedures of high quality. The present guidelines offer assistance to nuclear medicine practitioners in optimizing the diagnostic procedure and interpreting bone scintigraphy. These guidelines describe the protocols that are currently accepted and used routinely, but do not include all existing procedures. They should therefore not be taken as exclusive of other nuclear medicine modalities that can be used to obtain comparable results. It is important to remember that the resources and facilities available for patient care may vary. (orig.)

  1. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, M.J.; Mayerhoefer, M.E.; Hofmann, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.) [de

  2. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  3. Bone-scintigraphy in painful bipartite patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iossifidis, A.; Brueton, R.N.; Nunan, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    Although, the use of technetium scintigraphy in the assessment of anterior knee pain has been described, no reference has been made to the scintigraphic appearances of painful bipartite patella. We report the scintigraphic-appearances of painful bipartite patella in 25-year-old man a 2 1/2 years history of unexplained patellar pain. Painful bipartite patella is a rare cause of chronic post-traumatic patellar pain. Bone scintigraphy, by demonstrating increased uptake by the painful accessory bipartite fragment, appears to be an imaging method of choice in the diagnosis of this condition. (orig./MG)

  4. Bone and marrow dose modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear medicine therapy is being used increasingly in the treatment of cancer (thyroid, leukemia/lymphoma with RIT, primary and secondary bone malignancies, and neuroblastomas). In all cases it is marrow toxicity that limits the amount of treatment that can be administered safely. Marrow dose calculations are more difficult than for many major organs because of the intricate association of bone and soft tissue elements. In RIT, there appears to be no consensus on how to calculate that dose accurately, or of individual patients ability to tolerate planned therapy. Available dose models are designed after an idealized average, healthy individual. Patient-specific methods are applied in evaluation of biokinetic data, and need to be developed for treatment of the physical data (dose conversion factors) as well: age, prior patient therapy, disease status. Contributors to marrow dose: electrons and photons

  5. Bone scintigraphy in hereditary multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, D.A.; Levin, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two adult patients with multiple hereditary exostoses, a skeletal disorder with recognized malignant potential, each demonstrated increased /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate uptake in an exostosis in which renewed growth had begun. None of the other multiple exostoses in either patient showed abnormal uptake. Histologic study of the lesions demonstrated chondrosarcoma in one case and benign osteochondroma in the second. Although bone scintigraphy nonspecifically identifies bone growth rather than malignant degeneration, it is more useful than radiographic bone survey in the periodic surveillance of adult patients with this disorder

  6. Autologous bone marrow purging with LAK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, L; Moretti, L; Stramigioli, S; Luchetti, F; Annibali, G M; Baldi, A

    1993-12-01

    In this study we will demonstrate that LAK cells, in vitro, can lyse hematologic neoplastic cells with a minor toxicity of the staminal autologous marrow cells. In fact, after bone marrow and LAK co-culture at a ratio of 1/1 for 8 hours, the inhibition on the GEMM colonies resulted to be 20% less compared to the untreated marrow. These data made LAK an inviting agent for marrow purging in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

  7. Cartilage Calcification Mimics Polychondritis in Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 58 year-old male patient with sternal pain was referred to our Nuclear Medicine Clinic for bone scintigraphy for 2.5 months. Markedly increased activity accumulation in the first bilateral sternocostal junction and increased activity accumulations in 3rd, 4th, 5th sternocostal junctions and lateral portion of inferior part of corpus sterni were seen in late static images without increased perfusion and hyperemia. Soft tissue density and lytic lesions were seen bilaterally in bilateral first costa, sternocostal joints and in right side of xiphoid in his 3D computed tomography (CT. Sternocostal lesions that were seen in bone scintigraphy and CT, was reported as normal in biopsy.

  8. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  9. Introduction to bone scintigraphy in malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermey, J.

    1981-01-01

    For several years it has been accepted that oncology is a separate medical speciality. A team of oncologists of various disciplines is needed to cope with the complications of diagnosis and the difficulties in deciding on the best treatment. A decision-making tree is presented and the role of bone scintigraphy is explained. It is emphasized that closer cooperation between nuclear medicine and oncological specialists is necessary to obtain optimal interpretation of scintigraphic images. (Auth.)

  10. Indium 111 scintigraphy in the exploration of the erythropoietic marrow (relative to 42 observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, G.C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The bone marrow is difficult to explore as a whole because of its wide non-uniform distribution, variable with the hematopoietic and supporting tissue sites. 111 indium-transferrine bone marrow scintigraphy is a new technique which partly overcomes these difficulties and gives an idea of the overall distribution and richness of the erythropoietic marrow, thus showing up the erythropoiesis sites at a given moment. The properties of indium as medullary tracer are bound up with the characteristics of its metabolism which, to some extent at least resembles that of iron. The two main features are: - its fixation on transferrine (or siderophiline); - its binding to reticulocytes. Moreover indium 111 fulfils the physico-chemical criteria necessary for scintigraphic practice (long half-life, emission detectable by conventional scintigraphs, moderate irradiation of the patient). The properties of this radioelement and the technical conditions of use are examined in turn, then scintigraphic data are compared with the results of traditional bone marrow investigations: medullary biopsy and blood cell counts with reticulocyte fraction. This comparison concerns 42 scintigraphs carried out on patients suffering from various hematological diseases, with prospects of serious development in common [fr

  11. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease

  12. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.

  13. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc labelled sodium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy to the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remi, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy, by its ease of application and the use of short-lived isotopes, has revolutionised the conditions of bone metastase diagnosis. Scintigraphy possesses two advantages, the possibility it offers of exploring the whole skeleton at once and its extreme simplicity. This technique should therefore find its place at the very beginning of the bone examination, an attitude which also has dosimetric repercussions: a 'whole skeleton' examination delivers 170 mrad to the marrow, whereas spinal and pelvic X-rays deliver 325 mrad. Unfortunately the sup(99m)Tc-labelled sodium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy is not specific to any given lesion. Diagnosis can only be improved by the appearance of tracers taken up specifically on the neoplasic tissue, as is already the case of 131 I for thyroid cancer metastases. Labelled bleomycine and 67 Ga have so far given disappointing results [fr

  14. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Studies on bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata)

    1983-12-01

    Bone scintigraphy was superior over roentgenography for detection of abnormal bone findings in chronic dialysis patients. According to the type of scintigraphic findings, an increase in the hot area in the cranium or the mandibule seemed to express fibrous osteitis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Multiple coin-shaped hot areas in ribs were thought to indicate advanced osteomalacia or osteomalacia in patients with aluminum poisoning. The 4 hr-B/St ratio of the cranium was thought to serve as a quantitative indicator of the status of fibrous osteitis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism to show the progress and therapeutic course of the disease.

  16. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered

  17. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Snoeckx, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  18. MR imaging of normal bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author)

  19. [Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia initially diagnosed of Still's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Velazco, A; González García, F M; Albalá González, M D; Pacheco Capote, C; Latre Romero, J M

    2005-01-01

    We present a 43-year-old male, who was admitted with the diagnosis of Adult-onset Still's disease, after several months of arthralgias, febricula and loss of weight. Chest x-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, chest, abdomen and pelvic CT scan and bone scintigraphy were performed. Scintigraphic findings oriented to the performance of a bone marrow biopsy with diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  20. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67. (author)

  1. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-03-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67.

  2. Evaluation of bone diseases using dynamic bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Tamura, Kenji; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Kajita, Akiyoshi

    1983-12-01

    Dynamic bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was performed on 96 patients with various bone diseases. The dynamic scintigrams obtained were then used to aid in the differential diagnosis of malignant (49 cases) and benign (8 cases) diseases. Short-term local deposition of the tracer in all cases of malignant bone diseases was observed in vascular (10-40 sec. after injection), and blood pool (1-3 min. after injection) phases. In the cases of malignant bone tumors where osteosclerotic lesions were present, tracer accumulation appeared in the blood pool phase. If osteolytic lesions were present, accumulation appeared in the vascular phase, and when the lesion was larger than 2 cm, accumulation was frequently found in the arterial phase. Scintigraphic differentiation of early primary and metastatic bone tumors from other lesions was facilitated by performing the dynamic scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. Dynamic bone scintigraphy also allowed early diagnosis of avascular necrosis (14 cases) prior to the appearance of minimally abnormal X-ray findings, especially in cases of corticosteroid-induced necrosis.

  3. Bone marrow ablation with Ho-166 pharmaceuticals as preparation for bone marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Kawakami, T.; Avila, M.; White, R.; Cain, G.; Moore, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow ablation is required preparation for leukemia patients where bone marrow transplantation is to be the therapeutic modality. Presently, the total body irradiation that is used produces appreciable morbidity in terms of radiation sickness, but an evenly distributed dose to marrow. The authors have shown in Beagles that bone-seeking radiolanthanide (Ho-166, t 1/2 = 25 h, 1.8 MeB beta, carrier added) phosphonic acid chelates can be used to completely ablate bone marrow with little morbidity. The research plan, incorporating bone marrow ablation with bone-seeking radionuclides and in vitro purging of aspirated leukemic marrow for use in autologous marrow transplants, is presented. Phosphonic acid complexes of Sm-153 also localize in the skeleton and have found use in the palliation of bone pain. However, the dose distribution is uneven because these radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to available surface; 2-4 times the skeletal average in trabecular vs cortical bone. Thus, the marrow dose can vary. The authors' research group and the Radiation Interactions Division of NIST have announced the discovery that beta radiation-induced excited electrons are trapped in the hydroxyapatite mineral of bone and provide a potential direct dosimetric method for marrow dose when combined with routine bone marrow (and included bone) biopsies. The overall research plan sets the hypothesis that reduced morbidity marrow ablation can be successfully followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with autologous marrow purged in vitro by antibody-targeted alpha emitters

  4. MR appearances of bone marrow in children following bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.E.; Sebag, G.; Brunelle, F.

    1991-01-01

    Two cases are presented of children who demonstrated complete absence of bone marrow signal on MR imaging of the spine following bone marrow transplantation. The possible causes for these appearances are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  6. Bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of fracture and infection of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djupesland, G.; Nakken, K.F.; Mueller, C.; Skjoerten, F.; Roehrt, T.; Eldevik, P.

    1983-01-01

    The sensivit of Tc99m-MDP-bone-scintiscanning in the diagnosis of temporal bone fracture was found to that of conventional radiography if the patients were examined 10 days after the trauma. Temporal bone osteomyelitis with concomitant moderate osteosclerosis was demonstrated by bone scintigraphy in 5 cases of mastoiditis with atypical symptoms. A case of apicitis was for the first time demonstrated by scintigraphy. A low sensivity of 67 Ga-scintigraphy was demonstrated by positive Tc99m-bone-scintigraphy and negative 67 Ga-scintigraphy in a patient with atypical mastoiditis. Tc99m-scintigraphy was negative in 5 cases of otitis media suppurative and in 3 cases of otitis media chronica cum cholesteatoma, all with slight degree of osteosclerosis in the mastoid. The sensitivity of Tc99m-bone-scintigraphy in fracture and osteomyelitis of the temporal bone seems to be a function of the amount of reactive new bone formed. (Authors)

  7. Bone scintigraphy in painful os peroneum syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Jensen, Frank K; Falborg, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Lateral foot pain may be caused by various entities including the painful os peroneum syndrome. A case of a 68-year-old man is presented, who experienced a trauma with distortion of the right foot. Nine months later, he still had pain in the lateral part of the right foot. Bone scintigraphy showed...... uptake in the area where an os peroneum was located and thus confirmed the clinical assumption of painful os peroneum syndrome. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging findings can prevent undiagnosed lateral foot pain....

  8. Bone scintigraphy in painful os peroneum syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Jensen, Frank K; Falborg, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Lateral foot pain may be caused by various entities including the painful os peroneum syndrome. A case of a 68-year-old man is presented, who experienced a trauma with distortion of the right foot. Nine months later, he still had pain in the lateral part of the right foot. Bone scintigraphy showe...... uptake in the area where an os peroneum was located and thus confirmed the clinical assumption of painful os peroneum syndrome. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging findings can prevent undiagnosed lateral foot pain....

  9. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  10. Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colnot, C.; Huang, S.; Helms, J.

    2006-01-01

    The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  13. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  14. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  15. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W

    2013-01-01

    at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen...

  16. Clinical aspects of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmitts, N.; Gassmann, V.; Leffler, G.

    1986-01-01

    Experience of bone marrow transplantation into patients with myeloproliferative syndromes, myelodysplasias and highly malignant lymphomas is presented. Side early and late effects of transplantation are described. The frequency and severity of complications of bone marrow transplantation depend sufficiently on the disease as well as on patient's age and general condition

  17. [Endogenous pyrogen formation by bone marrow cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, O M; Sorokin, A V; El'kina, O A

    1978-01-01

    The cells of the rabbit bone marrow produced endogenous pyrogen in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Incubation of the cells in medium No 199 containing a 15% homologous serum is optimal for the release of pyrogen. It is supposed that the cells of the bone marrow take part in the formation of endgenous pyrogen and in the mechanism of pyrexia in the organism.

  18. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costachel, O.; Corneci, I.; Andrian, T.; Kitzulescu, I.; Popescu, N.; Pascu, D.; Buzi, E.; Voiculetz, N. [Oncological Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    1969-07-15

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: Bullet Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. Bullet While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. Bullet No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4 Degree-Sign C. Bullet DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. Bullet In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: Bullet The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Bullet No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. Bullet Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. Bullet In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of

  19. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costăchel, O.; Corneci, I.; Andrian, T.; Kitzulescu, I.; Popescu, N.; Pascu, D.; Buzi, E.; Voiculetz, N.

    1969-01-01

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  20. MR imaging of bone marrow disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Mano, I.; Yashiro, N.; Asai, S.; Lio, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author performed MR imaging in 89 patients with bone marrow disorders (29 with aplastic anemia, 20 with leukemia, 9 with postirradiation changes, 8 with hemosiderosis, 6 with primary bone tumors and metastases, and 17 with bone marrow disorders of other etiologies). They selected the thoracic and lumbar vertebral marrow as a target and used both T1-weighted spin-echo images and calculated T1 images. T1 was prolonged in bone marrow hyperplasia but shortened in hypoplasia. Bone marrow T1 values proved to depend on the number of fat cells (pathologic correlation). In aplastic anemia scattered islands of low signal intensity were seen within a background of high signal intensity in some typical cases. MR imaging patterns were used for staging aplastic anemia. T1 was prolonged in leukemia cells

  1. 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy findings representing osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dae Gun; Moon, Tae Geon; Kim, Ji Hong; Son, Seok Man; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    2001-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled phosphates is one of the most common procedures in evaluation of various skeletal disorders. Metabolic bone diseases show involvement of the whole skeleton and are associated with increased bone turnover and increased uptake of 99m Tc-labeled phosphates. In this study, we investigated apparently normal women who were examined with routine bone scintigraphy applied bone densitometry to correlate it with skeletal uptake in bone scan. This study includes 79 women who were performed both of bone mineral density(BMD) and bone scintigraphy. We investigated the relation of bone scan findings and BMD of lumbar, femur, radius. Regional BMD were negatively correlated with increased age. Among the bone scintigraphy findings representing metabolic bone disease, uptakes by the long bones, skull and mandible increased with age in women, while that in the costochondral junction decreased. Increased skull and mandible uptakes is associated with decreased BMD, and it has statistically significance. Our results show that increased radionuclide uptake in bone scintigraphy, especially skull and mandible uptake was associated with decreased lumbar, femur BMD in women. So that, increased skull and mandible uptake in women would be a scintigraphic sign of osteopenia or osteoporosis

  2. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis with special reference to caisson disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, P.J.; Walder, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as 'hot spots' on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation established during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease. (author)

  3. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis, with special reference to caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1980-05-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using 99mTc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as "hot-spots" on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease.

  4. Irradiation of the red bone marrow and the health implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiology and function of the bone is looked at as to the role in housing bone marrow. The bone marrow and particularly the red bone marrow is discussed. Sources of radiation are discussed and the health implications highlighted for caution and for study or evaluation. Key Words: Bone marrow, Irradiation, Radiation, ...

  5. Chondromalacia patellae: Bone scintigraphy correlated with arthroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, H.S.; Guten, G.N.; Collier, B.D.; Veluvolu, P.; Whalen, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty adult sports medicine patients with anterior knee pain and other clinical findings of chondromalacia patellae unresponsive to more than 3 months of conservative therapy were evaluated with bone scintigraphy with subsequent arthroscopic correlation. There was significant correlation (Sperman rank correlation = .545, P < .001) between the intensity of increased patellar scintigraphic activity and the Metcalf grade of chondromalacia seen at arthroscopy. Bone scintigraphy also disclosed clinically unsuspected torn menisci. Bone scintigraphy contributes to accurate diagnostic evaluation and appropriate surgical planning for adult sports medicine patients with chronic anterior knee pain

  6. Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.; Blaha, M.; Merka, V.

    1990-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation is successful in only a part of the affected patients. The Chernobyl accident added to our knowledge: BMT can save life after whole-body irradiation with a dose exceeding 7-8 Gy. A timely decision on transplantation after a nuclear accident is difficult to make (rapid determination of homogeneity and type of radiation and the total dose. HL-A typing in lymphopenia, precise identification of radiation damage to other target organs, etc.). Further attention is to be paid to the treatment. Transplantations in case of malignities (especially hematologic ones) and other diseases will add to our knowledge and will lead to more simple procedures. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  7. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  8. Bone scintigraphy during therapy with cytostatically acting drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, U.; Pries, H.H.; Joseph, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Marburg Univ.

    1976-01-01

    Case reports show up, that bone scintigraphy during therapy of metastasing cancer of mamma or prostata with cytostatically acting drugs may reveal 'pseudonormal' results. False negative diagnosis can be excluded only by carefully regarding drug history. Gamma-camera with wholebody scan device for scintigraphy in two projections simplifies safe evaluation significantly. (orig.) [de

  9. Study on peripheral expansion of bone marrow in hematologic patients and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Dai; Kang Fu

    1995-01-01

    It is found previously that the changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy resulting from hematologic disorders were various. This study focused on discussing the imaging features and regularity of expanded peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in some blood diseases as well as their clinical usefulness. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid 370∼550 MBq was performed in 130 cases with different types of blood diseases (iron-deficiency anemia 17 cases, chronic hemolytic 13 cases, aplastic 41 cases; leukemia 37 cases, marrow dyshyperplasia syndrome 22 cases) and various stages of the disease (19 cases). The aspiration in PBM comparing with central bone marrow (CBM) was made in 12 aplastic anemia and 10 leukemia patients. The expansion rate of PBM was 58.5% and the various blood diseases had different expansion regions. Repeated imaging showed that the expanded PBM tended to retract during clinical recovery. Aspiration from the expanding PBM defined more active hematopoiesis and higher count of leukemia blast cells than that from iliac crest. The results indicated the presence of 'focal residual leukemia' (FRL) in PBM of complete remission leukemia patient. The result of this study suggested that the expansion patterns of PBM in various hematologic disorders have definite features, which are helpful for the differential diagnosis, valuable for evaluation of the reserved capability of active marrow and prognosis of the patients according to the further analysis of the PBM state. The bone marrow imaging is also an indispensable technique for finding FRL

  10. Guidelines for bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.; Gordon, I.; Mann, M.; Piepsz, A.; Olivier, P.; Sixt, R.; Velzen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    The guidelines are intended to help nuclear medical teams in their daily routine. The guidelines give information relating to indications, performance of examinations, analysis and interpretation of the diagnostic results. The guidelines should be applied in the context of adopted basic quality criteria in nuclear medicine, requirements of the German radiation protection ordinance, as well as the regulatory codes for radiation protection in the medical field. The guidelines express the opinions of the Paediatric Committee of the EANM and hence focus on compliance with the relevant European standards in nuclear medicine. In order to enhance the specificity of results obtained with a bone scintigraphy, the interpretation of the results should be based on combined analysis with information drawn from X-rays. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  12. Can bone marrow differentiate into renal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Enyu; Ito, Takahito

    2002-10-01

    A considerable plasticity of adult stem cells has been confirmed in a wide variety of tissues. In particular, the pluripotency of bone marrow-derived stem cells may influence the regeneration of injured tissues and may provide novel avenues in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow contains at least hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, and both can differentiate into a wide range of differentiated cells. Side population (SP) cells, which are originally defined in bone marrow cells by high efflux of DNA-binding dye, seem to be a new class of multipotent stem cells. Irrespective of the approach used to obtain stem cells, the fates of marrow-derived cells following bone marrow transplantation can be traced by labeling donor cells with green fluorescence protein or by identifying donor Y chromosome in female recipients. So far, bone marrow-derived cells have been reported to differentiate into renal cells, including mesangial cells, endothelial cells, podocytes, and tubular cells in the kidney, although controversy exists. Further studies are required to address this issue. Cell therapy will be promising when we learn to control stem cells such as bone marrow-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and resident stem cells in the kidney. Identification of factors that support stem cells or promote their differentiation should provide a relevant step towards cell therapy.

  13. Bone Marrow Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... marrow transplant - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Bone Marrow Transplantation ... transplant - slideshow Graft-versus-host disease Related Health Topics Bone Marrow Diseases Stem Cells National Institutes of ...

  14. Cold metastases detected by bone scintigraphy in aggressive lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Carsi, C.; Perales Vila, A.; Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Sanchez Marchori, C.; Oro Camps, J.

    1998-01-01

    A case of a 55-year-old man was remitted to Traumatology Department to present back pain of two weeks of evolution. The results of bone scintigraphy and the patient's evolution allowed the diagnosis. This case report and a literature review showed the importance of using a routine bone scan in diagnosis of bone metastases. (orig.) [de

  15. Bone scintigraphy in a case of Ollier's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Morita, Rikushi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1983-11-01

    Bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP was performed on a case with a Ollier's disease. Compared with Bone X-ray examinations, increased activity is noted in the ribs, hands (esp. left), left humerus, left tibia and left foot. Tumor scintigraphy with /sup 67/Ga-citrate shows slightly increased accumulation in comparison with sup(99m)Tc-MDP findings. However, apparent change was not noted compared with the previous scans. So, malignant change was negative. Malignant bone tumors usually show high activity, but some benign tumors also show high uptake. So, a differential diagnosis of bone disease using sup(99m)Tc-phosphorous compounds is occasionally difficult. In case of Ollier's disease, a follow-up bone scintigraphy is useful for evaluation of tumor growth, because malignant changes were accompanied by intensive uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP. Also, /sup 67/Ga-study is necessary for the differentiation of bone disease.

  16. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted

  17. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  18. BONE MARROW ABONRMALITIES IN HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Antiram Dhurve

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4 counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AID...

  19. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healty adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown that the bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was an useful method to estimate the hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow. (J.P.N.)

  20. Reintegration after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, F; Zabora, J; Polland, A; Wingard, J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the problems of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors in returning to "normal" life in the community after BMT. Before being released from The Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, 84 recipients of BMT were interviewed regarding their quality of life and psychosocial adaptation. Survivors were reinterviewed at 6 months, and at 1 year post-BMT, producing considerable qualitative data regarding their problems in living. Eighty-four patients who had received BMT completed qualitative interviews and standardized measures before treatment, before the return home, and at 6 and 12 months post-BMT. The interviews were subjected to a content analysis methodology to establish units and categories to examine the body of material. Content analysis of these interviews from the first year after BMT identified three areas of psychosocial morbidity; 1) physical problems, which included fatigue, appearance, troubles in eating, and physical restrictions; 2) psychological problems, which included fears about the future, sense of loss of control, anxiety, and depression; and 3) community reintegration problems, which included difficulty in returning to former social roles, separation from home, family, and friends, difficulty in resuming social relations, dealing with stigmatization, problems with family and children, and financial and employment difficulties. Identification of these problems for BMT survivors can be used to guide the development of specific materials and services to prepare recipients of BMTs and their families for life after the transplant. These qualitative results can also be used to direct the development of assessment tools to identify potential patient and family problems.

  1. Differentiation of osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle-cell hemoglobinopathies using combined bone-marrow and gallium scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, M.K.; Kahn, C.E.; Ryan, J.W.; Martin, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical records and scintigrams of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies in whom acute symptoms developed suggestive of possible osteomyelitis and who had undergone sequential Tc-99m bone marrow scans and gallium scintigraphy of the affected sites were reviewed. Osteomyelitis was correctly diagnosed in six of 18 cases when gallium was focally increased relative to a site of decreased or absent bone marrow activity. Of 12 episodes of infarction, both studies showed focally decreased activity in a concordant manner in 11. The remaining, false-positive study indicated slightly increased gallium in 11. The remaining, false-positive indicated slightly increased gallium concentration at a site of decreased bone marrow activity. Overall, a protocol of sequential Tc-99m bone marrow scans and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means of distinguishing osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies

  2. Peritumoral bone marrow edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Ji Yong; Gi, Won Hee; Sung, Mi Suk; Lee, Jae Mun; Shin, Kyung Sub

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of peritumoral bone marrow(BM) edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor(GCT) of the appendicular bone by magnetic resonance(MR) imaging and to correlate MRI findings with those of plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Eighteen cases of pathologically proven benign GCT of the appendicular bone were retrospectively analyzed using MR images, plain radiographs and bone scintigrams. A plain radiography was available in 15 cases, and a scintigram in six. Marrow edema was defined as peritumoral signal changes which were of homogeneous intermediate or low signal intensity(SI) onT1WI and high SI on T2WI, relative to the SI of normal BM, and homogeneous enhancement on Gd-DTPA -enhanced T1WI. The transition zone, sclerotic margin and aggressiveness of the lesion were assessed on the basis of plain radiographs. BM edema seen on MR images was correlated with plain radiographic and scintigraphic findings. 1. Peritumoral BM edema was seen on MR images in 10 of 18 cases (55.5%). 2. In 8 of 15 cases for which plain radiographs were available, MR imaging revealed BM edema. In six of these eight, transition zone was wide, while in two it was narrow. Six of seven patients without marrow edema showed a wide transition zone, and in one this was narrow. There was significant correlation between BM edema shown by MR imaging and the transition zone seen on plain radiographs (x 2 , p<0.05). But the aggressiveness shown by plain radiographs correlated only marginally while the presence of sclerotic rim did not correlate. 3. All six cases for which a bone scintigram was available showed an extended uptake pattern. In five of the six, MR imaging revealed edema. Peritumoral BM edema was frequently seen (55.5%) in the GCTs of appendicular bone; it was more often shown in association with a wide transition zone by plain radiographs.=20

  3. Study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-04-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).

  4. Bone scintigraphy for metastasis detection in canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of serial bone scintigraphy in the detection of skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Twenty-six dogs with primary, appendicular osteosarcoma were entered into a limb-sparing protocol. Bone scintigraphy was performed upon presentation, after neoadjuvant therapy but prior to surgery and at selective intervals after limb-sparing surgery to evaluate for the presence of metastasis. Thoracic radiographs, and radiographs of other sites, were also made at the time of each bone scan. All dogs had a complete necropsy. No dog had bone or lung metastases detected prior to treatment. The bone scans, medical records, and radiographs of each dog were reviewed retrospectively. All but one dog developed metastatic disease. Bone metastatic sites were confirmed at necropsy in 12 of the 26 dogs. Seven of these 12 dogs had bone metastatic sites which were not producing clinical signs, i.e. an occult metastasis. In five of the seven dogs, the occult site was the first metastatic site detected. Extraskeletal metastases were identified scintigraphically in six of the 26 dogs, but these were clinically apparent prior to bone scintigraphy in each dog. Suspected malignant scintigraphic lesions were proven benign in six dogs. In five dogs with malignant bone lesions at necropsy the last bone scan prior to euthanasia was normal. The time interval between scintigraphy and necropsy was variable in these five dogs. All dogs without bone metastases at necropsy had normal bone scans. This study validates the usefulness of bone scintigraphy for detection of occult bone metastasis and improved ability for tumor staging in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma

  5. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Leonard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131 I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  6. Radionuclide investigation of the bone marrow with 99mTc-coren in patients with polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, L.Ya.; Prikhod'ko, A.G.; Rozdil'skij, S.I.; Astap'eva, O.N.; Grusha, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of radionuclide investigation of the bone marrow in 44 patients (of them 32 with polycythemia vera) were presented. The informative value of bone marrow scintigraphy and whole-body radiometry using 99m Tc-coren was shown in the patients with polycythemia vera at advanced stages. The results obtained made it possible to specify a clinical stage and prognosis of disease, and to optimize therapy

  7. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  8. Bone scintigraphy for the investigation of lameness in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolln, G.; Franke, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy has been used as a helpful method in diagnosing lameness in small animals. It is a sensitive, non-invasive method to evaluate bone lesions and orthopaedic disorders. It provides a functional image of the skeleton and thereby aiding in the localisation and diagnosing of obscure lameness. Compared to human medicine one important difference is the inability of an animal to characterize its pain to the examiner. Another difference is the lacking cooperation of an animal during bone scintigraphy. Before this background are shown on the basis of 5 examples the advantages, the method and the different indication of bone scintigraphy. The technique of this method arrives from a human medicine protocol of a 2-phase-bone-scintigraphy and has to be done under light anaesthesia, to avoid artefacts of movement during acquisitions. The authors are convinced that bone scintigraphy is a very useful and diagnostic method for evaluation of obscure lameness because it can give a quick diagnosis and aimed therapy. Therefore secondary changes and additional costs can be avoided for the animal and its owner. (orig.)

  9. Visualization of female breast in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Sakata, Shouichi

    1992-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence rates in Japan has more than doubled in the decade between 1975 and 1985 due to a well-established and affluent Western life-style. One hundred patients having breast cancer, 107 patients having mastectomies, and 243 patients having no breast cancer were reviewed for whole body and spot views of bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MDP. The frequency of positive breast uptake in patients with no breast cancer showed a maximum in those patients between the ages of 30 and 40, with a progressive rise and fall before and after the peak, respectively. Patients between the ages of 50 and 60 with breast cancer showed a maximum uptake of 83%, while those patients between the ages of 70 and 80 with breast cancer showed an uptake higher than 50%. There was a markedly higher breast uptake ratio in the breast cancer group compared to the breast cancer free group. Although this scanning agent was of no value in recognition of tumor localization from breast uptake, we have to suspect a high incidence of cancer existence whenever there was unilateral increased breast activity. Even though the mechanism of 99m Tc-MDP uptake by breast tissue is unknown, breast concentration of 99m Tc-MDP appears to be influenced by hormones, especially estrogen. (author)

  10. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  11. Clinical value of renal images obtained incidentally to bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Y.; Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Kido, A.; Tanaka, A.

    1982-01-01

    Various studies were made on 400 renal (including 325 clinical cases) observed during whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP. Asymmetrical renal images in bone scintigrams were obtained from 40% of the urologic patients and 7.5% of the nonurologic patients. Out of the asymmetrical images of the urologic patients, 50% provided nonvisualized kidneys and 35% showed unilateral renal high accumulation. It can be said from the above that renal images incidentally obtained during whole-body bone scintigraphy should not be overlooked

  12. Effects of radiations on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Frindel, E.; Croizat, H.; Parmentier, C.

    1979-01-01

    After total body irradiation for kidney transplant, the initial decrease of circulating blood cells is more rapid, the nadir is reached sooner and the regeneration occurs earlier when the doses are higher than a few hundred rads. The LD 50 in man seems to be higher than 450 rads. The in vivo and in vitro assays of hemopoietic stem cells have greatly increasedd the understanding of acute and late effects. Multipotential stem cells are very radiosensitive, furthermore the differentiation of the surviving stem cells is accelerated after irradiation. This results in a severe depletion of the stem cell compartment. When this stem cell number falls below a critical value, the stem cell no longer differentiates till the completion of the regeneration of the stem cell compartment. Stem cell proliferation is regulated by inhibitors and stimulators. Release of stimulators by irradiated bone marrow has been demonstrated. Severe sequellae are observed after irradiation of animal and human bone marrow. They seem to be due either to the damage of the stromal cell or to the stem cell population. In patients, four compensating mechanisms are observed after a regional bone marrow irradiation: stimulation of non irradiated bone marrow, extension of hemopoietic areas, regeneration of irradiated bone marrow when the irradiated volume is large and increase in the amplification factor resulting in an increase in the output of mature cells for one stem cell input. Assay of progenitor cells provides useful information and a reduction in their number is still observed many years after a large regional irradiation

  13. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Osmond, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3 H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  14. Medical image transmission via communication satellite. Evaluation of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideki; Inoue, Tomio; Endo, Keigo; Shimamoto, Shigeru.

    1995-01-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, the communication satellite possesses superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting, high capacity, and robustness to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the geostationary satellite JCSAT 1 located at the altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, the authors investigated satellite-relayed medical imagings by video signals, with bone scintigraphy as a model. Each bone scintigraphy was taken by a handy-video camera, digitalized and transmitted from faculty of technology located at 25 kilometers apart from our department. Clear bone scintigraphy was obtained via satellite, as seen on the view box. Eight nuclear physicians evaluated 20 cases of bone scintigraphy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed between the scintigraphies on view box and via satellite by the rating method. The area under the ROC curve was 91.6±2.6% via satellite, and 93.2±2.4% on the view box and there was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that the satellite communication is very useful and effective system to send nuclear imagings to distant institutes. (author)

  15. [Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Inoue, T; Endo, K; Shimamoto, S

    1995-10-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, the communication satellite possesses superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting, high capacity, and robustness to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the geostationary satellite JCSAT1 located at the altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, the authors investigated satellite-relayed medical images by video signals, with bone scintigraphy as a model. Each bone scintigraphy was taken by a handy-video camera, digitalized and transmitted from faculty of technology located at 25 kilometers apart from our department. Clear bone scintigraphy was obtained via satellite, as seen on the view box. Eight nuclear physicians evaluated 20 cases of bone scintigraphy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed between the scintigraphies on view box and via satellite by the rating method. The area under the ROC curve was 91.6 +/- 2.6% via satellite, and 93.2 +/- 2.4% on the view box and there was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that the satellite communication is very useful and effective system to send nuclear imagings to distant institutes.

  16. Study of healing process and prognosis of medial femoral neck fracture evaluated by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1981-02-01

    As to healing process and prognosis of femoral neck fracture, radionuclide bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound was performed and the following results were obtained. 1. In cases of osteosynthesis, scintigraphical study showed a certain serial pattern until fracture was uneventfully healed. 2. On the other hand, in cases with non-union or late segmental collapse of the head, scintigraphy revealed defect at superolateral or central area in the head. This finding could be already noted prior to roentgenographical evaluation. 3. In the study of radionuclide uptake count on the femoral head of resected specimen, the higher value was observed in the area along medial fracture edge to medial margin of the head. Histological study showed feature of increased new bone formation at the area of higher radionuclide uptake. Vascular supply through the bone marrow of the neck and superior retinacular artery was thought to play an important role for the new bone formation. 4. From the aforementioned results, sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound scintigraphy was considered as one of the quite useful methods for early diagnosis of complications after femoral neck fracture.

  17. A comparative study of bone scintigraphy and NMR for vertebral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Mariko; Sekiya, Toru; Hata, Yuichi; Mori, Yutaka; Yasuda, Masanobu; Kawakami, Kenji; Tada, Sinpei

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of NMR and bone scintigraphy was performed in vertebral disorders, and the significance of both modalities was evaluated. Twelve patients with various vertebral abnormalities including ten cases of vertebral metastases, one case of cervical caries and one case of Granular cell tumor of L3, were examined. In 4 patients, NMR showed abnormalities in the same regions as the bone scintigrams. In another 3 patients. NMR did not show the disorders reported on bone scintigrams. This may be due to the low NMR sensitivity to tiny infiltration of tumor cells in the bone marrow. In 3 out of the remaining 5 patients, NMR demonstrated abnormal findings, whilst the bone scintigrams were normal. Previous bone scintigrams in these patients before treatment had shown abnormal accumulation of activity in the region of abnormal NMR findings. This may be due to the fact that NMR detects the irreversible change of bone marrow, and bone scintigram demonstrates the turn over of bone minerals. This limited experience suggests that both madalities are complementary in the evaluation of vertebral abnormalities. (author)

  18. Shifting bone marrow edema of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosikasuwan, Josh B.; Schultz, Elizabeth; Miller, Theodore T.; Math, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe shifting bone marrow edema in the knee as the MR imaging feature of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee. Five men, aged 45-73 years, were referred by orthopedic surgeons for MR imaging evaluation of knee pain, which had been present for 2 weeks to 6 months. One patient had a prior history of blunt trauma. None had risk factors for osteonecrosis. Four patients had two MR examinations and the patient with prior blunt trauma had four. Plain radiographs were obtained in all patients. In all cases, a large area of marrow edema initially involved a femoral condyle, with migration of the bone marrow edema to the other femoral condyle, tibia, and/or patella occurring over a 2- to 4-month period. Adjacent soft tissue edema was present in all five patients, while none had a joint effusion. Radiographs of two patients showed generalized osteopenia. In the absence of acute trauma or clinical suspicion of infection, a large area of bone marrow edema without a zone of demarcation may represent intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis. Demonstration of shifting bone marrow edema on follow-up examinations suggests this diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. BONE MARROW ABONRMALITIES IN HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Antiram Dhurve

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction; Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection.  Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection.  Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS.  Methods: 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4   counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AIDS and those without AIDS according to NACO criteria.   Bone marrow examination was performed for indication of anemia, leucopenia, pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Results: As per CDC criteria 59.81% patients had AIDS in 107 patients. The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 93.12% patients.  Bone marrow was normocellular in 79.06% of non-AIDS and 79.68% of AIDS, hypocellular in 13.95%.Thrombocytopenia was seen in 4 cases of ART (4.93% and 3 cases (4.68% of AIDS group. Abnormal cells like plasma cell, histocyte and toxic granule found in bone marrow. Conclusions: Myelodysplasia was more common in AIDS than in non AIDS patients. Granulocytic series is most commonly associated with evidence of dysplasia. Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Thus bone marrow study is imperative to methodically observe and follow clinical and laboratory aberration in such patients in order to improve our diagnostic and therapeutic skills pertinent to HIV/AIDS.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of bone scintigraphy in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the quantitative evaluation of bone scintigraphy that is used in the inspection of the bone-metastasis of prostate cancer. In advanced prostate cancer, bone scintigraphic examination with technetium 99m methylenediphosphonate (complex compound) is indispensable. Since bone metastasis hardly involves soft tissue, the morphological evaluation of soft tissue cancer cannot be used as a reference. Therefore, quantitative evaluation peculiar to bone scintigraphy has been developed. Following the visual evaluation that began in the 1980's, a technique considering highly integrated parts and areas of images was proposed in the 1990's. The computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software that automated the manual analysis of the above technique was developed in the 2010's. In order to evaluate the usefulness of quantitative evaluation based on bone CAD, the authors performed bone scintigraphy for 42 patients, who were diagnosed as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in 2004 to 2011 and received DEC therapy for 4 months. When bone CAD analysis was performed, it was found that the therapeutic effect could not be determined earlier than the judgement using the increase of PSA antigen. Recently quantitative analysis shifted from bone scintigraphy to bone SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), and papers have also been published since the 2010s. In bone SPECT, the quantitative function of SUV (standardized uptake value) was equipped, and in the clinical use case of SUV, SUV increase was seen earlier than the increase of PSA antigen. The evidences are expected to be accumulated in the future. (A.O.)

  1. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Sourbron, Steven; Duerr, Hans-Roland; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  2. Symmetric visualization of the femoral heads in reticuloendothelial bone marrow scanning in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munz, D L; Hoer, G

    1983-03-01

    Two hundred and twenty seven consecutive patients of either sex aged 15-84 suffering from various benign and malignant disorders were studied by sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM reticuloendothelial bone marrow scintigraphy. In all patients, symmetric findings concerning visualization or nonvisualization of the femoral heads could be seen. Femoral heads were clearly visualized in 48%, nonvisualized in 43%, and equivocally visualized in 9%. In patients with clearly visualized femoral heads, the bone marrow showed peripheral extension in 81%, whereas in patients with nonvisualized femoral heads, bone marrow extension was observed in only 42%. There was a correlation between the degree of bone marrow extension and the ability to visualize femoral heads. There was no obvious difference between males and females, nor patients with various diseases or treatments, amongst nor between different age groups. Two hypotheses are suggested to explain the correspondence between presence of bone marrow tissue in the femoral heads and peripheral extension of the bone marrow organ. Nonvisualization of the femoral heads alone is insufficient to establish the diagnosis of avascular necrosis.

  3. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  5. Chronological study for solitary bone metastasis in the sternum from breast cancer with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Hidenao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Tamada, Tsutomu; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao

    1999-01-01

    Since breast cancer is frequently associated with bone metastasis, bone scintigraphies have been performed to determine pre-operative staging and to survey postoperative bone metastasis. The sternum, in particular, is a site at which is difficult to differentiate between benign bone disease and bone metastasis, because of varied uptake and wide individual variations. In this study, chronological bone images were scintigraphied in six cases with solitary sternal metastasis and three cases with benign bone disease including two fracture cases and one arthritis case. On bone scintigrams in which solitary sternal metastasis appeared, increased uptake was found in five cases, and photon deficiency was observed in one case. During follow-up scintigraphies, abnormal accumulations, such as hot spots and cold lesions, increased in the bone metastasis while abnormal uptake disappeared or was unchanged in the benign bone disease cases. On CT, four cases showed osteolytic change, and one exhibited osteosclerotic change. These findings indicate that sternal metastasis usually shows osteolytic change, even if a hot lesion is recognized on bone scintigraphy. In solitary sternal metastasis, for which early diagnosis is difficult, both an integrated diagnosis using other imaging techniques and chronological bone scintigraphy are important. (author)

  6. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  7. The Role od Bone Marrow Aspirate and Trephine Samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other disorders diagnosed after bone marrow examination include myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aplastic anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia and myelofibrosis. Only 8.75% of these patients had a normal bone marrow. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the complexity of using bone marrow examination in ...

  8. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  9. PET in Benign Bone Marrow Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, Wouter; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    This review aims to describe the current status of benign bone marrow (BM) imaging using PET. BM imaging is important as the BM is not only involved in poiesis of different vital cell lines and. can be affected by primary BM disorders, but it is also frequently affected by several extramedullary

  10. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Bone Marrow Microangiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective-The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis. Methods and Results-We found profound structural alterations in BM from mice with

  11. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  12. Periapical multilocular osteoporotic bone marrow defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2005-01-01

    A case of osteoporotic bone marrow defect, which appeared as a well-defined multilocular radiolucency overlapping the roots of mandibular right second molar, was reported. On periapical radiograph, a daughter cyst-like radiolucency was seen at the anterior margin of the lesion making it difficult to rule out odontogenic keratocyst.

  13. Periapical multilocular osteoporotic bone marrow defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    A case of osteoporotic bone marrow defect, which appeared as a well-defined multilocular radiolucency overlapping the roots of mandibular right second molar, was reported. On periapical radiograph, a daughter cyst-like radiolucency was seen at the anterior margin of the lesion making it difficult to rule out odontogenic keratocyst.

  14. The role of bone scintigraphy in detecting child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, J J; Collins, M; Tanz, R R; Radkowski, M A; Anandappa, E; Hernandez, R; Freeman, E L

    1993-10-01

    This review of diagnostic imaging in cases of suspected child abuse characterizes the significant differences between bone scintigraphy and x-ray evaluation, describes the advantages and disadvantages of each modality, postulates on the specific mechanisms of injury that produce the characteristic scintigraphic findings, and emphasizes the influences that scintigraphic studies have on the medical, social, and legal aspects of child abuse. The major advantages of bone scintigraphy are its increased sensitivity (25% to 50%) in detecting evidence of soft tissue as well as bone trauma in child abuse. Furthermore, it is postulated that the specific mechanisms of inflicting the trauma relate to the patient's size and are characterized by bone scintigraphy. During fits of anger or frustration, the perpetrator of child abuse grasps the small infant or child by the thorax during the shaking activity. This produces characteristic rib injuries. The older and heavier child is more likely to be grabbed by the extremities, which produces periosteal injuries manifested as characteristic abnormal localizations in the diaphyses of the extremities. The roentgenograms of these injuries are frequently normal. The importance of bone scintigraphy is its complementary nature in defining and characterizing the extent and severity of trauma from child abuse. Such findings have direct bearing on the medical, social, and legal outcomes for the abused child. The quality of scintigraphic imaging is important, requiring the use of magnification techniques in the infant. The interpretation of the scintigraphic images depends on an understanding of the mechanisms by which the radionuclide localizes in bone. The same traumatic incident can lead to decreased, normal, or increased localization at the trauma site. Radionuclide scintigraphy is a complementary rather than competitive imaging modality to X-ray evaluation in the diagnosis and management of physical child abuse.

  15. Bone marrow examination: Indications and diagnostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashawri, Layla A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective was to identify the main indications for bone marrow examination in a University hospital setup and the most common diagnoses encountered. To also identify the extent of correlation, if any, between the preliminary diagnosis and the result of the final bone marrow diagnosis. The requests and reports of all bone marrow biopsies and aspirations carried out during a 12-year period from January 1988 through to December 1999, in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were retrospectively reviewed. The information extracted included the main indications for performing this procedure, age groups involved, and the most common diagnoses encountered. A specially designed form was used for this purpose and the data was analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences. Randomly selected slides of the most common diagnoses were reviewed to concur with the diagnosis. There was a total of 1813 bone marrow biopsies or aspirations, or both, performed. The main indications for bone marrow examination in a descending order of frequency were the following: The diagnosis and management of acute leukemia 403 (22.2%), staging for lymphoma 276 (15.2%), evaluation of pancytopenia 215 (11.9%), thrombocytopenia 173 (9.5%), investigation of anemia 151 (8.3%), fever (pyrexia of unknown origin) 130 (7.2%), lymphadenopathy 120 (6.6%), and hepatosplenomegaly 80 (4.4%). The most common diagnoses encountered were: acute lymphoblastic leukemia 242 (13.3%), immune thrombocytopenia 123 (6.8%), acute myeloblastic leukemia 80 (4.4%), hypersplenism 79 (4.4%), chronic granulocytic leukemia 73 (4.0%), megaloblastic anemia 66 (3.6%), bone marrow positive for lymphomatous infiltration 63 (3.5%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia 40 (2.2%), and multiple myeloma 32 (1.8%). This study confirms that bone marrow examination is a very important investigation for establishing the diagnosis in many conditions, especially hematological neoplasms. The most common

  16. Is there a place for radionuclide bone scintigraphy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shown the importance of bone scintigraphy in the detection of fractures in radiographnegative skeletal trauma.T-3 The early detection and immobilisation of fractures of the scaphoid are thought to be essential in preventing the disabling sequelae of avascular necrosis and pseudo-arthrosis,4 Several studies allude to the

  17. Bone scintigraphy in children with obscure skeletal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, Massoud

    1979-01-01

    In a group of 82 children with focal or generalized skeletal pain of obscure etiology, the radionuclide skeletal scintigraphy was the only, or the most informative, clue to the diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant conditions. It is strongly recommended that any unexplained bone or joint pain in children be evaluated by this non-invasive technique [fr

  18. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography

  19. Bone scintigraphy in prostate cancer: a French national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, A.; Corone, C.; Giammarile, F.; Lumbroso, J.; Resche, I.

    1997-01-01

    A national survey has been performed in France concerning bone scan in prostatic carcinoma. Its aim was to define methods of performing examinations, criteria of analysis of imaging results and indications of radionuclide imaging in initial evaluation and post-therapeutic follow-up of the disease. Replies are given and recommendations are proposed in order to improve imaging quality, optimize interpretation and rationalize prescription of bone scintigraphy in case of prostatic carcinoma. (authors)

  20. Abscopal suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Johnson, M.J.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Abscopal responses of hemopoietic tissue, which we noted in preliminary studies of mice receiving partial-body irradiation, led us to clarify these effects. In studies reported here, one hind leg of CF-1 female mice received 1000, 5000, or 10,000 rad of x radiation. We found a persistent shift from medullary to splenic erythropoiesis preventing anemia in mice receiving 5000 or 10,000 rad. Splenectomy prior to 5000-rad irradiation resulted in anemia, which was not ameliorated by exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Despite evidence for increased levels of erythropoietin in the animals, namely, a reticulocytosis and increased erythrocyte radioiron incorporation, both 59 Fe uptake and erythroblast counts in shielded marrow remained below normal. We found 50 to 90% suppression of the growth of marrow stromal colonies (MSC) from bone marrow aspirates of the shielded and irradiated femoral marrow at 1 month and at least 20% depression of MSC at 1 year, with each dose. We conclude that: (i) high doses of x radiation to one leg of mice caused prolonged suppression of medullary erythropoiesis with splenic compensation to prevent anemia; (ii) splenectomy, anemia, and hypoxia prevented the severe abscopal depression of medullary erythropoiesis; and (iii) suppressed medullary erythropoiesis with decreased growth of MSC suggested a change in the hemopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow

  1. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  2. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in hematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.C. vande; Lecouvet, F.E.; Maldague, B.; Malghem, J.; Michaux, L.; Ferrant, A.

    1998-01-01

    Despite its lack of specificity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow has the potential to play a role in the management of patients with primary neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic system, including lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myeloma. In addition to its use in the assessment of suspected spinal cord compression, bone marrow MRI could be used as a prognostic method or as a technique to assess the response to treatment. The current review addresses the common patterns of bone marrow involvement observed in primary neoplasms of the bone marrow, basic technical principles of bone marrow MRI, and several applications of MRI in selected clinical situations. (orig.) (orig.)

  4. Bone and Gallium scintigraphy in primary malignant and benign bone tumors of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepahdari, S.; Martin, W.B.; Ryan, J.; Simon, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-01-01

    A six yer prospective evaluation of 129 patients suspected of having a primary bone tumor included Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy followed by Ga-67 imaging at 48-72 hours. Blood pool images were part of bone scintigraphy in nearly half of the patients. Extent and intensity of tracer uptake in tumor and adjacent bone and joints were recorded for each tracer by two observers blind to the diagnosis. Tissue samples obtained in every patient by biopsy or tumor excision after scintigraphy, revealed 72 malignant and 57 benign bone tumors. The bone scan was positive in 95% (69/72) of malignancies. The scintigraphic intensity of benign and malignant lesions was comparable with both Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67. On the other hand, bone scintigraphy showed 72% (52/72) of bone malignancies to have abnormal proximal and distal bone/joint uptake whereas the Ga-67 images revealed this in only 6% (4/65) of malignancies. Benign lesions manifested this enhanced contiguous bone/joint uptake on only 8% (5/55) of bone and 0% of Ga-67 scans. This study concludes positive bone, blood pool, or Ga-67 images have less specificity for malignancy than the presence of increased Tc-99m MDP deposition in a contiguous bone/joint, but negative scintigraphic results strongly favor a benign lesion. Ga-67 was more accurate than Tc-99m MDP in portraying intraosseous extent of malignant tumors; however, this is now preferably done with C.T

  5. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.F. Chauffaille

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis. Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05. Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05. GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  6. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauffaille, M L L F; Pinheiro, R F; Stefano, J T; Kerbauy, J

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases) to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis). Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05). GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms That Contribute to Bone Marrow Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Ivanusic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pain associated a bony pathology puts a significant burden on individuals, society, and the health-care systems worldwide. Pathology that involves the bone marrow activates sensory nerve terminal endings of peripheral bone marrow nociceptors, and is the likely trigger for pain. This review presents our current understanding of how bone marrow nociceptors are influenced by noxious stimuli presented in pathology associated with bone marrow. A number of ion channels and receptors are emerging as important modulators of the activity of peripheral bone marrow nociceptors. Nerve growth factor (NGF sequestration has been trialed for the management of inflammatory bone pain (osteoarthritis, and there is significant evidence for interaction of NGF with bone marrow nociceptors. Activation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 sensitizes bone marrow nociceptors and could contribute to increased sensitivity of patients to noxious stimuli in various bony pathologies. Acid-sensing ion channels sense changes to tissue pH in the bone marrow microenvironment and could be targeted to treat pathology that involves acidosis of the bone marrow. Piezo2 is a mechanically gated ion channel that has recently been reported to be expressed by most myelinated bone marrow nociceptors and might be a target for treatments directed against mechanically induced bone pain. These ion channels and receptors could be useful targets for the development of peripherally acting drugs to treat pain of bony origin.

  8. Postirradiation bone marrow damage in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skardova, I.; Ojeda, F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of bone marrow damage induced by the continuous gamma irradiation was studied. Effect of dose rate and level of cumulated doses of radiation was evaluated in clinical and hematological examinations and bone marrow damage was determined by chromosome aberrations in anaphase. The regulative ability of hematopoiesis of many cytokines are discussed. Positive regulators are inducers of cell proliferation, and negative regulators are inducers of apoptosis /programmed cell death/. Birds corresponding with similarities in thymus-T and bursal-B cells appear to be an interesting model for studying the possible participation of apoptosis in radiation disease. Our recent experimental studies continue to progress in this direction. (author) 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Bone marrow transplantation for childhood malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Yasunori

    1992-01-01

    As of June 30, 1991, 1013 pediatric patients had registrated to The Bone Marrow Transplantation Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-matched siblings is now reasonably safe and an established method of treatment in acute leukemia. Total body irradiation, which is major part of preparative regimen for BMT, affect endocrine function, subsequent growth, gonadal function, development of secondary malignancies. We propose the indication of TBI for children and young adults as follows; those who are at high risk for leukemic relapse after BMT such as Phl-positive-All, leukemia-lymphoma syndrome, AML with monocytic component, BMT in elapse, BMT from other than HLA-matched siblings. (author)

  10. Cytogenetic and morphological assessment of bone marrow in therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, U.; Das, B.P.; Singhal, R.M.; Radhakrishnaiah, Y.; Rath, G.K.; Padmaraju, I.; Bhargava, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic study from the irradiated bone marrow, in 59 cases of radically irradiated carcinoma cervix was done. Regeneration of a marrow adjudged on cellular morphology was after 12 months whereas cytogenetic studies revealed it at the end of three months. It is concluded that cytogenetic study is a more sensitive parameter in assessing the recovery of bone marrow. (author)

  11. Bone scintigraphy in two cases of chronic brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujat, C.; Neidl, K.; Mueller-Leisse, C.; Berg, D.

    1989-01-01

    As shown in the case reports, bone scintigraphy plays an important part considering the diagnosis of chronic brucellosis, an infectious disease which occurs rarely in Germany. To establish the diagnosis knowledge of symptoms and signs of the disease is necessary. Chronic brucellosis may occur in each organ, ionvolving especially bones and joints. The disease may manifest as spondilytis (especially of the lumbar spine) or arthritis of large joints, sacroiliacal joints or costotransverse joints. Chronic brucellosis has to be considered if a bone scan reveals a typical pattern even without a typical history. (orig.) [de

  12. Allogeneic bone marrow grafts in genotyped swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiman, M.

    1974-01-01

    The proof of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) called SL-A enabled to promote bone marrow allografts. A study of the response to that kind of graft in irradiated pig states a number of interesting points. Bone marrow allografting complies with the rule of tissular compatibility with the major histocompatibility complex. The taking of SL-A incompatible bone marrow allografts could not be achieved under the experimental conditions. In spite of the high doses of radiation, 950 to 1050 rads, higher than 1.5 LD 100%, recipients were capable of rejecting their grafts, regularly. SL-A identify ensured 100%, initial achievement. However, animals developed regular fatal disease within a fairly short time. This development could by no means, be ascribed to the sole sequealae of radiation sickness since autografted animals at equal or even higher doses, showed none of the symptome. Assumption of a chronic graft-vs-host reactions, induced by the minor histocompatible systems, was put foreward, but should be confirmed histopathologically [fr

  13. Tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendra, J.R.; Halil, O.; Barrett, A.J.; Selwyn, S.

    1982-01-01

    A brief report is presented of a case of tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation complicated by radiation-induced pneumonitis. A 30-year-old army sergeant received a bone-marrow transplant from his brother for the treatment of a granulocytic sarcoma after local radiotherapy to the tumour. Six years earlier he had sustained an open, compound fracture of the left tibia and fibula while on army exercise. At the time a pin and plate had been inserted and booster anti-tetanus administered. Bone-marrow transplantation was performed after total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A was given against graft-versus-host disease. Fifty four days after transplantation tetanus was diagnosed and death followed 14 days later. Necropsy disclosed radiation-induced pneumonitis, but no organisms were cultured from the lungs or the old fracture site. It is suggested that spores were incorporated into the wound site before surgery and that oxygenation around the plate became compromised after transplantation, permitting germination of dormant spores, immunosuppression allowing development of the disease. (U.K.)

  14. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  15. Methods of bone marrow dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboaco, R.C.

    1982-02-01

    Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author) [pt

  16. Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Joanna; Frazier, Trivia; Smith, Stanley; Brown, Theodore; Bender, Robert; McCarthy, Michelle; Wu, Xiying; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2018-06-01

    This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities. While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.

  17. Clinical experience of 123I-IMP scintigraphy in detecting vertebral bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma. A comparison with bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Y.; Iwamiya, T.; Tanigawa, N.; Shabana, M.; Ohta, Y.

    1994-01-01

    123 I-IMP and bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MDP were consecutively performed in patients with vertebral bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma and lumbar spondylosis deformans in a 7-day interval or shorter. The intensity of uptake was compared. Eighteen of the 20 metastatic lesions (90%) were classified as increased uptake areas in 123 I-IMP scintigraphy. MDP-scintigraphy disclosed 16 metastatic lesions (80%), 9 as ''hot'' lesions (56%) and 7 as ''cold'' lesions (44%). 123 I-IMP scintigraphy was negative in all 12 lesions of lumbar spondylosis deformans. Compared to MDP-scintigraphy, 123 I-IMP scintigraphy was more sensitive in detecting vertebral bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma with smaller rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. (orig./MG)

  18. Meeting report of the 2016 bone marrow adiposity meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eerden, Bram; van Wijnen, André

    2017-10-02

    There is considerable interest in the physiology and pathology, as well as the cellular and molecular biology, of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Because bone marrow adiposity is linked not only to systemic energy metabolism, but also to both bone marrow and musculoskeletal disorders, this biologic compartment has become of major interest to investigators from diverse disciplines. Bone marrow adiposity represents a virtual multi-tissue endocrine organ, which encompasses cells from multiple developmental lineages (e.g., mesenchymal, myeloid, lymphoid) and occupies all the non-osseous and non-cartilaginous space within long bones. A number of research groups are now focusing on bone marrow adiposity to understand a range of clinical afflictions associated with bone marrow disorders and to consider mechanisms-based strategies for future therapies.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Klatte, E.C.; Baehner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Seven children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow: results showed that it is technically feasible to obtain good MR images of marrow in children. MR has detected abnormality in the bone marrow of a child who had metastatic neuroblastoma. The extent of abnormality in the femur correlated well with findings of a bone marrow isotope scan. In one child who had idiopathic aplastic anemia, diseased marrow could not be distinguished from normal marrow on MR images. MRI identified abnormality of the marrow in osteogenic sarcoma, and demonstrated change in response to chemotherapy. It displayed marrow spread of tumors as well as CT. MRI showed marrow abnormality in four children who had leukemia

  20. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.

    1999-01-01

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  1. Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.).

  3. Quantitative bone scintigraphy. A study in patients with prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundkvist, G.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed in patients with prostatic carcinoma before orchiectomy as well as two weeks, two and six months after operation. The count rate was recorded as serial gamma camera images over the lower thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae from 1 to 240 min and at 24 h after injection of 99T c m -MDP. In almost all abnormal vertebrae an increased count rate was observed within one hour after injection. Most of the vertebrae which were considered normal at 4 h after injection, but had an increased 24h/4h ratio developed into abnormal vertebrae later in the study. The patients with normal bone scintigrams showed no change in 99 Tc m -MDP uptake during the study. The reproducibility of quantitative bone scintigraphy was found to be ± 7% (1 SD). In response to therapy, most of the patients with abnormal bone scintigrams showed an increase in count rate two weeks after operation followed by a decrease to the pre-operative level after two months and a further decrease after six months. This so called 'flare phenomenon' was found to indicate 99 Tc m -MDP in the vascular phase as well as an active bone uptake. In some of the patients the whole-body retention of 99 Tc m -MDP after 24 h and the bone mineral density in the vertebrae were determined and found to be valuable in the interpretation of skeletal metastases and the assessment of response to therapy. (71 refs.)

  4. Pelvic and lumbar metastasis detected by bone scintigraphy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Castillo Pallares, F.J.; Llorens Banon, L.; Romero de Avila y Avalos, C.; Garcia Garc'ia, T.; Azagra Ros, P.; Maruenda Paulino, J.I.; Ferrer Albiach, C.

    1999-01-01

    A case of a 43-year-old man suffering from pleural mesothelioma with distant bone metastasis is reported. The results of bone scintigraphy and NMR findings allowed the diagnosis. The current case describes a hematogenous metastasis to the pelvis and vertebral column from a malignant pleural mesothelioma that was detected initally by bone scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  5. Bone scintigraphy and tenofovir-induced osteomalacia in chronic hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoe, Alex khoo cheen; Feng, Lee Yeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Penang Hospital, Georgetown (Malaysia)

    2017-06-15

    Tenofovir, used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and HIV, is known for its side effects on the kidneys and bones. We share interesting images of a patient with tenofovir-induced osteomalacia on Technetium-99 m hydroxymethyelene (Tc-99 m HDP) bone scintigraphy. Pattern recognition of this bone scintigraphy and correlation with the clinical history is essential to avoid misdiagnosis.

  6. Bone scintigraphy and tenofovir-induced osteomalacia in chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, Alex khoo cheen; Feng, Lee Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Tenofovir, used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and HIV, is known for its side effects on the kidneys and bones. We share interesting images of a patient with tenofovir-induced osteomalacia on Technetium-99 m hydroxymethyelene (Tc-99 m HDP) bone scintigraphy. Pattern recognition of this bone scintigraphy and correlation with the clinical history is essential to avoid misdiagnosis

  7. Bone scintigraphy. A contribution to oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The bone scintiscanning is evaluated including aspects as accuracy, precision and no invasiveness of the method in diagnosis. A review of radiotracers used in this technique is presented. The value of bone scintiscanning as a diagnostic technique and also as clinic follow up in neoplasms is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  8. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  9. Three-phase bone scintigraphy of hydroxyapatite ocular implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitha, T.; Staudenherz, A.; Scholz, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite ocular implants are replicas of lamellar bone tissue derived from the exoskeleton of a reef-building coral by a hydrothermal chemical exchange reaction. Attached to the eye muscles, they act as a passive framework for fibrovascular ingrowth and can be drilled to hold the visible part of the artificial eye and allow synchronous eye movement. Fibrovascular ingrowth has to be confirmed by bone scintigraphy before the drilling procedure. This study monitored the vascular ingrowth into the implant in ten patients over 12 months to establish a clinically feasible imaging protocol. Tracer accumulation was monitored visually and quantitatively in dynamic and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans after the intravenous administration of 600 MBq of 99m Tc-DPD. The implants showed no tracer accumulation in the arterial or blood pool phase. Accordingly, dynamic scintigraphy can be omitted from the imaging protocol. Delayed tracer accumulation appeared no earlier than 2 and no later than 6 months after surgery. Planar scintigraphy is not recommended as high-resolution SPET is necessary to separate the implant from the surrounding bone. We conclude that imaging can be confined to high-resolution SPET 3 h after tracer injection, no earlier than 3 months after surgery. The vascularized hydroxyapatite orbital implant is an important in vivo model for bone-seeking agents to study their uptake kinetics independently of any soft tissue and bone disease. Our results provide evidence that in normal bones the chemical adsorption of 99m Tc-DPD into the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite is the only quantitatively relevant uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  10. Three-phase bone scintigraphy of hydroxyapatite ocular implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitha, T. [Univ. Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Staudenherz, A. [Univ. Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Scholz, U. [First Univ. Clinic of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite ocular implants are replicas of lamellar bone tissue derived from the exoskeleton of a reef-building coral by a hydrothermal chemical exchange reaction. Attached to the eye muscles, they act as a passive framework for fibrovascular ingrowth and can be drilled to hold the visible part of the artificial eye and allow synchronous eye movement. Fibrovascular ingrowth has to be confirmed by bone scintigraphy before the drilling procedure. This study monitored the vascular ingrowth into the implant in ten patients over 12 months to establish a clinically feasible imaging protocol. Tracer accumulation was monitored visually and quantitatively in dynamic and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans after the intravenous administration of 600 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-DPD. The implants showed no tracer accumulation in the arterial or blood pool phase. Accordingly, dynamic scintigraphy can be omitted from the imaging protocol. Delayed tracer accumulation appeared no earlier than 2 and no later than 6 months after surgery. Planar scintigraphy is not recommended as high-resolution SPET is necessary to separate the implant from the surrounding bone. We conclude that imaging can be confined to high-resolution SPET 3 h after tracer injection, no earlier than 3 months after surgery. The vascularized hydroxyapatite orbital implant is an important in vivo model for bone-seeking agents to study their uptake kinetics independently of any soft tissue and bone disease. Our results provide evidence that in normal bones the chemical adsorption of {sup 99m}Tc-DPD into the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite is the only quantitatively relevant uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  11. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Takashi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1984-02-01

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healthy adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse malignant bone marrow diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Rehn, S.; Glimelius, B.; Hagberg, H.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Simonsson, B.; Sundstroem, C.

    Twenty-four patients with malignant bone marrow involvement or polycythemia vera, 8 patients with reactive bone marrow and 7 healthy individuals were examined with spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging at 0.35 T and 0.5 T. Signs of an increased longitudinal relaxation time, T1, were found when normal bone marrow was replaced by malignant cells, polycythemia vera or reactive marrow. A shortened T1 was indicated in 4 patients in bone marrow regions treated by radiation therapy; the marrow was most likely hypocellular in these cases. The estimated T1 relaxation times were highly correlated to the cellularity of the bone marrow as assessed by histology. Among patients with close to 100% cellularity neither T1 nor T2 discriminated between the various malignancies or between malignant and reactive, non-malignant bone marrow. Characterization of tissues in terms of normalized image intensities was also attempted, the motive being to avoid approximations and uncertainties in the assessment of T1 and T2. The normalization was carried out with respect to the image of highest intensity, i.e. the proton density weighted image. The results were in agreement with those for T1 and T2. It was concluded that MRI is valuable for assessing bone marrow cellularity, but not for differentiating between various bone marrow disorders having a similar degree of cellularity.

  13. Femoroacetabular impingement mimicking avascular osteonecrosis on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Juan Pablo; Domínguez, María Luz; Nogareda, Zulema; Gómez, María Asunción; Muñoz, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a structural abnormality of proximal femur and/or acetabulum. It has been recently described, and there are limited reports in nuclear medicine literature because bone scintigraphy is not listed in its diagnostic protocol, but it should be included on differential diagnosis when evaluating patients, with hip-related symptoms because it may be misinterpreted as degenerative changes or avascular necrosis, and its early treatment avoid progression to osteoarthritis. We describe the case of a male who suffered from hip pain. Bone planar scintigraphic appearance mimicked avascular necrosis, but single photon emission computed tomography (CT) imaging and CT examination confirmed the diagnosis of FAI

  14. Transplantation of bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Hermanova, E.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological changes were studied of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen of lethally irradiated mice (0.2 C/kg) after transplantation of living bone marrow cells. It was observed that functional trombopoietic megakaryocytes occur from day 15 after transplantation and that functional active megakaryocytes predominate in bone marrow and spleen from day 20. In addition, other types of cells, primarily granulocytes, were detected in some megakaryocytes. (author)

  15. Renal imaging incidental to bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahner, H.W.; Maher, F.T.; Hattery, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Valuable information about the urinary tract can be obtained from bone scans performed primarily for the detection of bone metastases of prostatic cancer. In case of repeatedly negative bone scans with respect to the urinary tract, major urinary tract obstruction can be excluded. Therefore, if the bone scan is normal, no signs and symptoms of urinary tract obstruction are found on examination, and values for serum creatinine and urinalysis are normal or satisfactory, there is no need to include an excretory urogram as a routine part of every follow-up examination to exclude urinary tract obstruction. However, significant scarring atrophy, or masses may go underected. It is further suggested that a skeletal scintigram, evaluated for both skeletal and renalurinary tract pathology, be performed at the time a diagnosis of prostatic cancer is made. A baseline is thus provided for the recognition of possible changes occuring subsequently in either system. (orig.) [de

  16. Reversal of acute (''malignant'') myelosclerosis by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.L.; Spruce, W.E.; Bearman, R.M.; Forman, S.J.; Scott, E.P.; Fahey, J. L.; Farbstein, M.J.; Rappaport, H.; Blume, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    A 28-yr-old woman with acute malignant myelosclerosis received, as primary treatment, ablative chemotherapy and total body radiation therapy followed by bone marrow transplantation from her histocompatible brother. The patient is now well more than 15 mo after bone marrow transplantation, with normal peripheral blood counts, a normal bone marrow, no evidence of graft-versus-host disease, and is on no therapy. In light of the poor results obtained with conventional chemotherapy in this disease, bone marrow transplantation may represent the treatment of choice for patients who have an appropriate donor

  17. Diagnostic approach to reflex sympathetic dystrophy after fracture: radiography or bone scintigraphy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic-Tirnanic, M.; Obradovic, V.; Han, R.; Goldner, B.; Stankovic, D.; Sekulic, D.; Lazic, T.; Djordjevic, B.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the value of bone scintigraphy and radiography in the early diagnosis of post-fracture reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). Thirty-seven adult patients with post-fracture RSD (28 in the first and nine in the second clinical stage of RSD), as well as seven patients with fracture but without RSD (control group), were investigated by radiography and bone scintigraphy. All of them were immobilized (duration of immobilization: 4-22 weeks). In 21 persons three phase bone scintigraphy was performed. The best distinction between the control group and the RSD patients was achieved by delayed bone scintigrams. The sensitivity (97%), positive predictive value (97%) and accuracy (95%) of delayed bone scintigraphy were very high compared to the values for radiography, which were 73%, 90% and 70% respectively. Bone scintigraphy also displayed higher specificity (86%) and negative predictive value (86%) than radiography (57% and 29% respectively). In the first clinical stage the difference between the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (97%) and radiography (63%) was greater than for the whole group. In the second stage of RSD the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (86%) and radiography (81%) was similar. Three-phase bone scintigraphy is not necessary for the diagnosis of post-fracture RSD: it is sufficient to perform delayed bone scintigraphy. It is concluded that bone scintigraphy is to be preferred to radiography for the early diagnosis of post-fracture RSD in the first clinical stage. In the second stage the diagnostic capabilities of bone scintigraphy and radiography are more comparable. (orig.)

  18. Incidental diagnosis of pregnancy on bone and gallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Collica, C.J.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Bone and gallium scintigraphy were performed as part of the diagnostic workup of a 21-yr-old woman who presented at our institution with a history of progressively worsening low back pain over a 1-wk period of time. The angiographic phase of the bone scan demonstrated a well-defined radionuclide blush within the pelvis just cephalad to the urinary bladder with persistent hyperemia noted in the blood-pool image. We attribute these findings to a uterine blush secondary to the pronounced uterine muscular hyperplasia, hyperemia, and edema that accompany pregnancy. Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated intense bilateral breast accumulation of the imaging agent in a typical doughnut pattern which is commonly found in the prelactating and lactating breast. Also demonstrated was apparent gallium accumulation in the placenta. This case is presented to emphasize the radionuclide findings that occur during pregnancy, particularly the incidental finding of radionuclide blush during the angiographic phase of a radionuclide scintigraphy which should alert the nuclear physician to the possibility of pregnancy in a woman of childbearing age

  19. Application of semiquantitative parameters of bone scintigraphy in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhchelyan, Kh.; Klisarova, A.; Koeva, L.; Pranchev, L.; Tranulov, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study is to introduce semiquantitative indicators, contributing to early detection and dynamic measurement of the degree of bone metabolism in the foot of diabetic patients. Ten diabetics (3 women and 7 men) and 20 controls (10 women and 10 men) are included in the study. All patients are subjected to bone scintigraphy, clinical and biochemical investigation. Data are obtained pointing to enhanced and disproportional fixation of the radionuclide in symmetrical zones of the foot. The results are interpreted with a special reference to the extent of metabolic control and complications of the diabetic condition. Enhanced bone metabolism in the foot of the diabetic patients examined was established. Semiquantitative parameters enabling early detection and dynamic measurement of bone metabolism in the diabetic foot are practically implemented

  20. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell

  1. Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.

    1988-01-01

    In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

  2. Successful bone marrow transplantation in sensitized recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levey, R.H.; Parkman, J.; Rappeport, J.; Nathan, D.G.; Rosen, F.

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen patients with aplastic anemia and one with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome who were specifically sensitized against their donors were successfully engrafted with bone marrow from those donors. Sensitivity was detected in antibody-independent and antibody-dependent cell-mediated lysis assays. In order to erase this immunity to non-MHR familial transplantation antigens, multiagent immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, and whole rabbit antithymocyte serum (ATS) was used. The data suggest that ATS was largely responsible for abrogation of this sensitivity and indicate that immunity does not represent a barrier to successful transplantation

  3. Bone scintigraphy in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW, (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign skeletal disorder of unknown aetiology. Fibrous dysplasia characteristically involves the fibrous replacement of portions of the medullary cavities of a single bone (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic). Bones typically involved include the femurs, tibiae, ribs and maxillae. The polyostotic form may be accompanied by skin pigmentation and endocrine abnormalities (McCune Allbright Syndrome). Radiological findings in fibrous dysplasia are variable, ranging from completely radiolucent to radio-opaque lesions, depending on the amount of fibrous or osseous tissue deposited in the medulla. The most common radiographic finding is that of a ground glass-like semi-opaque lesion. Case reports on scintigraphic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia are scanty. We present radiological and scintigraphic findings of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in a young male. (authors). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Identification of resident and inflammatory bone marrow derived cells in the sclera by bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Qiao, Hong; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Toru; Noda, Kousuke; Miyahara, Shinsuke; Harada, Mine; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Miller, Joan W

    2007-04-01

    To characterise bone marrow derived cells in the sclera under normal and inflammatory conditions, we examined their differentiation after transplantation from two different sources, bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Bone marrow and HSC from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into irradiated wild-type mice. At 1 month after transplantation, mice were sacrificed and their sclera examined by histology, immunohistochemistry (CD11b, CD11c, CD45), and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. To investigate bone marrow derived cell recruitment under inflammatory conditions, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) was induced in transplanted mice. GFP positive cells were distributed in the entire sclera and comprised 22.4 (2.8)% (bone marrow) and 28.4 (10.9)% (HSC) of the total cells in the limbal zone and 18.1 (6.7)% (bone marrow) and 26.3 (3.4)% (HSC) in the peripapillary zone. Immunohistochemistry showed that GFP (+) CD11c (+), GFP (+) CD11b (+) cells migrated in the sclera after bone marrow and HSC transplantation. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed antigen presenting cells among the scleral fibroblasts. In EAU mice, vast infiltration of GFP (+) cells developed into the sclera. We have provided direct and novel evidence for the migration of bone marrow and HSC cells into the sclera differentiating into macrophages and dendritic cells. Vast infiltration of bone marrow and HSC cells was found to be part of the inflammatory process in EAU.

  5. The Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the National Cancer Institute - its resources to assist patients with bone marrow failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the bone marrow transplantation center of the brazilian National Cancer Institute, which is responsible for the cancer control in Brazil. The document also describes the resources available in the Institute for assisting patients presenting bone marrow failures. The Center provides for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants, peripheral stem cell transplants, umbilical cord collections and transplants, and a small experience with unrelated bone marrow transplants. The Center receives patient from all over the country and provides very sophisticated medical care at no direct cost to the patients

  6. Stress fracture development classified by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwas, S.T.; Elkanovich, R.; Frank, G.; Aharonson, Z.

    1985-01-01

    There is no consensus on classifying stress fractures (SF) appearing on bone scans. The authors present a system of classification based on grading the severity and development of bone lesions by visual inspection, according to three main scintigraphic criteria: focality and size, intensity of uptake compare to adjacent bone, and local medular extension. Four grades of development (I-IV) were ranked, ranging from ill defined slightly increased cortical uptake to well defined regions with markedly increased uptake extending transversely bicortically. 310 male subjects aged 19-2, suffering several weeks from leg pains occurring during intensive physical training underwent bone scans of the pelvis and lower extremities using Tc-99-m-MDP. 76% of the scans were positive with 354 lesions, of which 88% were in th4e mild (I-II) grades and 12% in the moderate (III) and severe (IV) grades. Post-treatment scans were obtained in 65 cases having 78 lesions during 1- to 6-month intervals. Complete resolution was found after 1-2 months in 36% of the mild lesions but in only 12% of the moderate and severe ones, and after 3-6 months in 55% of the mild lesions and 15% of the severe ones. 75% of the moderate and severe lesions showed residual uptake in various stages throughout the follow-up period. Early recognition and treatment of mild SF lesions in this study prevented protracted disability and progression of the lesions and facilitated complete healing

  7. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, γ-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author)

  8. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  9. Quantitative bone scintigraphy in evaluating treatment of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; te Velde, J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Kleiverda, K.; de Graeff, J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1983-01-01

    The effect of various forms of treatment of renal osteodystrophy was evaluated in 25 dialysis patients by quantitative bone scintigraphy, using 99m-Tc-HEDP. The results were compared with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. The total skeletal activity (TSA) decreased in 5 patients after transplantation, in 11 after parathyroidectomy and in 6 out of 9 treated conservatively, but did not normalize in any of the patients. Bone morphometric evaluation of treatment, which could be performed in 19 of the 20 patients who did not receive a transplant, demonstrated a reduction in the degree of hyperparathyroidism in 17 patients (89 percent). Osteoid excess was reduced in 13 patients (68 percent) but an evident reduction of osteomalacic osteoid, i.e. improvement of osteomalacia, occurred in only 4 patients (21 percent). Changes in the TSA correlated significantly with the changes in the biochemical and histological parameters of hyperparathyroidism, but not with the changes in osteoid excess. These results indicate that, during treatment of renal osteodystrophy, changes in (quantitative) bone scintigraphy primarily indicate changes in the degree of hyperparathyroidism.

  10. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Woo Jin; Chung, Soo Kyo; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  11. Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Abdolali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas.

  12. Recent progress in the differentiation of bone marrow derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are one of the cells found in bone marrow stromal. A large number of studies have shown that BMMSCs cannot only differentiate into hematopoietic stromal cells, but can migrate and position themselves in multiple non-hematopoietic organizations and differentiate into the ...

  13. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  14. Bone Marrow Edema: An MRI Diagnostic Clue in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: bone marrow edema intrinsic to osseous lesions were noted in 22 patients. Bone marrow edema with associated soft tissue lesions were noted in 25 patients findings included tenosynovitis in 15, impingement syndromes in seven diabetic foot infection in two and diabetic osteoneuroarthropathy in one patient .

  15. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic

  16. Recent progress in the differentiation of bone marrow derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are one of the cells found in bone marrow stromal. A large number of ..... BMMSCs and myocardial cells using biomimetic electrical ... effect ventricular remodeling after infarction. Meyern et al. ... to small sample sizes and different experimental con- ditions.

  17. Bone marrow and chelatable iron in patients with protein energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the iron status of malnourished children by comparing bone marrow iron deposits in children with protein energy malnutrition with those in well-nourished controls, and measuring chelatable urinary iron excretion in children with kwashiorkor. Design: Bone marrow iron was assessed histologicaHy in ...

  18. Bone marrow transplantations to study gene function in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, Menno P. J.; Heeringa, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Experimental replacement of bone marrow offers the unique possibility to replace immune cells, to study gene function in mouse models of disease. Over the past decades, this technique has been used extensively to study, for

  19. Bone-marrow MR imaging before and after autologous marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients without known bone-marrow involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Blomlie, V.; Blystad, A.K.; Holte, H.; Kvaloey, S.; Langholm, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To study lumbar bone marrow by means of MR imaging before and after bone-marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients. Particular emphasis was paid to heterogeneity and to focal manifestations, i.e. appearances that could simulate tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who were disease-free for a minimum of 30 months after transplantation were studied in 107 MR examinations. Two radiologists visually evaluated coronal T1-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) images. Results: T1-weighted images demonstrated a more heterogeneous marrow after transplantation than before it. Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas appeared on this sequence in 5 (23%) of the 22 patients at between 21 and 60 weeks after transplantation. The mean age of these 5 patients was 48.4 years (range 42-54 years). The difference in age between these 5 patients and the remaining 17 patients, who had a mean age of 33.4 years (range 14-51 years), was statistically significant (p<0.01, Student's t-test, 2-sided test). Conclusion: Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas may be seen on T1-weighted images of bone marrow in patients who are in complete remission after transplantation, particularly in those aged over 40-45 years. (orig.)

  20. Bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone invasions of face and skull epitheliomas and ORL neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocquard, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy has been considerably improved by the use of technetium 99m-labelled organic phosphates: the physical characteristics are almost ideal for detection and the extemporaneous labelling of the product is convenient. This study on 75 patients has proved the value of bone scintigraphy in evaluating the bone invasion of tumoral lesions affecting the face and skull. An 88% agreement was found for scintigraphy, radiography giving 81%. The technique allows a fast assessment of whole-body bone invasion from one examination, with no extra injection of radioactive product, and it is therefore possible to orient the radiological enquiry without having to X-ray the whole skeleton, which reduces the amount of irradiation delivered to the organism. From these observations it may be concluded that scintigraphy is a simple, harmless method, with many advantages, but its limits must be known and it must always be interpreted as a function of other clinical and radiological data. It should be systematic in research on the local spreading of face and skull epitheliomas, in neoplasms of the ORL sphere and in the search for bone metastases [fr

  1. Detection of bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Comparison of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, D.; Roethke, M.; Aschoff, P.; Lichy, M.P.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Merseburger, A.S.; Reimold, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: prostate cancer continues to be the third leading cancer-related mortality of western men. Early diagnosis of bone metastasis is important for the therapy regime and for assessing the prognosis. The standard method is bone scintigraphy. Whole-body MRI proved to be more sensitive for early detection of skeletal metastasis. However, studies of homogenous tumor entities are not available. The aim of the study was to compare bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI regarding the detection of bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: 14 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and a bone scintigraphy as well as whole-body MRI within one month were included. The mean age was 68 years. Scintigraphy was performed using the planar whole-body technique (ventral and dorsal projections). Suspect areas were enlarged. Whole-body MRI was conducted using native T1w and STIR sequences in the coronary plane of the whole body, sagittal imaging of spine and breath-hold STIR and T1w-Flash-2D sequences of ribs and chest. Bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI were evaluated retrospectively by experienced radiologists in a consensus reading on a lesion-based level. Results: whole-body MRI detected significantly more bone metastasis (p = 0.024). 96.4% of the demonstrated skeletal metastases in bone scintigraphy were founded in whole-body MRI while only 58.6% of the depicted metastases in MRI were able to be located in scintigraphy. There was no significant difference regarding bone metastasis greater than one centimeter (p = 0.082) in contrast to metastasis less than one centimeter (p = 0.035). Small osteoblastic metastases showed a considerably higher contrast in T1w sequences than in STIR imaging. Further advantages of whole-body MRI were additional information about extra-osseous tumor infiltration and their complications, for example stenosis of spinal canal or vertebral body fractures, found in 42.9% of patients. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic bone scintigraphy findings in renal osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotornik, I.; Pivonka, J.; Povysil, C.; Lanska, V.; Kocandrle, V.; Taborsky, P.; Zichova, M.; Universita Karlova, Prague; Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess types of renal osteopathy by a dynamic modification of osteoscintigraphy. 53 patients underwent dialysis for 27-75 months and 19-52 years old were divided, according to histological bone pictures, into 4 groups: I) 11 patients with hyperparathyroidism, II) 12 patients with osteomalacia, III) 11 patients with mixed renal osteopathy, IV) 11 patients after parathyroidectomy, and 13 controls. Investigations: the rate of 99mTc-Sn-HEDP accumulation in the skeleton and the skeletal/background radioactivity index monitored both for 60 min. (parameters K and P), serum levels of C-PTH, bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (bALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), free hydroxyproline (S-Hypro). Results: 1. compared to controls: elevations of K and all biochemical parameters, P in groups I and III (p<0.01-<0.001) were found. 2. Group I was characterized by the highest values of all parameters compared with groups II and IV (p<0.01). 3. Linear relationships were found between K and bALP, ACP, S-Hypro (p<0.01) in groups I, II, III. 4. PTE in osteopathy was present in 2/3 of cases in group II showing the lowest values of all parameters. (author) 3 tabs., 4 figs., 25 refs

  3. Contribution of scintigraphy in the search for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miossec, Andre.

    1976-01-01

    The inclusion of scintigraphy in the repertory of diagnostic techniques is quite recent, but this examination is continually gaining in importance. In the case of bone metastases it certainly contributes to early diagnosis, a factor which is still the foremost condition of therapeutic efficiency. However some faults persist in the detection of metastases and it is hoped that the isotopic technique will gradually eliminate these errors. Scintigraphy in fact is still in its infancy, and several products are used for want of a consensus. Many improvements are expected in the future, whether in the technique itself or in its reliability or interpretation. - Technical improvement with the appearance of more sensitive instruments, tomography... - Improved interpretation by the acquisition of images on which hypofixation and hyperfixation zones will be more clearly differentiated and by a more accurate, more mathematical estimation of hypofixation and hyperfixation. Progress is already very rapid in this respect owing to the arrival of computerization. - Better reliability, perhaps the field in which hopes are highest: discovery of new radioactive products acting selectively in the metabolism or catabolism of the neoplasic process. Scintigraphy is a technique undoubtedly destined for considerable further development and called on to play an increasingly important part in cancer diagnosis and even in research on the cancer call development process itself [fr

  4. Prospective study of bone metastasis from prostate cancer: comparison between large field diffusion-weighted imaging and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoying; Zhang Chunyan; Jiang Xuexiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the large field diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) (from head vertex to lower leg) in detection of bone metastases from prostate cancer. Methods: One hundred and sixty- six consecutive patients who were suspected of prostate cancer received pelvic MRI and large field diffusion weighted imaging examination. Forty-nine of them underwent bone scintigraphy within one month of the examination of large field DWI. The images were double-blindly evaluated without the knowledge of the pathology result. Conventional MR T 1 and fat saturation T 2 weighted images were taken as standard for the diagnosis of bone metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under curve between large field DWI and bone scintigraphy were compared with McNemar test. Five patients with bone metastases exceeding 10 per patient were excluded in the lesion-by-lesion analysis. Results: Ten of the 49 patients were diagnosed as bone metastases. The diagnosis of bone metastasis were made in 15 patients by large field DWI and in 17 patients by bone scintigraphy. With patient number as study units (n=49), the diagnostic sensitivity of bone metastases with large field DWI and bone metastases were both 100% (10/10), and specificity were 87.2% (34/39) vs. 82.1% (32/39), respectively. ROC study showed the area under curve (AUC) of large field DWI and bone scintigraphy were 0.936 vs. 0.910, respectively. Totally 68 abnormal foci were identified from large field DWI and/or bone scintigraphy in 44 patients (while 5 patients with bone metastases exceeding 10 foci per patient were excluded), 20 of them were diagnosed as foci of bone metastasis. The diagnosis of bone metastases was made in 23 foci by large field DWI and in 34 by bone scintigraphy. With lesion numbers as study units (n=68), the diagnostic sensitivity of large field DWI and bone scintigraphy were both 90.0% (18/20), and specificity were 89.6% (43/48) vs. 66.7% (32/48), respectively. ROC study showed the area under curve of

  5. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis.

  6. Red-yellow marrow conversion: Its effect on the location of some solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of yellow marrow to red marrow caused by marrow infiltrating disorders or marrow stress disorders. (orig.)

  7. Malignant external otitis: The diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostfeld, E.; Aviel, A.; Pelet, D.

    1981-01-01

    Technetium99m Methylene Diphosphate bone scintigraphy (BS) of the skull was performed in three patients with malignant external otitis (MEO). Pathological uptake of the radioisotope in the mastoid region was found during the early stages of MEO updating radiologic findings. The extent of the radioisotope accumulation during the early stages of MEO indicates that the actual tissue damage exceeds the clinical estimation. The follow-up BS findings correlate well with the clinical course of MEO indicating either healing or extension to the base of skull

  8. Bone marrow cells other than stem cells seed the bone marrow after rescue transfusion of fatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous publication, iodinated deoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) incorporation data were interpreted as indicating that spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) in DNA synthesis preferentially seeded bone marrow. In the present studies, the CFU-S content of marrow from irradiated, bone-marrow transfused mice was directly determined. Pretreatment of the transfused cells with cytocidal tritiated thymidine resulted in an insignificant diminution in CFU-S content when compared with nontritiated thymidine pretreatment, implying that there is no preferential seeding. The 125 IUdR incorporation data have been reinterpreted as being a result of the proliferation of other progenitor cells present that have seeded the bone marrow

  9. Detection of bone marrow involvement in patients with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, M.; Silingardi, V.; Wright, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Current methods for the study of bone marrow to evaluate possible primary or metastatic cancers are reviewed. Bone marrow biopsy, radionuclide scan, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are analyzed with regard to their clinical usefulness at the time of diagnosis and during the course of the disease. Bone marrow biopsy is still the examination of choice not only in hematologic malignancies but also for tumors that metastasize into the marrow. Radionuclide scans are indicated for screening for skeletal metastases, except for those from thyroid carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Computed tomography is useful for cortical bone evaluation. MRI shows a high sensitivity in finding occult sites of disease in the marrow but its use has been restricted by high cost and limited availability. However, the future of MRI in bone marrow evaluation seems assured. MRI is alredy the method of choice for diagnosis of multiple myeloma, when radiography is negative, and for quantitative evaluation of lymphoma when a crucial therapeutic decision (i.e. bone marrow transplantation) must be made. Finally, methods are being developed that will enhance the sensitivity and specificity of MRI studies of bone marrow

  10. Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Leptin Levels in Lymphoproliferative Diseases - Relation to the Bone Marrow Fat and Infiltration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaja, A.; Churý, Z.; Pecen, Ladislav; Fraňková, H.; Jandáková, H.; Hejlová, N.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2000), s. 307-312 ISSN 0028-2685 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : leptin * bone marrow fat * bone marrow infiltration * lymphoproliferative disease Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2000

  11. Role of whole bone marrow, whole bone marrow cultured cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Shareef, Shahjahan; Salgado, Marcela; Shabbir, Arsalan; Van Badiavas, Evangelos

    2015-03-13

    Recent evidence has shown that bone marrow cells play critical roles during the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases of cutaneous wound healing. Among the bone marrow cells delivered to wounds are stem cells, which can differentiate into multiple tissue-forming cell lineages to effect, healing. Gaining insight into which lineages are most important in accelerating wound healing would be quite valuable in designing therapeutic approaches for difficult to heal wounds. In this report we compared the effect of different bone marrow preparations on established in vitro wound healing assays. The preparations examined were whole bone marrow (WBM), whole bone marrow (long term initiating/hematopoietic based) cultured cells (BMC), and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). We also applied these bone marrow preparations in two murine models of radiation induced delayed wound healing to determine which had a greater effect on healing. Angiogenesis assays demonstrated that tube formation was stimulated by both WBM and BMC, with WBM having the greatest effect. Scratch wound assays showed higher fibroblast migration at 24, 48, and 72 hours in presence of WBM as compared to BM-MSC. WBM also appeared to stimulate a greater healing response than BMC and BM-MSC in a radiation induced delayed wound healing animal model. These studies promise to help elucidate the role of stem cells during repair of chronic wounds and reveal which cells present in bone marrow might contribute most to the wound healing process.

  12. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P.J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis. Methods and results We found profound structural alterations in BM from type-1 diabetic mice, with depletion of the hematopoietic component and fatty degeneration. Blood flow (fluorescent microspheres) and microvascular density (immunohistochemistry) were remarkably reduced. Flow cytometry verified the depletion of MECA-32pos endothelial cells (ECs). Cultured ECs from BM of diabetic mice showed higher levels of oxidative stress, increased activity of the senescence marker β-galactosidase, reduced migratory and network-formation capacities and increased permeability and adhesiveness to BM mononuclear cells. Flow cytometry analysis of lineageneg c-Kitpos Sca-1pos (LSK) cell distribution along an in vivo Hoechst-33342 dye perfusion gradient documented that diabetes depletes LSK cells predominantly in the low-perfused part of the marrow. Cell depletion was associated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and activation of apoptosis. Boosting the anti-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by benfotiamine supplementation prevented microangiopathy, hypoperfusion and LSK cell depletion. Conclusions We provide novel evidence for the presence of microangiopathy impinging on the integrity of diabetic BM. These discoveries offer the framework for mechanistic solutions of BM dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:20042708

  13. Transient bone marrow edema of the talus: MR imaging findings in five patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigena, Leopoldo M.; Chung, Christine B.; Lektrakul, Nittaya; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Sung, Mi Sook; Resnick, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MR findings of transient bone marrow edema (TBME) of the talus and to address the differential diagnostic considerations. Design and patients: The imaging findings of TBME of six tali were retrospectively reviewed in five patients with a clinical history of pain without trauma. Inclusion criteria were MR imaging findings that, when compared with clinical data and results of follow-up assessment, allowed the diagnosis of TBME. MR imaging, standard radiography, and bone scintigraphy were performed. The images were reviewed with particular attention to the pattern and distribution of abnormal marrow signal intensity as well as associated findings. Results: In four cases the entire talus was involved, and in two cases only a portion of the bone was affected. No fractures were detected. MR imaging demonstrated diffuse decreased signal intensity of the marrow on T1-weighted images with corresponding increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In all six cases MR imaging detected associated findings, which included joint effusion and soft tissue edema. All patients improved clinically with conservative therapy over a period of 6 months to 1 year. Conclusions: Although unusual, TBME can involve the talus. Marrow edema without evidence of a fracture and in the absence of history of trauma is a characteristic MR imaging feature, allowing confident diagnosis and institution of conservative therapy. (orig.)

  14. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  15. Transient Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnur Konuralp

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES is accepted as a possible cause of acute disabling hip pain. This syndrome is defined as local osteoporosis in hip in radiographies, BME in MRI which can be rarely seen and has a self-limiting course. Although the disease generally has a self-limiting course, surgical treatment by early core decompression of the femoral head has proven effective in rapidly relieving the symptoms. Although BMES is relatively rare and probably underdiagnosed when compared to nontraumatic osteonecrosis, both conditions are associated with known osteonecrosis risk factors in middle aged men and especially with late (thirdhad trimester pregnancy in women. We have reported three cases with BMES that had different etiology and followed up presented the differential diagnosis to nontraumatic avascular osteonecrosis. These three cases were treated in early stage very succesfully.

  16. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Ayako; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Shu [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1998-06-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  17. A method for generation of bone marrow-derived macrophages from cryopreserved mouse bone marrow cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Marim

    Full Text Available The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L. amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells.

  18. Bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc MIBI. Its importance for the detection of malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Luis O.; Tamayo, Alicia; Rodriguez, Oscar; Solano, Maria E.; Perera, Alejandro; Perez, Marylin

    1997-01-01

    99mT c-MIBI is a radiopharmaceutical widely employed for the detection and follow-up of different oncological diseases. The aim of the present work was to determine the value of the scintigraphy with 99mT c-MIBI for the diagnosis of malignant bone tumors, its metastases and recurrences. Twenty patients aged 24+- years old, suspected of having bone neoplasms, were studied. I

  19. Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Akihiko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Samejima, Masahiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. The usefulness of bone scintigraphy in SAPHO syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    SAPHO syndrome is well known to various disease entities including synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and polyarthritis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sicntigraphic findings and to compare with radiologic findings in SAPHO syndrome. Five patients (M:F=5:0, Age 22.8{+-}4.78 yrs) with SAPHO syndrome were enrolled in our study. All patients underwent whole-body bone scintigraphy with intravenous administration of 740 MBq of Tc-99m MDP. Among them, two patients were additionally perfomed SPECT of the spine to evaluate the location and extent of spinal lesion. All patients were demonstrated abnormal increased uptakes in sternoclavicular joint (SC), sacroiliac joint (SI), and small joints of both hands. Among them, three patients were bilateral involvement (3/5) and two were unilateral (2/5) in SC. Involvement of SI showed bilateral in four patients (4/5) and unilateral in one (1/5). SPECT images demonstrate that the lesion sites of the lumbar spine are more likely facet joints than vertebral bodies or pedicles. As SAPHO syndrome is the disease entity involved polyarticular joints with various dermatologic manifestations, the bone scintigraphy may be a very useful method to evaluate the location and extent of joint involvement, and to avoid inadequate surgical management or ineffective antibiotic treatment.

  1. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  2. Post-irradiation thymocyte regeneration after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, W.; Betel, I.; Daculsi, R.; Westen, G. van der

    1981-01-01

    Growth kinetics of the donor-type thymus cell population after transplantation of bone marrow into irradiated syngeneic recipient mice is biphasic. During the first rapid phase of regeneration, lasting until day 19 after transplantation, the rate of development of the donor cells is independent of the number of bone marrow cells inoculated. The second slow phase is observed only when low numbers of bone marrow cells (2.5 x 10 4 ) are transplanted. The decrease in the rate of development is attributed to an efflux of donor cells from the thymus because, at the same time, the first immunologically competent cells are found in spleen. After bone marrow transplantation the regeneration of thymocyte progenitor cells in the marrow is delayed when compared to regeneration of CFUs. Therefore, regenerating marrow has a greatly reduced capacity to restore the thymus cell population. One week after transplantation of 3 x 10 6 cells, 1% of normal capacity of bone marrow is found. It is concluded that the regenerating thymus cells population after bone marrow transplantation is composed of the direct progeny of precursor cells in the inoculum. (author)

  3. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  4. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G.

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations [fr

  5. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  6. A comparison of scintigraphy with tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to detect an experimental bone tumors in the rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study on the accumulation of 99m Tc-phosphorous compound, 99m Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (TF) in the experimental bone tumors using the VX-2 cell was performed. In the group of the femoral metastatic bone tumor, 99m Tc-MIBI showed no accumulation in the femur at 12 days after the transplantation despite the presence of a bone marrow tumor. In the group of the iliac metastatic bone tumor, a bone scintigraphy showed decreased accumulation in the ileum at 16 days, but hot lesions were observed in same sites at 18 days after the transplantation on 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-TF scintigrams. The tumor to soft tissue accumulation ratio was higher for 99m Tc-MIBI (3.03±1.03) than for 99m Tc-TF (2.55±0.80) (P 99m Tc-MIBI is less satisfactory for the early diagnosis of tumors than bone scintigraphy, and a combined study with both 99m Tc-phosphorous compounds and 99m Tc-MIBI is useful for the evaluation and diagnosis of lesions. (author)

  7. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M.; Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  8. Clinical evaluation of stress fractures using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Atsuhiko; Tanohata, Kazunori; Otake, Toru; Hashizume, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yozi; Nakazima, Hiroyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of stress fractures were performed in 58 athletes using bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP. Stress fractures of the tibia were most often seen in the males with running type sports. They occurred more often in the proximal tibia and on the right side. Stress fractures of the fibula were most often seen in females with jumping type sports, such as volley ball. They occurred more often in the distal fibula and on the right side. Tarsal bone fractures were seen most often rugby players. Metatarsal fractures occurred in the third fourth and fifth metatarsals. No lesion was seen in the first and second metatarsals. We feel that stress fractures of the femur can be differentiated from osteosarcoma by small loculated radionuclide accumulation as well as symptome, course and tomographic and CT finding. Bilateral involvement was seen in two cases in patellae and calcanei. Most of the other fractures were seen on the right side. Negative radiographs were seen in 36% of the patients and occurred most commonly in the tarsal bones excluding calcaneus. Bone scintigrams were positive in all cases and were most useful in fractures of the tarsal bones excluding calcaneus. (author)

  9. Clinical evaluation of stress fractures using bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Atsuhiko; Tanohata, Kazunori; Otake, Toru; Hashizume, Toshiyuki (Kanto Rosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)); Kobayashi, Yozi; Nakazima, Hiroyuki

    1984-05-01

    Clinical evaluation of stress fractures were performed in 58 athletes using bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP. Stress fractures of the tibia were most often seen in the males with running type sports. They occurred more often in the proximal tibia and on the right side. Stress fractures of the fibula were most often seen in females with jumping type sports, such as volley ball. They occurred more often in the distal fibula and on the right side. Tarsal bone fractures were seen most often rugby players. Metatarsal fractures occurred in the third fourth and fifth metatarsals. No lesion was seen in the first and second metatarsals. We feel that stress fractures of the femur can be differentiated from osteosarcoma by small loculated radionuclide accumulation as well as symptoms, course and tomographic and CT findings. Bilateral involvement was seen in two cases in patellae and calcanei. Most of the other fractures were seen on the right side. Negative radiographs were seen in 36% of the patients and occurred most commonly in the tarsal bones excluding calcaneus. Bone scintigrams were positive in all cases and were most useful in fractures of the tarsal bones excluding calcaneus.

  10. Pulmonary metastasis in osteosarcoma in bone scintigraphy: 2 case reports poster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobocopatel, D.; Silva, N.J.; Hunsche, A.; Fernandes, D.D.; Berdichevski, E.H.; Cembrani, L.; Anselmi, C.E.; Anselmi, O.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Osteosarcoma is considered the most common malignant primary bone tumour in children and adolescents. The lungs are the common sites of metastasis, which, if present, are associated with poor prognosis. Imaging workup includes x-ray, computed tomography, nuclear resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy in order to diagnose, help to choose appropriate treatment and prognosticate this disease. Chemotherapy is used to increase survival rate and to control the occurrence of lung metastasis. CASE 1: ELWS, male, 6 years old. The patient had a left knee trauma followed by increase in size and pain over 15 days. Knee x-ray showed a voluminous lesion and densely calcified tissue in the left knee, with soft tissue involvement. Chest x-ray showed multiple nodular dense lesions diffusely involving the lungs. Left knee MRI showed a neoplasm involving the distal epiphysis of the femur with extension from the bone marrow to the trochanteric region. Biopsy diagnosed small cell osteosarcoma. Chest computed tomography showed multiple opacities in the parenchyma of both lungs, most with calcification, predominantly in the cortical region. Bone scintigraphy showed intense uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the distal half of the left femur and focal areas of increased uptake in the skull, left humerus, right scapula, thoracic soft tissue (mostly in the right side, in the same place as the pulmonary metastasis seen in the chest computed tomography), 12th thoracic vertebra, 4th lumbar vertebra and in the pelvis. CASE 2: ACD, male 20 years old. The patient presented pain and increase in size of the right knee starting 5 months ago. Right knee x-ray: insufflating bony lesion in the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia compatible with osteosarcoma; increase in volume in soft tissue around the knee. Right knee MRI: voluminous expansive osteoblastic lesion hypointense in T1 and heterogeneous in T2, diffusely enhanced by the use of gadolinium-DTPA; the lesion involved almost

  11. Is bone scintigraphy necessary in the initial surgical staging of chondrosarcoma of bone?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; James, Steven L.; Davies, Mark A. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Grimer, Robert J. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    To assess the value of whole-body bone scintigraphy in the initial surgical staging of chondrosarcoma of bone. A retrospective review was conducted of the bone scintigraphy reports of a large series of patients with peripheral or central chondrosarcoma of bone treated in a specialist orthopaedic oncology unit over a 13-year period. Abnormal findings were correlated against other imaging, histological grade and the impact on surgical staging. A total of 195 chondrosarcomas were identified in 188 patients. In 120 (63.8%) patients the reports of bone scintigraphy noted increased activity at the site of one or more chondrosarcomas. In one patient the tumour was outside the field-of-view of the scan, and in the remaining 67 (35.6%) cases, there was increased activity at the site of the chondrosarcoma and further abnormal activity in other areas of the skeleton. Causes of these additional areas of activity included degenerative joint disease, Paget's disease and in one case a previously undiagnosed melanoma metastasis. No cases of skeletal metastases from the chondrosarcoma were found in this series. Multifocal chondrosarcomas were identified in three cases. In two it was considered that all the tumours would have been adequately revealed on the initial MR imaging staging studies. In only the third multifocal case was an unsuspected, further presumed low-grade, central chondrosarcoma identified in the opposite asymptomatic femur. Although this case revealed an unexpected finding the impact on surgical staging was limited as it was decided to employ a watch-and-wait policy for this tumour. There is little role for the routine use of whole-body bone scintigraphy in the initial surgical staging in patients with chondrosarcoma of bone irrespective of the histological grade. (orig.)

  12. Copper-64 labeled liposomes for imaging bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-gyu; Gangangari, Kishore; Kalidindi, Teja Muralidhar; Punzalan, Blesida; Larson, Steven M.; Pillarsetty, Naga Vara Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bone marrow is the soft tissue compartment inside the bones made up of hematopoietic cells, adipocytes, stromal cells, phagocytic cells, stem cells, and sinusoids. While [ 18 F]-FLT has been utilized to image proliferative marrow, to date, there are no reports of particle based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for imaging bone marrow. We have developed copper-64 labeled liposomal formulation that selectively targets bone marrow and therefore serves as an efficient PET probe for imaging bone marrow. Methods: Optimized liposomal formulations were prepared with succinyl PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and mPEG-DSPE (69:39:1:10:0.1) with diameters of 90 and 140 nm, and were doped with DOTA-Bn-DSPE for stable 64 Cu incorporation into liposomes. Results: PET imaging and biodistribution studies with 64 Cu-labeled liposomes indicate that accumulation in bone marrow was as high as 15.18 ± 3.69%ID/g for 90 nm liposomes and 7.01 ± 0.92%ID/g for 140 nm liposomes at 24 h post-administration. In vivo biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice indicate that the uptake of 90 nm particles is approximately 0.89 ± 0.48%ID/g in tumor and 14.22 ± 8.07%ID/g in bone marrow, but respective values for Doxil® like liposomes are 0.83 ± 0.49%ID/g and 2.23 ± 1.00%ID/g. Conclusion: Our results indicate that our novel PET labeled liposomes target bone marrow with very high efficiency and therefore can function as efficient bone marrow imaging agents.

  13. Follow-up of breast cancer by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia N, E.; Castro, F.; Miranda, R.; Leon, L.; Bustamante, G.; Escobar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. It is the second most widespread cancer in Mexican women. Among the several methods for diagnosis and follow up of the disease, tumor markers like CA-53 have high sensitivity and specificity. Bone scan is a useful method in the detection of bone metastases. In comparison to other diagnostic modalities, bone scan is more sensitive and less expensive for detection of early bone abnormalities and hence to select an appropriate treatment for better prognosis. In our country, in about 70% of cases diagnosis of breast cancer is made when the disease is in an advanced state - states III and IV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow up of breast cancer by bone scans and to correlate these findings with the stage of the disease and other diagnostic modalities. The work was carried out at Mexican General Hospital. A total of 350 patients with breast tumor were included; bone scans were performed in all patients at the time of clinical diagnosis and at every 6 months for a period of 1 to 5 years using an Elscint APEX SP6 HR gamma camera coupled with ultra high resolution collimator. Scan was performed 2-3 hours after intravenous administration of 555-925 MBq of Tc-99m methyl diphosphonate. Tumor classification was made according to TNM criteria. Serum levels of alkaline phosphates, carcino-embrionic antigen (CEA) and Ca 53 were also measured on the same day. Fifty-one patients confirmed to have a diagnosis of benign breast were excluded from the study group. Of the remaining 299 patients, 89 (39%) were between 41 years to 50 years, 69 between 51 to 60 years. The clinical stage most commonly observed was stage III (n=164, 54%) followed by stage II (25%). In 59.5% of patients, scintigraphy showed bone metastasis. Four patients with bone metastases showed regression and 42 (14%) with negative scans became positive on follow up bone scans. Ninety-three patients were free of bone metastases during all

  14. Comparison of FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for detection of bone metastases in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Steffen; Heusner, Till; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)), email: steffen.hahn@uk-essen.de; Kuemmel, Sherko; Koeninger, Angelika (Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)); Nagarajah, James; Mueller, Stefan; Boy, Christian; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany))

    2011-11-15

    Background Bone scintigraphy is the standard procedure for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. FDG-PET/CT has been reported to be a sensitive tool for tumor staging in different malignant diseases. However, its accuracy for the detection of bone metastases has not been compared to bone scintigraphy. Purpose To compare whole-body FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases on a lesion basis in breast cancer patients. Material and Methods Twenty-nine consecutive women (mean age 58 years, range 35-78 years) with histologically proven breast cancer were assessed with bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Twenty-one patients (72%) were suffering from primary breast cancer and eight patients (28%) were in aftercare with a history of advanced breast cancer. Both imaging procedures were assessed for bone metastases by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Concordant readings between bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT were taken as true. Discordant readings were verified with additional MRI imaging in all patients and follow-up studies in most patients. Results A total of 132 lesions were detected on bone scintigraphy, FDG-PET/CT or both. According to the reference standard, 70/132 lesions (53%) were bone metastases, 59/132 lesions (45%) were benign, and three lesions (2%) remained unclear. The sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 76% (53/70) compared to 96% (67/70) for FDG-PET/CT. The specificity of bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT was 95% (56/59) and 92% (54/59), respectively. According to the reference standard bone metastases were present in eight out of the 29 patients (28%), whereas 20 patients (69%) were free of bone metastases. One (3%) patient had inconclusive readings on both modalities as well as on MRI and follow-up studies. Bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT correctly identified seven out of eight patients with bone metastases and 20 out of 20 patients free of metastases. Conclusion On a lesion

  15. Bone turnover markers and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapko, B.; Nocun, A.; Golebiewska, R.; Jankowska, H.; Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy and of serum bone turnover marker levels in the assessment of skeletal metastases. We investigated 60 patients with suspected skeletal metastases. Serum level of bone-formation marker: amino- terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and a bone-degradation marker: carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were assessed with radioimmunoassays. Bone MDP- 99m- Tc scans were performed as well. Hot spots were showed in 72% of patients. According to bone scintigraphy the patients were divided in to 3 groups: Group I - without hot spots (n = 16; 26%), Group II up to 10 hot spots (n = 25; 42%) and Group III more that 10 hot spots (n = 19; 32%). Mean serum level of ICTP was significantly higher in Group II than in Group I (p < 0.05), as well as in Group III compared to Group II (p < 0.001) and in Group III compared to Group I (p < 0.001). There is only one significant relationship in PINP levels - between Groups II and III. The levels of bone pathological degradation (ICTP) and bone formation reflect the metastatic disease extent in bone. Serum ICTP level is more useful in staging metastasis. Significantly higher PINP reflects only a much disseminated process. (author)

  16. MR imaging of the bone marrow using short TI IR, 1. Normal and pathological intensity distribution of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Mikiko; Tomioka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Kanako; Sato, Noriko; Nagai, Teruo; Heshiki, Atsuko; Amanuma, Makoto; Mizuno, Hitomi.

    1989-02-01

    Normal vertebral bone marrow intensity distribution and its alteration in various anemias were evaluated on short TI IR sequences. Material consists of 73 individuals, 48 normals and 25 anemic patients excluding neoplastic conditions. All normal and reactive hypercellular bone marrow revealed characteristic intensity distribution; marginal high intensity and central low intensity, corresponding well to normal distribution of red and yellow marrows and their physiological or reactive conversion between red and yellow marrows. Aplastic anemia did not reveal normal intensity distribution, presumably due to autonomous condition.

  17. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balner, H.

    1977-01-01

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  18. Bone and bone-marrow blood flow in chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, R.; Lahtinen, T.; Romppanen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Blood flow in hematopoietic bone marrow and in nonhematopoietic bone has been measured with a Xe-133 washout method in 20 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and in seven with primary myelofibrosis. Age-matched healthy persons served as controls. Bone-marrow blood flow in CGL was dependent upon the phase of the disease. In the metamorphosis phase, bone-marrow blood flow was high compared with that in the well-controlled phase. Apart from the initial phase, the mean values for bone blood flow in CGL were increased compared with the values of the healthy controls. In myelofibrosis the bone blood flow was also increased. Bone-marrow blood flow in these diseases was dependent upon the cellularity of bone marrow as measured morphometrically

  19. Bone marrow transplantation - a field in continuous development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, P.F.

    1975-01-01

    The symptoms of the radiation syndrome are described briefly and the Vinca accident in 1958 is used as an illustration of the application of bone marrow transplantation as a treatment in radiation accidents. Thereafter the immunological problems arising when a permanent substitution of donor marrow is required are discussed. Greatest experience in bone marrow transplantation has been had in the treatment of aplastic anemia and acute leukemia. In these cases the recipient's bone marrow cells must be killed by whole body irradiation or by cyclophosphamide to preclude graft-host reaction. The removal of marrow from the donor and transplanting in the recipient are described, as is the progress of the patient in a typical case. The graft-host reaction is then discussed, as is the danger of secondary infections. In conclusion the long term results are evaluated and the future developments of the treatment discussed. (JIW)

  20. Bone scintigraphy as an aid in the diagnosis of occult distal tarsal bone trauma in three horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.; Richardson, G.L.; Meagher, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    History, physical examination, and bone scintigraphy were used to diagnose central and/or third tarsal bone trauma in 3 acutely lame horses. In all 3 cases, the results of initial radiographic examination were negative. Bone scintigraphy revealed focal, intense radioisotope uptake at the level of the distal tarsal bones in the 3 horses. Radiographs obtained 4 weeks after injury in one horse demonstrated a slab fracture of the central tarsal bone. Conservative management of the tarsal bone disease resulted in acceptable return to function in all 3 horses

  1. The usefulness of measurement of whole body count in assessing bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular bone uptake on follow-up bone scan: a comparison with bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seong Chan; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin

    2003-01-01

    Increased periarticular uptake could be associated with peripheral bone marrow expansion in cancer patients with axial bone marrow metastasis. We compared bone scan and bone marrow scan to investigate whether the increased whole body count in patients with increased periarticular uptake on bone scan is useful in the diagnosis of axial marrow metastasis, and evaluate the role of additional bone marrow scan in these cases. Twelve patients with malignant diseases who showed increased periarticular uptake on bone scan were included. Whole body count was measured on bone scan and it is considered to be increased when the count is more than twice of other patients. Bone marrow scan was taken within 3-7 days. Five hematologic malignancy, 3 stomach cancer, 2 breast cancer, 1 prostate cancer and 1 lung canner were included. All three patients with increased whole body count on bone scan showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. Eight of 9 patients without increased whole body count showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. One turned out to be blastic crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia, and seven showed normal axial marrow with peripheral marrow expansion in chronic anemia of malignancy. The last one without increased whole body count showed normal bone marrow scan finding. Increased whole body count on bone scan could be a clue to axial bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular uptake, and bone marrow scan is a valuable method for differential diagnosis in these cases

  2. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, V.L.; Soares, L.M.M.; Ribeiro, V.P.B.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  3. Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate-Enhanced Marrow Stimulation of Chondral Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hermann; Orth, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow play a critical role in osteochondral repair. A bone marrow clot forms within the cartilage defect either as a result of marrow stimulation or during the course of the spontaneous repair of osteochondral defects. Mobilized pluripotent MSCs from the subchondral bone migrate into the defect filled with the clot, differentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts, and form a repair tissue over time. The additional application of a bone marrow aspirate (BMA) to the procedure of marrow stimulation is thought to enhance cartilage repair as it may provide both an additional cell population capable of chondrogenesis and a source of growth factors stimulating cartilage repair. Moreover, the BMA clot provides a three-dimensional environment, possibly further supporting chondrogenesis and protecting the subchondral bone from structural alterations. The purpose of this review is to bridge the gap in our understanding between the basic science knowledge on MSCs and BMA and the clinical and technical aspects of marrow stimulation-based cartilage repair by examining available data on the role and mechanisms of MSCs and BMA in osteochondral repair. Implications of findings from both translational and clinical studies using BMA concentrate-enhanced marrow stimulation are discussed. PMID:28607559

  4. The diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy in patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, H.E.; Park, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy has been studied in two groups of patients presenting with low back pain. In one group of 38 patients suffering ''non-specific'' back pain, bone scintigraphy and laboratory findings were negative in 24. There were abnormal laboratory findings in all of the remaining 14 and 7 had positive bone scans indicative of clinically significant disease. Selection of patients for bone scintigraphy in this group should therefore be influenced by abnormal laboratory findings and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in particular. By comparison, the bone scans were reviewed from another group of patients suffering previously known malignancy. Out of 138 patients, nearly 40% showed a positive bone scan due to subsequently proven metastasis. Bone scintigraphy was positive in a further 14% as a result of osteoporotic rib fracture and vertebral body collapse. In half of these, it was not possible to exclude malignancy by scintigraphy. The present findings indicate that bone scintigraphy is not a useful procedure in patients with long-standing low back pain who have normal radiographs and normal laboratory findings. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy in patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, H.E.; Park, W.M.

    1983-06-01

    Bone scintigraphy has been studied in two groups of patients with low back pain. In one group of 38 patients suffering ''non-specific'' back pain, bone scintigraphy and laboratory findings were negative in 24. There were abnormal laboratory findings in all of the remaining 14 and 7 had positive bone scans indicative of clinically significant disease. Selection of patients for bone scintigraphy in this group should therefore be influenced by abnormal laboratory findings and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in particular. By comparison, the bone scans were reviewed from another group of patients suffering previously known malignancy. Out of 138 patients, nearly 40% showed a positive bone scan due to subsequently proven metastasis. Bone scintigraphy was positive in a further 14% as a result of osteoporotic rib fracture and vertebral body collapse. In half of these, it was not possible to exclude malignancy by scintigraphy. The present findings indicate that bone scintigraphy is not a useful procedure in patients with long-standing low back pain who have normal radiographs and normal laboratory findings.

  6. Bone marrow examination findings at Aga Khan University Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional anaemia as a group was the most common haematological disorder ... examination in our patients with megaloblastic anaemia predominating. ... indication for bone marrow examination was anaemia followed by diagnostic work up ...

  7. Bone Marrow Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy; 99– ...

  8. Schwann cells promote neuronal differentiation of bone marrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), a type of multipotent stem cell, can differentiate into various types ... induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when they are ... axonal regeneration and functional reconstruction do not.

  9. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a 133 Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple 133 Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera. (orig.)

  10. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a /sup 133/Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple /sup 133/Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera.

  11. Effect of some chemical radioprotectors on mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Ghose, A.; Khanna, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (HT), AET and Se on mice bone marrow has been studied by counting bone marrow micronucleated cells and endogenous spleen colony count (CFU-S). Combination of HT and AET used as a radioprotector has not caused any significant variation in any of the parameter studied when administered once, it increases bone marrow micronucleated cells and decreases CFU-S slightly after daily administration for 7 days. The individual constituent of the combination administered singly does not increase micronucleated cell number. Seven consecutive doses of HT+AET and same in combination with Se enhances micronucleated cells to a higher level. Daily injection of Se alone up to 7 days also causes an increase in micronucleated cells up to same level. CFU-S pool does not show any significant change in number of bone marrow cells through out the study except in the groups where animals were treated with Se. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Post-irradiation thymocyte regeneration after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, W.J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow cells were separated according to buoyant density, velocity sedimentation and cell surface charge. Fractionated (C3H x AKR)F 1 bone marrow cells were transplanted into lethally-irradiated C3H recipients. In all fractions, the CFUs content and the capacity to restore the thymus cell population were determined. For all the physical parameters tested, thymocyte progenitor cells show the same distribution as CFUs. The relationship between number of thymocyte progenitor cells and number of CFUs is dependent on density. Bone marrow progenitors of PHA responsive cells are of low buoyant density and show a distribution which resembles the distribution of the progenitors of Thy 1 positive cells. After transplantation of large numbers of bone marrow cells into irradiated mice, no significant change in the CFUs content of the thymus was observed. (author)

  13. Hemopoiesis in bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Zoubkova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1976-01-01

    A percentual representation of individual types of cells and their share of the restoration of hemopoiesis in bone marrow was observed on the 9th, 12th, 16th and 20th days following transplantation of bone marrow cells to letally irradiated mice. Myelopoiesis was ascertained which on the 20th day after transplantation became the dominant constituent and reached peak level around the 16th day after transplantation. The examination further showed that with regard to the period of irradiation and transplantation the erythropoiesis in bone marrow culminates on the 9th day after the transplantation and that normal values are quickly restored. On the 2ath day myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis come close to values in normal bone marrow

  14. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  15. Regulation of glycogenesis in bone marrow of irradiated body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1976-02-01

    In connection with a stimulating effect of insulin on postradiation restoration of medullary hemopoiesis the authors studied the influence of insulin on glycogenesis of bone marrow in comparison with glycogenesis of the liver under the conditions of irradiation. As a result the experiment made on white mice the authors established that the level of glycogen in both tissues on the first two days after irradiation (750 R) increased. Later, the decrease of glycogen concentration was observed and its exhaustion was more marked. Insulin protected bone marrow and the liver from exhaustion of glycogen reserves and ensured a higher level of glycogen in the liver. It is supposed that the regulation mechanisms by means of insulin of glycogenesis in the bone marrow and the liver are mainly of the same type. The influence of insulin on carbohydrate metabolism in the bone marrow is likely to be of significance for postradiation hemopoiesis.

  16. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated cardiomyopathy patients: A clinical trial. PLN Kaparthi, G Namita, LK Chelluri, VSP Rao, PK Shah, A Vasantha, SK Ratnakar, K Ravindhranath ...

  17. Measurement of MC5 antibody distribution in blood and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.K.; Gonzales, R.; Kasliwal, R.; Lear, J.; Feyerabend, A.; Ceriani, R.; Bunn, P.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bone marrow is most often the dose-limiting organ in radioimmunotherapy. Controversy exists over optimal methods of estimating dose exposure to bone marrow. The purpose of this paper is to compare bone marrow activity from serial blood samples versus bone marrow biopsy specimens as measures of dose exposure to bone marrow. Peripheral blood samples and bone marrow biopsy specimens were obtained at 48 and 168 hours after infusion from 12 female patients infused with iodine-131-labeled MC5 antibody. The percentage of bone marrow in each biopsy specimen was assumed to be equivalent to the percentage of active bone marrow estimated to be in the pelvis. Activity present in the bone marrow as calculated with use of the estimated bone marrow mass for an adult female and then compared with the peripheral blood activity

  18. Intraoperative bone and bone marrow sampling: a simple method for accurate measurement of uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, W.J.G.; Buijs, W.C.A.M.; Kampen, A. van; Koenders, E.B.; Claessens, R.A.M.J.; Corstens, F.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate estimation of bone marrow uptake of radiopharmaceuticals is of crucial importance for accurate whole body dosimetry. In this study, a method for obtaining normal bone marrow and bone during routine surgery without inconvenience to volunteers is suggested and compared to an indirect method. In five volunteers (group 1), 4 MBq 111 In-labelled human polyclonal IgG ( 111 In-IgG) was administered 48h before placement of a total hip prosthesis. After resection of the femoral head and neck, bone marrow was aspirated from the medullary space with a biopsy needle. In five patients, suspected of having infectious disease (group 2), bone marrow uptake was calculated according to a well-accepted method using regions of interest over the lumbar spine, 48h after injection of 75 MBq 111 In-IgG. Bone marrow uptake in group 1 (4.5 ±1.3%D kg -1 ) was significantly lower than that in group 2 (8.5 ± 2.1%D kg -1 ) (P<0.01). Blood and plasma activity did not differ significantly for both groups. This method provides a system for directly and accurately measuring uptake and retention in normal bone marrow and bone of all radiopharmaceuticals at various time points. It is a safe and simple procedure without any discomfort to the patient. Since small amounts of activity are sufficient, the radiation dose to the patient is low. (author)

  19. Bone marrow infection with mycobacterium fortuitum in a diabetic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, L.; Abbasi, S.; Sattar, A.; Ikram, A.; Manzar, M.A.; Khalid, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection vary greatly by location and death is very rare except in disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. We present what we believe is the first case of bone marrow infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient. Bone marrow examination revealed presence of numerous acid fast bacilli which were confirmed as Mycobacterium fortuitum on culture and by molecular analysis. Patient was managed successfully with amikacin and ciprofloxacin. (author)

  20. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system; Skelett und Knochenmark - nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei onkologischen und haematologischen Systemerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-10-01

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Therapie onkologischer und haematologischer Systemerkrankungen wie der malignen Lymphome, des Plasmozytoms und der Osteomyelofibrose hat in den letzten Jahren grosse Fortschritte durch die Anwendung neuer Therapiemodalitaeten (Hochdosischemotherapie, Knochenmark- und Stammzelltransplantation, Einsatz von Interferon u.a.) erfahren. Grundlage der Diagnostik ist nach wie vor die histologische Beurteilung des Knochenmarks nach Biopsie. Ergaenzend spielen bildgebende radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur makroskopischen Beurteilung morphologischer und funktioneller Veraenderungen des gesamten Knochenmarkraumes eine zunehmende Rolle. Die Knochenmarkszintigraphie mit Radiokolloiden bzw. die Knochenmarkimmunszintigraphie stellen hierbei wichtige Methoden alternativ oder ergaenzend zur Kernspintomographie dar. Die Skelettszintigraphie als bewaehrte Methode vermag zusaetzlich ossaere

  1. Use of Bone Marrow derived Stem Cells in patients with Cardiovascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end stage heart failure have very few treatment options. The long waiting times for transplant and the complications associated with immunosuppression has led to the search for alternatives. Subsequent to the isolation and characterization of stem cells, tremendous advances have been made and the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow derived stem cells has been proven in preclinical studies. Clinical studies have also shown mobilized cells repair the infracted heart, improving function and survival. We have started a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of bone marrow derived stem cells. Bone-marrow was aspirated from the right iliac crest and the stem cells were isolated by density gradient method and suspended according to the mode of delivery.From Jan 2007 till date 10 patients (8 adults, 2 children, age with end stage cardiovascular disorder of varied etiology (Ischemic left ventricular dysfunction - 6 patients, Primary pulmonary hypertension - 2 patients, Dilated cardiomyopathy -1 patient, Biventricular non-compaction -1 patient underwent stem cell therapy. All patients were evaluated and cardiac function was measured by using echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy. There were no procedure related complications. These patients are being regularly followed-up and one patient who has completed 6-month follow-up has shown improvement in perfusion as well as increase in ejection fraction of 10%. Stem cell therapy in patients with end-stage cardiovascular disorder might be a promising tool by means of angiogenesis and other paracrine mechanisms.

  2. Bone marrow changes adjacent to the sacroiliac joints after pelvic radiotherapy mimicking metastases on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanberoglu, K.; Mihmanli, I.; Kurugoglu, S.; Ogut, G.; Kantarci, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    2001-09-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the sacroiliac joints mimicking metastases on MR images were evaluated. Twelve patients who received radiotherapy to the pelvic region due to pelvic malignancy were included in the study. All patients had undergone external beam radiation therapy to the pelvic region, and 2 patients received supplementary internal radiation. The changes in the sacroiliac joints were evaluated. Computed-tomography-guided core bone biopsy from the bone marrow was taken from their corresponding MR sections in 5 of the patients. T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas with ill-defined margins in the bone marrow adjacent to the sacroiliac joints were observed in all patients. On bone scintigraphy all the lesions demonstrated increased activity. Other radiological modalities excluded fracture, soft tissue mass, and osseous destruction. Bone biopsies demonstrated peritrabecular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Patients receiving radiotherapy to the pelvis may demonstrate T1 hypointense/T2 hyperintense, ill-defined postradiotherapeutic benign changes in the sacroiliac joints. In the absence of any other signs of disease progression and when the imaging pattern is typical, close radiological follow-up should be sufficient to rule out metastases. (orig.)

  3. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckman, E.; Devergie, A.; Boiron, M.; Bernard, Jean; Dutreix, A.; Dutreix, J.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation was used in 22 patients as part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients with acute leukemia received 1000 cGy TBI in addition with chemotherapy. None of them survived and the main cause of death was interstitial pneumonitis (50%). 4 patients received 1000 cGy with a lung shielding of 500 cGy. Two patients with acute leukemia died of leukemia and sepsis, two patients had aplastic anemia, one is surviving, the other died of severe GVHD and infectious complications. Nine patients with severe aplastic anemia strongly immunized by previous blood transfusions received 800 cGy TBI with a lung shielding of 400 cGy. No rejection was observed and 7 patients (63%) are currently alive. One patient died of interstitial pneumonitis probably related to CMV infection, one of subacute necrotizing hepatitis, two of severe acute GVHD. It is concluded from this study that TBI remains the best immunosuppressive conditioning regimen even in strongly immunized patients. It may be a contributing factor of the incidence and severity of interstitial pneumonitis. A reduction of the dose of the lung to 400-500 cGy seems to decrease the severity of this complication

  4. A Bone Marrow Aspirate and Trephine Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Eng Soo; Koh, Pei Lin; Ng, Chin Hin; de Mel, Sanjay; Chee, Yen Lin

    2015-08-01

    Bone marrow aspirate and trephine (BMAT) biopsy is a commonly performed procedure in hematology-oncology practice. Although complications are uncommon, they can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Simulation models are an excellent tool to teach novice doctors basic procedural skills before performing the actual procedure on patients to improve patient safety and well-being. There are no commercial BMAT simulators, and this technical report describes the rationale, technical specifications, and construction of a low-cost, easily constructed, reusable BMAT simulator that reproduced the tactile properties of tissue layers for use as a teaching tool in our resident BMAT simulation course. Preliminary data of learner responses to the simulator were also collected. From April 2013 to November 2013, 32 internal medicine residents underwent the BMAT simulation course. Eighteen (56%) completed the online survey, 11 residents with previous experience doing BMAT and 7 without experience. Despite the difference in operative experience, both experienced and novice residents all agreed or strongly agreed that the model aided their understanding of the BMAT procedure. All agreed or strongly agreed that this enhanced their knowledge of anatomy and 16 residents (89%) agreed or strongly agreed that this model was a realistic simulator. We present a novel, low-cost, easily constructed, realistic BMAT simulator for training novice doctors to perform BMAT.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Directs Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Le, Phuong T; Bi, Ruiye; Maridas, David; DeMambro, Victoria; Figueroa, Carolina A; Kir, Serkan; Zhou, Xuedong; Mannstadt, Michael; Baron, Roland; Bronson, Roderick T; Horowitz, Mark C; Wu, Joy Y; Bilezikian, John P; Dempster, David W; Rosen, Clifford J; Lanske, Beate

    2017-03-07

    Intermittent PTH administration builds bone mass and prevents fractures, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We genetically deleted the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in mesenchymal stem cells using Prx1Cre and found low bone formation, increased bone resorption, and high bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Bone marrow adipocytes traced to Prx1 and expressed classic adipogenic markers and high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (Rankl) expression. RANKL levels were also elevated in bone marrow supernatant and serum, but undetectable in other adipose depots. By cell sorting, Pref1 + RANKL + marrow progenitors were twice as great in mutant versus control marrow. Intermittent PTH administration to control mice reduced BMAT significantly. A similar finding was noted in male osteoporotic patients. Thus, marrow adipocytes exhibit osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics, are uniquely responsive to PTH, and secrete RANKL. These studies reveal an important mechanism for PTH's therapeutic action through its ability to direct mesenchymal cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging and skeletal scintigraphy in detecting bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xian; Ma Lin; Zhang Jinshan; Cai Youquan; Cheng Liuquan; Guo Xinggao; Xu Baixuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of bone metastasis using skeletal scintigraphy as the reference. Methods: Forty-two healthy volunteers and 38 patients with malignant tumors were enrolled in our study. All the patients received MR examination and skeletal scintigraphy within one week. MR examination was performed on GE signa 3.0T MR scanner using a build-in body coil. The skeletal system was divided into eight regions and the images of the whole body MR DWI and skeletal scintigraphy were reviewed to compare the two modalities patient by patient and region by region. The images were reviewed separately by two radiologists and two nuclear medicine physicians, who were blinded to the results of another imaging modality. Results: A total of 169 metastatic lesions in 69 regions of 30 patients were detected by whole body MR DWI while 156 lesions in 68 regions of 29 patients were identified by skeletal scintigraphy. There were two cases negative in scintigraphy but positive in whole body MR DWI and one case positive in scintigraphy only. There were eight lesions negative in scintigraphy but positive in whole body MR DWI, mainly located in the spine, pelvis and femur. Seven lesions were only detected by scintigraphy, mainly located in the skull, sternum, clavicle and scapula. Conclusion: The whole body MR DWI reveals excellent consistency with skeletal scintigraphy regarding bone metastasis, and the two modalities are complementary for each other. (authors)

  7. The separation of a mixture of bone marrow stem cells from tumor cells: an essential step for autologous bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, P.; Wheeler, K.T.; Keng, P.C.; Gregory, P.K.; Croizat, H.

    1981-01-01

    KHT tumor cells were mixed with mouse bone marrow to simulate a sample of bone marrow containing metastatic tumor cells. This mixture was separated into a bone marrow fraction and a tumor cell fraction by centrifugal elutriation. Elutriation did not change the transplantability of the bone marrow stem cells as measured by a spleen colony assay and an in vitro erythroid burst forming unit assay. The tumorogenicity of the KHT cells was similarly unaffected by elutriation. The data showed that bone marrow cells could be purified to less than 1 tumor cell in more than 10 6 bone marrow cells. Therefore, purification of bone marrow removed prior to lethal radiation-drug combined therapy for subsequent autologous transplantation appears to be feasible using modifications of this method if similar physical differences between human metastatic tumor cells and human bone marrow cells exist. This possibility is presently being explored

  8. Remarkable soft tissue uptake during bone scintigraphy in patients with ovarial cancer: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.; Koreuber, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of patients with an ovarial cancer are described. Bone scintigraphy was able to diagnose previously unknown soft tissue metastases with important consequences for the patients' diagnosis and therapy. (orig.) [de

  9. Bone Marrow Scans with Colloidal {sup 198}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sung Soo; Whang, Kee Suk [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The bone marrow scans with colloidal {sup 198}Au were performed on 33 cases with hematologically normal patients and patients with various blood dyscrasia. Bone marrow aspirations were done at iliac crest in all cases but one. A correlation between the scan findings and an erythroid cellularity was evaluated. The following results were obtained. 1) Out of 33 cases, 23 (about 70%) showed a correlation between {sup 198}Au marrow uptakes on the scans and the erythroid cellularity. 2) The diseases in which no correlation existed between {sup 198}Au uptake and erythroid cellularity were aplastic anemia, acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  10. The production of IL-1, IL-3, CSA by bone marrow nuclears during bone marrow haemopoiesis after lethal irradiation and syngenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dygaj, A.M.; Buznik, D.V.; Bogdashin, I.V.; Agafonov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    The production of haemopoietic factors (IL-1, IL-3, CSA) by adherent and unadherent cells of lethally irradiate CBA mice bone marrow and after syngenic myelokaryocyte transplantation was studied. Radioresistant myelokaryocytes capable to produce haemopoetic factors IL-1, CSA as early as 24 hr after irradiation were found in adherent cell fraction. The synthesis of humoral factors (IL-3, CSA) by unadherent bone marrow elements was realised in a late of experiment (3-6 days) that was connected with forming of functionally valuable cell forms from transplanted or viable stem cells

  11. Bone marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the hematopoietic microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveiras, Olaia; Nardi, Valentina; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Fahey, Frederic; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoblasts and endothelium constitute functional niches that support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in mammalian bone marrow (BM) 1,2,3 . Adult BM also contains adipocytes, whose numbers correlate inversely with the hematopoietic activity of the marrow. Fatty infiltration of hematopoietic red marrow follows irradiation or chemotherapy and is a diagnostic feature in biopsies from patients with marrow aplasia 4. To explore whether adipocytes influence hematopoiesis or simply fill marrow space, we compared the hematopoietic activity of distinct regions of the mouse skeleton that differ in adiposity. By flow cytometry, colony forming activity, and competitive repopulation assay, HSCs and short-term progenitors are reduced in frequency in the adipocyte-rich vertebrae of the mouse tail relative to the adipocyte-free vertebrae of the thorax. In lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F1 “fatless” mice, which are genetically incapable of forming adipocytes8, and in mice treated with the PPARγ inhibitor Bisphenol-A-DiGlycidyl-Ether (BADGE), which inhibits adipogenesis9, post-irradiation marrow engraftment is accelerated relative to wild type or untreated mice. These data implicate adipocytes as predominantly negative regulators of the bone marrow microenvironment, and suggest that antagonizingmarrow adipogenesis may enhance hematopoietic recovery in clinical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:19516257

  12. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  13. Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow in patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncker, C.M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Estorch, M.; Alonso, C.; Ojeda, B.; Blanco, R.; Germa, J.R.; Ortega, V.

    1990-01-01

    Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow was performed by technetium-99m- (99mTc) labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody BW 250/183 (AGMoAb) scans in 32 patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer. AGMoAb scans showed bone marrow defects in 25/32 (78%) patients; bone invasion was subsequently confirmed in 23 (72%) patients. Conventional bone scans performed within the same week detected bone metastases in 17/32 (53%) patients (p less than 0.001). AGMoAb scans detected more sites indicating metastatic disease than bone scans in 12 of these 17 patients (71%). All patients with bone metastases in the axial skeleton had bone marrow defects at least at the sites of bone metastases. Of 15 patients with normal, or indicative of, benign disease bone scans, 8 patients (53%) presented with bone marrow defects in the AGMoAb scans. Bone invasion was confirmed in six of them. AGMoAb bone marrow scans provide a method for the early detection of bone metastatic invasion in patients with breast cancer and suspected bone metastases

  14. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, M.; Al-Jurayyan, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Open mouth bone scintigraphy is better than closed mouth bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of temporomandibular osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Seong; Song, Ho Chun; Cho, Sang Geon [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    Closed-mouth bone scintigraphy (CM scan) and closed-mouth single-photon emission computed tomography (CM SPECT) are used for conventional evaluation of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, the adequacy of open-mouth bone scintigraphy (OM scan) has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of CM scan, CM SPECT, and OM scan. Thirty-six patients with suspicion of an abnormality of the TMJ and who underwent a 99mTc-HDP CM scan, CM SPECT, and an OM scan were enrolled. The scans were assessed visually for the presence of positive focal uptake in the TMJ. Osteoarthritis was defined as arthralgia plus crepitus or radiologic signs of arthrosis. Of 72 TMJs, 21 (29.2 %) were diagnosed with osteoarthritis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 90.5 %, 49.0 %, 42.2 %, 92.6 % and 61.1 % for the CM scan, 81.0 %, 58.8 %, 44.7 %, 88.2 % and 65.3 % for CM SPECT, and 81.0 %, 82.4 %, 65.4 %, 91.3 % and 81.9 % for the OM scan, respectively. The accuracy of the OM scan was higher than that of CM SPECT and the CM scans (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). The OM scan was more accurate than the conventional CM scan and even CM SPECT for diagnosing TMJ osteoarthritis.

  16. Radioprotective action on bone marrow CFU during immobilization of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizer, H.J.; van Putten, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Anesthesia and restraint without anesthesia during whole-body x-irradiation decrease the mortality from both the bone marrow and the intestinal syndromes (30- and 5-day mortality). The two types of immobilization decrease the radiosensitivity of the hemopoietic stem cells, as shown by an increased survival of hemopoietic stem cells in the marrow of immobilized mice. The hypoxic cell radiosensitizer Ro-07-0582 reversed the radioprotective effect during restraint without anesthesia, but not during pentobarbital anesthesia. This indicates that hypoxia of the femur bone marrow cannot explain the decreased radiosensitivity of the stem cells during pentobarbital anesthesia. Pentobarbital was also shown to inhibit the recruitment of resting femur bone marrow stem cells (G 0 -phase cells) into cycle following a sublethal dose of x rays. The relevance of these observations is discussed

  17. Correlation of bone scintigraphy findings and tumor markers during follow-up prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Taku

    1996-01-01

    In the last 9 years, 217 patients with prostate cancer were treated at our department. Of these patients 153 cases treated by estrogen therapy were followed up by bone scintigraphy and tumor marker examinations (prostate specific antigen [PSA], prostate acid phosphatase [PAP], gamma-seminoprotein [γ-SM) . The correlation between changes on bone scintigrams and synchronous changes in tumor markers was evaluated retrospectively. In cases in which bone metastasis was not recognized on bone scintigrams before treatment, changes of tumor markers corresponded with subsequent changes on bone scintigrams in more than 90%. However, in cases with bone metastasis on bone scintigrams before treatment, changes of bone scintigrams and changes of tumor markers corresponded in only 55% of cases. Changes of bone scintigrams do not always correspond with changes of tumor markers. However, by taking into consideration physical examination parameters such as bone pain, in addition to changes of tumor markers, most changes on bone scintigrams can be anticipated. The reasons for lack of correspondence between changes of bone scintigrams and changes of tumor markers may be, changes of tumor markers are more rapid than the changes on bone scintigram, some poorly differentiated cancers do not have increased tumor marker levels and bone scintigrams do not demonstrate soft tissue involvement. In the follow-up of patients with prostate cancer, it is not necessary to perform bone scintigraphy regularly at 3-month intervals. Bone scintigraphy should only be performed when serum levels of tumor markers increase or bone pain appears. (author)

  18. Preoperative measurement of canine primary bone tumors, using radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Berg, J.; Bengston, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Specimens of 20 canine primary bone tumors (18 osteosarcoma, 2 fibrosarcoma) were examined to compare the maximal axial length of gross tumor with the length of the lesion seen on preoperative radiographs and 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphic images. Radiographs defined the length of the tumor to within +/- 10% of the gross measurement for 6 (30%), underestimated it for 12 (60%), and overestimated it for 2 (10%) specimens. Bone scintigraphy defined tumor length within +/- 10% for 8 (40%), underestimated it for 1 (5%), and overestimated it for the remaining 11 (55%) specimens. Use of radiographic evaluation alone could result in underestimation of the diaphyseal extent of a primary bone tumor, with risk of incomplete resection. Bone scan images tend to overestimate tumor length and, therefore, may provide safer resection guidelines

  19. T1 value of hyperplastic and hypoplastic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Sae; Yoshida, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Yashiro, Naofumi; Iio, Masahiro; Takaku, Fumimaro

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the bone marrow of 18 patients (11 normal control, 4 aplastic anemia, 2 chronic myelocytic leukemia, 1 polycythemia vera) were discussed. MR imager had 0.15T registive system. Sagittal section of the body was obtained with inversion recovery (TR1,000, 1,600/TI 350, 450/TE 13, 40 msec) and saturation recovery (TR 1,000, 2,000/TE 13,40 msec) sequences. T 1 relaxation time was calculated from those images. T 1 value of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone marrow which contains red marrow even in elderly patients was measured. The results were as follows: 1) T 1 values of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and polycythemia vera were longer than that of normal. 2) T 1 values of four aplastic anemia were all shorter than normal. CML and polycythemia vera can be called myeloproliferative disease and their bone marrows are hyperplastic, which may explain elongated T 1 . The bone marrow of aplasticanemia is hypoplastic and shows fatty change which may have decreased T 1 . Our results suggest T 1 value of bone marrow is useful to evaluate hematological disorders. (author)

  20. Bone scintigraphy predicts the risk of spinal cord compression in hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija; Pelger, Rob C.M.; Nijeholt, Guus A.B. Lycklama; Arndt, Jan-Willem; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bril, Herman; Papapoulos, Socrates E.; Hamdy, Neveen A.T.

    2004-01-01

    In prostate cancer, confirmation of metastatic involvement of the skeleton has traditionally been achieved by bone scintigraphy, although the widespread availability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements has tended to eliminate the need for this investigation. The potential of bone scintigraphy to predict skeletal-related events, particularly spinal cord compression, after the onset of hormone refractoriness has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether a new method of evaluating bone scintigraphy would offer a better predictive value for this complication of the metastatic process than is achieved with currently available grading methods. We studied 84 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy at the time of hormone escape. Tumour grading and parameters of tumour load (PSA and alkaline phosphatase activity) were available in all patients. The incidence of spinal cord compression was documented and all patients were followed up until death. Bone scintigraphy was evaluated by the conventional Soloway grading and by an additional analysis determining total or partial involvement of individual vertebrae. In contrast to the Soloway method, the new method was able to predict spinal cord compression at various spinal levels. Our data suggest that there is still a place for bone scintigraphy in the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. (orig.)

  1. Contribution of bone and brain scintigraphy to diagnosis of the extension and nature of skull lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, M.; Tovar, G. de; Derome, P.

    The combination of bone and brain scintigraphy provides a vast amount of information in the study of lesions of the skull. It is especially valuable as a means to circumscribe the invasion of the bones, distinguish between bone and intracranial invasion, diagnose the nature of the lesion, estimate its degree of vascularization and detect remote localisations [fr

  2. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Bone and Bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle. (J.P.N.)

  3. ROLE OF BONE MARROW ASPIRATION IN DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Nanwani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The bone marrow examination is an essential investigation for the diagnosis of disorders of the blood and bone marrow. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important, particularly in resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking or absent. MATERIALS AND METHODS 189 patients of all age groups were studied for haematological and non-haematological disorders by bone marrow aspiration in the Department of Pathology, MGM Medical College during the period of 2014 to 2016. RESULTS Majority of the patients who had bone marrow aspiration were aged 0-15 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.03. Most (97% of the marrow aspirate examined had definitive pathologic features, while 14 (7% were normal marrow elements. Out of 189 cases of bone marrow aspiration, acute leukaemia was the most common haematological disease diagnosed using this procedure. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was more common than acute myeloid leukaemia. Aplastic anaemia was seen in 16% cases. Megaloblastic anaemia occurred more commonly than other anaemias. Megaloblastic anaemia was seen in 13 cases (7% and microcytic anaemia was seen in 5 cases (3%. There were 10 cases (5% of Idiopathic Thrombocypenic Purpura. Myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma was seen in 7% and 2% cases respectively. Storage disorder was seen in 3 cases (2%, out of this 02 cases were Gaucher’s disease and one case was Niemann-Pick’s disease. CONCLUSION Bone marrow examination is an important step to arrive at the confirmatory diagnosis of many haematological disorders. This procedure remains a veritable tool in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of haematological diseases, especially in a resource poor centre.

  4. Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiryayi, W.A.; Thiryayi, S.A.; Freemont, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched

  5. Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiryayi, W.A.; Thiryayi, S.A. [Department of Histopathology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Freemont, A.J. [Division of Regenerative Medicine, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tony.freemont@manchester.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched.

  6. Bone scintigraphy and radiology in untreated Paget's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellenga, C.J.L.R.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Bijvost, O.L.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study is based on 107 patients with untreated Paget's disease of bone. Scintigraphy was performed 3 hours after 20 mCi Tc-99m-Sn-EHDP, using a Toshiba 204 or 404 gamma camera. In each patient multiple spot films of the total skeleton were made and evaluated according to a six-point scale. Moreover, in 42 patients the ratio of uptake in a lesion over comparable normal bone was measured using an MDS Trinary computer. Radiographs were made only of affected parts and evaluated according to a three-point scale. In 59 (16%) of the 373 lesions found on the scintigam no radiographic abnormalities were found. These roentgen-negative lesions generally show rather low scintigraphic uptake and are mostly asymptomatic. There exists a clear correlation between scintigraphic uptake and radiological deformity: the scintigraphic scores 5 and 6 occur in only 24% of the ro-grade 1 lesions, but in 65% of the grade 3 lesions; after computer evaluation the mean ratio in grade 1 and 3 lesions is 3.0 and 6.5 resp. (p<0.01). There also appears to be a correlation between scint. uptake and symptomatology: typical Pagetic pain is present in 10% of scint. score 2 and 3 lesions, but in 40% of score 5 and 6 lesions; the mean computer measured scint. ratio is 4.0 for asymptomatic and 7.5 for painful lesions (p<0.001)

  7. SPECT-CT bone scintigraphy in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergieva, S; Alexandrova, A.; Nikolova, N.; Dimcheva, M.; Baichev, G.

    2012-01-01

    %) lesions caused by direct infiltration of bone structures was observed in 6 pts . 4. 21 (15%) lesions with prevailing 'cold' osteolytic component were observed in 8 pts with renal, endometrial, colorectal or urinary bladder cancer. 5. 17 (12%) 'mixed-type' lesions - osteolytic and osteosclerotic were obtained in 6 cases. 6. Two pts were with 2 (1.9%) single extraosseous lesions: one - with myositis ossificans and the second -with soft tissue calcified metastasis in the right abdomen due to appendicitis cancer Conclusion: SPECT-CT increases the value of bone scintigraphy avoiding false-positive interpretation of areas with physiological tracer uptake, also facilitating the exact location and extent of tumor involvement.

  8. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative bone lesions using dexamethasone interventional 3- and 24-hour bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Mondal, A.; Kashyap, R.; Sharma, R.K.; Sharma, R.; Chakravarty, S.K.; Bihari, V.; Sawroop, K.; Chopra, M.K.; Soni, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-seven adult patients with suspected skeletal metastases were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30), following intravenous administration of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP), 3- and 24-h scintigraphy of bone lesions was performed. The 24/3 h lesion to bone background radiouptake ratio (RUR) was calculated for each lesion. In group B (n=47), the same procedure was followed with dexamethasone intervention (10 mg in 24 h) following the 3-h acquisition. In group A, after determination of the critical point, malignant and degenerative bone lesions could be separated with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.76, 0.72 and 0.73, respectively. The mean RUR of the malignant lesions was 1.20± 0.23, and that of the benign lesions, 0.95± 0.15. In group B cases, significantly increased sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.87, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, were found (P<0.001). The mean RUR of the malignant lesions was 1.48± 0.34, and that of degenerative lesions, 0.88± 0.19. Dexamethasone interventional bone scintigraphy seems to be a new cost-effective method for differentiating malignant from degenerative bone lesions using the RUR. (orig.)

  9. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Özçivici

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types.

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Indication of Bone Scintigraphy Performed in Our Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Aydogan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bone scintigraphy is one of the commonly used radionuclide imaging and it is successfully used in the diagnosis and follow-up of many diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the indications and filming protocols of bone scintigraphy which was performed in our clinic. Material and Method: Two hundred and fifty two patients (132 male, 120 female who was performed bone scintigprapy in our clinic between December 2011 and June 2013 included the study. Mean age was 50.1±20.2 years. Scintigraphic protocols were made in two ways as late static whole body imaging and three-phase bone scintigraphy according to the type of the diseases. Indications of scintigraphies and scintigraphic protocols were detected. Results: Bone scintigraphy was performed for diagnosis and monitoring of metastatic bone disease to 102 patients (40,5 %, for orthopedic applications to 57 patients (22,6 %, for diagnosis and monitoring of primary bone tumors to 29 patients (11,5 %, for diagnosis of osteomyelitis to 17 patients (6,7 %, for differential diagnosis of infection and loosening of the prosthesis to 12 patients (4,8 %, investigate the viability of the graft in 14 patients (4,6 %, for rheumatologic diseases to 9 patients (3,6 %, for investigate the pathological vertebral fractures and osteoporosis to 4 patients (1,6 %, for diagnosis the metabolic bone disease to 2 patients (0,8 %, for diagnosis of otitis externa to 5 patients (1,98 % and for for suspicion of malignancy to 1 patient (0,4 %. Late static whole body imaging protocol was applied to 136 patients (54 % and three-phase imaging protocol was applied to 116 patients (46 %. Discussion: The most common use of bone scintigraphy is the diagnosis and follow-up of metastatic bone disease. It is followed by reasons such as orthopedic applications, monitoring and diagnosis of primary bone tumors and diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

  12. Experimental study of the effects of radiation on growing bone by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Hisashi; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Morita, Seiichiro; Bussaka, Yoshitaka; Kikuchi, Shigeru; Okinaga, Toshichika; Oshibuchi, Masao; Umezaki, Noriyoshi

    1987-02-01

    Bones of immature rabbits were irradiated during the growth period, and followed with bone scintigraphy using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. The accumulation of the radionuclide was decreased in the irradiated bone at an early period as compared to the control side, and the decrease was more pronounced as the dose of irradiation was increased. In the groups irradiated with less than 4,000 rad, the accumulation ratio reached a minimum at 5 weeks and was followed by a gradual recovery. In the group irradiated with 6,000 rad, the recovery was small; and no recovery was observed in the 8,000 rad group. These changes were compared to the inhibition of the longitudinal growth of the bone. The accumulation ratio for the radionuclide was a more sensitive index of the effect of radiation than the growth rate.

  13. Posttherapeutic changes in bone marrow; Posttherapeutische Veraenderungen am Knochenmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geith, T.; Stellwag, A.C.; Baur-Melnyk, A. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The bone marrow basically consists of red blood-forming bone marrow and yellow fat. In the skeleton, there is an age-dependent distribution of these two parts. In the context of medical interventions or therapies, bone marrow changes can occur, whereby the normal bone marrow can basically be replaced by fat, edema, or fibrosis/sclerosis. Here, specific signal intensities and patterns are shown in imaging. After irradiation therapies, edematous changes, hemorrhages, and osteoradionecroses are observed. Likewise, insufficiency fractures, impairment of the growth gaps, or the development of tumors is possible. In patients on dialysis, deposit of protein in the bone marrow is possible in the case of the so-called amyloidosis osteoarthropathy. Postoperative bone marrow edema, insufficiency fractures, or osteonecrosis can be observed after arthroscopy. Changes in the distribution of fat markers and blood-forming bone marrow can be observed after stem cell transplants. In the therapy with cortisone, insufficiency fractures and osteonecroses are possible. Depending on their effect on the hematopoietic system, chemotherapies can first lead to edematous changes and then to fatty bone marrow, which is reversible after therapy. Angiogenesis inhibitors in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents often lead to mixed images of stimulated and fatty bone marrow. (orig.) [German] Das Knochenmark besteht grundsaetzlich aus rotem blutbildenden Knochenmark und gelbem Fettmark. Im Skelett besteht eine altersabhaengige Verteilung dieser beiden Anteile. Im Rahmen von aerztlichen Eingriffen oder Therapien kann es zu Veraenderungen des Knochenmarks kommen, wobei das normale Knochenmark grundsaetzlich durch Fett, Oedem oder Fibrose/Sklerose ersetzt werden kann. Dabei zeigen sich in bildgebenden Verfahren spezifische Signalintensitaeten und Muster. Nach Bestrahlungstherapien sind oedematoese Veraenderungen, Haemorrhagien und Osteoradionekrosen zu beobachten. Ebenso sind

  14. Evaluation of bone marrow in patients with pancytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pathak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancytopenia is a common hematological finding resulting from varieties of disease processes that require evaluation of bone marrow. This study was carried out to evaluate bone marrow findings in patients presenting with pancytopenia.Materials and Method: This was a prospective cross sectional study carried out to identify the causes of pancytopenia based on bone marrow examination. Bone marrow examinations were performed in 503 cases for different indications over a period of one year.Results: One hundred and two (20.27% cases fulfilled the criteria of pancytopenia. Trephine biopsy was possible only in 48 cases. In 75% cases aspiration findings were similar to biopsy. Mean age of patients was 38.8 years. Maximum number of cases was seen in age group of 15-30 years. Hypoplastic anemia was the commonest cause followed by hematological malignancies, megaloblastic anemia, leishmaniasis and Gaucher disease. Bone marrow examination alone was able to establish the diagnosis in 76.5% cases. In rest marrow findings were nonspecific and in 4.9% cases findings were normal.Conclusion: Bone marrow aspiration coupled with trephine biopsy can diagnose majority but not all the cases of pancytopenia. Hypoplastic anemia, hematological malignancies and megaloblastic anemia are the commonest causes of pancytopenia. Maximum diagnostic yield can be achieved by correlation with clinical findings, peripheral blood findings and with other laboratory and radiological parameters.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 265-271DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6875

  15. Late taste disorders in bone marrow transplantation: clinical evaluation with taste solutions in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi square p = 0.0002; Yates' correction p = 0.0007) and sour (Pearson's chi square p = 0.001; Yates' correction p = 0.008). No significant variations were observed for sweet and bitter. Autologous bone marrow recipients did not show any significant variation of taste acuity for sweet, salt or sour; a constant reduction of the taste threshold for bitter was observed, but the values were not significantly different from normal (Pearson's chi square p = 0.47; Yates' correction p = 0.83). So, late and selective taste disorders are observed in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. Since the severity of the disorders is not strictly related to the severity of chronic oral G.V.H.D., taste analysis could discover the slightest, clinically undetectable cases of chronic oral G.V.H.D. The mechanism of immune aggression on the sensorial taste cells is poorly understood. Further trials are needed to define variations of taste acuity not only after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but also in systemic immune diseases.

  16. The contribution of bone scintigraphy in occupational health or medical insurance claims: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.A.; Bondt, P. de [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gent (Belgium); Dierckx, I. [Department of Radiology, St. Elisabeth Hospital Antwerpen (Belgium); Lambrecht, L. [Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic, Gent (Belgium); Sadeleer, C. de [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gent (Belgium)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, O.L.V. Hospital Geraardsbergen (Belgium)

    1999-08-01

    Patients with a suspicion of bone damage following an industrial or traffic accident are often referred for bone scintigraphy as part of an occupational health or medical insurance investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution and the potential role of bone scintigraphy compared with X-ray investigations in the aforementioned situation. To this end we evaluated 70 consecutive patients referred for bone scintigraphy during 1996 and 1997 by occupational health or medical insurance physicians. The most common reasons for referral were the exclusion of occult fractures of hands and feet, whiplash injuries, reflex sympathetic dystrophy or avascular necrosis, or the differentiation between an old and a recent vertebral fracture. X-rays were only available for comparative review of 53 patients, so only those were analysed. The results of bone scintigraphy were compared with X-rays, and their contribution and potential role in occupational health or medical insurance investigations assessed. In 31 out of the 53 patients investigated, bone scintigraphy findings concurred with X-rays as to the number and location of abnormalities. For 19 of the 53 patients, bone scintigraphy showed clinically relevant additional foci when compared with X-rays, predominantly involving lesions to hands/wrists and feet/ankles. Among these 19 patients, scintigraphic diagnoses were subsequently confirmed in ten cases by means of X-ray or computed tomography. In four patients, supplementary radiological investigations revealed no abnormalities, and in five patients no further investigations were undertaken. Finally, in three of the 53 patients, X-rays revealed bone damage (burst fractures) whilst the corresponding bone scintigraphy was negative, thus excluding recent injury. In conclusion, in 22 patients, representing 42% of the cases analysed, bone scintigraphy was conclusive compared with X-ray imaging in the final diagnosis and in this way in detecting occult or excluding

  17. The contribution of bone scintigraphy in occupational health or medical insurance claims: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.A.; Bondt, P. de; Dierckx, I.; Lambrecht, L.; Sadeleer, C. de

    1999-01-01

    Patients with a suspicion of bone damage following an industrial or traffic accident are often referred for bone scintigraphy as part of an occupational health or medical insurance investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution and the potential role of bone scintigraphy compared with X-ray investigations in the aforementioned situation. To this end we evaluated 70 consecutive patients referred for bone scintigraphy during 1996 and 1997 by occupational health or medical insurance physicians. The most common reasons for referral were the exclusion of occult fractures of hands and feet, whiplash injuries, reflex sympathetic dystrophy or avascular necrosis, or the differentiation between an old and a recent vertebral fracture. X-rays were only available for comparative review of 53 patients, so only those were analysed. The results of bone scintigraphy were compared with X-rays, and their contribution and potential role in occupational health or medical insurance investigations assessed. In 31 out of the 53 patients investigated, bone scintigraphy findings concurred with X-rays as to the number and location of abnormalities. For 19 of the 53 patients, bone scintigraphy showed clinically relevant additional foci when compared with X-rays, predominantly involving lesions to hands/wrists and feet/ankles. Among these 19 patients, scintigraphic diagnoses were subsequently confirmed in ten cases by means of X-ray or computed tomography. In four patients, supplementary radiological investigations revealed no abnormalities, and in five patients no further investigations were undertaken. Finally, in three of the 53 patients, X-rays revealed bone damage (burst fractures) whilst the corresponding bone scintigraphy was negative, thus excluding recent injury. In conclusion, in 22 patients, representing 42% of the cases analysed, bone scintigraphy was conclusive compared with X-ray imaging in the final diagnosis and in this way in detecting occult or excluding

  18. [MRI characteristic of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To study the MRI features of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome for further improve the understanding of the disease. MRI imaging of 10 patients with proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome was retrospectively reviewed,including 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 years old ranging from 36 to 57. The courses of diseases ranged from 1 week to 3 months. Among them, 9 cases had clinical manifestations of sudden hip pain, 7 cases had limited ability of walking and hip movement;all patients had no obvious injury history, non of the female patients was pregnant. All patients were followed up from 3 to 12 months, the following-up were topped after MRI when the symptoms disappeared for 3 months. The MRI demonstrated diffuse bone marrow edema involving the femoral head, neck and the inter-trochanteric region, 13 hips of 10 patients with bone marrow edema included 6 cases in grade 1, 5 cases in grade 2,2 cases in grade 3; 9 hips with hip hydrarthrosis included 6 hips in grade I ,1 hip in grade II, 2 hips in grade III. After treatment for 3 to 12 months the hip symptoms of the patients disappeared and MRI images were normal. MRI is useful in defining the location and extent of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome.

  19. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

  20. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

  1. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed

  2. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  3. Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

    1984-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes

  4. Bone marrow examination in itp in children is it mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Durrani, N.U.R.; Hazir, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the need of bone marrow examination in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) at initial presentation. All children, clinically suspected to have ITP, who underwent bone marrow examination, were included After reviewing the file records of these patients for history, examination and investigations, a predesigned proforma was filled and data was analyzed, using SPSS version 10 for statistical analysis. The results were reported in the form of frequencies, percentages and mean. A majority of the children were between 48 to 96 months, with a mean age of 54.43 months. Male to female ratio was 1.45:1. Mean platelet count was 33861/mm3. None of the bone marrow results showed the presence of abnormal cells consistent with hematological malignancy. ITP was the final diagnosis in 52 patients. One patient was diagnosed to have megakaryocytic hypoplasia. Bone marrow aspiration in one patient was hypoplastic, and subsequently, he was diagnosed to have aplastic anemia on trephine biopsy. Bone marrow aspiration should not be a part of routine work-up for diagnosing ITP in children and should be reserved for those children having atypical clinical and laboratory features. (author)

  5. Screening for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis: gradient echo opposed-phase MRI compared with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.; Hosten, N.; Venz, S.

    1995-01-01

    Opposed-phase gradient echo (GRE) MRI at 0.5 T was compared with T1-weighted GRE MRI and bone scintigraphy regarding the detection of malignant bone marrow infiltrates of the spine and pelvis. Seventeen control patients and 41 patients with suspected skeletal metastases were studied with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the control group only a vertebral haemangioma showed contrast enhancement, while all metastases (confirmed histologically or by follow-up) were enhancing. Opposed-phase surface coil MRI showed a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio of 56 metastases than T1-weighted images. In 28 patients body coil opposed-phase MRI detected more metastatic foci of the spine and pelvis than did bone scintigraphy (84 vs 56). No scintigraphically visualised lesion was missed by MRI. In conclusion, body coil gadolinium-enhanced opposed-phase GRE MRI may be applied as a screening method for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis at intermediate field strengths. (orig.)

  6. Screening for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis: gradient echo opposed-phase MRI compared with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, K. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany); Hosten, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Venz, S. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Opposed-phase gradient echo (GRE) MRI at 0.5 T was compared with T1-weighted GRE MRI and bone scintigraphy regarding the detection of malignant bone marrow infiltrates of the spine and pelvis. Seventeen control patients and 41 patients with suspected skeletal metastases were studied with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the control group only a vertebral haemangioma showed contrast enhancement, while all metastases (confirmed histologically or by follow-up) were enhancing. Opposed-phase surface coil MRI showed a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio of 56 metastases than T1-weighted images. In 28 patients body coil opposed-phase MRI detected more metastatic foci of the spine and pelvis than did bone scintigraphy (84 vs 56). No scintigraphically visualised lesion was missed by MRI. In conclusion, body coil gadolinium-enhanced opposed-phase GRE MRI may be applied as a screening method for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis at intermediate field strengths. (orig.)

  7. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... Copyright © 1996-2018 National Marrow Donor Program. All Rights Reserved.

  8. PET/CT versus bone marrow biopsy in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in various pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Claudia P; Cuglievan, Branko; Zapata, Catalina M; Olavarrieta, Raquel; Raskin, Scott; Desai, Kavita; De Angulo, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    Accurate staging is essential in the prognosis and management of pediatric malignancies. Current protocols require screening for marrow infiltration with bone marrow biopsy (BMB) as the gold standard. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is commonly used to complete the staging process and can also be used to evaluate marrow infiltration. To compare PET-CT and BMB in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in pediatric cancers. We retrospectively reviewed new cases of EWS, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma diagnosed between January 2009 and October 2014. Each case had undergone both PET-CT and BMB within 4 weeks without treatment in the interval between screening modalities. We reviewed 69 cases. Bone marrow infiltration was demonstrated in 34 cases by PET-CT and in 18 cases by BMB. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of PET-CT were both 100%. Interestingly, the cases in which infiltration was not detected on BMB had an abnormal marrow signal on PET-CT focal or distant to iliac crest. PET-CT has a high sensitivity when assessing marrow infiltration in pediatric malignancies. Advances in radiologic modalities may obviate the use of invasive, painful, and costly procedures like BMB. Furthermore, biopsy results are limited by insufficient tissue or the degree of marrow infiltration (diffuse vs. focal disease). PET-CT can improve the precision of biopsy when used as a guiding tool. This study proposes the use of PET-CT as first-line screening for bone marrow infiltration to improve the accuracy of staging in new diagnoses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of carbocalcitonin treatment on PAGET's disease assessed by quantitative bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.; Di Maggio, G.; Burroni, L.

    1988-06-01

    Sixteen patients with PAGET's disease of bone underwent quantitative bone scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP before and after a long-term treatment with carbocalcitonin, a synthetic analogue of eel calcitonin. The radionuclide study consisted in the blood pool and bone uptake measurement and in the bone avidity calculation (bone uptake - blood pool ratio). In our patients, a significant decrease in bone uptake and bone avidity was found, whereas the blood pool remained statistically unchanged. This behaviour could be accounted for the shift of the compact bone to a lamellar pattern.

  10. Effects of carbocalcitonin treatment on PAGET's disease assessed by quantitative bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.; Di Maggio, G.; Burroni, L.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients with PAGET's disease of bone underwent quantitative bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MDP before and after a long-term treatment with carbocalcitonin, a synthetic analogue of eel calcitonin. The radionuclide study consisted in the blood pool and bone uptake measurement and in the bone avidity calculation (bone uptake - blood pool ratio). In our patients, a significant decrease in bone uptake and bone avidity was found, whereas the blood pool remained statistically unchanged. This behaviour could be accounted for the shift of the compact bone to a lamellar pattern. (orig.) [de

  11. Bone marrow transplantation for an infant with neutrophil dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camitta, B M; Quesenberry, P J; Parkman, R; Boxer, L A; Stossel, T P; Cassady, J R; Rappeport, J M; Nathan, D G [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. (USA); Tufts Univ., Boston, Mass. (USA). School of Medicine)

    1977-01-01

    A child with severe neutrophil dysfunction and intractable infections received bone marrow transplants from histocompatible siblings. After a first transplant preceded by cyclophosphamide (CY), antithymocyte serum (ATS) and procarbazine (PCB) preconditioning, there was no evidence for engraftment and autologous marrow function rapidly returned. Cell mediated lysis showed no evidence of patient sensitization against the marrow donor suggesting that graft rejection did not cause the transplant failure. A second transplant was performed utilizing another matched sibling donor. Total body irradiation was added to CY, ATS, and PCB for preconditioning after in vitro studies of the colony forming capacity (CFUsub(c)) of the patient's marrow cells showed normal sensitivity to radiation. Full engraftment ensued with correction of granulocyte function abnormalities. The patient eventually died of intractable pulmonary disease. Experience with this child suggests that cyclophosphamide alone may be insufficient preparation for marrow transplantation in some patients with non-neoplastic hematologic disorders. Experimental and clinical data supporting this contention are reviewed.

  12. Unicameral bone cysts treated by injection of bone marrow or methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C H; Stanton, R P; Glutting, J

    2002-04-01

    In 79 consecutive patients with unicameral bone cysts we compared the results of aspiration and injection of bone marrow with those of aspiration and injection of steroid. All were treated by the same protocol. The only difference was the substance injected into the cysts. The mean radiological follow-up to detect activity in the cyst was 44 months (12 to 108). Of the 79 patients, 14 received a total of 27 injections of bone marrow and 65 a total of 99 injections of steroid. Repeated injections were required in 57% of patients after bone marrow had been used and in 49% after steroid. No complications were noted in either group. In this series no advantage could be shown for the use of autogenous injection of bone marrow compared with injection of steroid in the management of unicameral bone cysts.

  13. Effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Zhang Weiguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific information for the prevention and treatment of the radiation damage by analyzing the effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition. Methods: 7 group mice were exposed to smoke and/or tea and/or radiation respectively. There were also b blank control group and a cyclophosphamide positive control group. The frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to mature erythrocytes (RBC) in marrow, and the count of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte were observed. Results: The frequencies of MPCE in the groups irradiated with γ-rays were significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The smoke + radiation group's frequency was significantly higher than single radiation group (P<0.05). The ratios of PCE to RBC in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P<0.01). The counts of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than the blank control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation were able to cause marrow cell mutation and induce marrow inhibition. Smoke increases the effect of radiation-induced marrow cell mutation. Tea and smoke could not affect radiation-induced bone marrow inhibition

  14. Prognosis and bone marrow recovery indicators in bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, Diana; Perez, Maria del R.; Gisone, Pablo; Barboza, Marcos; Sorrentino, Miguel; Robinson, Anibal

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) were studied in 27 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Plasmatic lipo peroxide levels of those patients with unfavorable evolution were significantly increases on days 12-14 post-transplant (median 1,83 μM, range 0.78-5.82) compared with preconditioning levels (median 1.05 μM, range 0.36-1.84) (p<0.05). Patients with favorable evolution revealed significantly higher lipo peroxide levels during conditioning regime (median 1.42 μM, range 0.31-4.50) (p<0.05). Starting from the 3rd. post-transplant week a significant and continuous decrease was observed, with a median of 0.77 μM (range 0.21-1.48) (p<0.05) for the 3rd, and a median of 0.60 μM (range 0.11-1.48) for the 4th. week (p<0.01). A significant increase in total antioxidant activity was observed in the three patients who died up to the 35 days post-transplant. Recovery of bone marrow function was detected by RMI after a median time of 17 days (range 11-24) post-allogeneic transplantation. The threshold established for absolute neutrophil count was achieved after a median of 21 days (range 14-28) (p<0.001). An increase of plasma lipo peroxides on days 12-14 post transplant may be a predictive value of unfavourable evolution. RMI was the earlier indicator of engraftment in allogeneic BMT. (author)

  15. Qualitative Aspects of Bone Marrow Adiposity in Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford J Rosen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The function of marrow adipocytes and their origin has not been defined although considerable research has centered on their presence in certain conditions such as osteoporosis. Less work has focused on the qualitative aspects of marrow fat. Bone marrow serum is composed of multiple nutrients that almost certainly relate to functional aspects of the niche. Previous studies using non-­‐invasive techniques have shown that osteoporotic individuals have more marrow fat and that the ratio of saturated: unsaturated fatty acid is high. We recently reported that bone marrow sera from osteoporotic patients with fracture showed a switch toward decreased content of total saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids, compared to patients without fracture highlighting a dynamic relationship between the composition of fatty acids in the bone microenvironment and the metabolic requirements of cells. The relative distribution of fatty acids differed considerably from that in the serum providing further evidence that energy utilization is high and that marrow adipocytes may contribute to this pool. Whether these lipids can affect osteoblast function in a positive or negative manner is still not certain but will require further investigation.

  16. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3, which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment.

  17. Fracture healing: Quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy as a prognostic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Kragic-Pranic, A.; Predic, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Careful clinical examination and conventional radiography, together with other standard methods for evaluation of bone fracture healing, are frequently inconclusive. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict the complications of healing on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings only. Bone scintigraphy plays an important role in detecting bone fractures. This method is very sensitive, but not enough specific. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of three-phase bone scintigraphy in the healing prognosis of long bone fractures. Material and Methods: We evaluated the three elements (perfusion, blood pool and static image) of three-phase bone scintigraphy in early prognosis of the course of fracture healing in patients with fractures of femur or tibia. Three-phase bone scintigraphy was performed in 73 patients. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to X-ray and clinical examination: 1) Non operated patients with stable fracture, 2) Operated patients with unstable fracture (infection), 3) Fractures with delayed union, 4) Patients with pseudoarthrosis. Using region of interest (ROI) method we compared the activity on the site of fracture with the activity on the symmetrical place in the healthy bone. The relative indices for each group of patients and for each element of three-bone scintigraphy were calculated in order to make possible the follow up of the fracture healing and to obtain data for prognosis and evaluation of possible complications. Results: The most valuable results were obtained by quantitative analysis of perfusion data immediately after trauma and 2-3 weeks later. Our results show a high diagnostic accuracy in identifying infection by perfusion scintigrams immediately after trauma. The perfusion indices obtained immediately and after 2-3 weeks could predict delayed union after the trauma. Quantitative analysis of blood pool phase gave no data of clinical significance in distinguishing various pathologies. Conclusion: Our

  18. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Dirk; Verboket, René; Schaible, Alexander; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C.; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP, without coating or ...

  19. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  20. Absorbed bone marrow dose in certain dental radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.C.; Rose, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    The absorbed dose of radiation in the bone marrow of the region of the head and neck was measured during intraoral, panoramic, and cephalometric radiography. Panoramic radiography results in a dose a fifth or less than that from an intraoral survey. The use of rectangular collimation reduces the bone marrow absorbed dose from an intraoral survey by about 60%. Comparison of the doses from dental radiography with natural environmental radiation shows that an intraoral set of films results in the same total dose to the bone marrow as 65 days of background exposure. The use of rectangular collimation reduces this value to 25 days. Panoramic radiography results in significantly less irradiation, as it reduces the value to 14 days or fewer. Dental radiography thus involves exposures in the range of variation of natural environmental background values

  1. Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.

    1982-01-01

    Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma

  2. Noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bosco, Sandro; Cavallotti, Carlo; Agostinelli, Enzo; Giuliani-Piccari, Gabriella; Sciorio, Salvatore; Cocco, Lucio; Vitale, Marco

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow is supplied by sensory and autonomic innervation. Although it is well established that hematopoiesis is regulated by cytokines and cell-to-cell contacts, the role played by neuromediators on the proliferation, differentiation and release of hematopoietic cells is still controversial. We studied the innervation of rat femur bone marrow by means of fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence was used to demonstrate catecholaminergic nerve fibers. The immunoperoxidase method with nickel amplification was applied to detect the distribution of nerve fibers using antibodies against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5 (neuron-specific cytoplasmic protein), while the cholinacetyltransferase immunoreactivity was studied by immunohistochemistry. Our results show the presence of an extensive network of innervation in the rat bone marrow, providing a morphological basis for the neural modulation of hemopoiesis.

  3. Correlation Between Bone Scintigraphy and Tumor Markers in Patients with Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Begić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of many cancer types is their ability to metastasise to the skeleton. Bone is the most common site of metastatic invasion, after hematogenous spreading of breast cancer. Early detection of bone metastases is mandatory in the evaluation and management of these patients. Bone scintigraphy is commonly performed in detection and evaluation bone metastases. Tumor markers are present in healthy individuals as well as in patients with malignant diseases but in different concentration. Aim of study was to correlate serum levels of tumor marker Ca (15-3, CEA and presence of bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy. Study included 25 patients with breast cancer, previously surgically treated. All patients underwent whole body scintigraphy. Ca (15-3 and CEA was measured by radioimmunoassay. Presence, number of bone metastases were correlated with Ca (15-3 and CEA levels. Median age of patients included in study was 50 varying from 30 to 67. Bone scintigraphy revealed bone metastases in 16 (64% patients. A weak correlation was found between number of metastases and level of Ca (15-3 (r=0.139, p=0.254. Significant differences in Ca (15-3 level was found in patient with metastases compared to patients without metastases (chi square 0, p=1.0. Good correlation was found between number of metastases and serum level of CEA. Correlation between level of two tumor markers Ca (15-3 and CEA was a weak (r = 0.096 , p=0.323. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive diagnostic toll for detecting breast cancer metastases to bone. Serum levels of tumor markes in isolation can not give complete accuracy about bone metastases.

  4. The importance of bone scintigraphy in children from a surgical and orthopedic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.D.; Carro, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty children with Legg-Perthes disease (19), bone tumor (27), osteogenesis imperfecta (7), osteomyelitis (5) and transient synovitis (2) were studied using sup(99m)Tc labeled diphosphonate. A number of benign or malign bone diseases of children need early detection in order to institute the best form - the fine form - of treatment. We recommende the bone scintigraphy in the initial screening of children with signs and symptoms of bone pathology. (orig.) [de

  5. Importance of bone scintigraphy in children from a surgical and orthopedic point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.D.; Carro, G.A.

    Sixty children with Legg-Perthes disease (19), bone tumor (27), osteogenesis imperfecta (7), osteomyelitis (5) and transient synovitis (2) were studied using sup(99m)Tc labeled diphosphonate. A number of benign or malign bone diseases of children need early detection in order to institute the best form - the fine form - of treatment. We recommend the bone scintigraphy in the initial screening of children with signs and symptoms of bone pathology.

  6. Relationship of bone marrow dose to eosinophilia following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murohashi, Ikuo; Gomi, Hiromichi; Nakano, Takashi; Morita, Shinroku; Arai, Tatsuo; Jinnai, Itsuro; Nara, Nobuo; Bessho, Masami; Hirashima, Kunitake.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute blood eosinophils were counted prior to and during radiotherapy in a total of 380 patients with carcinoma in the chest, pelvis, or abdomen. The patients were divided into 5 groups by types of cancer, and these groups differed in the irradiation sites or the sizes of radiation field. Accumulated bone marrow dose from the start of radiotherapy to the time when eosinophil count during radiotherapy reached its peak was simultaneously determined. In each group, maximum eosinophil count during radiotherapy was significantly increased compared with the value before radiotherapy. In all groups except one, the increase in eosinophil count following radiotherapy was directly proportional to the bone marrow dose. However, in the most heavily irradiated ovarian cancer group, the increase in eosinophil count was markedly lower. In contrast, neutrophils were reduced in numbers in all groups. These results suggest that bone marrow (red marrow) damage by irradiation results in eosinophilia, and that unimpaired hemopoiesis is also indispensable for such an eosinophil response. Accumulated bone marrow doses of 800 - 900 rad given during 4 weeks fractionated irradiation caused the most prominent eosinophilia. (author)

  7. Advances in Bone Marrow Stem Cell Therapy for Retinal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna S.; Moisseiev, Elad; Bauer, Gerhard; Anderson, Johnathon D.; Grant, Maria B.; Zam, Azhar; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue. Since the paracrine trophic effects can have regenerative effects on multiple cells in the retina, the use of this cell therapy is not limited to a particular retinal condition. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells are being explored in early clinical trials as therapy for various retinal conditions. These bone marrow stem cells include mesenchymal stem cells, mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells. Autologous therapy requires no systemic immunosuppression or donor matching. Intravitreal delivery of CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells appears to be tolerated and is being explored since some of these cells can home into the damaged retina after intravitreal administration. The safety of intravitreal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has not been well established. This review provides an update of the current evidence in support of the use of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for retinal dysfunction. The potential limitations and complications of using certain forms of bone marrow stem cells as therapy are discussed. Future directions of research include methods to optimize the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, non-cellular alternatives using extracellular vesicles, and in vivo high-resolution retinal imaging to detect cellular changes in the retina following cell therapy. PMID:27784628

  8. The use of bone scintigraphy to establish cancer extension records: application to prostate and breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methlin, G.; Grob, J.C.; Moyses, B.; Deschler, J.M.; Ott, G.; Berthelen, B.

    1975-01-01

    The recent development of the technique described, especially in the systematic search for metastases was due to the introduction of stannous diphosphate complexed with sup(99m)Tc well suited to bone scintigraphy. The documents are obtained in two stages. First a whole-body scintigraph is taken by means of an omniview device fitted to a Picker dynacamera, and this scanning phase is followed immediately by static views centred mainly on abnormal or doubtful regions. The results are given for 136 breast cancers and 61 prostate cancers, two cancers particularly liable to affect the bone, and show that scintigraphy offers positive advantages over radiological investigations. These advantages are offset to some extent by the non-specific nature of the hyperfixing regions since different diseases involving changes in the bone structure can give similar images, but for breast and prostate cancers bone scintigraphy presents distinct possibilities in the search for metastases of the skeleton [fr

  9. On the cause of focal uptake in the cervical vertebral column in routine bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buell, U.; Winkler, U.

    1983-01-01

    Focal uptake was seen in the cervical vertebral column of 61 patients in the course of routine bone scintigraphy. These focal increases were subjected to close analysis. In 60 of these patients (98.4%) degenerative lesions became manifest as the cause of the scintigraphic finding already by the bone scintigraphy pattern (paravertebral localisation in the posterior and dorsal localisation in the lateral. Two typical examples of metastatic changes are presented to facilitate differentiation. The bone scintigraphic pattern in arthrosis of the intervertebral joint is so typical that X-ray control examinations to confirm the diagnosis can be omitted in many cases. (orig.) [de

  10. Cause of focal uptake in the cervical vertebral column in routine bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, U.; Winkler, U.

    1983-09-01

    Focal uptake was seen in the cervical vertebral column of 61 patients in the course of routine bone scintigraphy. These focal increases were subjected to close analysis. In 60 of these patients (98.4%) degenerative lesions became manifest as the cause of the scintigraphic finding already by the bone scintigraphy pattern (paravertebral localisation in the posterior and dorsal localisation in the lateral. Two typical examples of metastatic changes are presented to facilitate differentiation. The bone scintigraphic pattern in arthrosis of the intervertebral joint is so typical that X-ray control examinations to confirm the diagnosis can be omitted in many cases.

  11. Pelvic and lumbar metastasis detected by bone scintigraphy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Castillo Pallares, F.J.; Llorens Banon, L.; Romero de Avila y Avalos, C. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei de Medicina Nuclear; Garcia Garc`ia, T.; Azagra Ros, P. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei d`Oncologia; Maruenda Paulino, J.I. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei Traumatologia; Ferrer Albiach, C. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei Radioterapia

    1999-05-01

    A case of a 43-year-old man suffering from pleural mesothelioma with distant bone metastasis is reported. The results of bone scintigraphy and NMR findings allowed the diagnosis. The current case describes a hematogenous metastasis to the pelvis and vertebral column from a malignant pleural mesothelioma that was detected initally by bone scintigraphy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fallbericht ueber einen 43jaehrigen Mann mit Pleural-Mesotheliom und Knochenmetastasen. Die Diagnose wurde durch Knochenszintigraphie und NMR gestellt. Der vorliegende Fall beschreibt die haematogene Metastasierung ins Becken und in die Wirbelsaeule, ausgehend von einem malignen Pleural-Mesotheliom, das urspruenglich durch Knochenszintigraphie diagnostiziert wurde. (orig.)

  12. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Technique and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Trejo-Ayala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy are invasive procedures in which good technical skill is crucial to obtain samples suitable for processing and diagnostic interpretation. The type and calibre of the needle is one of the main variables of the technique, and is selected on the basis of the age, gender and body mass of the patient. This article provides a practical, step-by-step guide to the technique for both procedures. It also discusses existing techniques for reducing the pain associated with the procedure, an essential aspect for the patient that if poorly handled, can force cancellation of the procedure.

  13. System for estimation of mean active bone marrow dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.E.; Healy, M.J.R.; Shleien, B.; Tucker, T.

    1975-09-01

    The exposure measurements, model and computer program for estimation of mean active bone marrow doses formerly employed in the 1962 British Survey of x-ray doses and proposed for application to x-ray exposure information obtained in the U.S. Public Health Service's X-Ray Exposure Studies (1966 and 1973) are described and evaluated. The method described is feasible for use to determine the mean active bone marrow doses to adults for examinations having a skin to source distance of 80 cm or less. For a greater SSD, as for example in chest x rays, a small correction in the calculation dose can be made

  14. Successful nonsibling bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøe, K; Skinhøj, P; Andersen, V

    1978-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was diagnosed in a girl immediately after birth; her older brother had SCID and was successfully reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation from his uncle. She was isolated in a laminar air flow bench and decontaminated. The father differed by one HLA......-A antigen but was HLA-Dw2 homozygous like the patient; his lymphocytes showed a slight response to the patient's cells in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). At the age of 2 1/2 months and again at 5 months, she was given a bone marrow transplant from the father. During the entire course the patient had...

  15. Bone marrow transplantation for correction of enzyme deficiency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, C.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Matas, A.J.; Najarian, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mutant acatalasemic mice provide a prototype of congenital enzyme deficiency disease. Normal blood catalase levels were achieved permanently in congenitally acatalasemic mice by transplantation of bone marrow cells from congeneic normal catalasemic mice using relatively small numbers of cells following whole body irradiation. The increase in blood catalase activity was physiologically effective as demonstrated by the protection of the previously acatalasemic mice against the otherwise lethal effects of hydrogen peroxide injections. Bone marrow transplantation has the potential to provide a continuous source of some enzymes and may be applicable as treatment for certain congenital enzyme deficiency diseases

  16. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desouki, M. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jurayyan, N. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (``superscan``) in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm{sup 2}(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm {sup 2}(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fate of bulk auto grafts in uncemented total hip arthroplasty: Evaluation by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, A.; Cila, E.; Sener, E.; Senkoylu, A.; Sipahioglu, S.; Atasever, T.; Akdemir, Ozgur

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to review short term results of uncemented cup implantation and the fate of bulk femoral head autografts in patients with acetabular bone deficiency due to dysplasia of the hip. We used bone scintigraphy to assess the viability of the grafts. We treated 19 hip joints of 17 patients with osteoarthritis due to developmental dysplasia of the hip with uncemented total hip arthroplasty between 1997-2003 in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. The average age was 49.1 (31-72 years), and the average follow up period was 36 months. We used femoral head autografts to reconstruct superolateral segmental deficiencies of the acetabuli. We evaluated the patients clinically and radiologically to assess acetabular loosening, and we used three-phase bone scintigraphy to evaluate the viability of the autograft.There was no acetabular component revision throughout the follow up period. There was no radiological evidence of graft resorption or graft displacement in any of the patients. In bone scintigraphy, we observed hyperemia in the blood pool phase, and the osteoblastic activity of the bone graft was at the level of the neighboring iliac bone. The application of a non-cemented acetabular component with femoral autograft in superolateral acetabulum deficiency increases the stability of the implant and increases the bone stock. It is not easy to evaluate the viability of the graft by the use of radiological methods. Bone scintigraphy gives sufficient information about the viability of the graft as a non-invasive method. (author)

  18. Diagnostic value of technetium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy. Study of 277 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainte-Croix, Annick.

    1975-01-01

    277 bone scintigraphs were carried out with 99m technetium pyrophosphate and an attempt was made, on the basis of this experience, to define the advantages and limits of the technique. 99m technetium pyrophosphate seems to be the isotope most suitable for bone scintigraphy. The scintillation camera bone scintigraphic examination is simple, allowing the whole skeleton to be explored in a relatively short time, and above all harmless since the total irradiation to which the organism is exposed throughout is no more than 0.07 rad. The broadest field of application of bone scintigraphy appears to be cancer: in 45 cases out of 66 it revealed bone metastases invisible radiologically and in 28 cases out of 90 the number of metastases observed was greater than that shown by X-rays. In 11 cases however radiologically visible bone metastases were not detected by scintigraphy. In spite of this reservation we consider bone scintigraphy to be a valuable technique, more sensitive than X-ray examinations in the detection of bone metastases of cancers [fr

  19. Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Maśliński, Włodzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Warczyńska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

  20. 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of stress fracture of the metatarsal bones mimicking oligoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stress fractures are the injuries of soft tissues and bones caused by intensive and repeated stress on a bone. Repeated submaximal stress disturbs the balance between the processes of bone production and resorption that results in fracture. Case report. We presented a case of a patient with stress fracture of metatarsal bone. The patient was diagnosed and treated as having reactive oligoarthritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and administered antibiotics. Initial plain radiography was negative for bone fracture. Tc-99m bone scintigraphy suggested stress fracture of the second metatarsal. Plain radiography was became positive three weeks later, showing callus formation in the proximal part of the second metatarsal. Conclusion. Bone scintigraphy is a diagnostic test of choice in early diagnosis of stress fracture, and it is important to apply it timely in order to include the entire therapy and prevent complications, as well as to let a patient return to previous daily activites.

  1. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...

  2. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT

  3. Bone marrow MRI in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhao; Guo You; Wang Renfa; Zou Mingli; Liu Wenli; Xia Liming; Wang Chengyuan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the MR imaging of bone marrow in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and to reveal the rule of bone marrow infiltration and the role of MRI in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Methods: Thirty patients received MRI after the diagnosis based on clinic and FAB subtype study, including 16 with MDS and 14 with AML. MR image was obtained by T 1 -weighted spin echo and shot time inversion recovery in pelvis and femur. The examining results of morphology and blood routine were collected at the same time. 30 age-matched volunteers were selected as controls. Results: The MRI appearance was classified into their patterns based on scope of focus. MRI patterns from grade 1 to grade 3 was observed in patients with MDS. All patients with AML distributed in grade 2 to grade 3. The distribution of patterns had no significant difference between MDS and AML (P>0.05). The marrow ratio had significant difference among MDS, AML, and controls (P<0.05). The MRI grade was consistent with the clinic diagnostic indexes. Conclusion: MRI can provide a better understanding of the difference between MDS and AML. MRI can estimate the extent of disease in the marrow as a whole. MRI of bone marrow can provide imaging basis in diagnosis and predicting the prognosis for patients with MDS

  4. Development, regulation, metabolism and function of bone marrow adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Hardij, Julie; Bagchi, Devika P; Scheller, Erica L; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2018-05-01

    Most adipocytes exist in discrete depots throughout the body, notably in well-defined white and brown adipose tissues. However, adipocytes also reside within specialized niches, of which the most abundant is within bone marrow. Whereas bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) shares many properties in common with white adipose tissue, the distinct functions of BMAT are reflected by its development, regulation, protein secretion, and lipid composition. In addition to its potential role as a local energy reservoir, BMAT also secretes proteins, including adiponectin, RANK ligand, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and stem cell factor, which contribute to local marrow niche functions and which may also influence global metabolism. The characteristics of BMAT are also distinct depending on whether marrow adipocytes are contained within yellow or red marrow, as these can be thought of as 'constitutive' and 'regulated', respectively. The rBMAT for instance can be expanded or depleted by myriad factors, including age, nutrition, endocrine status and pharmaceuticals. Herein we review the site specificity, age-related development, regulation and metabolic characteristics of BMAT under various metabolic conditions, including the functional interactions with bone and hematopoietic cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical experience of [sup 123]I-IMP scintigraphy in detecting vertebral bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma. A comparison with bone scintigraphy with [sup 99m]Tc-MDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. (Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Matsue City Hospital (Japan)); Iwamiya, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Matsue City Hospital (Japan)); Tanigawa, N. (Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Matsue City Hospital (Japan)); Shabana, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Matsue City Hospital (Japan)); Ohta, Y. (Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Matsue City Hospital (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    [sup 123]I-IMP and bone scintigraphy with [sup 99m]Tc-MDP were consecutively performed in patients with vertebral bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma and lumbar spondylosis deformans in a 7-day interval or shorter. The intensity of uptake was compared. Eighteen of the 20 metastatic lesions (90%) were classified as increased uptake areas in [sup 123]I-IMP scintigraphy. MDP-scintigraphy disclosed 16 metastatic lesions (80%), 9 as ''hot'' lesions (56%) and 7 as ''cold'' lesions (44%). [sup 123]I-IMP scintigraphy was negative in all 12 lesions of lumbar spondylosis deformans. Compared to MDP-scintigraphy, [sup 123]I-IMP scintigraphy was more sensitive in detecting vertebral bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma with smaller rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. (orig./MG).

  6. Diagnostic performance of [18F] FDG PET-CT compared to bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RODRIGUES, Margarida; STARK, Hannes; RENDL, Gundula; RETTENBACHER, Lukas; PIRICH, Christian; DATZ, Lidwina; STUDNICKA, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate staging of lung cancer is essential for effective patient management and selection of appropriate therapeutic strategy. The aim of this paper was to compare the value of bone scintigraphy and FDG PET-CT for detecting bone metastases in lung cancer patients and the impact of these modalities in disease staging. One hundred sixty-four lung cancer patients who had undergone both FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy within 14 days were included into this study. The analysis of FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy was carried out patient- and lesion-based. One hundred twenty-one patients were negative and 43 patients positive for bone metastases. FDG PET-CT found bone metastases in 42/43 patients and bone scintigraphy in 38/43 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy for detecting bone metastases were 97.7%, 100% and 99.4%, and 87.8%, 97.5% and 94.2%, respectively. FDG PET-CT identified 430 bone metastases and bone scintigraphy 246 bone metastases. Skull was the only region where bone scintigraphy identified more lesions than FDG PET-CT. Based on both scintigraphic modalities disagreement concerning disease stage was found in 3 patients. In conclusion, FDG PET-CT yielded a higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than bone scintigraphy for identifying bone metastases in lung cancer patients. FDG PET-CT thus can be recommended for initial staging of lung cancer patients without applying bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of radiation disease. Problems involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells still is one of the major means available for treatment of radiation injuries. The decisive indication is the diagnostic of irreversible damage to the hemopoietic stem cells, which becomes manifest about 5 or 6 days after exposure, by severe granulocytopenia and simultaneous, progressive thrombopenia. The radiation dose provoking such severe injury is estimated to be at least 9-10 Gy of homogeneous whole-body irradiation. Preparatory measures for transplantation include proof of tissue compatibility of donor and patient, sufficient immunosuppression prior to and/or after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. The donor's marrow should be free of T-cells. In spite of preparatory treatment, complications such as immunological reactions or disturbance of organ functions are to be very probable. These are treated according to therapy protocols. (orig./MG) [de

  8. A study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate (p<0.05). Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymphnode metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymphnode metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.)

  9. Injection of demineralized bone matrix with bone marrow concentrate improves healing in unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Claudia; Dozza, Barbara; Frisoni, Tommaso; Cevolani, Luca; Donati, Davide

    2010-11-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are benign lesions that usually spontaneously regress with skeletal maturity; however, the high risk of pathologic fractures often justifies treatment that could reinforce a weakened bone cortex. Various treatments have been proposed but there is no consensus regarding the best procedure. We compared the healing rates and failures of two methods of cure based on multiple injections of corticosteroid or a single injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in association with bone marrow concentrate (BMC). We retrospectively reviewed 184 patients who had one of the two treatments for unicameral bone cysts with cortical erosion. Clinical records were reviewed for treatment failures and radiographs for healing in all patients. The minimum followup was 12 months for the Steroids Group (mean, 48 months; range, 12-120 months) and 12 months for the DBM + BMC Group (mean, 20 months; range, 12-28 months). After one treatment we observed a lower healing rate of cysts treated with multiple injections of steroids compared with the healing after the first injection of DBM + BMC (21% versus 58%, respectively). At last followup, 38% healed with steroids and 71% with DBM + BMC. The rate of failure after one steroid injection was higher than after a single injection of BDM + BMC (63% versus 24%, respectively). We observed no difference in fracture rates after treatment between the two groups. A single injection of DBM added with autologous bone marrow concentrate appears to provide a higher healing rate with a lower number of failures compared with a single injection of steroids.

  10. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko', Klara; Pintye, Eva; Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD 50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  11. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkő, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  12. Value of Bone marrow Examination in Pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrexia of unknown origin is a common diagnostic dilemma. Series of diagnostic modalities are required to arrive at diagnosis. Bone marrow examination is one of the common tests implicated in the diagnosis in combination with other diagnostic modalities. Present study has attempted to explore the causes of pyrexia of unknown origin based on bone marrow morphological study. Materials and Methods: In a one year prospective study conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal; bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was performed and evaluated morphologically, in 57 patients fulfilling the criteria of classic pyrexia of unknown origin. Results: In 42% cases; specific diagnosis could be made and hematological neoplasm was the most common finding followed by megaloblastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia and one case each of hemophagocytosis, malaria and tuberculosis. Acute leukemia was the most frequently encountered hematological malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusion: Morphological examination of bone marrow has important role in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. However, yield of diagnosis can be increased if it is combined with other diagnostic modalities including radiological, microbiological and serological tests. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8991 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 447-451

  13. BONE MARROW AND KIDNEY FAT INDEX IN MALE AND FEMALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    Bone marrow and kidney fat indices in male and female (gravid and non-gravid) ... Determining body condition of game in the field accurately is not easy as it is not ... of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/sajas.html ...

  14. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hao Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution P=0.001, band and segmented cells P=0.021, and lymphoid cells P=0.029 than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78, and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3% followed by respiratory failure (10%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P=0.001 and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P=0.004 megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group, as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P=0.011, were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  15. white leghorn chimeras based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stem cells (BMMSCs), and to assess its immune tolerance based on variations in proportion of ... Keywords: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, Immune tolerance, ... in tissue injury, transplantation, and ..... 0.05, **p < 0.01; (b) expression of the duck gene in different organs .... CD30hi Marek's disease lymphoma cell.

  16. Pain During Bone Marrow Aspiration: Prevalence and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhelleputte, P.; Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Delforge, M.; Evers, G.; Vanderschueren, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Prevalence, intensity, determinants and prevention of pain during bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in adults are not well defined. In the first part of this prospective study (observational phase), 132 adult hematological patients undergoing BMA after local anesthesia scored the procedural pain by

  17. Bone marrow dysfunction in chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Voors, Adriaan A.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schuringa, Jan J.; Klinkenberg, Theo; van der Harst, Pim; Vellenga, Edo; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.

    To investigate whether chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with a general dysfunction of the haematopoietic compartment. Bone marrow was obtained during coronary artery bypass graft surgery from 20 patients with CHF (age 67 +/- 6 years, 75% NYHA class >= III, LVEF 32 +/- 6%), and 20 age- and

  18. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  19. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  20. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  1. Bone marrow in pediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fauzia Shafi; Hasan, Rabiya Fayyaz

    2012-01-01

    Hodgkin's disease is a malignant process of lymphoreticular system that constitutes 6% of childhood cancers Accurate staging of lymphoma is the basis for rational therapeutic planning and assessment of the presence or absence of marrow involvement is a basic part of the staging evaluation. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of marrow infiltration in paediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease and to ascertain its morphological spectrum in the marrow. The study included 85 paediatric patients with diagnosed Hodgkin's disease seen at The Children's Hospital/Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2011, referred to haematology department for bone marrow biopsies. Ages ranged between two years to fourteen years with an average age of seven years, the male female ratio being 13:1. Mixed cellularity was the commonest histological type present in 66 (78%) cases. The presenting feature common in all cases was superficial lymphadenopathy followed by hepatomegaly in 17 (20%) cases and splenomegaly in 16 (19%). All the marrow aspirates were negative for infiltration. Trephine biopsies revealed marrow infiltration in 9 (10.5%). Five (56%) cases had bilateral while 4 (44%) had unilateral involvement. Pattern of infiltration was diffuse in 8 (89%) and focal in one (11%) trephines. Increased marrow fibrosis was present in eight (89%) cases. Diagnostic Reed Sternberg cells were identified in only one case and the mononuclear variants were present in six cases and atypical cells were present in two cases in these immunohistochemistry for CD15 and CD30 was performed which was positive. Granulomas in one and lymphoid aggregates were present in two trephine biopsies otherwise negative for Hodgkin's infiltration. Bone marrow infiltration was present in 10.5% cases, immunohistochemistry was used to confirm infiltration in two cases, the pattern of infiltration being diffuse in majority (89%).

  2. HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ASBMT American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation ASEATTA Australasian and South East Asian Tissue Typing Association ASH American...for investigators to obtain statistical and data management support for prospective trials focusing on addressing various transplant issues. These...these relationships so that when an event occurs no one will need to exchange business cards, but rather will already know who to call. Two levels

  3. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Diehl, M.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3{+-}2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10{+-}1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU {>=}2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of an evolutive tertiary syphilis by bone scintigraphy. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamisandratsoa, N.; Scheiber, C.; Grucker, D.; Dery, M.

    2003-01-01

    One patient complained of persisting diffuse bone pain, with greater intensity in the pelvis. HDP 99m Tc bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake around the right sacro-iliac joint and in the right iliac area due to increased osteoblastic activity, thereby providing functional information about the evolutive nature of the bone lesion. The X-scanner only revealed osteolysis in the same location. A blood test confirmed the diagnosis of tertiary syphilis. (author)

  5. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  6. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  7. Quantitative bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the differentiation of necrotizing external otitis from severe external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.; Gips, S.; Front, A.; Meyer, S.W.; Hardoff, R.

    1991-01-01

    Qualitative technetium Tc 99m bone scintigraphy using phosphate compounds and gallium 67 scintigraphy were described as a helpful means in diagnosing necrotizing external otitis (NEO). They were, however, claimed to be nonspecific. Quantitative Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and gallium 67 scintigraphy were performed in eight patients with NEO and in 20 patients with severe external otitis, in order to prove usefulness of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of NEO. Ratios of lesion to nonlesion for bone scintigraphy were 1.67 ± 0.16 in patients with NEO and 1.08 ± 0.09 in patients with severe external otitis, and for gallium 67 scintigraphy they were 1.35 ± 0.24 in NEO patients and 1.05 ± 0.03 in patients with severe external otitis. There was no difference in uptake between diabetic patients with severe external otitis and nondiabetic patients. The scintigraphic studies were also evaluated using a qualitative scoring method (scores 0 to +4), according to the intensity of the radiopharmaceutical uptake. This method was found to be inferior in the diagnosis of NEO compared with the quantitative method. We conclude that lesion-to-nonlesion ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.3 on bone and gallium 67 scintigraphy, respectively, are indicative of NEO. Quantitative bone scintigraphy, which is quicker to perform, may be used as a single imaging modality for the diagnosis of NEO

  8. Comparison of serum prostate specific antigen levels and bone scintigraphy in patients with prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielickaite, J.; Zadeikaite, R.; Jurkiene, N. and others

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of serum prostate specific antigen in patients with and without bone metastases detected by means of bone scintigraphy and to determine the highest prostate specific antigen level in patients without bone metastases. The 50 patients consecutively diagnosed of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2001 in our institution made up the study population. Prostate specific antigen plasmatic levels were determined and bone scintigraphy was performed (whole body study after 99mTc-methyl-diphosphonate administration) in all the patients. In patients with positive bone scans (n=23), the mean prostate specific antigen level was 71.4±35.2 ng/ml and was significantly (p<0.00005) higher than in 14 patients with negative bone scans (mean prostate specific antigen level was 10.1±10.5 ng/ml). Suspicious lesions were found in 13 patients and their mean prostate specific antigen level was 8.5±7.7 ng/ml. Regarding prostate specific antigen levels, no statistically significant differences were found between patients with suspicious lessons and normal bone scans. The highest determined prostate specific antigen level in patients without bone metastases was 18 ng/ml. The bone scintigraphy should be performed in all patients with prostate specific antigen level above 18 ng/ml, but it is of limited value in patients with prostate specific antigen level below 18 ng/ml. (author)

  9. The emerging role of bone marrow adipose tissue in bone health and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Thomas H; Schulz, Tim J

    2017-12-01

    Replacement of red hematopoietic bone marrow with yellow adipocyte-rich marrow is a conserved physiological process among mammals. The extent of this conversion is influenced by a wide array of pathological and non-pathological conditions. Of particular interest is the observation that some marrow adipocyte-inducing factors seem to oppose each other, for instance obesity and caloric restriction. Intriguingly, several important molecular characteristics of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) are distinct from the classical depots of white and brown fat tissue. This depot of fat has recently emerged as an active part of the bone marrow niche that exerts paracrine and endocrine functions thereby controlling osteogenesis and hematopoiesis. While some functions of BMAT may be beneficial for metabolic adaptation and bone homeostasis, respectively, most findings assign bone fat a detrimental role during regenerative processes, such as hematopoiesis and osteogenesis. Thus, an improved understanding of the biological mechanisms leading to formation of BMAT, its molecular characteristics, and its physiological role in the bone marrow niche is warranted. Here we review the current understanding of BMAT biology and its potential implications for health and the development of pathological conditions.

  10. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells during anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM : Bone marrow derived cell in GBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jennifer C.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor characterized by rapid and invasive tumor growth, followed by oxygen depletion, hypoxia and neovascularization, which generate a network of disorganized, tortuous and permeable vessels. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) is crucial for

  11. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengwei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Lidong; Du, Guangyu; Sun, Chuanxiu; Sun, Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo . Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz) were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 α were measured. Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 α were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Low frequency (25-50 Hz) vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  12. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo. Materials and Methods:Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 a were measured. Results:Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 a were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Conclusion:Low frequency (25–50 Hz vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  13. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (pnecrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  15. Relationship between bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, M.; Oral, B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to specify the precise role of bone scintigraphy and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and breast cancer-associated antigen (CA) 15-3 assays in the monitoring of breast cancers in order to optimize their use and to determine whether it is possible to guide the prescription of bone scan by the use of CEA and CA 15-3 assays in the monitoring of breast cancer. For this purpose, from November 1997 to May 2002, 98 consecutive female breast cancer patients (median age, 52 years; range 35-77 years) underwent bone scintigraphy during follow-up. In these patients values of tumor markers were compared with the results of bone scintigraphy. Some of the patients with bone metastasis were checked repeatedly at intervals of 6 to 12 months, resulting in 49 patients with bone metastasis and 74 patients without bone metastasis being included in the study. In patients with bone metastasis, serum CEA levels were abnormal in 23/49 cases and CA 15-3 serum concentrations were elevated above the cut-off in 33/49 cases. Among patients without bone metastasis, CEA and CA 15-3 serum concentrations were normal in 50/74 and 55/74 cases respectively. The combination of the two markers improved the diagnostic sensitivity. Although serial tumor marker measurements are an efficient and cost effective method of monitoring disease progression, it does not allow prediction of the bone scan results; so it is not justifiable to reject a bone scintigraphy on the basis of these markers. (author)

  16. Bone marrow MR imaging findings in disuse osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. de; Wesselly, Michelle; Chung, Christine B.; Resnick, Donald

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate MR imaging findings in the cortical and trabecular bone as well as marrow changes in patients with disuse osteoporosis (DO). Sixteen patients (14 men, 2 women, aged 27-86 years) with clinical and radiographic evidence of DO of a lower limb joint (10 knees, 6 ankles) with MR examination of the same joint performed within a 1-month period were selected, as well as 16 healthy volunteers (7 men, 9 women, aged 25-75 years, 10 knees and 6 ankles). MR imaging findings of the bone marrow were analyzed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus regarding: diffuse or focal signal alteration, reinforcement of vertical or longitudinal trabecular lines, and presence of abnormal vascularization. All patients (100%,16/16) with DO presented MR imaging abnormalities of the bone marrow, such as: accentuation of vertical trabecular lines (50%, 8/16), presence of subchondral lobules of fat (37.5%, 6/16), presence of horizontal trabecular lines (31%, 5/16), prominence of bone vessels (25%, 4/16), and presence of dotted areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences (12.5%, 2/16). Such MR findings did not appear in the control individuals. There are several MR imaging findings in bones with DO that range from accentuation of vertical and horizontal marrow lines, presence of subchondral lobules of fat, prominent bone vascularization and the presence of dotted foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences. Recognition of these signs may prove helpful in the identification of DO as well as distinguishing these findings from other entities. (orig.)

  17. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  18. Two-dimensional fusion imaging of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs in patients with clinical scaphoid fracture: an imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Lonsdale, Markus Georg; Jensen, T D

    2009-01-01

    . Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......BACKGROUND: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... CONCLUSION: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement....

  19. Bone scintigraphy compared to MRI and ultrasound in the early diagnosis of arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrock, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory arthritis is recognized specifically by bone erosions, caused by characteristic pannus tissue. In the finger joints dynamic low-Tesla MRI is nearly double but not completely sensitive in the detection of erosions than conventional radiography, sonography takes an intermediate position. Less specific signs of synovitis and tenosynovitis are shown with high sensitivity by both 3(2)-phase bone scintigraphy and ultrasound, MRI is less sensitive in this respect. However, standard situation of inflammation in bone scintigraphy - positive finding in early as well as late phase - is of surprisingly low sensitivity, any singular finding in the early or late phase has to be regarded as positive. Specificity of these singular findings is nevertheless sufficiently high, acute inflammatory joint changes and even erosions are also seen with MRI in obviously healthy persons. Only 2-phase bone scintigraphy is easily able to present a simultaneous survey of all joints of the body. For this reason 2-phase bone scintigraphy is most suitable for exclusion but also for primary diagnosis of disease, specification must be done afterwards by other imaging modalities or by laboratory findings. (orig.)

  20. The use of bone scintigraphy to detect active Hansen's disease in mutilated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.J.H.N. [Seccao de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucato (Brazil); Foss, N.T.; Ferriolli, E. [Departamento de Clinica Medica da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP (Brazil); Pagnano, C. [Secretaria da Saude, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Miranda, J.R.A.; De Moraes, R. [Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica, Instituto de Biociencias, UNESP, Botucato (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Mutilation of extremities was very frequent in patients affected by leprosy in the past; although it is now much less common, it is still seen, mainly in patients with long-term disease. In general, mutilation of the nose and ears is caused by the bacillus and mutilation of the hands and feet a consequence of chronic trauma. Leprosy must be chronically treated and any decision to interrupt therapy is based on laboratory tests and biopsy. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure which could be of great value in to determining disease activity. We studied eight patients (five males and three females, aged 64-73 years) who presented with mutilation of the nose (2), ear (1), feet (3) or foot and hand (2). Conventional three-phase bone scintigraphy (750 MBq) and X-ray examinations of the affected areas were performed in all patients. Bone scintigraphy was abnormal in four patients (the presence of bacilli was confirmed by biopsy in two of them), and normal in the other four. In all patients except for the one with ear mutilation, radiography only showed the absence of bone. We conclude that bone scintigraphy is very useful to determine disease activity in cases of mutilation caused by leprosy. It seems to be superior to conventional radiography and may enable bone biopsies to be avoided. (orig.)

  1. The use of bone scintigraphy to detect active Hansen's disease in mutilated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, F.J.H.N.; Foss, N.T.; Ferriolli, E.; Pagnano, C.; Miranda, J.R.A.; De Moraes, R.

    1999-01-01

    Mutilation of extremities was very frequent in patients affected by leprosy in the past; although it is now much less common, it is still seen, mainly in patients with long-term disease. In general, mutilation of the nose and ears is caused by the bacillus and mutilation of the hands and feet a consequence of chronic trauma. Leprosy must be chronically treated and any decision to interrupt therapy is based on laboratory tests and biopsy. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure which could be of great value in to determining disease activity. We studied eight patients (five males and three females, aged 64-73 years) who presented with mutilation of the nose (2), ear (1), feet (3) or foot and hand (2). Conventional three-phase bone scintigraphy (750 MBq) and X-ray examinations of the affected areas were performed in all patients. Bone scintigraphy was abnormal in four patients (the presence of bacilli was confirmed by biopsy in two of them), and normal in the other four. In all patients except for the one with ear mutilation, radiography only showed the absence of bone. We conclude that bone scintigraphy is very useful to determine disease activity in cases of mutilation caused by leprosy. It seems to be superior to conventional radiography and may enable bone biopsies to be avoided. (orig.)

  2. BONE MARROW BIOPSY IN EVALUATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Rani Sahoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy (BMTB and aspiration is critical for diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and monitoring therapeutic response. BMTB is of greater value in assessing cellularity, degree of fibrosis, marrow architecture and especially when aspiration is dry tap. At the same time, it provides sample for immunohistochemistry. MATERIALSAND METHODS It is a single centre observational study conducted from July 2014 to July 2016 in Department of Pathology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, which included both cell block and touch imprint along with trephine biopsy. Cases selected where lymphoma studied for pattern and extent of infiltration. Aspiration with dry tap and selected cases of myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia (both acute and chronic, anaemia, multiple myeloma were studied. Jamshidi needle was used for biopsy. Samples obtained were formalin preserved, kept in decalcification solution (Hammersmith protocol and H and E slides prepared. Special stain-like reticulin and Masson’s trichrome were used for grading of fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry was done on selected cases of lymphoma. RESULTS Out of total 100 cases studied, 60 were of haematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms, 12 anaemia, 20 secondary metastasis, 8 miscellaneous (1 haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytic disease, 1 storage disease, 1 granulomatous and 5 ITP. CONCLUSION The study was conducted to establish the advantage of bone marrow biopsy in inadequate and failed aspiration, but both are complementary to each other and together provide a comprehensive evaluation of the bone marrow. Bone marrow fibrosis are well accessed and increased detection of tumour cells in suspected secondary metastasis. Special stains, IHC, cytogenetic study can be done over biopsy block.

  3. Factors controlling the engraftment of transplanted dog bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwyk, W.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Hogeweg, B.; Zurcher, C.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1982-01-01

    The LD50 of total body irradiation (TBI) for the bone marrow (BM) syndrome and the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrme was determined in dogs as 3.7 Gy, and 8.5 Gy respectively. Five Gy TBI was adequate conditioning for BM cells of littermate donors identical for the major histocompatibility comples (MHC). The maximum tolerated TBI (about 7.5 Gy) caused more side effects than 5.0 Gy TBI and was insufficient for engraftment of realistic numbers of BM cells of MHC mismatched donors. In autologous and MHC matched transplants, the rateof hemopoietic recovery correlated with the number of BM cells given. Approximtely 2 x 10 7 autologous and 1 x 10 8 MHC identical BM cells.kg -1 were needed for radiation protection. Platelet recovery was significantly more rapid in allogeneic combinations in comparison to autologous transplants. Low numbers of autologous cryopreserved bone marrow cells were as effective as fresh bone marrow cells in rescuing animals after lethal TBI. Other factors that influence BM cell engraftment were confirmed (prior sensitization of the recipient, donor selection) or identified (purification of BM cells on density gradient and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of the recipient). Consistent engraftment of gradient separated, MHC identical, BM cells was found after conditioning with two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI, separated by 72 h. One MHC haplotype mismatched marrow did engraft after two TBI fractions of 6.0 Gy. Engraftment no longer occurred with gradient purified bone marrow cells from this type of donor. Late effects of TBI were early greying in all animals, and secondary uterine inertia in female dogs after 7.5 GY TBI. Fertility in males or females was not changed by radiation. An increase of pancreas fibrosis was noted in dogs receiving fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI. (author)

  4. Chronic medial knee pain without history of prior trauma: correlation of pain at rest and during exercise using bone scintigraphy and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Florian M.; Hoffmann, Alexander; Hofer, Bernhard; Allgayer, Bernhard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate chronic medial knee pain at rest and during exercise with bone scintigraphic uptake, bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP), cartilage lesions, meniscal tears, and collateral ligament pathologies on magnetic resonance MR imaging (MRI). Fifty consecutive patients with chronic medial knee pain seen at our institute were included in our study. Pain level at rest and during exercise was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). On MR images, BMEP volume was measured, and the integrity of femoro-tibial cartilage, medial meniscus, and medial collateral ligament (MCL) were assessed. Semiquantitative scintigraphic tracer uptake was measured. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. At the day of examination, 40 patients reported medial knee pain at rest, 49 when climbing stairs (at rest mean VAS 33 mm, range 0-80 mm; climbing stairs mean VAS, 60 mm, range 20-100 mm). Bone scintigraphy showed increased tracer uptake in 36 patients (uptake factor, average 3.7, range 2.4-18.0). MRI showed BMEP in 31 studies (mean volume, 4,070 mm 3 ; range, 1,200-39,200 mm 3 ). All patients with BMEP had abnormal bone scintigraphy. Ten percent of patients with pain at rest and 8% of patients with pain during exercise showed no BMEP but tracer uptake in scintigraphy. Tracer uptake and signal change around MCL predicted pain at rest significantly (tracer uptake p=0.004; MCL signal changes p=0.002). Only MCL signal changes predicted pain during exercise significantly (p=0.001). In chronic medial knee pain, increased tracer uptake in bone scintigraphy is more sensitive for medial knee pain than BMEP on MRI. Pain levels at rest and during exercise correlate with signal changes in and around the MCL. (orig.)

  5. Individual differences in post radiation regeneration of the bone marrow in nonuniform irradiation (experimental investigation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalandarova, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    Reparative regeneration in bone marrow of sternum and iliac bone in each of 20 dogs was studied after single and two-time total X-ray irradiation. Extreme dose rates in bodies differed 5 and 8 times. It was shown that bone marrow repair did not depend on its composition before irradiation. Dogs whose bone narrow was rich of cellular elements before irradiation had both active and sharply reduced bone marrow regeneration after single and two-time irradiation in 0.75-1.45 Gy doses (sternum). Animals with a poor total cellular composition of bone marrow of sternum before irradiation also had differences in the course of reparative processes: in some of them they were considerably pronoUnced and in others bone marrow aplasia lasted for one month. IndiVidual differences in the bone marrow (iliac bone) irradiated with 1.85-3.2 Gy doses were less marked during the reparative regeneration

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean ±S.D.: 0.87±0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean ±S.D.: 0.34±0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean ±S.D. 1.35±0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean ±S.D.: 3.50±2.51 %/min vs. 7.13±1

  8. Hemopoietic stem cell niches, recovery from radiation and bone marrow transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Brecher, G.; Feinendegen, L.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the appearance of cells in recipient bone marrow with chromosome markers after bone marrow transfusion to recipients that had different treatments. Investigators tried to replete the bone marrow CFV spleen at various times after recovery from maximal sublethal doses of x radiation or during continuous exposure to tritiated water. Studies were made on the effect of diverse treatments on the acceptance of bone marrow transfusions as shown by chromosomal markers. Results showed that the bone marrow of animals rescued by transfusion of 4 x 10 6 bone marrow cells will accept from 0 to 25% of the second transfusion of bone marrow cells given one to 4 months after the first transfusion and examined 2 to 3 weeks after the second transfusion. This may be due to the second transfusion filling up empty niches

  9. Evidence of homing of each fraction of bone marrow cells after scheduled transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Suping; Cai Jianming; Xiang Yingsong; Huang Dingde; Zhao Fang; Gao Jianguo; Yang Rujun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify homing of bone marrow cells after every fractionation during scheduled transplantation. Methods: The recipient mice were transplanted with homologous (H-2K d ) and allogeneic (H-2K b ) mouse bone marrow cells after lethal irradiation, and the homing status of allogeneic bone marrow cells in host bone marrow and spleen was observed. Results: A quantity of allogeneic homed cells were observed in host bone marrow, and the percentage of homing cells in second fraction was the highest in all groups (P<0.01). The allogeneic homed cells in spleen declined along with increase of the number of fraction, suggesting that regulation of homing to spleen was different from that to bone marrow. Conclusion: In scheduled bone marrow transplantation niche may be more effectively utilized and thus transplantation efficiency be enhanced

  10. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  11. Complementary roles of bone scintigraphy and MR imaging in the detection and long-term follow-up of primary non-Hodgkin's bone lymphoma in a child-case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina, Vlajkovic; Milena, Rajic; Vesna, Petronijevic; Sladana, Petrovic; Vera, Artiko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our report is to demonstrate the complementary roles of bone scintigraphy (BS), magnetic resonance imaging (MR), and positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (F-18-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of a child with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone (PLB). Increased blood flow, high tissue accumulation, and markedly increased uptake on the late BS pointed toward an active bone process in the left femoral region. Bone marrow infiltration of the left femur and cortical sclerosis, which were both demonstrated by MR imaging, were later confirmed as PLB by bone marrow biopsy. The normalizations of the flow and tissue phases of BS a year after treatment and during the entire follow-up were in keeping with inactive disease and clinical remission. However, even 8 years after treatment and complete remission, MR imaging demonstrated persistent unmodified bone marrow alteration and appreciable cortical involvement. A slightly increased metabolic activity of the left femoral epiphysis demonstrated by F-18-FDG PET/CT and mild activity in the same region on delayed BS were demonstrated in the late follow-up. Our results strongly suggest that BS and MR imaging should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of children with undefined bone symptoms. However, mild metabolic activity on the F-18-FDG PET/CT scan could not reliably differentiate between the presence or absence of disease in a patient with PLB in clinical remission. (orig.)

  12. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of SPIO particles on the signal intensity of the bone marrow of the vertebra spine in patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with normal liver tissue and 56 patients with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after intravenous SPIO administration, using a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were applied: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression and a T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver, vertebra bone and paraspinal muscle were obtained. The SNR value change in each patient group and the SNR value difference between the two groups were evaluated. For assessment of statistical significance, Student's t-test with a level of p * -weighted gradient-echo sequence, the signal intensity decrease of the normal liver tissue was approximately -65.6 % (p = 0.00), in cirrhotic liver tissue the decrease was -29.9 % (p = 0.02). The SNR values of the bone marrow showed a decrease of -27.8 % (p = 0.04) in the noncirrhotic liver group, whereas in the cirrhotic liver group it was only -11.3 % and statistically not significant. The effect of SPIO particles on the liver and bone marrow is significantly less in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  13. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using 99mTc-citrate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Jin Jianhua; Li Sijin; Li Xianfeng; Zhang Xiaojuan; Ren Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using 99m Tc- citrate scintigraphy. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (92 lesions) with confirmed malignant bone disease or degenerative benign bone disease were studied, for which the results of 99m Te-methylene diphosphonate( 99m Tc- MDP) scintigraphy were positive. 99m Tc-citrate scintigraphy was performed within a time interval of 2-7 days after 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy. Visual analysis and semiquantitative analysis were applied. Each lesion was scored as malignant or benign, which was independently verified, using conventional techniques (histopathology, X-ray, CT, MRI and clinical follow up). Results: In visual analysis of 99m Tc-citrate imaging, most malignant lesions (35/48, 72.92%) clearly showed high radioactivity accumulation, while most benign lesions (39/44, 88.64%) had not obviously visible uptake of 99m Tc-citrate. In semiquantitative analysis of 99m Tc- citrate image, malignant lesions demonstrated a higher lesion-to-background radioisotope uptake ratio (RUR) than that of benign degenerative lesions (1.47 ± 0.42 vs. 1.09 ± 0.38, t=2.887, P 99m Tc-MDP in the two groups is of the same (1.96 ± 0.25 vs. 1.87 ± 0.21, t=1.178, P>0.20). Conclusion: 99m Tc- citrate scintigraphy is a promising method to differentiate malignant from benign degenerative lesions seen as areas of increased activity on 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. (authors)

  14. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment.

  15. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2013-01-01

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment

  16. How does iliac crest bone marrow biopsy compare with imaging in the detection of bone metastases in small cell lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin-Resche, I.; Bizais, Y.; Buhe, T.; Fiche, M.

    1993-01-01

    Iliac crest bone marrow biopsy (BMB) has often been used as the gold standard for the detection of bone marrow metastases in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, it is likely to lead to numerous false-negative results. For this reason, we compared the results of bone scintigraphy (BS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and BMB in 48 sequential patients affected with pathologically confirmed SCLC (47 were evaluable; mean age, 58.4 years). The three procedures were carried out within 1 week, no treatment being performed during this period. Whole-body scans and spot views were obtained in the anterior and posterior projections. For MRI, only the thoracolumbar spine, the sternum and the pelvis were scanned, using spin-echo T1-weighted sequences, resulting in an acquisition time of less than 45 min. Only five BMBs were rated as positive. In these cases, both BS and MRI were also positive. The other 42 biopsies were negative. Among them, in ten cases both BS and MRI were positive. In 21 cases, both BS and MRI were negative. In five cases MRI was positive while BS was negative. Finally, in six cases MRI was negative whilst BS was positive. In most cases in which either BS or MRI was positive, follow-up scans confirmed the initial findings. This study suggests that BMB is more invasive and less sensitive than BS or MRI in detecting bone metastases. MRI seems to be more sensitive than BS in detecting small spinal or pelvic metastases. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is more sensitive in detecting skull, costal or peripheral metastases. BS and MRI should be used in combination and may replace BMB in the detection of bone metastases in SCLC. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of bone marrow plasma cells in patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Archana; Gupta, Ritu; Sharma, Atul; Kumar, Lalit; Jain, Paresh

    Local radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) and the role of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in preventing progression to multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of systemic disease in the form of neoplastic plasma cells (PC) in bone marrow of patients with SBP. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of PC was carried out on bone marrow aspirate of 7 patients using monoclonal antibodies: CD19 FITC, CD45 FITC, CD20 FITC, CD52 PE, CD117 PE, CD56 PE, CD38 PerCP-Cy5.5, CD138 APC, anti-kappa (κ) FITC and anti-lambda (λ) PE. The neoplastic as well as normal PC were identified in bone marrow aspirate of all the patients at the time of diagnosis; the neoplastic PC ranged from 0.1%to 0.7% of all BM cells and 33.5% to 89.7% of total BMPC. The κ:λ ratio was normal in all the samples ranging from 0.5% to 1.6%. The present work shows the presence of systemic disease in the form of neoplastic PC in bone marrow of patients with SBP. Prospective studies would be required to study if the levels of neoplastic PC in the bone marrow may help us identify patients who are likely to progress to overt MM and benefit from systemic chemotherapy.

  18. A case of eosinophilic granuloma of the calvarium and the diagnostic value of the bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Nakashima, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Shozo; Oyama, Teruo; Nishimura, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    An operative case of eosinophilic granuloma in a 2 year and 3 month old boy was presented. The authors found that bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate is valuable in determining the spread of eosinophilic granulomatous lesion in the skull. We recommend this procedure before and after operation on this disease. (author)

  19. Extensive and progressive sarcoidosis of the bone. Compared value of roentgenography and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.; Valeyre, D.; Meyrier, A.; Battesti, J.P.; Vigneron, N.; Chretien, J.

    1986-01-01

    In a thirty-one-year-old female patient from the French West Indies with osseous sarcoidosis we were able to compare the value of three diagnostic procedures used to evaluate the skeleton: roentgenography. Tc99 m scintigraphy and Ga67 scintigraphy. The lesions of sarcoidosis involved mainly the bones of the hands and feet, but also one ankle, one wrist, both knees and the skull vault. Tc99 m proved the most sensitive procedure. Ga67 evidenced the active foci in the bones and neighboring soft tissues. Roentgenograms of the bones were the least informative. Anomalies in the metabolism of calcium were lacking, as shown by the normal PAK test, a fact that demonstrates that specific bone lesions do not play a significant part in the genesis of the increased urinary calcium excretion and hyper-calcemia found in sarcoidosis [fr

  20. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction

  1. Juvenile xanthogranuloma with clonal proliferation in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mały, Ewa; Przyborska, Marta; Rybczyńska, Aleksandra; Konatkowska, Benigna; Nowak, Jerzy; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2012-04-01

    The triple association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and neurofibromatosis was described in literature in about 20 cases. In this paper, the case of an 11-month-old infant boy with a disseminated JXG with unusual cytogenetic representation in the bone marrow was reported. Neurofibromatosis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were excluded, just the same as other leukemias. Bone marrow and peripheral blood cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype with many rearrangements 46,XY,-6,der(12)t(6;12)(p21;p13),del(7)(p13p22),+9 once described in the literature as a B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia case. On the contrary, in our patient immunologic testing demonstrated a high activity of T lymphocytes, however, inflammation was excluded. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of systemic JXG with determined karyotype representing unusual chromosomal aberrations.

  2. CHORD simulation for insult assessment to the red bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1976-09-01

    Critical Human Organ Radiation Dosimetry (CHORD) probability density functions for A-P, P-A, bilateral, rotational, and isotropic incidence, plus simple depth-dose data, permit the rapid estimation of the radiation insult to the active red bone marrow system of the ICRP Reference Man. The CHORD concept follows the variations in the microscopic processes of absorption, attenuation, and scattering on a macroscopic level so that it is not necessary to attempt detailed calculations for each and every case of interest. Similar techniques have been applied to reactor criticality calculations and the general logic of the CHORD process can be applied to any cause-response type situation which can be described in terms of variation with distance in the medium of interest. Doses to active bone marrow from exposures to photons and neutrons are presented and excellent agreement is shown with the few available experimental results

  3. Quantitative MR imaging of normal and leukemic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, R.S.; Dunlap, H.J.; Poon, P.Y.; Curtis, J.; Henkelman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed and tested a protocol that allows extraction of reliable T1 and T2 relaxation times from imaging data. They have used these methods to study in vivo the bone marrow of healthy volunteers and patients with acute leukemia. Examinations were performed at 6.25 MHz using an interleaved ISE/SE sequence to calculate T1 and an eight echo (TE = 25) sequence to calculate T2. The results are summarized as follows: In leukemic patients, T1 = 476 +- 115 msec; in leukemic patients in remission, T1 = 290 +- 31 msec; in healthy volunteers, T1 = 329 +- 32 msec. The T2 values were not significantly different for the three groups (105 +- 10 msec). Work is underway to evaluate whether T1 values of bone marrow may be used to monitor patients in remission and to detect the onset of relapse

  4. Neuromyelitis optica in an adolescent after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Fiona M; Kamihara, Junne; Gorman, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system complications of bone marrow transplant are a common occurrence and the differential diagnosis is quite broad, including opportunistic infections, medications toxicities, graft versus host disease, and other autoimmune processes. We summarize previously reported cases of autoimmune myelitis in post-transplant patients and discuss a 17-year-old boy who presented with seronegative neuromyelitis optica after a bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. Our patient had a marked improvement in symptoms after plasmapheresis. Including our patient, there have been at least eight cases of post-transplant autoimmune myelitis presented in the literature, and at least three of these are suspicious for neuromyelitis optica. Several of these patients had poor outcomes with persistent symptoms after the myelitis. Autoimmune processes such as neuromyelitis optica should be carefully considered in patients after transplant as aggressive treatment like early plasmapheresis may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  6. Bone marrow hypoplasia associated with fenbendazole administration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Anthony T; Kerl, Marie E; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Turnquist, Susan E; Cohn, Leah A

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old Doberman pinscher was presented with sudden-onset of fever and malaise. Twelve days prior to presentation, fenbendazole therapy was initiated for a suspected lungworm infection. Results of a complete blood count on presentation showed pancytopenia, while histopathological evaluation of a bone marrow core sample revealed bone marrow hypoplasia of undetermined etiology. Bactericidal antibiotics and fluid therapy, as well as discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, led to a complete resolution of clinical and hematological abnormalities within 15 days. An idiosyncratic reaction to fenbendazole was suspected based on the absence of infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, and toxic etiologies, as well as resolution of clinical signs and pancytopenia upon drug withdrawal.

  7. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  8. Good, Bad, or Ugly: the Biological Roles of Bone Marrow Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshman; Tyagi, Sonia; Myers, Damian; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-04-01

    Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism. Lipotoxicity in the bone is exerted by bone marrow fat through the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFA) (predominantly palmitate). High levels of FFA found in the bone marrow of aged and osteoporotic bone are associated with decreased osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, decreased hematopoiesis, and increased osteoclastogenesis. In addition, FFA such as palmitate and stearate induce apoptosis and dysfunctional autophagy in the osteoblasts, thus affecting their differentiation and function. Regulation of marrow fat could become a therapeutic target for osteoporosis. Inhibition of the synthesis of FFA by marrow fat could facilitate osteoblastogenesis and bone formation while affecting osteoclastogenesis. However, further studies testing this hypothesis are still required.

  9. CD146 expression on primary nonhematopoietic bone marrow stem cells is correlated with in situ localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormin, Ariane; Li, Ou; Brune, Jan Claas

    2011-01-01

    Nonhematopoietic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are of central importance for bone marrow stroma and the hematopoietic environment. However, the exact phenotype and anatomical distribution of specified MSC populations in the marrow are unknown. We characterized the phenotype of prim...

  10. A patient with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, David Kyle; Zadeh, Touran; Nugent, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Familial bone marrow failure has been associated with a variety of chromosomal aberrations. Chromosome 8 abnormalities have been described in association with neoplastic and hematologic disorders; however, to our knowledge, inversion of the long arm of chromosome 8 has not been described in the context of familial bone marrow failure. We describe a 9-year-old female with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8 [inv (8) (q22, q24.3)]. Given the importance of considering the genetic determinants of familial bone marrow failure, the potential role of chromosome 8 abnormalities in the development of marrow failure is discussed.

  11. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.; Wright, R.K.; Cooper, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  12. Evaluation of the utility of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy versus MIBG scintigraphy and cross-sectional imaging for staging patients with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauguet, Jean-Marc; Pace-Emerson, Tamara; Grant, Frederick D; Shusterman, Suzanne; DuBois, Steven G; Frazier, A Lindsay; Voss, Stephan D

    2017-11-01

    Accurate staging of neuroblastoma requires multiple imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy (bone scan) versus metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy (MIBG scan) for accurate staging of neuroblastoma. A medical record search by the identified patients with neuroblastoma from 1993 to 2012 who underwent both MIBG and bone scan for disease staging. Cross-sectional imaging was used to corroborate the scintigraphy results. Clinical records were used to correlate imaging findings with clinical staging and patient management. One hundred thirty-two patients underwent both MIBG and bone scan for diagnosis. All stage 1 (n = 12), 2 (n = 8), and 4S (n = 4) patients had a normal bone scan with no skeletal MIBG uptake. Six of 30 stage 3 patients had false (+) bone scans. In the 78 stage 4 patients, 58/78 (74%) were both skeletal MIBG(+)/bone scan (+). In 56 of the 58 cases, skeletal involvement detected with MIBG was equal to or greater than that detected by bone scan. Only 3/78 had (-) skeletal MIBG uptake and (+) bone scans; all 3 had other sites of metastatic disease. Five of 78 had (+) skeletal MIBG with a (-) bone scan, while 12/78 had no skeletal involvement by either MIBG or bone scan. In no case did a positive bone scan alone determine a stage 4 designation. In the staging of neuroblastoma, 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy does not identify unique sites of disease that affect disease stage or clinical management, and in the majority of cases bone scans can be omitted from the routine neuroblastoma staging algorithm. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Megakaryocytic alterations in thrombocytopenia: A bone marrow aspiration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhury Manas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dysplastic changes are well documented in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, they are also observed in non-MDS hematological conditions. Aims: To evaluate the megakaryocytic alterations in the bone marrow aspirations in cases of non-MDS related thrombocytopenia. Setting and Design: A prospective study of 144 bone marrow aspirates was conducted in the department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. The aspirates were studied to assess the number and morphology of the megakaryocytes in non-MDS related thrombocytopenia and evaluate their significance when compared to changes in MDS. Materials and Methods: The bone marrow aspiration smears were stained with Leishman stain and examined under light microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher′s exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Sensitivity and specificity was calculated for those features which were significant in the relevant hematological disorders. Results: The sensitivity of immature megakaryocytes, dysplastic forms and micromegakaryocytes in cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura was 100%, 89% and 42% respectively. The specificity of emperipolesis was 74%. In cases of infection-associated thrombocytopenia, immature megakaryocytes had a sensitivity of 100% and cytoplasmic vacuolization were 86% specific. The sensitivity of the dysplastic forms in megaloblastic anemia was 75%. However, no platelet budding was observed. The presence of micromegakaryocyte had a specificity of 83% in MDS, and was statistically significant when compared to cases of non-MDS conditions (P< 0.05. Conclusions: Careful understanding of the morphological changes of megakaryocytes in bone marrow aspirates can improve the diagnostic accuracy for a wide range of hematological disorders thereby enabling proper therapeutic interventions.

  14. Effect of salidroside on radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jincan; Chen Xiaoyu; Liu Chengcheng; Zhu Aizhen; Liu Shantao; Liu Gexiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential and underlying molecular mechanism of salidroside in ameliorating radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis and stimulating hematopoiesis. Methods: The female BALB/c mice aged 6-7 weeks were randomly divided into normal control group, radiation group and salidroside group. The radiation group and salidroside group were irradiated with 6.0 Gy of "6"0Co γ-rays. The salidroside group was intraperitoneally injected with 30 mg·kg"-"1·d"-"1 salidroside at 12 h and then every day until 8th d after radiation. The normal control group and radiation group were treated with equal volume of saline as control of salidroside. At 14 d after radiation, the mice weight, peripheral blood count, femur bone marrow histology, and the proportion of adipocyte area were measured, and the expressions of PPAR-γ and FABP4 were detected by q-PCR. Results: After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelet in peripheral blood were reduced obviously, and the percentage of adipocyte area was increased significantly. Compared with mice in the radiation group, salidroside inhibited adipogenesis and reduced the proportion of adipocyte area (t = 13.31, P < 0.05) by reducing the expressions of PPAR-γ and FABP4 (t = 8.64, 13.19, P < 0.05). The number of white blood cells was partly recovered at 7 d after irradiation (t = 5.80, P < 0.05). Both white blood cells and hemoglobinin in peripheral blood of the salidroside group were higher than those in the radiation group at 14 d after irradiation. Conclusions: Salidroside could inhibit radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis and regulate bone marrow microenvironment, thereby promotes hematopoietic recovery in mice after radiation injury. (authors)

  15. The role of conventional bone scintigraphy in evaluation of the patients with back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khancherly, A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of study was evaluation of the results of the bone scan in patients suffering back for more than 2 weeks. In 120 patients with back pain for more than 2 w ks who referred for bone scan significant numbers showed inflammatory disease including spondylitis and/ or saltcellar's in bone scintigraphy. Because of low sensitivity of the other imaging modalities in detection of this inflammatory lesions, the bone scan can be used as primary imaging method in evaluation of the patients with back pain in certain geographic regions in which special pathogens endemic ally exist. This study was performed in Hamedan in which Brucella infection and to lesser extent Tuberculosis are endemic

  16. Evaluation of lumbar vertebral bone marrow changes with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Seven hundred nine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the lumbar spine were reviewed to assess the signal intensity (SI) changes in vertebral bone marrow. Marrow changes were classified into four types according to their SI changes on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) and T2-WI. Type 1 changes (decreased SI on T1-WI and increased SI on T2-WI) were identified in 28 patients (3.9%), type 2 changes (increased SI on T1-WI and isointense or slightly increased SI on T2-WI) in 184 (26%), type 3 changes (decreased SI on both T1-WI and T2-WI) in 71 (10%), and type 4 changes (linearly increased SI on T1-WI in the center of the vertebral body) in 142 (20%). Plain radiographs showed sclerotic changes in patients with type 3. In patients with type 1 or 4 changes, no focal abnormalities were observed. Histological evaluation of type 1 change revealed fibrous tissue including cartilaginous formation. Focal replacement by fatty tissue was observed in type 2 and type 4 changes. Bone sclerosis was observed in type 4 change. Type 1, type 2 and type 3 changes, which occurred commonly in the old and in the lower lumbar level, appear to reflect a spectrum of degenerative changes of the bone marrow including both pathological and physiological ones. (author).

  17. FANCD2 protects against bone marrow injury from ferroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xinxin; Xie, Yangchun; Kang, Rui; Hou, Wen; Sun, Xiaofang; Epperly, Michael W.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Tang, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow injury remains a serious concern in traditional cancer treatment. Ferroptosis is an iron- and oxidative-dependent form of regulated cell death that has become part of an emerging strategy for chemotherapy. However, the key regulator of ferroptosis in bone marrow injury remains unknown. Here, we show that Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (FANCD2), a nuclear protein involved in DNA damage repair, protects against ferroptosis-mediated injury in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The classical ferroptosis inducer erastin remarkably increased the levels of monoubiquitinated FANCD2, which in turn limited DNA damage in BMSCs. FANCD2-deficient BMSCs were more sensitive to erastin-induced ferroptosis (but not autophagy) than FANCD2 wild-type cells. Knockout of FANCD2 increased ferroptosis-associated biochemical events (e.g., ferrous iron accumulation, glutathione depletion, and malondialdehyde production). Mechanically, FANCD2 regulated genes and/or expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism (e.g., FTH1, TF, TFRC, HAMP, HSPB1, SLC40A1, and STEAP3) and lipid peroxidation (e.g., GPX4). Collectively, these findings indicate that FANCD2 plays a novel role in the negative regulation of ferroptosis. FANCD2 could represent an amenable target for the development of novel anticancer therapies aiming to reduce the side effects of ferroptosis inducers.

  18. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  19. Technetium-99m human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in patients with adhesive capsulitis. A correlative study with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senocak, O.; Degirmenci, B.; Ozdogan, O.; Akalin, E.; Arslan, G.; Kaner, B.; Tasci, C.; Peker, O.

    2002-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a disorder that is characterized by shoulder pain and progressive limitation of both active and passive shoulder motion. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of the disease are not well understood, the inflammatory reactions depending on the stage have been demonstrated histologically. The purpose of the study is to investigate the inflammatory changes that can be demonstrated with Tc-99m HIG in AC, and to determine the presence of correlations between scintigraphic findings and the clinical assessment. Twenty-one patients (12 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 50.57±8.49 were included in the study. AC was diagnosed according to recognized criteria. The planar X-ray images of the affected shoulders of all patients were normal. The patients were evaluated with the Constant Scoring System, and the functional and pain assessment parts of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons' Form (ASES). Three phase bone scans and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were performed at least two days apart. Bone scan and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were evaluated visually and HIG uptake was evaluated in comparison with the contralateral normal shoulder. Bone scan demonstrated hypervascularity in 9 of the 21 patients (43%), whereas increased osteoblastic activity was detected in 19 (90%) in the affected shoulder. Tc-99m, HIG uptake was positive in 12 (57%), and negative in 9 (43%) patients. All patients with increased Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder, also had increased osteoblastic activity on Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. A significant correlation was found between HIG uptake and constant, functional and pain scores. The difference between these scores was also statistically significant in patients with HIG positive and negative uptake. This study indicates that there is a good correlation between Tc-99m HIG scan findings and clinical scores. Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder may be related to continuing inflammatory reaction

  20. MR imaging of normal bone marrow; Obraz MR prawidlowego szpiku kostnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W. [Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej IR, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author) 7 refs, 7 figs

  1. Influence of bone marrow on osseointegration in long bones: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Fabrizio; Lang, Niklaus P; Bengazi, Franco; Baffone, Davide; Vila Morales, C Dadonim; Botticelli, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of yellow bone marrow on osseointegration of titanium oral implants using a long bone model. The two tibiae of eight sheep were used as experimental sites. Two osteotomies for implant installation were prepared in each tibia. At the control sites, no further treatments were performed while, at the test sites, bone marrow was removed from the osteotomy site with a curette to an extent that exceeded the implant dimensions. As a result, the apical portion of the implants at the control sites was in contact with bone marrow while, at the test sites, it was in contact with the blood clot. After 2 months, the same procedures were performed in the contralateral side. After another month, the animal was sacrificed. Ground sections were obtained for histological analysis. After 1 month of healing, no differences between test and control sites were found in the apical extension of osseointegration and the percentage of new bone-to-implant contact. However, after 3 months of healing, a higher percentage of new bone-to-implant contact was found at the test compared to the control sites in the marrow compartment. The apical extension of osseointegration, however, was similar to that found at the 1-month healing period both for test and control sites. Osseointegration appeared to be favored by the presence of a blood clot when compared to the presence of yellow fatty bone marrow. Moreover, the contact with cortical bone appeared to be a prerequisite for the osseointegration process in the long bone model. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of lymphomatous infiltration in the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M. O.; Santos, A. O.; Costa, S.C.; Ramos, C.D.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Metze, I.L.; Barbosa, M.N.S.; Souza, C.A.; Camargo, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The scintillographic follow-up of patients with lymphoma is obtained by making whole body research (WBR) with gallium-67. However, the abnormal accumulation of this pharmaceutical in the long bones is not an specific for lymphomatous infiltration and can be representative of hematopoietic expansion of bone marrow, as well. The differential diagnosis can be done using bone scintillography (BS) and bone marrow scintillography (BMS). We present a case where the diagnosis of lymphomatous infiltration indicated by the WBR with gallium-67, was confirmed by the BS and BMS. Male patient, 57 years old, with diagnosis of a high level malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma, was submitted to the WBR with gallium-67 during the chemotherapy. The gallium-67 was high uptaked in the third distal of the right femur and in the proximal of the right tibia. One month after finishing the chemotherapy, a new WBR with gallium-67 shows the persistence of the high uptake in the same areas and the appearance of new ones in the third distal of the left femur. The study was complemented with BS and BMS. The BS revealed high uptake in focal areas, in the same regions where high uptake of gallium-67 has been detected in the study, after chemotherapy. The BMS showed absence of functioning bone marrow in these areas reducing the probability of medullar expansion. The absence of answering to the chemotherapy has been verified, changing the patient behavior and prognostic. The BMS with colloidal Tc-99m sulfur in this patient was useful for the differential diagnosis between medullar expansion and lymphomatous medullar infiltration

  3. Protective effect of a non specific inflammation on bone marrow protein synthesis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Roques, P.; Court, L.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiations exert a decrease in mouse bone marrow total protein synthesis. A non-specific inflammatory process induced with polyacrylamide microbeads stimulates spleen and marrow protein synthesis and protects the medullar protein synthesis in irradiated mice [fr

  4. Bone marrow adsorbed dose of rhenium-186-HEDP and the relationship with decreased platelet counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerk, J.M.H. de; Dieren, E.B. van; Schip, A.D. van het

    1996-01-01

    Rhenium-186(Sn)-1,1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate ( 186 Re-HEDP) has been used for palliation of metastatic bone pain. The purpose of this study was to find a relationship between the bone marrow absorbed dose and the toxicity, expressed as the percentage decrease in the peripheral blood platelet count. The bone marrow absorbed dose was calculated according to the MIRD model using data obtained from ten treatments of patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer; noninvasive and pharmacokinetic method were used. The bone marrow doses were related to toxicity using the pharmacodynamic sigmoid E max model. The mean bone marrow absorbed doses using the noninvasive and pharmacokinetic methods were in a close range to each other (1.07 mGy/MBq and 1.02 mGy/MBq, respectively). There was a good relationship between the toxicity and the bone marrow absorbed dose (r = 0.80). Furthermore, the EDrm 50 (i.e., the bone marrow absorbed dose producing a 50% platelet decrease) to bone marrow for 186 Re-HEDP was on the order of 2 Gy. Although the function of normal bone marrow is affected by metastases in patients with metastatic bone disease, the MIRD model can be used to relate toxicity to the bone marrow absorbed dose after a therapeutic dosage of 186 Re-HEDP. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. The evaluation of the bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    The bone marrow distribution of Ga-67 citrate may be influenced by various elements in serum. In order to make these points clear, 1,955 whole body images were reviewed on the relationship between the accumulation of bone marrow and laboratory examination data of each patients. Increasing accumulation in the bone marrow was determined as positive when the bones of lower extremities were deposited on the images, because these bones was not visualized in normal gallium image. Laboratory data of 20 patients without having bone marrow accumulation was used as control. The positive findings of bone marrow accumulation was observed in 38 patients (2%) including 23 malignancies and 15 benign disease. The malignant tumor infiltration to the bone marrow was demonstrated by bone marrow aspiration biopsy in 2 out of 7 patients with bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67. Seven out of 15 patients with benign disease were collagen disease such as aortitis syndrome or SLE. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in the patients with positive findings in comparison with control. These results suggest that the lower level of serum iron and anemia may cause increasing bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate. (author).

  6. The evaluation of the bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1989-01-01

    The bone marrow distribution of Ga-67 citrate may be influenced by various elements in serum. In order to make these points clear, 1,955 whole body images were reviewed on the relationship between the accumulation of bone marrow and laboratory examination data of each patients. Increasing accumulation in the bone marrow was determined as positive when the bones of lower extremities were deposited on the images, because these bones was not visualized in normal gallium image. Laboratory data of 20 patients without having bone marrow accumulation was used as control. The positive findings of bone marrow accumulation was observed in 38 patients (2%) including 23 malignancies and 15 benign disease. The malignant tumor infiltration to the bone marrow was demonstrated by bone marrow aspiration biopsy in 2 out of 7 patients with bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67. Seven out of 15 patients with benign disease were collagen disease such as aortitis syndrome or SLE. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in the patients with positive findings in comparison with control. These results suggest that the lower level of serum iron and anemia may cause increasing bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate. (author)

  7. Dominance and persistence of donor marrow in long-lived allogeneic radiation chimeras obtained with unmanipulated bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierpaoli, W.; Maestroni, G.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Allogeneic, H-2-incompatible irradiation chimeras (H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b)) constructed with normal, unmanipulated bone marrow and with marrow-derived factors live long and do not manifest a GvH disease. Their response to primary immunization is deficient but their alloreactivity is normal. This chimeric allotolerance cannot be passively transferred from chimeric donors to normal irradiated recipients. Passive transfer of both donor- or recipient-type immuno-competent T-cells into the chimeric mice does not lead to syngeneic reconstitution, rejection of the engrafted marrow or GvH disease, and the mice maintain permanently their chimerism. This new model demonstrates that chimerism is not eradicable in long-lived chimeras reconstituted with unmanipulated bone marrow, and that the bone marrow itself plays a dominant role in maintenance of chimerism. (Auth.)

  8. Age-related distribution of vertebral bone-marrow diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen, E-mail: j.herrmann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Pediatric Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Krstin, Nina, E-mail: ninakrstin@web.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schoennagel, Bjoern P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Sornsakrin, Marjike, E-mail: m.sornsakrin@uke.de [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten, E-mail: t.derlin@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D., E-mail: jd.busch@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay Uwe, E-mail: Kay.Petersen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Psychiatry, University Clinic Tübingen, Calwerstraße 14 Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Graessner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.graessner@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare, Lindenplatz 2, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R., E-mail: c.habermann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine age-related diffusivity changes of the lumbar bone marrow by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained. The study group comprised 88 individuals including 75 healthy volunteers and 13 patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36 years, range 0–84 years). The pediatric cases were recruited from patients. Echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC-values were calculated and measured in the 1st and 2nd vertebral body of the lumbar spine. Correlation between age and ADC-values was analyzed with Spearman's rho test. Results: The ADC values of the vertebral bone marrow of the lumbar spine showed a significant negative correlation with age (rho = −0.398, p = 0.001). The mean ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) in the age groups 0–29 years (mean age 18.0 years, n = 42) and 30–88 years (mean age 51.6 years, n = 46) were 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively (p < 0.001, T-test). No s