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Sample records for bone marrow scintigraphy

  1. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  2. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic scintigraphy of bone and bone marrow in multiple myeloma patients with bone-marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether dynamic registration at bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy produces additional information compared to subsequent static registrations of bone-marrow transplants in multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 8 dynamic bone and 6 dynamic bone-marrow scintigraphies were performed in 10 patients. The dynamic scintigraphies were compared with conventional radiography, MR images, and static scintigraphies of bone and bone marrow. Results: No additional information was revealed by the dynamic registration method; on the contrary, 4 of the 8 known lesions were not discerned at dynamic registration. An incidental observation was that the time-activity curves of both radiopharmaceuticals had a specific pattern. (orig.)

  4. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111InCl3;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111InCl3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111InCl3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  5. A case of primary myelofibrosis showing an interesting image on bone and bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a 73-year-old woman with primary myelofibrosis, bone and bone marrow scintigraphy were performed. Bone scintigram showed the diffusely increased skeletal uptake, especially in peripheral bones, and the relatively diminished renal uptake. On the other hand, bone marrow scintigraphy showed the remarkable peripheral expansion. Thus, to evaluate the pathophysiology and the lesion of bone and bone marrow in primary myelofibrosis, both scintigraphies seem to be useful and essential. (author)

  6. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99mTc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  7. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    111In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  8. Scintigraphy of bone marrow for neoplastic lesions in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 259 patients including 124 females with breast carcinoma using the technique of 99mTc-labelled colloid retention by phagocytizing cells, thus visualizing the reticuloendothelial component of the bone marrow. The objective was to early diagnose hematogenic metastases. In five patients, simultaneous skeleton scintiscanning was not performed. The technique was shown to play a role in early diagnosis of bone metastases and of bone lesions in less usual loci and especially in the differential diagnosis of nonmalignant bone disease, such as arthrosis. Its constraints include an intensive cumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the liver and the splenic reticuloendothelial systems, which precludes the assessment of the bone marrow in the adjacent areas; further a difficult interpretation of the results, high cost and long time of examination. It has no role in patients with disseminated forms of the disease with multiple bone metastases already shown by scintigraphy. Bone marrow scintigraphy alone is not a reliable method for early diagnosis of breast carcinoma (L.O.)

  9. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

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    Otsuka, N.; Morita, R.; Yamamoto, T.; Muranaka, A.; Tomomitsu, T.; Yanagimoto, S.; Sone, T.; Fukunaga, M.

    1985-04-01

    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue.

  10. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue

  11. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that 111In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  12. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesion in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose 99mTc-MDP bone scan showed cold defects, 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy clearly delineated the areas of tumor-cell invasion. In all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but abnormalities were not recognized on bone-marrow scintigram in all of their lesions. In conclusion, the combination technique of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy was a useful method in evaluating bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  13. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in relation to clinical outcome in bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: A total of 70 radiographies and 70 bone scintigraphies were compared in 35 patients. Results: The skull, the extremities, the iliac and public bones were better assessed with radiography. For new vertebral lesions and for lesions in the ribs and sternum, bone scintigraphy proved superior. For the sacrum, the methods were equal. When bone scintigraphy was used as a complement to radiography, 4% more pathological sites were found. No patient had both a normal radiography and a pathological bone scintigraphy, but 5 patients had both a normal bone scintigraphy and a pathological radiography. The results of the radiological examinations did not always correlate with the clinician's grading of the patient's disease. The radiological examinations had no prognostic value for the 7 patients examined on several occasions. Conclusion: The ability of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy to disclose myeloma lesions varies, depending on location and size of the lesions. Radiography should remain the primary examination modality also for bone marrow transplant multiple myeloma patients. Bone scintigraphy can severe as a complement for investigating unexplained pain, e.g. caused by lesions in vertebrae or ribs. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to define the role of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of skeletal metastasis. The bone scan has remained the screening method of choice for many years, because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection and its ability to evaluate the whole skeleton in one setting. Bone-marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies allows high-quality, whole-body visualization of hematopoetically active bone marrow. The importance of imaging the bone marrow is founded in the fact that, in general, bone-marrow invasion precedes skeletal involvement in the development of skeletal metastasis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are compared, and the possible indications for using bone-marrow scintigraphy complementary to or instead of the bone scan are discussed. (orig.)

  15. The clinical experience of radiocolloid bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the bone marrow (BM) scintigraphy in 129 patients with various malignant neoplasms and 10 practically healthy persons are discussed. Domestic preparations Technefit and Koren labelled with 99mTc and injected intravenously were used as radiopharmaceuticals. Apex-SP6 gamma camers (Eliscint company, Israel) was applied. The possibility of obtaining BM qualitative pattern permitting to perform the efficient diagnosis o BM metastases in oncological patients is shown. Dependence between the expansion of colloid radiopharmaceuticals concentration area (hemopoiesis peripheric expansion rate) and the BM metastases availability was not confirmed

  16. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [99mTc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.)

  17. Bone marrow scintigraphy and MR tomography in malignant lymphoma: Comparison with results of histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and seven patients with malignant Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were examined by bone marrow scintigraphy, MRI of bone marrow and bone marrow biopsy to detect bone marrow infiltration. The findings of bone marrow imaging and biopsy were classified as normal (grade 0), suggesting reactive changes of bone marrow (grade 1) or suspicious for infiltration (grade 2). About half of all results of biopsy and imaging methods agreed completely. There was a difference of two steps in the classification in only 2 cases (MRI) and 5 cases (scintigraphy). In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia false negative findings by both bone marrow imaging techniques were frequent. Although a positive biopsy result must be accepted as proof of bone marrow infiltration, our results indicate that a negative biopsy does not exclude tumor involvement. In all 4 patients with infiltration suspected on MRI or scintigraphy results but with normal findings or reactive changes in the first blind biopsy, blind rebiopsy or guided rebiopsy confirmed the results of the imaging methods. In both patients evaluated at autopsy the preceding MRI and scintigraphy results were confirmed completely, although in both of these patients antemortem biopsy had indicated different findings. Based upon these observations, bone marrow scintigraphy and MRI should be routinely included in the staging of malignant lymphoma as an adjunct to blind bone marrow biopsy in the complete evaluation of bone marrow status. (orig./MG)

  18. Comparison of diagnostic significance of scintigraphy of bone marrow and bones in Hodgkin's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic value of the bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS) and osteoscintigraphy (OSG) is studied and their potentialities as compared to common diagnostic methods-trepanobiopsy, magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT) of bone marrow are analysed. Data on 155 patients examined are presented. BMS was made using the emission computer Apex-SP6 (Elscint) tomograph using domestic colloid Koren radiopharmaceutical labelled with 99mTc. It is shown that sensitivity, specificity and total accuracy of BMS in patients with Hodgkin's disease are 91.4%, 94.8% and 92.9% correspondingly. Potentialities of BMS are comparable with MRT, while sensitivity and total accuracy are considerably higher then those of trepanobiopsy method

  19. Bone marrow scintigraphy and computed tomography in myloproliferative disease

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    Goldsmith, S.J.; Gilbert, H.S.; Hermann, G.

    1985-05-01

    Peripheral bone marrow (BM) expansion in myeloproliferative disease (MPD) is demonstrated by scintigraphy (scint) with Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (TSC) or Indium III chloride (In). Computed tomography (CT) of the normal adult medullary cavity yields negative attenuation coefficients (AC) which become positive when BM fat is replaced. BM scint and CT of the medullary cavity are obtained in 23 studies in 21 pts: 6 polycythemia vera (PCV), 6 post PCV myeloid metaplasis (MyM), 4 agnogenic MyM, 3 myelodysplasia with refractory anemia, 1 acute myelocytic leukemia and 1 chronic myelocytic with acute leukemic transformation. AC were measured for BM cavity of lower extremities at each third of the femur and tibia. Values ranged from -89 to +289 Hounsfield units. The results are presented in this paper. There was agreement between SCINT and CT in 83% pts and segments. 80% of MB segments with + AC had scint identified BM. BM biopsy of the iliac crest demonstrated fibrosis or blast proliferation in pts with +AC rather than hypercellularity or osteosclerosis. The highest AC values (>200) were seen in pts with blast proliferation and fibrosis. Decreased BM scint visualization and +CT AC correlated with BM fibrosis and may reflect replacement of BM elements or decreased RES function. BM scint and CT are useful to monitor MPD and select BM sites for biopsy.

  20. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

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    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of {sup 69}Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  1. Colloid scintigraphy showing red bone marrow extension in patients with prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 25 of 30 patients with bone metastases from prostatic carcinoma, red bone marrow extension was observed by scintigraphy of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). The degree of bone marrow extension in the lower extremities increased with increasing number of bone metastases. In 8 patients, 15 peripheral metastases were detected, all located in areas with extended red bone marrow. The distal level of bone marrow extension coincided with that of the most distal metastases. This is of importance for the detection of peripheral metastases at risk for fracture. Bone marrow extension was also seen in 5 of 8 patients with prostatic carcinoma without bone metastases and was interpreted as a paramalignant activation of RES. (orig.)

  2. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.)

  3. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

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    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  4. Studies on 99Tcm-sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the imaging features and changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) as well as its clinical significance. Methods: Bone marrow scintigraphy using 99Tcm-sulfur colloid 370-550 MBq was performed on 85 MPD patients, including 40 cases of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), 15 of polycythemia vera (PV), 5 of essential thrombocythaemia (ET), 30 of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Also, 40 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were observed in this study. Results: Abnormal bone marrow imaging was found in 88.2% of the 85 patients. The suppression rate of central bone marrow (CBM) and expansion rate of peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in these MPD patients were 61.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The imaging patterns was classified into three types according to the distribution and activity of bone marrow. 1) reduced imaging (31.8%); 2) increased and expanded imaging (27.1%); 3) depressed and expanded imaging (29.4%). Splenomegaly with minimal residual marrow activity was typical for late stages of MPD. Expansion of PBM was the further feature, but of no major importance for improving hematopoiesis of MPD, and it tended to retract during clinical recovery in chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). With expanding PBM, unmatched peripheral blood decreasing was found in MDS. The expansion pattern of PBM in different MPD was of relatively definite features. Conclusions: The imaging pattern of bone marrow was correlated with blood work-up data and clinical course or stages of MPD. Bone marrow scintigraphy may be proven useful in differential diagnosis and evaluation of clinical staging and prognosis of MPD

  5. Preliminary study on the basic pattern of bone marrow scintigraphy in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    98 cases of acute leukemia had been studied with technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy. The basic pattern was: (1) The generalized depression of central bone marrow (CBM) is most striking and its extent and degree of the depression is closely related with clinical staging of the disease. It was also found that the activity of CBM gradually increased with prolongation of complete remission course. (2) 72.4% cases showed variable degrees of peripheral bone marrow cavity expansion. Most of the peripheral expansion foci are localized in epiphyses of the knee joint, or further extended to cavity of long bone in extremities. In conclusion, bone marrow imaging is helpful to: (1) the diagnosis and evaluation of the distribution of hemapoietic activity in acate leukemia; (2) evaluation of the effect of chemotherapy and judgement of the prognosis; (3) the activity of CBM can probably be also used as an index to judge the clinical situation of the patient

  6. Biologic evaluation of radiocolloids for bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of a primate animal model for studying the in vivo distribution of various colloids was established. Computerized images from two adult baboons injected with technetium-99m labeled sulfur colloid, stannous phytate and microaggregated albumin were analyzed to give the relative uptake of radioactivity in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. These values were in good agreement with those previously established in several animal species and in man. Antimony sulfide colloid and minimicroaggregated albumin, each having a significantly smaller particle size than Tc-99m sulfur colloid were evaluated. Compared with sulfur colloid the minimicroaggregated albumin showed three times the bone marrow uptake (15 to 20%) whereas microaggregated albumin and antimony sulfide gave somewhat lower values (8 to 12%). The stannous phytate showed no improvement over Tc-99m sulfur colloid

  7. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy in a patient with sickle cell-thalassemia and recurrent pain attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of an eight years old African boy who suffers from sickle cell-thalassemia is presented. In the course of the disease frequent pain attacks occurred within the abdomen and extremities, recently also within the trunk. Local pain, at some occasions in combination with local swelling and always positive laboratory parameters for inflammation, hindered a solely clinical differentiation between bone infarcts and osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy, eventually in combination with bone marrow scintigraphy, can assist the clinician in the differentiation of aseptic bone infarcts versus secondary osteomyelitis. Based on the presented case scintigraphic results for bone infarcts, osteomyelitis and special scintigraphic pattern seen in sickle cell disease are presented. Furthermore, problems regarding the interpretation of the scintigraphies in relation to the delayed time after the beginning of pain attacks are discussed. (author)

  8. Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111Indium chloride in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111Indium chloride (111In-chloride) was performed in 18 patients with aplastic anemia. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after an intravenous injection of 111In-chloride 3 mCi. The distribution patterns on scintigram were classified into 5 types: Type I (4 cases) showed no accumulation, Type II (6 cases) showed low accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Type III (7 cases) showed island-like distribution in bone marrow sites. Type IV, although no case was included in the 18 patients, shows uneven distribution between pelvis and sternum or vertebrae. Type V (one case) showed almost normal accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Bone marrow uptake of 111In-chloride correlated well with the cellularity of bone marrow. There was a tendency for the cases of markedly increased saturated iron-binding capacity to show increased renal activity. In type III, both the percentage of cases who had been treated and the count of reticulocytes were higher than those in the other types, which suggested that island-like distribution on scintigram showed the regeneration responded to the therapy, and related to the erythropoietic function. (author)

  9. Study of 201Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on 201Tl scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K)

  10. Studies on the clinical usefulness of the 111indium chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    111Indium chloride (111In-Cl3) appears to be a radionuclide appropriate for a bone marrow scanning because of its physical and chemical characteristics; it is, like iron, bound to and transported by transferrin and it has a photopeak suitable for scintigraphy. This study was undertaken to assess the bone marrow function by 111In-Cl3 bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with asplastic anemia. Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 21 patients with aplastic anemia with varying degrees of severity including 15 who had no previous treatments. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after intravenous injection of 111 MBq(3 mCi) of 111In-Cl3. All of them showed various degrees of reduction in uptake of 111In-Cl3 by the marrow. The abnormal scan grade was classified into 3 types: Type I, non-accumulation (5); Type II, low-accumulation (15); Type III, uneven accumulation (1). In type III, degree of radioisotope accumulation between the sternum and the ilium was different, and this difference correlated with that of bone marrow cellularity. In 2 patients of type II, hematological improvement occurred after treatment, which was also accompanied by simultaneous increase of 111In-Cl3 uptake by the marrow. These findings suggested that the degree of radioisotope accumulation in the marrow reflects that of bone marrow cellularity. Type I patients were clinically severe and poor in prognosis as compared to type II and type III patients; four out of 5 died within 2 months. Bone marrow transplantation may be the treatment of choice in type I patients when feasible. (author)

  11. Bone marrow imaging with MR and indium-111-chloride scintigraphy in patients with myelodysplasia and aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports twenty-one patients with myelodysplasia and aplastic anemia studied with MR and bone marrow radionuclide imaging to determine the roles of these imaging modalities, with seven normal patients serving as controls. All patients underwent In-111 chloride bone marrow scintigraphy prior to MR imaging. MR studies of the lumbar spine were acquired at 0.6 T with a T1-weighted (500/24 [repetition time (TR) msec/echo time (TE) msec]) spin-echo technique and an inversion-recovery technique (200/26/148 [TR msec/TE msec/inversion time msec])

  12. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-rhenium-colloid and 111In-indiumcitrate in the bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111In-Indium-citrate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid was compared with each other in 6 male and 3 female patients. Our results in all patients were in favour of 111In-citrate which caused a better delineation of morphological details than sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid did. In the first days after intravenous administration of 111In-citrate, radioindium accumulated markedly in the pudendal region, this finding being more distinct in male patients than in female ones. On account of these results a considerable radiation dose has to be assumed in bone marrow scintigraphy using 111In-citrate as long as the absorbed dose from 111In has not been estimated under consideration of the radioindium accumulation in the pudendal region. 111In-citrate should be applied in bone marrow scanning only exceptionally and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid be preferred in the routine diagnostics of bone marrow. (orig.)

  13. Detection of bone marrow and extramedullary involvement in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by whole-body MRI: comparison with bone and {sup 67}Ga scintigraphies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka-Mikami, Masami; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Yoshida, Koji; Tamada, Tsutomu; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Fukunaga, Masao [Department of Radiology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, 701-0192, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Sugihara, Takashi; Suetsugu, Yoshimasa; Mikami, Makoto [Department of Hematology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, 701-0192, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) for the detection of bone marrow and extramedullary involvement in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. WB-MRI, which was performed on 34 patients, consisted of the recording of T1-weighted spin-echo images and a fast STIR sequence covering the entire skeleton. The WB-MRI findings for bone marrow and extramedullary involvement were compared with those from {sup 67}Ga and bone scintigraphies and bone marrow biopsy results. Two MRI specialists reviewed the WB-MRI results and two expert radiologists in the field of nuclear medicine reviewed the bone and {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy findings. Bone marrow and extramedullary involvement of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were confirmed by follow-up radiographs and CT and/or a histological biopsy. The detection rate of WB-MRI was high. More bone marrow involvement was detected by biopsy, and more lesions were detected by scintigraphies. In total, 89 lesions were detected by WB-MRI, whereas 15 were found by biopsy, 5 by {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy, and 14 by bone scintigraphy. WB-MRI could also detect more extramedullary lesions than {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy; i.e., 72 lesions were detected by WB-MRI, whereas 54 were discovered by {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy. WB-MRI is useful for evaluating the involvement of bone marrow and extramedullary lesions throughout the skeleton in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  14. Significance of bone-marrow scintigraphy in aplastic anemia: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tc-99m colloid and In-111 transferrin were used in a semiquantitative scintigraphic study of bone-marrow activity in 76 patients with aplastic anemia, the majority of which were severe cases. The results are compared with other known prognostic parameters and with a predictive index formulated from a prior multiparametric analysis performed in 352 cases. In 47 cases parallel abnormality of Tc and In uptakes was noted and was well correlated with other prognostic factors. Indium uptake is apparently a good indicator of the severity of aplasia; extension of active erythroid tissue, demonstrated with this method, is correlated with prognosis. In nine cases, excessive in uptake is explained by dyserythropoiesis associated with granulo- and thrombocytopenia (Fanconi's anemia in most cases). In 20 of our patients, TcSC uptake was excessive compared with that of In and with other prognostic factors. Statistically, this phenomenon carries an unfavorable prognosis but its physiological meaning remains to be defined

  15. Study on thd relationship between serum fibrosis markers levels, bone marrow scintigraphy patterns and clinical staging in patients with chronic ldiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of serum fibrosis markers levels and the pattern of bone marrow scintigraphy and their relationship with clinical stages in patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF). Methods: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) (with ELISA), serum typeIII procollagen (PCIII), type IV collagen (C-IV), and laminin (LN) (with RIA) were detected in 46 with patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis and 34 controls. Bone marrow scintigraphy 99m Tc-sulfur colloid was performed in the 46 CIMF patients. Results: Five fibrosis markers in patients with CIMF were significantly higher than those in controls. There were significantly differences among the levels in different stages, especially with sclerotic stage in CIMF patients. The imaging patterns were classified into three types according to the radio-distribution and activity of bone marrow: 13 cases of increased imaging in 14 patients of cellular stage, 17 cases with creased expansion imaging in 19 patients of collagen fiber stage and 13 cases (100%) with totally depressed imaging in patients of sclerotic stage. Conclusion: As the disease progressed, the serum fibrosis markers levels gradually incroased and the scintigraphy patterns corresponded well to the clinical staging. (authors)

  16. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  17. Postoperative bone marrow alterations: Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis with In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy was used after injection of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and indium-111-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) to assess for the presence of osteomyelitis in 97 patients who had undergone prior surgical procedures. Thirty-four patients with abnormal In-111-labeled WBC patterns underwent restudy with Tc-99m albumin colloid (AC). Scintigraphic findings were considered positive for osteomyelitis whenever localization of In-111-labeled WBCs exceeded Tc-99m AC activity in extent or focal intensity (discordant pattern). Ten of 12 patients with culture-proved osteomyelitis had discordant patterns; two had false-negative (concordant) patterns. The cases of 20 of 22 patients without infection who were considered to have osteomyelitis on the basis of patterns of In-111-labeled WBCs and Tc-99m MDP were reclassified correctly on the basis of concordant patterns of In-111-labeled WBCs and Tc-99m AC. Radiocolloid images improved the overall scintigraphic specificity for osteomyelitis from 59% without bone marrow imaging to 92%; sensitivity decreased from 94% to 88%

  18. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  19. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  20. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  1. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.)

  2. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  3. The Clinical usefulness of 99mTc HMPAO Leukocyte/99mTc phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/99mTc sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of 99mTc phytate, a substitute for 99mTc sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72±6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both 99mTc phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined 99mTc HMPAO LS/99mTc phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined 99mTc HMPAO LS/99mTc phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/99msulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections

  4. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  5. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  6. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  7. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  8. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  9. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  10. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  11. Unusual bone scintigraphy in chronic myelogenous leukemia - report of a case showing extensive uptake defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate uptake defect was observed on bone scintigraphy in a 35-year-old male with chronic myelogenous leukemia. This type of bone scintigraphy pattern is quite unusual in leukemic patients and we speculate that acute disturbance of blood supply to the bone marrow was probably the cause. (orig.)

  12. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  13. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing

  14. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections.

  15. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.)

  16. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  17. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  18. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  19. Characteristic focal hot spots of bone marrow scintigraphic finding in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc sulfur colloid has been performed in 168 patients with Aplastic anemia(AA) and 100 patients with others hematological disorders. Bone marrow imaging is a useful method to demonstrate the existence of active hematopoietic foci in living body. The features and clinical significance of these focal hot spots have been discussed. The bone marrow scintigraphy is proved to be helpful in diagnosis, therapy and assessing prognosis of A.A

  20. Evaluation of renal uptake on 111InCl3 bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High renal uptake on bone marrow scan with indium-111 chloride is often shown in patients with bone marrow abnormality. We evaluated the renal uptake on bone marrow scan in 27 cases of aplastic anemia, 20 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 10 cases of other diseases. The high renal uptake was observed in patients not only with aplastic anemia but also with MDS. The renal uptake correlated with blood transfusion units, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), blood pool imaging and bone marrow uptake. The renal uptake correlated with UIBC better than with the blood transfusion units. Following mechanism of the renal uptake is proposed that frequent blood transfusion makes low UIBC, and the low UIBC causes the failure to chelate indium with transferrin. The fast blood clearance of un-chelated indium via kidneys is followed. Hypoplastic bone marrow may also play an important role for the high renal uptake because all patients with the high renal uptake could not be explained by above mentioned mechanism. Caution should be paid to the scans with the high renal uptake because both aplastic anemia and MDS patients show the high renal uptake. (author)

  1. Marrow uptake index (MUI): A quantitative scintigraphic study of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplastic anaemia affects the entire bone marrow. This prospective study was undertaken to develop and standardise a new nuclear medicine technique called 'dynamic bone marrow imaging'. Eleven patients and ten controls were studied. Serial images of the pelvis were obtained in frame mode following intravenous injection of 185-370 mBq of 99mTc S. Colloid, and an index, called the bone marrow uptake index was calculated by taking into consideration the time activity curve obtained over the iliac crest. This was followed by static imaging of the entire bone marrow in all cases. It was possible to obtain excellent information regarding topographic distribution of bone marrow as well as detect early changes in bone marrow function following treatment. An attempt was also made to correlate bone marrow cellularity as obtained by bone marrow biopsy with results of dynamic bone marrow scintigraphy. On the basis of the encouraging results obtained in the present study, the authors feel that dynamic bone marrow imaging is an excellent technique for the objective evaluation of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  2. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.)

  3. Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

  4. Bone marrow changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma 79 MRI bone marrow examinations and 48 bone marrow scintigraphies were recorded before or following radioiodine therapy, to study the extent of bone marrow expansion. The results of both methods were the same. In 34/79 investigations normal findings were seen, in 18 the bone marrow expanded to the middle third and in 26 to the distal third of the femur. One patient showed bone marrow expansion to the tibia. These results were compared with the following data: Histology of tumor, TNM-staging, time passed since thyroidectomy, accumulated doses of radioiodine therapy, results of 131I scintigraphy, hematological changes, thyroglobulin level, age and sex. No significant correlations were found between these and the bone marrow imaging results. Bone marrow changes in patients before radioiodine therapy were similar to those in patients treated with up to 48 GBq 131I. Blind biopsy of the posterior iliac crest in five patients showed slightly pathological reactive changes. In only 2/17 follow-up studies an increase of bone marrow expansion was seen. In 8 patients localized findings indicating malignant infiltration were observed. In 4/8 patients metastases of thyroid carcinoma were known or confirmed by pathological radioiodine uptake and in 2/8 metastatic involvement was assumed because of an increased thyroglobulin level. (orig.)

  5. The Clinical usefulness of {sup 99mT}c HMPAO Leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99mT}c phytate, a substitute for {sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72{+-}6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both {sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/{sup 99ms}ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections.

  6. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  7. Bone scintigraphy in traumas and stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy is an easy and cheap diagnostic method for examination of stress injuries of lower extremities. A more specific diagnosis often has to be supplemented by MR scanning or X-radiography. (EG)

  8. Neonatal osteomyelitis examined by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three infants less than six weeks of age and suspected of having osteomyelitis were examined by bone scintigraphy. Each of the 25 sites of proved osteomyelitis in 15 individuals demonstrated abnormal radionuclide localization. Ten additional scintigraphically positive but radiographically normal sites were detected. Optimal quality scintigrams of the growth plate complex and osteomyelitis in neonates appeared similar to those in older children. All neonates suspected of having osteomyelitis should be studied with bone scintigraphy following initial radiographs

  9. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references

  10. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  11. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Sinem; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Baskın, Aylin; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy) on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy because of Leech therapy’s dilatory effects on superficial veins. Leech therapy may lead to an increase in perfusion and hyperemia in blood pool phase of bone scintigraphy, which may cause confusion in differential diagnosis. To our best knowledge this report is the first case that shows the scintigraphic findigs after Leech therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653932

  12. Bone lesions in early syphilis detected by bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, K.; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Lindewald, H; Sørensen, P S; Weismann, K

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of early syphilis with multiple bone lesions which all resolved after treatment with penicillin. We discuss why bone lesions may be more prevalent than generally believed and why 99m-Tc-MDP-bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiography in detecting syphilitic periostitis.

  13. Value of bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Chikashi; Nakata, Hajime; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi; Yokomizo, Yu (University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-10-01

    We performed bone scintigraphy on 16 cases of psoriasis to evaluate its possible value in this disease and obtained the following results: 1) Bone scintigraph was abnormal in 15 of 16 cases and the frequent association of arthritis in psoriasis was confirmed. 2) Abnormal uptake on bone scintigraph was noted in various joints including peripheral joints of extremities, sternoclavicular joint, shoulder and rib. Abnormality of sacroiliac joint or ankle was less frequent than previously reported. 3) Findings of bone scintigraph were not necessarily related with clinical symptoms or laboratory data. Abnormal uptake was also noted in many joints whose X-ray examinations were negative. Bone scintigraphy thus seems to be useful in early detection of arthritis and to become an initial therapeutic indicator of arthritis in psoriasis.

  14. Value of bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed bone scintigraphy on 16 cases of psoriasis to evaluate its possible value in this disease and obtained the following results: 1) Bone scintigraph was abnormal in 15 of 16 cases and the frequent association of arthritis in psoriasis was confirmed. 2) Abnormal uptake on bone scintigraph was noted in various joints including peripheral joints of extremities, sternoclavicular joint, shoulder and rib. Abnormality of sacroiliac joint or ankle was less frequent than previously reported. 3) Findings of bone scintigraph were not necessarily related with clinical symptoms or laboratory data. Abnormal uptake was also noted in many joints whose X-ray examinations were negative. Bone scintigraphy thus seems to be useful in early detection of arthritis and to become an initial therapeutic indicator of arthritis in psoriasis. (author)

  15. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  16. Combined scintigraphic identification of acute bone marrow infarction in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies acute bone marrow infarction in symptomatic patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy presenting with a clinical picture in which infarction and osteomyelitis were indistinguishable. The authors evaluated 25 patients, 14 females and 11 males, with a combination of Tc-99 sulfur colloid bone marrow and tc-99m MDP scintigraphy performed consecutively within a 24-h period, for a total of 36 combined studies. Sixty-seven sites of bone marrow infarction corresponding to sites of clinical symptoms were revealed by combined scintigraphy

  17. Diffusely discordant In-111 WBC/Tc-99m SC bone marrow uptake: A possible chemotherapeutic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achong, D.M.; Oates, E. [New England Medical Center and Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In-111 WBC scintigraphy in a women with relapsed acute lymphoid leukemia demonstrated normal uptake of white blood cells by the liver and spleen, but virtually absent bone marrow activity. Tc-99m Sc imaging confirmed normal marrow function and distribution. A bone marrow biopsy revealed mildly hypocellular, regenerating marrow without leukemic infiltration. The effects of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy on marrow reticuloendothelial function may have been responsible for this discordant uptake. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Cartilage Calcification Mimics Polychondritis in Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 58 year-old male patient with sternal pain was referred to our Nuclear Medicine Clinic for bone scintigraphy for 2.5 months. Markedly increased activity accumulation in the first bilateral sternocostal junction and increased activity accumulations in 3rd, 4th, 5th sternocostal junctions and lateral portion of inferior part of corpus sterni were seen in late static images without increased perfusion and hyperemia. Soft tissue density and lytic lesions were seen bilaterally in bilateral first costa, sternocostal joints and in right side of xiphoid in his 3D computed tomography (CT. Sternocostal lesions that were seen in bone scintigraphy and CT, was reported as normal in biopsy.

  19. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  20. Bone Marrow Transplants: "Another Possibility at Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants “Another Possibility at Life” Past Issues / Summer ... year, and, for 16,000 of them, a bone marrow transplant is the best treatment option, notes Susan ...

  1. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports show patient survival and transplant data of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in the transplant ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific ...

  2. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.)

  3. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinem Özyurt; Gökhan Koca; Koray Demirel

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy) on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in d...

  4. Bone scintigraphy in fluoride treated osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed on 23 white females with post-menopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures. These patients were then entered into a randomized, double-blind clinical trial or sodium fluoride therapy (NaF=14, placebo=9) which included repeat bone scintigraphy every six months. Scintigraphic images were acquired for 500K counts per image over the total body with computer acquisition over the posterior thoracic and lumbar spine. Images were obtained on a wide field-of-view gamma camera two hours after injecting 15 mCi of Tc-99m MDP. Data analysis showed a significant reduction in the activity ratio of abnormal vertebral body to normal vertebral body in those patients treated with sodium fluoride (paired t-test p=0.0095). No significant change was observed in the control group of (p=0.142). These results suggest that sodium fluoride therapy promotes more rapid healing of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. They also demonstrate the utility of serial quantitative bone scintigraphy in assessing osteoporotic patients with vertebral compression fractures

  5. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc labelled sodium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy to the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy, by its ease of application and the use of short-lived isotopes, has revolutionised the conditions of bone metastase diagnosis. Scintigraphy possesses two advantages, the possibility it offers of exploring the whole skeleton at once and its extreme simplicity. This technique should therefore find its place at the very beginning of the bone examination, an attitude which also has dosimetric repercussions: a 'whole skeleton' examination delivers 170 mrad to the marrow, whereas spinal and pelvic X-rays deliver 325 mrad. Unfortunately the sup(99m)Tc-labelled sodium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy is not specific to any given lesion. Diagnosis can only be improved by the appearance of tracers taken up specifically on the neoplasic tissue, as is already the case of 131I for thyroid cancer metastases. Labelled bleomycine and 67Ga have so far given disappointing results

  6. Studies on bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy was superior over roentgenography for detection of abnormal bone findings in chronic dialysis patients. According to the type of scintigraphic findings, an increase in the hot area in the cranium or the mandibule seemed to express fibrous osteitis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Multiple coin-shaped hot areas in ribs were thought to indicate advanced osteomalacia or osteomalacia in patients with aluminum poisoning. The 4 hr-B/St ratio of the cranium was thought to serve as a quantitative indicator of the status of fibrous osteitis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism to show the progress and therapeutic course of the disease. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The person performing the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy will know your medical history, but might ask additional questions, such as what medicines you're taking or whether you have any allergies. Be sure to ... on the aspiration and biopsy site about 30 minutes before the procedure. You ...

  8. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-03-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67.

  9. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  10. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. PMID:25911618

  11. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  12. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  13. Osteogenetic activity in composite grafts of demineralized compact bone and marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a composite graft of autologous marrow and demineralized autologous compact bone on the healing of a surgically created bone defect were observed in adult rabbits. A segment of the radius was bilaterally resected, demineralized, and replaced. On one side the bone graft was supplemented with autologous marrow. The new bone formation was measured 14 and 28 days after operation by roentgenography, including planimetry with scintigraphy and autoradiography using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled MDP. The composite graft, i.e., demineralized compact bone and marrow, had a significantly higher (p less than 0.01) bone formation rate 14 days after operation compared with the graft with demineralized compact bone in the opposite radius. At 28 days, however, there were no differences between the sides. Viable autologous marrow cells and demineralized autologous compact bone graft accelerate the rate of osteogenesis, but only at the beginning of the healing process

  14. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  15. Bone marrow reconversion – imaging of physiological changes in bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconversion of bone marrow is a reverse process of natural replacement of red marrow by yellow marrow. The occurrence of reconversion can be misleading and challenging in interpretation of musculoskeletal system imaging. Changes of signal intensity in bone marrow are frequently observed in radiological routine and its diversity can cause a suspicion of pathologic findings. Therefore, the knowledge about distribution of red and yellow bone marrow depending on age, concomitant diseases and presentation of the patient are essential for MR image interpretation

  16. MR appearances of bone marrow in children following bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases are presented of children who demonstrated complete absence of bone marrow signal on MR imaging of the spine following bone marrow transplantation. The possible causes for these appearances are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Preservation of Bone Marrow for Clinical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the results of many years' research into the problems of obtaining and preserving bone marrow in the quantities required for clinical use. Particular attention is paid to the preservation and long-term storage of bone marrow at ultra- low temperatures (-196°C), its separation from the protective medium and methods of determining whether the biological functions of thawed bone marrow have been impaired. (author)

  18. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis.

  19. Development of combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites for advanced cancers. The skeletal-related events caused by bone metastases could have a significant influence on patient's clinical outcome and quality of life. Currently, bone scintigraphy is the first choice for detecting bone metastases. Although the sensitivity is high, the specificity of bone scintigraphy is still very low. It has been reported that by combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers, the specificity can be significantly increased. Meantime, the sensitivity and accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone metastases can be improved. We reviewed the literatures in the recent years to evaluate the potential value of combination with bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnoses of bone metastases. (authors)

  20. Bone scintigraphy during therapy with cytostatically acting drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case reports show up, that bone scintigraphy during therapy of metastasing cancer of mamma or prostata with cytostatically acting drugs may reveal 'pseudonormal' results. False negative diagnosis can be excluded only by carefully regarding drug history. Gamma-camera with wholebody scan device for scintigraphy in two projections simplifies safe evaluation significantly. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  3. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  4. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, H G; Jame, J M; Chang, A Y; Li, W Y; Law, C K; Chen, K Y; Lin, C Z

    1991-02-01

    Five of 23 patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were diagnosed to have bone marrow metastasis. They all had advanced local-regional disease, and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy after the initial diagnosis. Bone marrow metastasis developed 4-24 months later. The clinical features were anemia (5 of 5), leukopenia (3 of 5), thrombocytopenia (4 of 5), sepsis (3 of 5), tenderness of the sternum (3 of 5), and fever (4 of 5). Patients frequently had elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and IgG and IgA antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen when bone marrow involvement was diagnosed. However, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were not specific. It is important that three patients had normal bone scans. All five patients had a rapid downhill course; four patients died within 23 days, and the fifth 3 months after the diagnosis of bone marrow metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow was a common metastatic site in NPC patients. Bone marrow metastasis adversely affected patients' survival and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We suggested that bone marrow biopsy should be considered as a routine staging procedure in NPC patients and indicated especially when patients presented with abnormal blood counts, sepsis, bone pain, or tenderness of the sternum. It may be positive in the face of a normal bone scan. PMID:1987743

  5. Legal issues in bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses some of the more common legal issues involved in bone marrow transplantation. These include malpractice claims, testing prospective donors for AIDS, sale of bone marrow, informed consent for both donor and recipient, and questions that arise when the donor is a child.

  6. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  7. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W;

    2013-01-01

    at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally...

  8. Periostitis in secondary syphilis: a place for bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Veerapen, K; Bruckner, F E; Halsey, J P; Davidson, F; Saeed, A

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of secondary syphilis are reported with periostitis as the main presenting feature. Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy was found to be superior to radiography in both defining the extent of involvement and in picking up early lesions.

  9. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  10. MR imaging of bone marrow disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author performed MR imaging in 89 patients with bone marrow disorders (29 with aplastic anemia, 20 with leukemia, 9 with postirradiation changes, 8 with hemosiderosis, 6 with primary bone tumors and metastases, and 17 with bone marrow disorders of other etiologies). They selected the thoracic and lumbar vertebral marrow as a target and used both T1-weighted spin-echo images and calculated T1 images. T1 was prolonged in bone marrow hyperplasia but shortened in hypoplasia. Bone marrow T1 values proved to depend on the number of fat cells (pathologic correlation). In aplastic anemia scattered islands of low signal intensity were seen within a background of high signal intensity in some typical cases. MR imaging patterns were used for staging aplastic anemia. T1 was prolonged in leukemia cells

  11. Study on peripheral expansion of bone marrow in hematologic patients and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is found previously that the changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy resulting from hematologic disorders were various. This study focused on discussing the imaging features and regularity of expanded peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in some blood diseases as well as their clinical usefulness. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc-sulfur colloid 370∼550 MBq was performed in 130 cases with different types of blood diseases (iron-deficiency anemia 17 cases, chronic hemolytic 13 cases, aplastic 41 cases; leukemia 37 cases, marrow dyshyperplasia syndrome 22 cases) and various stages of the disease (19 cases). The aspiration in PBM comparing with central bone marrow (CBM) was made in 12 aplastic anemia and 10 leukemia patients. The expansion rate of PBM was 58.5% and the various blood diseases had different expansion regions. Repeated imaging showed that the expanded PBM tended to retract during clinical recovery. Aspiration from the expanding PBM defined more active hematopoiesis and higher count of leukemia blast cells than that from iliac crest. The results indicated the presence of 'focal residual leukemia' (FRL) in PBM of complete remission leukemia patient. The result of this study suggested that the expansion patterns of PBM in various hematologic disorders have definite features, which are helpful for the differential diagnosis, valuable for evaluation of the reserved capability of active marrow and prognosis of the patients according to the further analysis of the PBM state. The bone marrow imaging is also an indispensable technique for finding FRL

  12. Bone scintigraphy in non-neoplastic diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of 99mTc labeled polyphosphates bone scintigraphy has become a widely accepted method for the evaluation of non-neoplastic bone diseases in children. High quality images require the child's immobilisation and a correct positioning as well as an optimized technical equipment. Two or three phase scintigraphy is the routinely procedure but additional techniques like pinhole images or SPECT can be very helpful for special indications and localizations. Due to the age and sex dependent differences of bone metabolism in the developing skeleton the interpretation of the bone scan in children is more difficult than in adults and requires more experience. Infections, trauma and aseptic necrosis are the most important non-neoplastic diseases requiring bone scintigraphy. Bone scan has a high sensitivity in the early detection of pathological bone metabolism indicating bone disease; other investigations, which are describing morphological changes like X-ray are less sensitive especially at the beginning of the disease. Negative bone scan rools out significant bone disorders with a high certainty. Follow-up studies can give additional information about the response to therapeutical regimes and about the prognosis. To improve the specificity of a bone scan a combined interpretation of scintigraphy and X-ray is recommended

  13. Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation is successful in only a part of the affected patients. The Chernobyl accident added to our knowledge: BMT can save life after whole-body irradiation with a dose exceeding 7-8 Gy. A timely decision on transplantation after a nuclear accident is difficult to make (rapid determination of homogeneity and type of radiation and the total dose. HL-A typing in lymphopenia, precise identification of radiation damage to other target organs, etc.). Further attention is to be paid to the treatment. Transplantations in case of malignities (especially hematologic ones) and other diseases will add to our knowledge and will lead to more simple procedures. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  14. Bone scintigraphy for metastasis detection in canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of serial bone scintigraphy in the detection of skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Twenty-six dogs with primary, appendicular osteosarcoma were entered into a limb-sparing protocol. Bone scintigraphy was performed upon presentation, after neoadjuvant therapy but prior to surgery and at selective intervals after limb-sparing surgery to evaluate for the presence of metastasis. Thoracic radiographs, and radiographs of other sites, were also made at the time of each bone scan. All dogs had a complete necropsy. No dog had bone or lung metastases detected prior to treatment. The bone scans, medical records, and radiographs of each dog were reviewed retrospectively. All but one dog developed metastatic disease. Bone metastatic sites were confirmed at necropsy in 12 of the 26 dogs. Seven of these 12 dogs had bone metastatic sites which were not producing clinical signs, i.e. an occult metastasis. In five of the seven dogs, the occult site was the first metastatic site detected. Extraskeletal metastases were identified scintigraphically in six of the 26 dogs, but these were clinically apparent prior to bone scintigraphy in each dog. Suspected malignant scintigraphic lesions were proven benign in six dogs. In five dogs with malignant bone lesions at necropsy the last bone scan prior to euthanasia was normal. The time interval between scintigraphy and necropsy was variable in these five dogs. All dogs without bone metastases at necropsy had normal bone scans. This study validates the usefulness of bone scintigraphy for detection of occult bone metastasis and improved ability for tumor staging in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma

  15. Transplanting defrozen mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration was studied of blood formation in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice 30 and 60 days after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow. Also studied were the counts of leukocytes, thrombocytes and reticulocytes in the peripheral blood. Hematopoiesis changes were described and it was shown that after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow, regeneration and progressive normalization of hematopoiesis took place in the lethally irradiated recipients. It was found that the freezing procedure used was tender and preserved the proliferation capacity of the stem hemopoietic cells. (author)

  16. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis. PMID:26940276

  17. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the proliferation of bone marrow CD34~+ cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on the marrow CD34+ cells by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC),VarioMACS was used to sort bone marrow CD34+ cells,and then the purity of CD34+ cell was tested by FCM. Marrow mononuclear cells from abortion fetal bone marrow were isolated,and BMMSC were

  18. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  19. Investigations by bone scintigraphy of patients treated with retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible early side effects of the retinoid therapy on scleletal system was studied by bone scintigraphy carried out by 99mTc labelled phosphone in a dose of 550 MBq administered iv. 18 acne patients received isotretinoin (for 4 months, 1 mg/kg), 15 psoriatic patients received etretinate (for 4 months, 0,7-1,0 mg/kg). Increased activity was observed in 3 members of the isotretinoin group while no alterations due to etretinate treatment were found. Epiphysis fugue activity was found to be decreased during isotretinoin therapy. The authors consider bone scintigraphy suitable for the early detection of retinoid therapy-related bone alterations. (author) 12 refs

  20. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  1. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healty adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown that the bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was an useful method to estimate the hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow. (J.P.N.)

  2. Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) If you' ... help you find answers to financial questions: See Planning for Transplant Costs . Contact a patient services coordinator ...

  3. Differentiation of osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle-cell hemoglobinopathies using combined bone-marrow and gallium scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical records and scintigrams of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies in whom acute symptoms developed suggestive of possible osteomyelitis and who had undergone sequential Tc-99m bone marrow scans and gallium scintigraphy of the affected sites were reviewed. Osteomyelitis was correctly diagnosed in six of 18 cases when gallium was focally increased relative to a site of decreased or absent bone marrow activity. Of 12 episodes of infarction, both studies showed focally decreased activity in a concordant manner in 11. The remaining, false-positive study indicated slightly increased gallium in 11. The remaining, false-positive indicated slightly increased gallium concentration at a site of decreased bone marrow activity. Overall, a protocol of sequential Tc-99m bone marrow scans and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means of distinguishing osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies

  4. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  5. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Feline Mucopolysaccharidosis I

    OpenAIRE

    Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Colle, Marie-Anne; Weil, Margaret A.; Casal, Margret L.; Charles H Vite; Wiemelt, Staci; Hasson, Christopher W.; O’Malley, Thomas M.; He, Xingxuan; Prociuk, Ulana; Verot, Lucie; Melniczek, John R.; Lannon, Anne; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Knox, Van W.

    2007-01-01

    Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a fatal neuropathic lysosomal storage disorder with significant skeletal involvement. Treatment involves bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and although effective, is suboptimal, due to treatment sequelae and residual disease. Improved approaches will need to be tested in animal models and compared to BMT. Herein we report on bone marrow transplantation to treat feline mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). Five MPS I stably engrafted kittens, transpla...

  6. Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered ...

  7. Bone Marrow Engraftment Analysis after Granulocyte Transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Swierczynski, Sharon L.; Hafez, Michael J.; Philips, Juliet; Higman, Meghan A.; Berg, Karin D.; Murphy, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old male who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as part of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient relapsed 5 months after transplantation and received additional chemotherapy. He acquired an angioinvasive fungal infection that required transfusion of granulocytes. Approximately 5 weeks after relapsing (181 days after transplant), a bone marrow specimen was taken for molecular engraftment analysis and flow cytometry to assess graft lo...

  8. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  9. Opportunities of bone scintigraphy in patients with endoprotesis of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work evaluation of bone scintigraphy in patients with endoprotesis of knee joint. Bone scintigraphy was investigated 65 patients from 28 to 71 years. In this work was established that method of bone scintigraphy are sensible and specific investigation in the diagnosis inflammation diseases in patients before and after endoprotesis operation. Bone scintigraphy are useful method for evaluation dynamic of diseases in area of knee joint

  10. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  11. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  12. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNFα in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author)

  13. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929...... cells and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting...

  14. A study of healing process and prognosis of medial femoral neck fracture evaluated by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As to healing process and prognosis of femoral neck fracture, radionuclide bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound was performed and the following results were obtained. 1. In cases of osteosynthesis, scintigraphical study showed a certain serial pattern until fracture was uneventfully healed. 2. On the other hand, in cases with non-union or late segmental collapse of the head, scintigraphy revealed defect at superolateral or central area in the head. This finding could be already noted prior to roentgenographical evaluation. 3. In the study of radionuclide uptake count on the femoral head of resected specimen, the higher value was observed in the area along medial fracture edge to medial margin of the head. Histological study showed feature of increased new bone formation at the area of higher radionuclide uptake. Vascular supply through the bone marrow of the neck and superior retinacular artery was thought to play an important role for the new bone formation. 4. From the aforementioned results, sup(99m)Tc phosphorus compound scintigraphy was considered as one of the quite useful methods for early diagnosis of complications after femoral neck fracture. (author)

  15. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulopoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received lO6 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. After an initial steep decrease, the number of granuloid cells in the spleen increased about 30-fold between days 12 and 16 of the experiment (total dose 9 and 12 Gy, respectively). This increase was temporary and between days 20 and 24 (total dose 15 and 18 Gy, respectively) a steep decrease again occurred. At a low level (below 10% of the control value) the granuloid cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment (day 37, total dose 24 Gy). The behavior of the granuloid compartment of hemopoiesis thus contrasts with findings in the erythroid compartment (Hofer et al., 1989) when high numbers of erythroid nuclear cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment. On the whole, the influence of repeated bone marrow transplantation on granulopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen is positive. Of the 22 comparisons made between bone marrow recipients and mice only irradiated, 14 differences are statistically significant, always in favor of bone marrow recipients. (author)

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review discusses the current status of available radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging. For skeletal imaging 99Tcsup(m)-labelled diphosphonates as a group seem to be superior to other phosphorous compounds including pyrophosphate. Of the diphosphonates, 99Tcsup(m)-labelled MDP is better than EHDP. The new compound 99Tcsup(m)-IDP shows more skeletal uptake than MDP or EHDP in patients, but requires further clinical evaluation. Bone-marrow imaging has not received as much attention as bone imaging because of the lack of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. The erythropoietic marrow can be well visualized by using iron-52, an accelerator-produced positron emitter (511 keV gamma). However, availability (short half-life) and instrumentation problems limit its use to only a few institutions with access to an accelerator. The RES cell function of the bone marrow can be demonstrated by using colloids labelled with a suitable radionuclide. However, none of the available colloids of short-lived radionuclides (99Tcsup(m) or 113Insup(m)) localize to any great extent in the marrow - their localization often being limited to 10-15% of the injected dose in normal patients. Indium-111 chloride has been claimed to be useful as an erythropoietic cell marrow imaging agent by some investigators but others have disputed this claim. At the present time, we do not have an optimal agent for bone-marrow imaging and further work in this area is warranted. (author)

  17. The usefulness of bone scintigraphy and 67Ga scintigraphy in the evaluation of rib lesions in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib lesions in 13 patients with multiple myeloma were evaluated by using 99mTc-phosphorous compounds bone scintigraphy and 67Ga scintigraphy. In 10 patients (22 sites), hot lesions were observed on bone scintigraphy. In 6 of 10 patients no abnormal accumulations were noted on 67Ga scintigraphy. Among these 6 patients, osteolytic change was recognized on skeletal roentgenograms in only one patient. In 7 patients, both radionuclides accumulated in the rib lesions. Osteolytic change was observed in 3 patients (one lesion was histologically confirmed) and osteoporotic change was noted in 2 patients on skeletal roentgenograms. The appearance of multiple hot spots was observed in one patients on sequential 67Ga scintigraphy. Thus, the combination technique of bone and 67Ga scintigraphy seems to be a useful method for evaluating rib lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  18. Effects of radiations on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After total body irradiation for kidney transplant, the initial decrease of circulating blood cells is more rapid, the nadir is reached sooner and the regeneration occurs earlier when the doses are higher than a few hundred rads. The LD 50 in man seems to be higher than 450 rads. The in vivo and in vitro assays of hemopoietic stem cells have greatly increasedd the understanding of acute and late effects. Multipotential stem cells are very radiosensitive, furthermore the differentiation of the surviving stem cells is accelerated after irradiation. This results in a severe depletion of the stem cell compartment. When this stem cell number falls below a critical value, the stem cell no longer differentiates till the completion of the regeneration of the stem cell compartment. Stem cell proliferation is regulated by inhibitors and stimulators. Release of stimulators by irradiated bone marrow has been demonstrated. Severe sequellae are observed after irradiation of animal and human bone marrow. They seem to be due either to the damage of the stromal cell or to the stem cell population. In patients, four compensating mechanisms are observed after a regional bone marrow irradiation: stimulation of non irradiated bone marrow, extension of hemopoietic areas, regeneration of irradiated bone marrow when the irradiated volume is large and increase in the amplification factor resulting in an increase in the output of mature cells for one stem cell input. Assay of progenitor cells provides useful information and a reduction in their number is still observed many years after a large regional irradiation

  19. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  20. Bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the evaluation of rib lesions in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib lesions in 14 patients with multiple myeloma were evaluated by 99mTc-phosphorous compound bone scintigraphy and 67Ga scintigraphy. In the present study, in order to accurately detect rib lesions in multiple myeloma. bone and 67Ga scintigraphy were performed in 14 patients with multiple myeloma. The patterns of radionuclide accumulation in rib lesions on bone scintigraphy were classified by their grade, type, and site, and the findings were compared with the results of 67Ga scintigraphy. Thus, in cases of multiple myeloma, it was important to consider carefully both the intensity and the design of bone scintigraphy in combination with follow-up study by 67Ga scintigraphy. As a result of such consideration, we found that bone and 67Ga scintigraphy were useful in distinguishing invasive lesions from benign degenerative changes in the rib cage in cases with suspected rib involvement of multiple myeloma. (author)

  1. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in patients with histiocytosis X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term histiocytosis X (HX) refers to a spectrum of disorders varying from unifocal eosinophilic granuloma (UEG), multifocal eosinophilic granuloma (MEG), to the Abt-Letterer-Siwe syndrome. In a series of 16 patients with different types of HX and skeletal lesions, whole body bone scintigraphy was performed at the time of diagnosis and during follow up. Results were compared with radiographic findings. In patients with MEG with or without extra-skeletal dissemination bone scintigraphy revealed cold spots or hot spots, but half of the lesions were not visualised scintigraphically, resulting in false negative scans. In UEG the lesions were visualised as areas of increased uptake or as a cold spot with increased uptake at its borders. No false negative scans were encountered. The reliability of skeletal scintigraphy in patients with HX seems to depend on the type of the disorder: in UEG bone scintigraphy is a safe procedure. In MEG false negative bone scans have to be expected, and radiography is superior. (orig.)

  2. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  3. Impact of bone marrow on respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Sara M

    2008-06-01

    The bone marrow is not only a site of haematopoiesis but also serves as an important reservoir for mature granulocytes and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. In respiratory diseases, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis these cells are mobilised from the bone marrow in response to blood-borne mediators and subsequently recruited to the lungs. Although the granulocytes contribute to the inflammatory reaction, stem cells may promote tissue repair or remodelling. Understanding the factors and molecular mechanisms that regulate the mobilisation of granulocytes and stem cells from the bone marrow may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of a wide range of respiratory disorders. PMID:18372214

  4. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Jou, I.-M.; Lee, B.-F.; Yao, W.-J.; Tu, D.-G.; Wu, P.-S

    2000-05-01

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  5. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  6. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan Vikas; Chaudhary S; Gopal Lingam

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid...

  7. Relation between serum PAP (prostate acid phosphatase) and bone scintigraphy in prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven patients with prostatic cancer were treated at our department in the last 5 years. Of these patients 30 cases were followed by bone scintigraphy and serum PAP. In 27 follow-up scintigraphy procedures changes of bone scintigraphy corresponded to changes in serum PAP levels. Changes of PAP levels did not always correspond to changes of scintigraphy, but almost all cases in which the level of PAP increased in a short period showed progression of bone metastasis. A 3-month interval between bone scintigraphy procedure in stage D2 prostatic cancer patients is generally recommended. However, we think that in prostatic cancer patients follow-up bone scintigraphy at regular short intervals is unnecessary if there is no change in serum PAP levels, symptoms or physical condition. Bone scintigraphy should be performed when the tumor marker changes rapidly or when any physical symptom appears. (author)

  8. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  9. Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant Diseases that may be treated with a bone marrow or cord blood transplant include: Leukemias and lymphomas ...

  10. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Duerr, Hans-Roland [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.baur@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  11. A Survey of Bacterial Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi MH; R Ranjbar; A. Ghasemi; S Paktarigh; N Sadeghifard; Pourmand MR

    2007-01-01

    "nBackground: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Bacterial infec­tion is considered as one of the common and serious complications in bone marrow transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacterial infections in bone marrow transplant recipients."nMethods: Fifty-two blood and 25 catheter samples were obtained from 23 patients who were hospitalized in bone marrow trans­plantation...

  12. Transient bone marrow oedema of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, S.; Vispo-Seara, J.; Walther, M; Ettl, V; Eulert, J

    2001-01-01

    We treated ten patients who on the basis of MRI were suspected to have transient bone marrow oedema. In eight cases the talus was affected, in one the cuboid and in one the navicular bone. All patients had acute onset pain at the ankle. Four were treated with core decompression and had an immediate pain relief. Six were treated conservatively and became also pain-free but with considerable delay.

  13. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of AN on accumulation of marrow fat in spine and femur using 1H-MRS and the relationship between marrow fat, BMD, and body composition in subjects with AN and normal-weight controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a referral center. Patients: Patients included 10 women with AN (29.8 ± 7.6 yr) and 10 normal-weight age-matched women (29.2 ± 5.2 yr). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcomes Measure: Marrow fat content of the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur measured by 1H-MRS. BMD of spine and hip measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat at the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur compared with controls (P = 0.004–0.01). There was an inverse correlation between marrow fat of L4 and femur and BMD of the spine and hip (r = −0.56 to −0.71, P = 0.01–0.0002) and body mass index and sc adipose tissue of the thigh (r = −0.49 to −0.71, P = 0.03–0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between femur marrow fat and sc and total abdominal adipose tissue (r = −0.53 to −0.67, P = 0.003–0.03). Conclusion: Women with AN have greater lumbar and femoral marrow fat than controls, and marrow fat correlates inversely with BMD. This paradoxical increase in marrow fat at a time when sc and visceral fat are markedly reduced raises important questions about functional consequences of this process. PMID:19318450

  14. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Gessmann; Manfred Köller; Holger Godry; Thomas Armin Schildhauer; Dominik Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect ...

  15. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  16. Malignant osteopetrosis: hypercalcaemia after bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlinson, P S; Green, R H; Coggins, A M; Boyle, I T; Gibson, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 3 year old girl presented with malignant osteopetrosis, which was treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Successful engraftment was complicated by prolonged hypercalcaemia, which was controlled by a combination of a bisphosphonate, phosphate infusions, vigorous resalination, and salmon calcitonin. She was alive and well 16 months after the transplant.

  17. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  18. Engraftment of allogeneic dog bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance to allogeneic bone-marrow grafts (AR) was found to occur in many species, including the dog. The i.v. administration of silica particles suppressed Ar in vivo in this species. Genetic studies provide suggestive evidence for the existence of a previously unrecognized system or systems in the canine major histocompatibility complex controlling AR

  19. Bone marrow scan evaluation of arthropathy in sickle cell disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and arthropathy were studied, using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scans. Eight of 12 had decreased marrow radionuclide activity adjacent to painful joints, suggesting obliteration of vessels supplying bone marrow. Four patients without marrow defects on scanning had causes other than infarction for their joint symptoms, viz, small fractures, postinfectious synovitis, degenerative arthritis, and osteochondromas. Roentgenograms never showed bony abnormalities in five patients with marrow infarctions, and, in three others, showed defects several months later than did the marrow scans. Bone marrow scans offer a sensitive and early diagnostic aid in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies with arthropathy

  20. Bone scintigraphy in two cases of chronic brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown in the case reports, bone scintigraphy plays an important part considering the diagnosis of chronic brucellosis, an infectious disease which occurs rarely in Germany. To establish the diagnosis knowledge of symptoms and signs of the disease is necessary. Chronic brucellosis may occur in each organ, ionvolving especially bones and joints. The disease may manifest as spondilytis (especially of the lumbar spine) or arthritis of large joints, sacroiliacal joints or costotransverse joints. Chronic brucellosis has to be considered if a bone scan reveals a typical pattern even without a typical history. (orig.)

  1. Bone scintigraphy in acute myeloid leukemia patient with fungal vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study was reported as “metastasis of primary disease on L2-L3 vertebrae” in a 63-year-old male patient, who developed a back pain after receiving four courses of treatment for AML. The patient, who did not respond to pain medication, was sent to nuclear medicine department for a bone scintigraphy. Diffuse increased osteoblastic activity was reported on L2-L3 vertebrae with a suspicion about infection or fracture, together with a focal osteoblastic activity involvement in the right sacroiliac joint in the bone scintigraphy which was made with Tc99m-MDP. In the mean time, the patient complained about progressive loss of strength on bilateral lower extremities and numbness in legs. Repeated MRI was reported as “irregularities in L2-L3 vertebral disc region concordant with infection, prominent thecal pressure, loss of height in L2-L3 vertebrae associated with osteomyelitis and a mass concordant with paravertebral abscess and granulation tissue”. The patient was operated and necrotic tissue was removed by curettage, relieving the compression on L2-L3 and on the disc distance. In culture examination of the sample “candida albicans” was isolated. Antifungal treatment with Amphotericin B was started. Patient's pain was reduced and MRI findings showed some regression in abscess following the treatment. There was improvement in neurological examination. However, relapse in AML was observed in bone marrow aspiration, performed during follow-up and chemotherapy was started again. On the second day of chemotherapy high fever started and cellulitis developed on the right leg. The patient received hemodialysis treatment due to increase in BUN and creatinine levels. Pulmonary edema and associated respiratory insufficiency was developed and the patient died. Fungal infections are one of the most important clinical problems in leukemia patients. However, vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to fungal

  2. Effects of Ligustrazine on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfates in Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天华; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 戴琪琳; 孙岚

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effects of ligustrazine on bone marrow heparan sulfates (HS) expression in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice, the syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg ligustrazine twice a day. On the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day after BMT, peripheral blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted, and the expression levels of HS in bone marrow and on the stromal cell surfaces were detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay respectively. In ligustrazine-treated group, the white blood cells (WBC) and BMNC on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day and platelets (PLT) on the 7th, 10th day were all significantly more than those in control group (P<0.05). The bone marrow HS expression levels in ligustrazine-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05) on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day. However, the HS expression levels on the stromal cell surfaces showed no significant difference between the two groups on the 18th day (P>0. 05). It was concluded that ligustrazine could up-regulate HS expression in bone marrow, which might be one of the mechanisms contributing to ligustrazine promoting hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  3. Comparison of bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the initial diagnosis of bone involvement in children with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative efficacy of bone and 67Ga scintigraphy for detecting the presence of bone involvement by malignant lymphomas is compared. 83 children were evaluated (mean age 12 years) with histologically proven HD and NHL utilizing bone and 67Ga scintigraphy which were performed prior to treatment. Three of these patients had biopsy proven primary malignant lymphoma of bone. Bone scintigraphy detected 18 bone lesions in 13 patients and 67Ga scintigraphy detected the same 18 bone lesions and in addition 101 extraosseous lesions. Radiography confirmed the presence of focal bone lesions. Both osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions were identified. It was concluded that bone scintigraphy is not necessary in the initial staging of children with malignant lymphoma unless there are specific osseous symptoms. (author)

  4. Bone marrow micrometastasis detected by flow cytometry is associated bone, bone marrow, lung macrometastasis in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Salih Akin

    2014-04-01

    Material and Methods: Bone marrow samples were obtained from 52 breast cancer patients and 16 control patients via aspiration from the iliac spine at the time of first diagnosis after the surgery. Epithelial cells were identified with anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody, and double-staining with propidium iodide and CD45using flow cytometry. Results: In all, 2 (12.5% of the 16 control patients and 11 (21% of the 52 breast cancer patients had cytokeratin-18 positive cells in their bone marrow. A relationship between the presence of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow, and the presence/absence of lymph node metastases, tumor size, stage, menopausal status, hormone receptor status, histological grade, c-erb-B2 expression, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion, Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS component, and gender was not observed. Significant positive relationships were observed between bone marrow micrometastasis, and age, and bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases. Conclusion: Bone marrow micrometastasis was associated with age, bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 305-314

  5. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  6. Scanning of Bone Marrow in Haematopoietic Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning can help evaluate size and distribution of the haematopoietic marrow, a difficult task by aspiration or biopsy. With the 61-hole focusing gold-tungsten Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scanner, the marrow organ has been clearly delineated by means of intravenous colloidal Au198, it being known that reticulo-endothelial function in the marrow correlates with areas of haematopoiesis. Patients with normal haematopoiesis and with a variety of blood disorders such as focal marrow lesions, acute and chronic leukaemia, polycythaemiavera, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma have been scanned. Because of the reticulo-endothelial activity in liver and spleen, the marrow pattern is obscured in the mid-trunk. Vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, pelvis and long bones are outlined, and, in the thorax, the sternum and thoracic vertebrae. Focal lesions have also been found. Because of respiratory motion, individual ribs are not seen. In expanded marrow, the knee region can be shown, including the joint space. It has been possible to correlate these scans with aspiration biopsy and with linear scans. Because relatively large doses of Au198 are required, other isotopes are being investigated. An improved whole- body scanner is being tested for more practical scans. (author)

  7. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative bone scintigraphy. A study in patients with prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed in patients with prostatic carcinoma before orchiectomy as well as two weeks, two and six months after operation. The count rate was recorded as serial gamma camera images over the lower thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae from 1 to 240 min and at 24 h after injection of 99Tcm-MDP. In almost all abnormal vertebrae an increased count rate was observed within one hour after injection. Most of the vertebrae which were considered normal at 4 h after injection, but had an increased 24h/4h ratio developed into abnormal vertebrae later in the study. The patients with normal bone scintigrams showed no change in 99Tcm-MDP uptake during the study. The reproducibility of quantitative bone scintigraphy was found to be ± 7% (1 SD). In response to therapy, most of the patients with abnormal bone scintigrams showed an increase in count rate two weeks after operation followed by a decrease to the pre-operative level after two months and a further decrease after six months. This so called 'flare phenomenon' was found to indicate 99Tcm-MDP in the vascular phase as well as an active bone uptake. In some of the patients the whole-body retention of 99Tcm-MDP after 24 h and the bone mineral density in the vertebrae were determined and found to be valuable in the interpretation of skeletal metastases and the assessment of response to therapy. (71 refs.)

  9. Bone scintigraphy in the follow-up of thyroid carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with bone metastases of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas (n=23 and n=92, resp.) a retrospective study is conducted to find out whether the follow-up requires bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastases. Although there was no case of primary diagnosis of bone metastases established by bone scintigraphy, further bone focusses that had not been detected by I-131-whole body scintigraphy nor by whole body radiology were found in 24 patients by bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy is of no use if applied as a routine to follow-up tumor patients with papillary of follicular thyroid carcinomas, but it is necessary if clinical findings, tumor markers, I-131 scans or X-rays suggest the occurence of metastases. (orig./TRV)

  10. Bone scintigraphy. A contribution to oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone scintiscanning is evaluated including aspects as accuracy, precision and no invasiveness of the method in diagnosis. A review of radiotracers used in this technique is presented. The value of bone scintiscanning as a diagnostic technique and also as clinic follow up in neoplasms is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  11. Three-phase bone scintigraphy of hydroxyapatite ocular implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite ocular implants are replicas of lamellar bone tissue derived from the exoskeleton of a reef-building coral by a hydrothermal chemical exchange reaction. Attached to the eye muscles, they act as a passive framework for fibrovascular ingrowth and can be drilled to hold the visible part of the artificial eye and allow synchronous eye movement. Fibrovascular ingrowth has to be confirmed by bone scintigraphy before the drilling procedure. This study monitored the vascular ingrowth into the implant in ten patients over 12 months to establish a clinically feasible imaging protocol. Tracer accumulation was monitored visually and quantitatively in dynamic and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans after the intravenous administration of 600 MBq of 99mTc-DPD. The implants showed no tracer accumulation in the arterial or blood pool phase. Accordingly, dynamic scintigraphy can be omitted from the imaging protocol. Delayed tracer accumulation appeared no earlier than 2 and no later than 6 months after surgery. Planar scintigraphy is not recommended as high-resolution SPET is necessary to separate the implant from the surrounding bone. We conclude that imaging can be confined to high-resolution SPET 3 h after tracer injection, no earlier than 3 months after surgery. The vascularized hydroxyapatite orbital implant is an important in vivo model for bone-seeking agents to study their uptake kinetics independently of any soft tissue and bone disease. Our results provide evidence that in normal bones the chemical adsorption of 99mTc-DPD into the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite is the only quantitatively relevant uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of 153Sm-EDTMP bone uptake by whole-body scintigraphy and its application to individualized treatment dosimetry of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To calculate a safe and effective 153Sm-EDTMP therapy dose, a whole-body scintigraphy technique for prospective individual dosimetry was developed and the results were compared with 5 h urine collection method in 20 patients with bone metastases. Anterior and posterior whole-body images were obtained 10 min and 5 h after intravenous injection of 740 MBq 153Sm-EDTMP and the bone uptake value was determined. There is a close correlation between the bone uptake value obtained from the whole-body scintigraphy and 5 h urine collection method (r = 0.93). The radiation absorption dose to red marrow was limited to 1.4 Gy and the administered activity calculated from bone uptake value by whole-body scintigraphy was 1.40-2.27 GBq (mean 1.90 GBq). If the activity was calculated according to the standard body weight of 37 MBq·kg-1, the administered activity would be 1.75-2.41 GBq (mean 2.18), the radiation absorption dose to red marrow would be 1.37-2.27 Gy (mean 1.63 Gy), but at these doses significant myelotoxicity would be anticipated, thus emphasizing the need for individual prospective dosimetry

  13. Bone scintigraphy in costo-iliac impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: A syndrome of back pain caused by impingement of the lowest ribs against the iliac crest has been described in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures and loss of height of the patient. A case is presented of an 81-year-old woman with a long history of osteoporosis with compression...... fractures of several thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. She presented with progressive lower back pain and weight loss. Bone scintigraphy revealed increased uptake in the lower ribs on both sides compatible with the costo-iliac impingement syndrome. There were no signs of bone metastases....

  14. Quantitative bone gallium scintigraphy in osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium imaging offers many practical advantages over indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging, and calculating quantitative ratios in addition to performing the routine bone-gallium images allows accurate and easy evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. To add objectivity and improve the accuracy and confidence in diagnosis of osteomyelitis, quantitative comparison of abnormalities seen on bone scans and gallium scans was performed. One hundred and ten adult patients with 126 sites of suspected osteomyelitis were evaluated and categorized by gallium-to-bone ratios, gallium-to-background ratios, and spatial incongruency of gallium and bone activity. Combined evaluation using these criteria gave a 70% sensitivity and 93% specificity for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  15. Cytogenetic and morphological assessment of bone marrow in therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological and cytogenetic study from the irradiated bone marrow, in 59 cases of radically irradiated carcinoma cervix was done. Regeneration of a marrow adjudged on cellular morphology was after 12 months whereas cytogenetic studies revealed it at the end of three months. It is concluded that cytogenetic study is a more sensitive parameter in assessing the recovery of bone marrow. (author)

  16. Postirradiation bone marrow damage in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of bone marrow damage induced by the continuous gamma irradiation was studied. Effect of dose rate and level of cumulated doses of radiation was evaluated in clinical and hematological examinations and bone marrow damage was determined by chromosome aberrations in anaphase. The regulative ability of hematopoiesis of many cytokines are discussed. Positive regulators are inducers of cell proliferation, and negative regulators are inducers of apoptosis /programmed cell death/. Birds corresponding with similarities in thymus-T and bursal-B cells appear to be an interesting model for studying the possible participation of apoptosis in radiation disease. Our recent experimental studies continue to progress in this direction. (author) 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Bone marrow transplantation for childhood malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Yasunori (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    As of June 30, 1991, 1013 pediatric patients had registrated to The Bone Marrow Transplantation Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-matched siblings is now reasonably safe and an established method of treatment in acute leukemia. Total body irradiation, which is major part of preparative regimen for BMT, affect endocrine function, subsequent growth, gonadal function, development of secondary malignancies. We propose the indication of TBI for children and young adults as follows; those who are at high risk for leukemic relapse after BMT such as Phl-positive-All, leukemia-lymphoma syndrome, AML with monocytic component, BMT in elapse, BMT from other than HLA-matched siblings. (author).

  18. Immunologic studies of canine bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When prospective male or female recipients from the Cooperstown colony were exposed to supralethal total body irradiation and were reconstituted with bone marrow obtained from genotypically DL-A-identical littermate or nonlittermate donors such treatment resulted, in regularly reproducible fashion, in the establishment of a long-term state of chimerism with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in any of the recipients. The resulting chimeras have survived thus far for 882-1466 days, with donor red cell antigen and leukocyte sex marker evidence of the persistence of chimerism. Subsequent challenge of the chimeras with renal and skin allografts obtained from the specific donor of marrow resulted in the long-term survival of such transplants without any evidence of rejection for 833--1402 days. Skin allografts obtained from other dogs were, however, accorded first-set rejection times. Recent studies indicate that the state of allogeneic unresponsiveness produced by supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation also extends to other organs from the donor of marrow, including heart, liver, pancreas and duodenum, and lung

  19. Chromosomal aberrations and bone marrow toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Heddle, J A; Salamone, M F

    1981-01-01

    The importance of chromosomal aberrations as a proximate cause of bone marrow toxicity is discussed. Since chemicals that can cause nondisjunction are rare, numerical aberrations (aneuploidy, polyploidy) are not ordinarily important. Many structural aberrations, however, can lead directly to cell death and so are proximate causes of toxicity when they occur. The micronucleus test which utilizes the polychromatic erythrocyte is capable of detecting agents (clastogens) that can cause such struc...

  20. Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology

    OpenAIRE

    van der Walt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant cha...

  1. Post-bone marrow transplant patient management.

    OpenAIRE

    Poliquin, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, bone marrow transplant (BMT) is the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. BMT is, however, a risky procedure with many potentially serious complications. Some complications are the result of the conditioning regimen, a stage of transplantation that includes large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Conditioning-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia often result in infection, bleeding, and mucositis. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD), a chemotherapy-indu...

  2. Salivary function after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bågesund, Mats

    2000-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the oral long-term complications that most affect the quality of life among long-term survivors after treatment for malignant diseases. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to examine the effect of pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) conditioning regimens on salivary function, caries-associated microflora, and development of dental caries; define risk factors of salivary dysfunction; evaluate subjective xerostomia; and ...

  3. Mouse Models of Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pavan; Negrin, Robert; Hill, Geoffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, mouse models of bone marrow transplantation have provided the critical links between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) pathophysiology and clinical practice. The initial insight from mouse models that GVHD and GVL were T cell dependent has long been confirmed clinically. More recent translations from mouse models have included the important role of inflammatory cytokines in GVHD. Newly developed concepts relating to the ability of antigen...

  4. Methods of bone marrow dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author)

  5. Acceleration of Immune Reconstitution after Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice by Bone Marrow Stromal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦凤华; 蒋激扬; 李爱玲; 金永柱; 郝洁; 谢蜀生

    2003-01-01

    To observe potential effect of the engineered bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 secreting IL-6 (QXMSCIL-6) on accelerating immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice, QXMSC1 was transfected with the eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNAIL-6, which contained hIL-6 cDNA by liposome-mediated gene transfecting technique. G418-resistance clone was selected by limiting dilution. The highest secreting clone was selected by ELISA assay and used in animal experiments. The recipient mice (BALB/c) were lethally irradiated and cotransplanted syngeneic bone marrow (107/mice) and the QXMSCIIL-6 (5×105/mice). Lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS, helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp), cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor (CTLp), plaque-forming cell (PFC), delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) were examined 30, 60 days in post transplantation respectively. The results showed that lymphocytes proliferation to ConA and LPS, HTLp, CTLp increased, DTH and PFC were improved by cografted stromal cells QXMSCIIL-6 on 30, 60 days after BMT. These results demonstrated that the bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 IL-6 transfected with IL-6 (QXMSC11L-6) accelerated immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  6. Tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is presented of a case of tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation complicated by radiation-induced pneumonitis. A 30-year-old army sergeant received a bone-marrow transplant from his brother for the treatment of a granulocytic sarcoma after local radiotherapy to the tumour. Six years earlier he had sustained an open, compound fracture of the left tibia and fibula while on army exercise. At the time a pin and plate had been inserted and booster anti-tetanus administered. Bone-marrow transplantation was performed after total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A was given against graft-versus-host disease. Fifty four days after transplantation tetanus was diagnosed and death followed 14 days later. Necropsy disclosed radiation-induced pneumonitis, but no organisms were cultured from the lungs or the old fracture site. It is suggested that spores were incorporated into the wound site before surgery and that oxygenation around the plate became compromised after transplantation, permitting germination of dormant spores, immunosuppression allowing development of the disease. (U.K.)

  7. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  8. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  9. Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçman, Duygu; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; ćapali, Veli; Demir, Bayram; Türkmen, Cüneyt

    2016-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It's general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget's disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using 99mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g 99m Tc MDP,99mTc HEDP and 99mTc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient's situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients' close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse's exposure radiations from patient's routine treatment, examination and emergency station.

  10. Bone scintigraphy in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW, (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign skeletal disorder of unknown aetiology. Fibrous dysplasia characteristically involves the fibrous replacement of portions of the medullary cavities of a single bone (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic). Bones typically involved include the femurs, tibiae, ribs and maxillae. The polyostotic form may be accompanied by skin pigmentation and endocrine abnormalities (McCune Allbright Syndrome). Radiological findings in fibrous dysplasia are variable, ranging from completely radiolucent to radio-opaque lesions, depending on the amount of fibrous or osseous tissue deposited in the medulla. The most common radiographic finding is that of a ground glass-like semi-opaque lesion. Case reports on scintigraphic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia are scanty. We present radiological and scintigraphic findings of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in a young male. (authors). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Stress fracture development classified by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no consensus on classifying stress fractures (SF) appearing on bone scans. The authors present a system of classification based on grading the severity and development of bone lesions by visual inspection, according to three main scintigraphic criteria: focality and size, intensity of uptake compare to adjacent bone, and local medular extension. Four grades of development (I-IV) were ranked, ranging from ill defined slightly increased cortical uptake to well defined regions with markedly increased uptake extending transversely bicortically. 310 male subjects aged 19-2, suffering several weeks from leg pains occurring during intensive physical training underwent bone scans of the pelvis and lower extremities using Tc-99-m-MDP. 76% of the scans were positive with 354 lesions, of which 88% were in th4e mild (I-II) grades and 12% in the moderate (III) and severe (IV) grades. Post-treatment scans were obtained in 65 cases having 78 lesions during 1- to 6-month intervals. Complete resolution was found after 1-2 months in 36% of the mild lesions but in only 12% of the moderate and severe ones, and after 3-6 months in 55% of the mild lesions and 15% of the severe ones. 75% of the moderate and severe lesions showed residual uptake in various stages throughout the follow-up period. Early recognition and treatment of mild SF lesions in this study prevented protracted disability and progression of the lesions and facilitated complete healing

  12. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  13. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Colnot, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  14. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  15. Soft tissue- and bone-phase scintigraphy for diagnosis of navicular disease in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography and soft tissue- and bone-phase scintigraphy were performed on 14 clinically normal horses and 35 horses in which definite, probable, or possible navicular disease had been diagnosed. The specificity of radiography and scintigraphy in revealing signs of navicular disease were nearly equal; however, the sensitivity of scintigraphy appeared to be greater than that of radiography. The greatest sensitivity and specificity were achieved when the results of radiography and scintigraphy were evaluated together. Differences in sensitivity were greatest when scintigraphy revealed lesions not detected by radiography. Although a diagnosis of navicular disease was sometimes made when only soft tissue-phase or only bone-phase scintigraphy revealed lesions, results obtained during the 2 phases generally were similar. It was concluded that scintigraphy can be a valuable aid in diagnosing navicular disease in horses, especially when radiographic findings do not support clinical findings

  16. Bone marrow stromal cell: mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    OpenAIRE

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic factors, enabling neuroprotection/tissue sparing in a rat model of spinal cord injury. In this model system, bone marrow stromal cell-mediated tissue sparing leads to motor and sensory function impr...

  17. Bone marrow origin of Ia molecules purified from epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radiation bone marrow chimeras, we have shown that Ia molecules purified from epidermal cell preparations of the mouse reflect the Ia phenotype of the bone marrow donor. This result strongly suggests that Ia molecules are synthesized by a bone-marrow-derived cell in the epidermis. Furthermore, results of peptide map analysis of immunoprecipitated biosynthetically labeled Ia suggest that the Ia molecules found in skin are identical to those found on B lymphocytes. These results support biochemical as well as serologic identity

  18. Bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone invasions of face and skull epitheliomas and ORL neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy has been considerably improved by the use of technetium 99m-labelled organic phosphates: the physical characteristics are almost ideal for detection and the extemporaneous labelling of the product is convenient. This study on 75 patients has proved the value of bone scintigraphy in evaluating the bone invasion of tumoral lesions affecting the face and skull. An 88% agreement was found for scintigraphy, radiography giving 81%. The technique allows a fast assessment of whole-body bone invasion from one examination, with no extra injection of radioactive product, and it is therefore possible to orient the radiological enquiry without having to X-ray the whole skeleton, which reduces the amount of irradiation delivered to the organism. From these observations it may be concluded that scintigraphy is a simple, harmless method, with many advantages, but its limits must be known and it must always be interpreted as a function of other clinical and radiological data. It should be systematic in research on the local spreading of face and skull epitheliomas, in neoplasms of the ORL sphere and in the search for bone metastases

  19. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis: pathogenesis, prognosis and targeted strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Abdallah Abou; Salama, Mohamed E; Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. We discuss the rationale of various anti-fibrogenic treatment strategies targeting the clonal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, aberrant signaling pathways, fibrogenic cytokines, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27252511

  20. Malignant external otitis: The diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium99m Methylene Diphosphate bone scintigraphy (BS) of the skull was performed in three patients with malignant external otitis (MEO). Pathological uptake of the radioisotope in the mastoid region was found during the early stages of MEO updating radiologic findings. The extent of the radioisotope accumulation during the early stages of MEO indicates that the actual tissue damage exceeds the clinical estimation. The follow-up BS findings correlate well with the clinical course of MEO indicating either healing or extension to the base of skull

  1. Decisive diagnosis of seronegative polyarthritis by 3-phase bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory joint disease is mainly diagnosed on grounds of clinical investigation, laboratory testing (acute phase reactants), and radiography. Radionuclide imaging has recently been added to the armamentarium of clinician. This case report points out the role of three-phase bone scan and HIG (human immunoglobulin) scan in the discovery of the inflammatory nature of polyarthralgia in a young woman with equivocal clinical and laboratory results. In the aim of diagnosing arthritis early in its course scintigraphy proved to be superior to conventional radiography. It also allows more discriminating selection of subsequent X-ray examination to limit radiation exposure. (orig.)

  2. Bone Marrow Imaging: Part I and Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rafiee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of bone marrow are commonly encountered"nin clinical practice. For an accurate interpretation, it"nis essential to have a thorough understanding of the"nnormal marrow appearance, marrow conversion (red to"nyellow from birth to adulthood, marrow reconversion"n(yellow to red, and benign and malignant marrow"nproliferative, replacement, depletion, and vascular"ndisorders."nThe purpose of this teaching presentation is to:"n1. Describe normal bone marrow anatomy and"nfunction."n2. Review methods of imaging bone marrow."n3. Review MR appearance of normal bone marrow in"ndifferent age groups"n4. Review marrow proliferative diseases - benign (e.g.,"nreconversion, malignant (e.g., leukemia."n5. Review marrow replacement processes - benign"n(e.g. osteomyelitis, malignant (e.g., metastasis."n6. Review marrow depletion disorders - benign,"nmalignant (e.g., aplastic anemia, radiation."n7. Review vascular marrow disorders (e.g. osteonecrosis"nand miscellaneous marrow abnormalities.

  3. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow and spleen cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received 106 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. It was mainly the spleen which was involved in the adaptation and regeneration of erythropoiesis, its contribution to total erythropoiesis in bone marrow recipients having been as high as 73.9% (day 20 of experiment, total dose 15 Gy). In mice only irradiated, the number of nuclear cells of erythroid lineage decreased to zero values sooner in the spleen (day 16 of experiment, total dose 12 Gy) than in the bone marrow (day 24 of experiment, total dose 18 Gy). The analysis of the results of collections made on day 9 after the last irradiation revealed, however, that the hemopoietic microenvironment of the spleen and hemopoietic cells capable of differentiation in the erythroid direction were so resistant to irradiation in mice only irradiated that erythropoiesis in their spleens exhibited signs of regeneration even after the highest total dose of 24 Gy. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs

  4. The Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the National Cancer Institute - its resources to assist patients with bone marrow failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the bone marrow transplantation center of the brazilian National Cancer Institute, which is responsible for the cancer control in Brazil. The document also describes the resources available in the Institute for assisting patients presenting bone marrow failures. The Center provides for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants, peripheral stem cell transplants, umbilical cord collections and transplants, and a small experience with unrelated bone marrow transplants. The Center receives patient from all over the country and provides very sophisticated medical care at no direct cost to the patients

  5. Bone scintigraphy in the initial evaluation of dogs with primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy was performed as part of an initial diagnostic evaluation of 70 dogs admitted with primary bone tumors during a 2-year period. Tumors involved major long bones of the appendicular skeleton and included 62 osteosarcomas, 6 fibrosarcomas, and 2 chondrosarcomas. All dogs were free of radiographically detectable pulmonary metastases. Bone scintigraphy was not of value in distinguishing among various types of primary tumors. One dog with an ulnar chondrosarcoma had a scintigraphically detectable occult osseous metastasis or synchronous primary tumor, and 1 dog with osteosarcoma had a scintigraphically detectable lymph node metastasis. Pulmonary metastases were not detected scintigraphically. Of the 70 dogs, 44.3% had areas of increased isotope uptake associated with nonneoplastic disease processes

  6. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF BONE MARROW ASPIRATION AND BONE MARROW BIOPSY IN HAEMATOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Due to diagnostic difficulties by peripheral smear alone, evaluation of the bone marrow is required for confirmation of a suspected clinical diagnosis. AIMS To study and to correlate the bone marrow aspiration with biopsy findings. METHODS AND MATERIAL A total number of 100 cases were evaluated. Bone marrow aspiration slides were stained with Leishman stain and biopsy sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin after decalcification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Chi square test to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. P values obtained after completion of 100 cases and Kappa value determined to know the strength of agreement between bone marrow aspiration and biopsy diagnosis. RESULTS Of the 100 cases studied, the age of the patient ranged from 4-78 years with male-to-female ratio being 1.3:1. The most common condition was anaemia (47% and the most common haematological malignancy was multiple myeloma (13%. In our institution, the incidence of multiple myeloma was found to be higher than leukemia. There was a positive correlation of 85.8%, sensitivity of bone marrow aspiration was found to be 88.5% and Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 94.4%. The p value of 0.001 was statistically significant and the Kappa value of 0.91 shows an excellent agreement between aspiration and biopsy diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Aspiration helps to know the better morphology of the cells and biopsy to assess the cellularity, pattern of distribution of cells. Biopsy is also useful when aspiration is inadequate due to faulty technique. Hence, combined evaluation helps in accurate diagnosis and management.

  7. Imatimid-induced bone marrow necrosis detected on MRI examination and mimicking bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Pechoux, C. le; Cioffi, A.; Domont, J.; Cesne, A. le [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2007-09-15

    Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In contrast to liver and/or abdominal involvement, bone metastases are an uncommon event in GIST. We report here two patients with metastatic GIST who developed pelvic bone marrow focal lesions visible on MRI examinations, while Imatinib dramatically improved other tumor sites. A biopsy in one patient diagnosed bone marrow necrosis. The other patient had a favorable follow-up over several years, without bone metastases. Focal bone marrow abnormalities, detected on MRI examinations and mimicking bone metastases in patients who were otherwise responding, should be considered as probable bone marrow necrosis. (orig.)

  8. Endocrine complications following pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Josephine; Lewis, Victor; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Stephure, David K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for various diseases can lead to endocrine system dysfunction owing to preparative regimens involving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We assessed the prevalence of post-BMT endocrine complications in children treated at the Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH) from 1991 to 2001. Time of onset of endocrine dysfunction, underlying disease processes, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and age at BMT were characterized. Subjects of primary hypothyroidism 1.2%, compensated hypothyroidism 7.0%, hyperthyroidism 2.4%, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism 22.4%, abnormal bone density 2.4%, and secondary diabetes mellitus 1.2%. These findings emphasize the need to screen for endocrine system dysfunction, particularly hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, in children who have undergone BMT. Children need long-term follow-up so that endocrine complications can be diagnosed and treated promptly. PMID:21823531

  9. Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Bone marrow imaging using 111In-citrate: 111In-kinetics in the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When bone marrow scintigraphy was performed using 111In-citrate, radioactivity was observed in the pudendal region. Subsequently, the kinetics of 111In in the pelvic region after intravenous administration of 111In-citrate for bone-marrow scanning in 14 patients was examined. On the first day, radioindium was found predominantly in the large pelvic blood vessels and in the pudendal region. In all male patients, the scrotal area was affected with both testes presumably delineated in two patients. In the female patients little radioindium was detected in the pudendal region, most probably in the vulva; distinct radioactivity was found in the pelvis although the ovaries could not be identified. In the following period the 111In uptake in the bone marrow increased considerably and reached its maximum usually 24 hr after the injection. Because a distinct radiation dose from 111In to the gonads cannot be excluded on the basis of our scintigraphic findings and the absorbed dose has not yet been estimated sufficiently, judgment should be used for the present if 111In-citrate is applied for bone marrow imaging. (U.S.)

  11. Bone marrow transplantation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have isolated inflammatory leukocytes from various lymphoid and parenchymal organs after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation from either an allogeneic or syngeneic strain and tested their ability to perform lytic functions in vitro. No direct lytic activity (i.e. cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CTL) to relevant strain-derived target cells in the lymphoid or parenchymal target organs was seen preceding or during acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Instead, the leukocytes of the spleen and blood and the inflammatory cells of liver and lungs were efficient effector cells against recipient-derived target cells in the presence of relevant antibody (antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, ADCC). The NK activity against YAC-1 (natural killer, NK) target cells was first high in the spleen, but when the aGHVD appeared in the allograft marrow recipients the NK activity decreased in the spleen with a concomitant increase in the liver, but not in the other parenchymal target organs. At the same time no NK acitivity was seen in the syngeneic marrow graft recipients' parenchymal organs. These observations suggest functional differences in the structure of inflammation in the different target organs of aGVHD. (author)

  12. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations

  13. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  14. The usefulness of bone scintigraphy in SAPHO syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAPHO syndrome is well known to various disease entities including synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and polyarthritis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sicntigraphic findings and to compare with radiologic findings in SAPHO syndrome. Five patients (M:F=5:0, Age 22.8±4.78 yrs) with SAPHO syndrome were enrolled in our study. All patients underwent whole-body bone scintigraphy with intravenous administration of 740 MBq of Tc-99m MDP. Among them, two patients were additionally perfomed SPECT of the spine to evaluate the location and extent of spinal lesion. All patients were demonstrated abnormal increased uptakes in sternoclavicular joint (SC), sacroiliac joint (SI), and small joints of both hands. Among them, three patients were bilateral involvement (3/5) and two were unilateral (2/5) in SC. Involvement of SI showed bilateral in four patients (4/5) and unilateral in one (1/5). SPECT images demonstrate that the lesion sites of the lumbar spine are more likely facet joints than vertebral bodies or pedicles. As SAPHO syndrome is the disease entity involved polyarticular joints with various dermatologic manifestations, the bone scintigraphy may be a very useful method to evaluate the location and extent of joint involvement, and to avoid inadequate surgical management or ineffective antibiotic treatment

  15. The usefulness of bone scintigraphy in SAPHO syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    SAPHO syndrome is well known to various disease entities including synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and polyarthritis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sicntigraphic findings and to compare with radiologic findings in SAPHO syndrome. Five patients (M:F=5:0, Age 22.8{+-}4.78 yrs) with SAPHO syndrome were enrolled in our study. All patients underwent whole-body bone scintigraphy with intravenous administration of 740 MBq of Tc-99m MDP. Among them, two patients were additionally perfomed SPECT of the spine to evaluate the location and extent of spinal lesion. All patients were demonstrated abnormal increased uptakes in sternoclavicular joint (SC), sacroiliac joint (SI), and small joints of both hands. Among them, three patients were bilateral involvement (3/5) and two were unilateral (2/5) in SC. Involvement of SI showed bilateral in four patients (4/5) and unilateral in one (1/5). SPECT images demonstrate that the lesion sites of the lumbar spine are more likely facet joints than vertebral bodies or pedicles. As SAPHO syndrome is the disease entity involved polyarticular joints with various dermatologic manifestations, the bone scintigraphy may be a very useful method to evaluate the location and extent of joint involvement, and to avoid inadequate surgical management or ineffective antibiotic treatment.

  16. Clinical evaluation of stress fractures using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical evaluation of stress fractures were performed in 58 athletes using bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP. Stress fractures of the tibia were most often seen in the males with running type sports. They occurred more often in the proximal tibia and on the right side. Stress fractures of the fibula were most often seen in females with jumping type sports, such as volley ball. They occurred more often in the distal fibula and on the right side. Tarsal bone fractures were seen most often rugby players. Metatarsal fractures occurred in the third fourth and fifth metatarsals. No lesion was seen in the first and second metatarsals. We feel that stress fractures of the femur can be differentiated from osteosarcoma by small loculated radionuclide accumulation as well as symptome, course and tomographic and CT finding. Bilateral involvement was seen in two cases in patellae and calcanei. Most of the other fractures were seen on the right side. Negative radiographs were seen in 36% of the patients and occurred most commonly in the tarsal bones excluding calcaneus. Bone scintigrams were positive in all cases and were most useful in fractures of the tarsal bones excluding calcaneus. (author)

  17. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic f

  18. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  19. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF BONE MARROW THROMBOPOIETIN BY PLATELET PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Bryan; Kaushansky, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Platelet production is regulated primarily by the cytokine thrombopoietin (TPO). Although TPO is expressed in several different tissues, only in the bone marrow has the level of expression been reported to increase in response to reduced numbers of platelets. In these studies we demonstrate that platelet granule proteins are able to transcriptionally repress TPO mRNA expression in a marrow stromal cell line as well as in primary bone marrow stromal cell cultures. Like TPO mRNA, secretion of T...

  20. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  1. Bone-marrow MR imaging before and after autologous marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients without known bone-marrow involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study lumbar bone marrow by means of MR imaging before and after bone-marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients. Particular emphasis was paid to heterogeneity and to focal manifestations, i.e. appearances that could simulate tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who were disease-free for a minimum of 30 months after transplantation were studied in 107 MR examinations. Two radiologists visually evaluated coronal T1-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) images. Results: T1-weighted images demonstrated a more heterogeneous marrow after transplantation than before it. Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas appeared on this sequence in 5 (23%) of the 22 patients at between 21 and 60 weeks after transplantation. The mean age of these 5 patients was 48.4 years (range 42-54 years). The difference in age between these 5 patients and the remaining 17 patients, who had a mean age of 33.4 years (range 14-51 years), was statistically significant (p<0.01, Student's t-test, 2-sided test). Conclusion: Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas may be seen on T1-weighted images of bone marrow in patients who are in complete remission after transplantation, particularly in those aged over 40-45 years. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of bone scintigraphy in chronic dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dialysis period, plain roentgenography, hemological tests and bone mineral content were studied dividing bone scintigraphic patterns in 120 dialysis patients due to the chronic renal failure into 5 groups (A-E). Moreover, variations of its patterns in 103 patients whose chronological changeable observation is available were studied. In group A (6 cases) strong accumulation in the cranial bone and jaw bone by bone scintigraphy, salt and pepper signs in the cranial bone by plain roentgenography, high level of PTH and ALP, and swelling of parathyroid gland in all cases were detected. In group B (11 cases) being sporadically observed hot spot by slightly high background and group C (33 cases) without observing hot spot by high background, fracture and pseudo-fracture were observed by plain roentgenography. The similar results in both group B and group C were observed by hemological tests. The transfer from group E to others or from others to group E, and mutual transfer of group B and group C were chronologically observed. In group D (6 cases), accumulated site was observed by plain roentgenography. In group E (64 cases) showing normally accumulated pattern, cases revealing fracture and pseudo-fracture were observed by plain roentgenography. The transfer in other groups in majority cases, and transfer from groups B and C in some cases were chronologically observed. From the above-mentioned results, classification of the bone scintigraphic patterns and its chronological observation were considered to be very useful for evaluation of the pathology and variation of osseous lesions in dialysis patients. (author)

  3. Bone scintigraphy as an aid in the diagnosis of occult distal tarsal bone trauma in three horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History, physical examination, and bone scintigraphy were used to diagnose central and/or third tarsal bone trauma in 3 acutely lame horses. In all 3 cases, the results of initial radiographic examination were negative. Bone scintigraphy revealed focal, intense radioisotope uptake at the level of the distal tarsal bones in the 3 horses. Radiographs obtained 4 weeks after injury in one horse demonstrated a slab fracture of the central tarsal bone. Conservative management of the tarsal bone disease resulted in acceptable return to function in all 3 horses

  4. The role of bone scintigraphy in predicting femoral head collapse following cervical fractures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy was performed before or after osteosynthesis or both in 11 children aged 9 to 14 years with femoral neck fractures. The role of bone scintigraphy in predicting development of femoral head necrosis with subsequent collapse was studied. Scintigraphy was not a useful study of this purpose. The explanation of this may be that reposition and osteosynthesis jeopardize the blood supply to the femoral head and invalidates the findings at the pre-operative scan. The childhood femoral head also has a strong potential for revascularization and complete reconstruction of the necrotic bone. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow after bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy in aplastic anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J M; Jung, H.A.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, C. C.; Hahn, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance (MR) images of the bone marrow (BM) after bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy in patients with aplastic anemia (AA), MR imaging of BM was reviewed retrospectively in 16 patients (13 males and 3 females, mean age 26 yr) with AA who completely responded clinically after transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy. The signal intensity (SI) of BM was classified into four patterns according to the increasing amount of cellular marrow, i.e., patt...

  6. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  7. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, V.L.; Soares, L.M.M.; Ribeiro, V.P.B.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  8. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  9. Effects of bone marrow transplantation and bone marrow shielding on the intestinal radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hemopoietic tissue transplantation and bone marrow shielding on early intestinal injury in mice after high does gamma irradiation were studied. Fresh bone marrow cells (2 x 106) transplanted after 12 Gy and 10 Gy whole body irradiation had no protective effect on intestinal injury. In mice exposed to 14 Gy whole body or abdominal region irradiation, there was no difference in the decrease of intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of crypt mitosis. Therefore hemopoietic tissue shielding could not reduce severity of intestinal damage. These results showed that the radiation injury of intestinal tract is essentially a direct effect of γ-ray and has not obvious relationship to the hemopoietic tissues

  10. Total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The primary goal of this course is to develop an understanding of the rationale for the use of total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of cytoreduction for bone marrow transplantation, the techniques used, and the results of changing important parameters, such as dose, dose rate, and fractionation. Materials and Methods: Basic radiobiological principles relevant to TBI are reviewed; in particular, emphasis is placed on cell and animal studies which suggest means of optimizing TBI delivery to achieve maximum tumor cell kill and immunosuppression along with minimal normal tissue damage. Techniques utilized at various centers are described, with some discussion of achieving homogeneity, as well as inhomogeneity when desired with partial shielding or 'boosting'. A review of clinical studies, both randomized and non-randomized, is done; these are then interpreted in terms of potential optimization of the TBI parameters. Finally, comparison of TBI-containing regimens with chemotherapy-only regimens is done. Results: Radiobiological studies suggest a potential advantage for fractionated TBI over single dose TBI. Clinical studies support this view: highly fractionated regimens have allowed higher total doses to be used to increase malignant cell kill and immunosuppression without increasing toxicity. Randomized studies of TBI combined with VP-16 or cyclophosphamide versus busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide have either shown an advantage with TBI (in acute myelocytic leukemia in first remission) or no difference (in chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic phase). Conclusion: TBI has been an effective component of cytoreductive regimens for marrow transplantation in patients with malignant disease, especially leukemias, which constitute 73% of all marrow transplants worldwide. Evidence supports fractionated TBI, to doses ≥ 13 Gy, when compared with single dose TBI. Randomized studies support the continued use of TBI in AML, and suggest that

  11. The diagnostic value of bone scintigraphy in patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy has been studied in two groups of patients presenting with low back pain. In one group of 38 patients suffering ''non-specific'' back pain, bone scintigraphy and laboratory findings were negative in 24. There were abnormal laboratory findings in all of the remaining 14 and 7 had positive bone scans indicative of clinically significant disease. Selection of patients for bone scintigraphy in this group should therefore be influenced by abnormal laboratory findings and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in particular. By comparison, the bone scans were reviewed from another group of patients suffering previously known malignancy. Out of 138 patients, nearly 40% showed a positive bone scan due to subsequently proven metastasis. Bone scintigraphy was positive in a further 14% as a result of osteoporotic rib fracture and vertebral body collapse. In half of these, it was not possible to exclude malignancy by scintigraphy. The present findings indicate that bone scintigraphy is not a useful procedure in patients with long-standing low back pain who have normal radiographs and normal laboratory findings. (orig.)

  12. [Current problems in pediatric bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S

    1993-05-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been increasingly applied to a variety of potentially fatal diseases in childhood. However, trends of indication of BMT are changing because chemotherapy in leukemia and immunosuppressive therapy with/without colony stimulating factor in aplastic anemia are improving. Several progresses have been noted in matched unrelated BMT and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as well as in sibling BMT or autologous BMT. Many efforts are being made to decrease rejection rate or leukemia relapse and to improve quality of life by new conditioning regimens. Attempts to induce GVL effects or syngeneic GVHD are currently under progress. The quality of life in long term surviving children are generally good and acceptable, although delay in growth, infertility, cataract and obstructive lung disease are seen in a few patients. PMID:8315825

  13. Complications in bone marrow transplantation patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the usefulness of chest radiography and CT in the clinical assessment of complications in febrile bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. A total of 55 pairs of chest radiographs and CT scans obtained in 33 febrile BMT recipients were retrospectively analyzed. Findings were correlated with bacteriologic pathologic, and clinical data. In 43/55 pairs of images, complications of fungal infection (n = 21), bacteremia (n = 9), congestion (n = 4), capillary leak syndrome (n = 4), hemorrhage (n = 3), graft-versus-host reaction (n = 1), and interstitial pneumonitis (n = 1) were found. For the remaining 12, either a nonpulmonary infectious process (n = 2) or no apparent cause for the fever (n = 10) was discovered. In 20/21 patients with fungal infections, CT scans showed nodules with either cavitation (n = 7), hazy margin (n = 5), halo (n = 4), air bronchogram (n = 2), cluster of fluddy' nodules (n = 1), or clear margin (n = 1)

  14. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  15. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Ayako; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Shu [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1998-06-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  16. A method for generation of bone marrow-derived macrophages from cryopreserved mouse bone marrow cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Marim

    Full Text Available The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L. amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells.

  17. Bone infection in patients suspected of complicating osteomyelitis: the diagnostic value of dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thora; Stentzer, Kim; Hede, Adam;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with known bone pathology clinically suspected of osteomyelitis, i.e. complicating osteomyelitis, using per-operative bacterial culture from bone as reference. METHODS...... interpreted as positive for osteomyelitis if regions of interests of pathologic 111In granulocyte accumulation included 99mTc MDP activity on the bone images (except in the spine). RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84, 71 and 79%, respectively, for simultaneous, dual isotope bone......-granulocyte scintigraphy, higher than the other diagnostic parameters. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous bone-granulocyte scintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic tool in diagnosing osteomyelitis complicating other bone pathology with or without soft-tissue infection....

  18. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  19. Posthumous Bone Marrow and its Significance for Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow obtained by aspiration from the chest and iliac crest of adults who had died suddenly, or by forcing it out of their vertebrae, has been studied at the Leningrad Research Institute for Haematology and Blood Transfusion since 1959, with morphological, functional and biochemical methods. It has been found that the vital activity of the bone-marrow cells depends on the time which has elapsed since death, the optimum period being the first six hours after death. As can be seen from a number of indices (phagocytic activity, capacity for granulopoiesis of vital dyes, luminescent microscopy and energy metabolism) posthumous bone marrow removed during this period differs little from donor bone marrow. The number of bone-marrow cells taken from corpses is several times greater than the number that can be taken from live donors. Experimental and clinical results show that the transplantation of posthumous bone marrow has a stimulating effect on haemopoiesis. On the basis-of the research that has been carried out, bone marrow obtained within six hours of death can be regarded as valuable, biologically active tissue suitable for transplantation. (author)

  20. SPECT bone scintigraphy of medial collateral ligament/meniscus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Acute or chronic knee pain is common amongst athletic persons. MRI is generally regarded as the best test, but is not widely available and may lack specificity in meniscal tears and cruciate injury. Bone scan with SPECT is an appealing alternative since it is relatively cheap and easily obtained. Further, a number of investigators have published data indicating sensitivity and specificity exceeding 85%. The purpose of the study is to determine typical scintigraphic findings in medial collateral ligament or medial meniscus injury. We present a small group of patients with acute knee trauma in whom arthroscopy and/or clinical follow-up indicated medial collateral ligament injury. Bone scans were undertaken after 900-1000 MBq of 99mTc-MDP with immediate blood pool, delayed planar images and SPECT acquired on a Picker Prism 2000. SPECT was obtained with high resolution collimators and 20 sec/stop for 180 deg each. SPECT images showed focal radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the medial proximal tibial shaft and medial femoral condyle, corresponding to the superficial layer of the medial collateral ligament (best seen on coronal images). Disruption of the deep layer and/or medial meniscus can be suspected with abnormal uptake in part or all of the meniscus (best seen on transverse images). We conclude that acute/chronic medial collateral ligament injury can be detected on bone scintigraphy with abnormal uptake at the predicted anatomic site of attachment

  1. Bone scintigraphy in traumas and stress injuries; Knoglescintigrafi ved traumer og belastningsskader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanstrup Hansen, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is an easy and cheap diagnostic method for examination of stress injuries of lower extremities. A more specific diagnosis often has to be supplemented by MR scanning or X-radiography. (EG). 14 refs.

  2. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS)

  3. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: A New Player in Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emma V.; Edwards, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow is a favored site for a number of cancers, including the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma, and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer. This specialized microenvironment is highly supportive, not only for tumor growth and survival but also for the development of an associated destructive cancer-induced bone disease. The interactions between tumor cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts are well documented. By contrast, despite occupying a significant proportion of the bone marrow, the importance of bone marrow adipose tissue is only just emerging. The ability of bone marrow adipocytes to regulate skeletal biology and hematopoiesis, combined with their metabolic activity, endocrine functions, and proximity to tumor cells means that they are ideally placed to impact both tumor growth and bone disease. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of how marrow adipose tissue contributes to bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease.

  4. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm2(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Changes in Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat and Bone Mass After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, AL; Li, X; Schwartz, AV; Tufts, LS; Wheeler, AL; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, SJ; Carter, JT; Posselt, AM; Black, DM; Shoback, DM

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morb...

  6. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  7. Bone scintigraphy predicts the risk of spinal cord compression in hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prostate cancer, confirmation of metastatic involvement of the skeleton has traditionally been achieved by bone scintigraphy, although the widespread availability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements has tended to eliminate the need for this investigation. The potential of bone scintigraphy to predict skeletal-related events, particularly spinal cord compression, after the onset of hormone refractoriness has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether a new method of evaluating bone scintigraphy would offer a better predictive value for this complication of the metastatic process than is achieved with currently available grading methods. We studied 84 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy at the time of hormone escape. Tumour grading and parameters of tumour load (PSA and alkaline phosphatase activity) were available in all patients. The incidence of spinal cord compression was documented and all patients were followed up until death. Bone scintigraphy was evaluated by the conventional Soloway grading and by an additional analysis determining total or partial involvement of individual vertebrae. In contrast to the Soloway method, the new method was able to predict spinal cord compression at various spinal levels. Our data suggest that there is still a place for bone scintigraphy in the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. (orig.)

  8. Potential therapeutic role of cisplatinum in autologous bone marrow transplantation: in vitro eradication of neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettan-Renaud, L.; De Vathaire, F.; Bénard, J.; Morardet, N.; Pauzie, N.; Bayet, S.; Hartmann, O; Parmentier, C.

    1989-01-01

    Cisplatinum may prove to be a valuable agent for the elimination of diseased cells in the bone marrow of patients with neuroblastoma. In this study, we measured the efficacy of cisplatinum on human neuroblastoma cell lines and on normal human bone marrow progenitors, GM-CFC and CFU-F. Data indicate that the therapeutic index of cisplatinum is high. We set up an experimental model consisting of a mixture of human bone marrow and human neuroblastoma cells in order to confirm these preliminary r...

  9. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system; Skelett und Knochenmark - nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei onkologischen und haematologischen Systemerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-10-01

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Therapie onkologischer und haematologischer Systemerkrankungen wie der malignen Lymphome, des Plasmozytoms und der Osteomyelofibrose hat in den letzten Jahren grosse Fortschritte durch die Anwendung neuer Therapiemodalitaeten (Hochdosischemotherapie, Knochenmark- und Stammzelltransplantation, Einsatz von Interferon u.a.) erfahren. Grundlage der Diagnostik ist nach wie vor die histologische Beurteilung des Knochenmarks nach Biopsie. Ergaenzend spielen bildgebende radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur makroskopischen Beurteilung morphologischer und funktioneller Veraenderungen des gesamten Knochenmarkraumes eine zunehmende Rolle. Die Knochenmarkszintigraphie mit Radiokolloiden bzw. die Knochenmarkimmunszintigraphie stellen hierbei wichtige Methoden alternativ oder ergaenzend zur Kernspintomographie dar. Die Skelettszintigraphie als bewaehrte Methode vermag zusaetzlich ossaere

  10. SPECT-CT bone scintigraphy in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    %) lesions caused by direct infiltration of bone structures was observed in 6 pts . 4. 21 (15%) lesions with prevailing 'cold' osteolytic component were observed in 8 pts with renal, endometrial, colorectal or urinary bladder cancer. 5. 17 (12%) 'mixed-type' lesions - osteolytic and osteosclerotic were obtained in 6 cases. 6. Two pts were with 2 (1.9%) single extraosseous lesions: one - with myositis ossificans and the second -with soft tissue calcified metastasis in the right abdomen due to appendicitis cancer Conclusion: SPECT-CT increases the value of bone scintigraphy avoiding false-positive interpretation of areas with physiological tracer uptake, also facilitating the exact location and extent of tumor involvement.

  11. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative bone lesions using dexamethasone interventional 3- and 24-hour bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven adult patients with suspected skeletal metastases were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30), following intravenous administration of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), 3- and 24-h scintigraphy of bone lesions was performed. The 24/3 h lesion to bone background radiouptake ratio (RUR) was calculated for each lesion. In group B (n=47), the same procedure was followed with dexamethasone intervention (10 mg in 24 h) following the 3-h acquisition. In group A, after determination of the critical point, malignant and degenerative bone lesions could be separated with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.76, 0.72 and 0.73, respectively. The mean RUR of the malignant lesions was 1.20± 0.23, and that of the benign lesions, 0.95± 0.15. In group B cases, significantly increased sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.87, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, were found (P<0.001). The mean RUR of the malignant lesions was 1.48± 0.34, and that of degenerative lesions, 0.88± 0.19. Dexamethasone interventional bone scintigraphy seems to be a new cost-effective method for differentiating malignant from degenerative bone lesions using the RUR. (orig.)

  12. Effect of insulin on postradiation obesity of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On irradiated white rats (750 r) the effect of insulin on the content of fat in the bone marrow was studied. Fatty inclusions were calculated under the microscope in histological sections of the thighbone with the help of a grid divided into 256 squares. The results of investigations showed that during insulin administration the number of fat cells in the bone marrow of irradiated rats in comparison with the control group significantly decreased in 5 and 10 days. In 15 days when the reverse development of the fatty process starts, the effect of insulin is less marked. It is supposed that the obesity of the bone marrow under the effect of insulin decreases due to the early established stimulation of the bone marrow hemopoietic tissue by the hormone regeneration

  13. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  14. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a /sup 133/Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple /sup 133/Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera.

  15. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols. PMID:27074509

  16. Bone-marrow alterations after half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mouse bone marrow was investigated after upper half-body, upper and lower half-body and whole-body irradiation, resp., with regard to the development of an animal model for half-body treatment of tumor patients. As a result of the studies the practicability of bilateral half-body irradiation can be assumed as to the regeneration of the bone marrow and the survival of the whole organism based on a kind of 'endogeneous transplantation' of bone marrow cells from the unirradiated area into the irradiated one. Resulting from the single irradiations distinct reductive cellular effects followed by exceeding regeneration in the irradiated parts of the bone marrow as well as compensatory proliferations in the unirradiated parts could be revealed. The dynamics of the number of cells essentially turned out on account of leukopoiesis. The results presented are a guideline for the interpretation of clinical processes following upper and lower adjuvant half-body irradiation

  17. Glucocorticoids induce autophagy in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Fan, J.; Lin, Y. S.;

    2015-01-01

    and their responses to diverse stimuli, however, the role of autophagy in glucocorticoidinduced damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The current study confirmed that glucocorticoid administration impaired the proliferation of BMSCs. Transmission electron microscopy...

  18. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Marrow Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonemarrowdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  19. Use of Bone Marrow derived Stem Cells in patients with Cardiovascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end stage heart failure have very few treatment options. The long waiting times for transplant and the complications associated with immunosuppression has led to the search for alternatives. Subsequent to the isolation and characterization of stem cells, tremendous advances have been made and the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow derived stem cells has been proven in preclinical studies. Clinical studies have also shown mobilized cells repair the infracted heart, improving function and survival. We have started a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of bone marrow derived stem cells. Bone-marrow was aspirated from the right iliac crest and the stem cells were isolated by density gradient method and suspended according to the mode of delivery.From Jan 2007 till date 10 patients (8 adults, 2 children, age with end stage cardiovascular disorder of varied etiology (Ischemic left ventricular dysfunction - 6 patients, Primary pulmonary hypertension - 2 patients, Dilated cardiomyopathy -1 patient, Biventricular non-compaction -1 patient underwent stem cell therapy. All patients were evaluated and cardiac function was measured by using echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy. There were no procedure related complications. These patients are being regularly followed-up and one patient who has completed 6-month follow-up has shown improvement in perfusion as well as increase in ejection fraction of 10%. Stem cell therapy in patients with end-stage cardiovascular disorder might be a promising tool by means of angiogenesis and other paracrine mechanisms.

  20. Utility of bone marrow aspiration in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, H.; R Sen; Singh, S.; J. P. Malik; S. B. Siwach; R. Rajput

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to look for evidence of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in bone marrow (BM) in patients of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Fifty cases suspected of extrapulmonary tuberculosis underwent bone marrow aspiration from sternum/illiac crest and were put on a therapeutic trial of antituberculosis therapy. All cases taken in the study responded to the therapy. The pattern of involvement were – abdominal (20), CNS (19), pericardial involvement (5), cervical lymphadenopathy (2), PUO (2),...

  1. A marker chromosome in post-transplant bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Morsberger, Laura; Powell, Kerry; Ning, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Detection of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in karyotype analysis represents a diagnostic challenge. While such markers are usually detected during cytogenetic studies of constitutional chromosome abnormalities, they have also been found in specimens submitted from patients with acquired malignancies. We report here the detection of a marker chromosome in a bone marrow specimen from a patient who received a bone marrow transplantation. We discuss the importance of proper characterizat...

  2. Characterization of murine macrophages from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Changqi; Yu Xiao; Cao Qi; Wang Ya; Zheng Guoping; Tan Thian Kui; Zhao Hong; Zhao Ye; Wang Yiping; Harris David CH

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Macrophages have heterogeneous phenotypes and complex functions within both innate and adaptive immune responses. To date, most experimental studies have been performed on macrophages derived from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum. However, differences among macrophages from these particular sources remain unclear. In this study, the features of murine macrophages from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum were compared. Results We found that peritoneal macrophages (PMs) app...

  3. Effect of 910-MHz Electromagnetic Field on Rat Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    George Demsia; Dimitris Vlastos; Demetrios P. Matthopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the possibility of electromagnetic fields (EMF) developed by nonionizing radiation to be a noxious agent capable of inducing genotoxicity to humans, in the current study we have investigated the effect of 910-MHz EMF in rat bone marrow. Rats were exposed daily for 2 h over a period of 30 consecutive days. Studying bone marrow smears from EMF-exposed and sham-exposed animals, we observed an almost threefold increase of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs)...

  4. Memory T-cell competition for bone marrow seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Francesca; Santoni, Angela

    2003-03-01

    The presence in the bone marrow of memory CD8 T cells is well recognized. However, it is still largely unclear how T-cell migration from the lymphoid periphery to the bone marrow is regulated. In the present report, we show that antigen-specific CD4 T cells, as well as antigen-specific CD8 T cells, localize to the bone marrow of immunized mice, and are sustained there over long periods of time. To investigate the rules governing T-cell migration to the bone marrow, we generated chimeric mice in which the lymphoid periphery contained two genetically or phenotypically distinct groups of T cells, one of which was identical to the host. We then examined whether a distinct type of T cell had an advantage over the others in the colonization of bone marrow. Our results show that whereas ICAM1 and CD18 molecules are both involved in homing to lymph nodes, neither is crucial for T-cell bone marrow colonization. We also observed that memory-phenotype CD44high T cells, but not virgin-type CD44-/low T cells, preferentially home to the bone marrow upon adoptive transfer to normal young mice, but not to thymectomized old recipients where an existing memory T-cell pool precludes their free access. Thus, T-cell colonization of the bone marrow uses distinct molecules from those implicated in lymph node homing, and is regulated both by the properties of the T cell and by the competitive efficacy of other T cells inhabiting the same, saturable niche. This implies that the homing potential of an individual lymphocyte is not merely an intrinsic property of the cell, but rather a property of the lymphoid system taken as a whole. PMID:12603595

  5. Bone marrow cells contribute to tissue regeneration in the intestine and skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Brittan, M

    2005-01-01

    Adult bone marrow contains progenitor cells that can extricate themselves from their bone marrow cavity niche, and engraft within foreign tissues, whereupon they produce specific differentiated adult lineages. Bone marrow engraftment is upregulated with increasing regenerative pressure, which has triggered speculation as to the therapeutic potential of bone marrow cells. In this thesis, I describe for the first time, that transplanted adult bone marrow cells engraft within the intestines of m...

  6. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked....... As in normal bone marrow, argyrophilic fibres and type III collagen displayed a close co-distribution, which was also demonstrated for type IV collagen and laminin. While normal bone marrow sinusoids had discontinuous basement membranes, fibrosing bone marrow was characterized by endothelial cell...

  7. 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy in myeloma bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Evaluation of the role of scintigraphy with 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) in the detection of bone marrow involvement in patients (pts) with multiple myeloma (MM) and in follow-up. 62 pts with MM and 38 pts with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) were enrolled in this study. Forty-seven out sixty-two MM pts had active disease (AD), 10/62 were in complete remission (CR) and 5/62 in partial remission (PR) after chemotherapy. Whole-body scans were obtained 10 min after the i.v. injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI in anterior and posterior view. The scans were scored semiquantitatively according to extension and intensity of tracer uptake. All 38 MGUS pts had a negative 99mTc-MIBI scan. As to the MM pts, 49/62 pts (44 with AD, 4 with PR and 1 with CR) had a positive 99mTc-MIBI scan, while the 99mTc-MIBI scan was negative in 13/62 pts (9 with CR, 1 with PR and 3 with AD). The overall sensitivity of the scintigraphic procedure was 92 % while specificity was 97 %. A total of 42 follow-up scans with 99mTc-MIBI were performed in 30 MM pts after high-dose chemotherapy, with an average follow-up duration of 14.6 ± 8.9. The follow-up 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy was positive in 14/15 of the AD pts, while 6/8 negative scans were observed in the CR pts; the seven PR pts exhibited in five cases a negative scan and in two a mild scintigrafic positivity. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the follow-up scan were, respectively, 86 % and 75 %. In six patients, one at the diagnosis and five showing a positive 99mTc-MIBI scan during the follow-up, 740 MBq of 99mTc-TF was administered within two days with the same acquisition protocol. The scans provided substantially identical information. 99mTc-TF provided a mildly higher contrast between lesion and background activities. The results obtained in this study provide additional evidence indicating that 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy closely reflects myeloma disease activity in

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Indication of Bone Scintigraphy Performed in Our Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Aydogan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bone scintigraphy is one of the commonly used radionuclide imaging and it is successfully used in the diagnosis and follow-up of many diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the indications and filming protocols of bone scintigraphy which was performed in our clinic. Material and Method: Two hundred and fifty two patients (132 male, 120 female who was performed bone scintigprapy in our clinic between December 2011 and June 2013 included the study. Mean age was 50.1±20.2 years. Scintigraphic protocols were made in two ways as late static whole body imaging and three-phase bone scintigraphy according to the type of the diseases. Indications of scintigraphies and scintigraphic protocols were detected. Results: Bone scintigraphy was performed for diagnosis and monitoring of metastatic bone disease to 102 patients (40,5 %, for orthopedic applications to 57 patients (22,6 %, for diagnosis and monitoring of primary bone tumors to 29 patients (11,5 %, for diagnosis of osteomyelitis to 17 patients (6,7 %, for differential diagnosis of infection and loosening of the prosthesis to 12 patients (4,8 %, investigate the viability of the graft in 14 patients (4,6 %, for rheumatologic diseases to 9 patients (3,6 %, for investigate the pathological vertebral fractures and osteoporosis to 4 patients (1,6 %, for diagnosis the metabolic bone disease to 2 patients (0,8 %, for diagnosis of otitis externa to 5 patients (1,98 % and for for suspicion of malignancy to 1 patient (0,4 %. Late static whole body imaging protocol was applied to 136 patients (54 % and three-phase imaging protocol was applied to 116 patients (46 %. Discussion: The most common use of bone scintigraphy is the diagnosis and follow-up of metastatic bone disease. It is followed by reasons such as orthopedic applications, monitoring and diagnosis of primary bone tumors and diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

  9. Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow in patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow was performed by technetium-99m- (99mTc) labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody BW 250/183 (AGMoAb) scans in 32 patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer. AGMoAb scans showed bone marrow defects in 25/32 (78%) patients; bone invasion was subsequently confirmed in 23 (72%) patients. Conventional bone scans performed within the same week detected bone metastases in 17/32 (53%) patients (p less than 0.001). AGMoAb scans detected more sites indicating metastatic disease than bone scans in 12 of these 17 patients (71%). All patients with bone metastases in the axial skeleton had bone marrow defects at least at the sites of bone metastases. Of 15 patients with normal, or indicative of, benign disease bone scans, 8 patients (53%) presented with bone marrow defects in the AGMoAb scans. Bone invasion was confirmed in six of them. AGMoAb bone marrow scans provide a method for the early detection of bone metastatic invasion in patients with breast cancer and suspected bone metastases

  10. Etiological Profile of Plasmacytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, during routine examination of bone marrow aspirates, an increased plasma cell per­centage has been noted in a good number of cases which included both neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. An attempt has been made to observe the spectra of condi­tions with plasmacytosis in bone marrow. Methods: The present study was conducted in the de­partment of pathology over a period of one year. A total of 114 bone marrow aspirates that showed increased plas­ma cells (>3.5% constitute the study material. A detailed relevant clinical examination followed by complete blood count, peripheral smear examination and bone marrow aspiration was done in all cases. Results: There was slight female predominance with male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The majority of patients were in 4th decade. The plasma cell concentration ranged from 5% to 36%. As far as the etiology is concerned, 96 cases (84.2% were non-neoplastic and 18 cases (15.7% had neoplastic etiology. Conclusion: Bone marrow plasmacytosis can present as diagnostic dilemma and some time can be challenging to differentiate reactive from neoplastic condition as there is an overlap both in counts and morphology. Each case with plasmacytosis especially in the overlap range requires complete clinical evaluation, individualized investigations and more specific tests like immunoelectrophoresis and bone marrow biopsy with immunohistochemistry to arrive at a final diagnosis for patient management.

  11. The separation of a mixture of bone marrow stem cells from tumor cells: an essential step for autologous bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHT tumor cells were mixed with mouse bone marrow to simulate a sample of bone marrow containing metastatic tumor cells. This mixture was separated into a bone marrow fraction and a tumor cell fraction by centrifugal elutriation. Elutriation did not change the transplantability of the bone marrow stem cells as measured by a spleen colony assay and an in vitro erythroid burst forming unit assay. The tumorogenicity of the KHT cells was similarly unaffected by elutriation. The data showed that bone marrow cells could be purified to less than 1 tumor cell in more than 106 bone marrow cells. Therefore, purification of bone marrow removed prior to lethal radiation-drug combined therapy for subsequent autologous transplantation appears to be feasible using modifications of this method if similar physical differences between human metastatic tumor cells and human bone marrow cells exist. This possibility is presently being explored

  12. MRI evaluation of rabbit bone marrow after acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: magnetic resonance imaging is a safe modality and useful in characterizing normal and abnormal bone marrow. magnetic resonance imaging also presents a more global view of bone marrow than biopsy; therefore , it may provide a better understanding of hematologic disorders. The purpose of this study was to monitor radiation-induced alterations of bone marrow in acute phase of irradiation (1-10 day after total body irradiation with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: twelve New Zealand adult male white rabbits (10 for total body irradiation and 2 as controls) were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma rays. magnetic resonance imaging was performed for each rabbit femoral marrow and marginal muscles around femur region (as internal control) using T1-weighted (W) and SPIR (TR/TE 631/15) techniques before and after (24h, 48h, 72h, 5d, 10d) post total body irradiation. Results: the results were expressed as MR signal ratio (mean MR signal of femur/mean MR signal of muscle). The bone marrow MR- signal intensity values were subsequently compared to the histologic values of bone marrow cellularity, edema and hemorrhage. Values of T1-signal intensity of bone marrow for 1 to 5 days after irradiation was smaller than those the values for before irradiation data (P< 0.006) SPIR-signal intensity values of bone marrow in 3, 5 and 10 days were less than values for before irradiation (P<0.001). Since signal intensity depends to edema and hemorrhage the high correlation between cellularity and T1-signal intensity (r=0.725, P= 0.018) or SPIR-SI (r= 0.814, P 0.004) was not found. Conclusion: This study indicated that radiation-induced modification of bone marrow-signal intensity is tightly linked to the parameters like decline of all hematopoietic cell lines, edema and hemorrhage. IT was concluded that magnetic resonance imaging can distinguish normal from irradiated bone marrow so that radiation-induced alterations in bone marrow could be assessed with

  13. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body irradiation was used in 22 patients as part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients with acute leukemia received 1000 cGy TBI in addition with chemotherapy. None of them survived and the main cause of death was interstitial pneumonitis (50%). 4 patients received 1000 cGy with a lung shielding of 500 cGy. Two patients with acute leukemia died of leukemia and sepsis, two patients had aplastic anemia, one is surviving, the other died of severe GVHD and infectious complications. Nine patients with severe aplastic anemia strongly immunized by previous blood transfusions received 800 cGy TBI with a lung shielding of 400 cGy. No rejection was observed and 7 patients (63%) are currently alive. One patient died of interstitial pneumonitis probably related to CMV infection, one of subacute necrotizing hepatitis, two of severe acute GVHD. It is concluded from this study that TBI remains the best immunosuppressive conditioning regimen even in strongly immunized patients. It may be a contributing factor of the incidence and severity of interstitial pneumonitis. A reduction of the dose of the lung to 400-500 cGy seems to decrease the severity of this complication

  14. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology. (orig.)

  15. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Thalassemia (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zakerinia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades conventional therapy has improvedthe prognosis of thalassemia. However, despite such improvementit still remains a progressive disease with treatment-related complicationssuch as hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and cardiac disease.Bone marrow transplantation (BMT can prevent or delay progressionof the aforementioned complications. The importance ofclinical research in the field of BMT was recognized with theaward of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to E.Donnall Thomas, one of the pioneers of BMT in humans. GeorgeMathe' was a pioneer in the early development of clinical BMT.Mathe' et al. were the first to describe graft-versus-host-disease(GVHD and its treatment, and the graft-versus- leukemia (GVLeffect in human. The first BMT for β-thalassemia major was performedsuccessfully by Thomas et al. in Seattle, in 1981. In thesame year another patient with β-thalassemia major underwentBMT in Pesaro, Italy, by Lucarelli et al. Since then, several hundredtransplantations have been performed worldwide, the majorityof these in Italy. From 1991 through 2007 BMT have beenperformed on 497 (Tehran=342, Shiraz=155 blood transfusiondependent patients with thalassemia major in Iran, with diseasefreesurvival of 71-77% respectively. Due to high graft failureand GVHD rates, BMT from alternative donors should be restrictedto patients who have poor life expectancies because theycannot receive adequate conventional treatment or because of alloimmunizationto minor blood antigens. Beginning in the early1980s, it was shown that umbilical cord blood contained high levelsof hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  16. Implications of three phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphosphonate (BP) related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well known serious complication of BP treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of three phase bone scintigraphy in patients with BRONJ. Forty one patients (48 lesions)with clinically proven BRONJ (2 males, 39 females, age 74.3±6.7 years)under went Tc 99m HDP bone scintigraphy. Visual interpretation and semiquantitative analysis of uptakes using lesion to contralateral uptake ratios during the blood pool phase (BUR)and during the osseous phase (OUR)were performed, and relations were sought between these and various clinical parameters. Three phase bone scintigraphy showed increased perfusion and blood pooling in 21 (63.6%)and 27 (81.8%)of 33 lesions, respectively. The osseous phase was positive for 45 (93.8%)of the 48 lesions. Of the four inflammatory clinical parameters of BRONJ [pus discharge, pain, swelling, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)], patients with three or more parameters had more positive findings in vascular and blood pool phase images (p=0.033, p=0.027). By semiquantitative analysis, patients with a positive ESR had statistically higher BUR and OUR (both p<0.001). Higher stage BRONJ lesions had higher OUR than lower stage lesions (p=0.003). In addition, bone scintigraphy revealed three clinically covert BRONJ lesions without bone exposure, and four patients were up staged based on bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy provides a relatively sensitive means of detecting BRONJ, so it was helpful for accurate BRONJ staging. Furthermore, Increased uptakes in vascular and blood pool phases of three phase bone scintigraphy were related to the inflammatory activity of BRONJ

  17. The value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH). Methods: Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed on 23 LCH patients. Results: Nineteen of 23 patients (82.6%) showed positive in their bone scan. Eight cases were with cranial abnormal uptake, clavicle, rib and pelvis involvements were seen and each was of 3 cases, respectively, upper limb, lower limb and spinal abnormal uptakes were seen in 2, 4 and 5 patients, respectively, and 1 child had photon deficient area in the lower part of the sternum. Among 19 positive scintigrams, solitary bone lesion was shown in 9 patients (47.4%). Conclusion: Characters of bone scintigraphy in LCH are useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. (authors)

  18. The contribution of bone scintigraphy in occupational health or medical insurance claims: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with a suspicion of bone damage following an industrial or traffic accident are often referred for bone scintigraphy as part of an occupational health or medical insurance investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution and the potential role of bone scintigraphy compared with X-ray investigations in the aforementioned situation. To this end we evaluated 70 consecutive patients referred for bone scintigraphy during 1996 and 1997 by occupational health or medical insurance physicians. The most common reasons for referral were the exclusion of occult fractures of hands and feet, whiplash injuries, reflex sympathetic dystrophy or avascular necrosis, or the differentiation between an old and a recent vertebral fracture. X-rays were only available for comparative review of 53 patients, so only those were analysed. The results of bone scintigraphy were compared with X-rays, and their contribution and potential role in occupational health or medical insurance investigations assessed. In 31 out of the 53 patients investigated, bone scintigraphy findings concurred with X-rays as to the number and location of abnormalities. For 19 of the 53 patients, bone scintigraphy showed clinically relevant additional foci when compared with X-rays, predominantly involving lesions to hands/wrists and feet/ankles. Among these 19 patients, scintigraphic diagnoses were subsequently confirmed in ten cases by means of X-ray or computed tomography. In four patients, supplementary radiological investigations revealed no abnormalities, and in five patients no further investigations were undertaken. Finally, in three of the 53 patients, X-rays revealed bone damage (burst fractures) whilst the corresponding bone scintigraphy was negative, thus excluding recent injury. In conclusion, in 22 patients, representing 42% of the cases analysed, bone scintigraphy was conclusive compared with X-ray imaging in the final diagnosis and in this way in detecting occult or excluding

  19. Diffuse Hypermetabolism at Bone Marrow in F-18 FDG PET/CT: Correlation with Bone Marrow Biopsy and Complete Blood Cell Counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Increased FDG uptake in the bone marrow has been reported in patients taking erythropoietin or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the bone marrow and bone marrow finding, hematological parameters. Twenty patients who had diffuse FDG uptake at the bone marrow and received hematological examinations, bone marrow biopsy within 10 days before or after PET/CT were enrolled in this study. Among them, 11 patients were excluded; 4 patients received G-CSF or erythropoietin before PET/CT. Seven patients showed definite pathology in a bone marrow biopsy. The parameters included the measurement of WBC, hemoglobin, platelet and cellularity of the bone marrow. Bone marrow FDG uptake was correlated with a low hemoglobin but not WBC, platelet. Histopathologic findings in marrow biopsies were various: normal finding (n=3), hyperplasia of granulocytic cells (n=2), eosinophilic hyperplasia (n=1), reactive lymphoid nodules (n=1), hypercelluar marrow (n=1), hypocelluar marrow (n=1). All patients except two, showed normal marrow celluarity. FDG uptake by bone marrow correlated with anemia but not WBC, platelet, bone marrow cellularity.

  20. Transplantation of bone marrow in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow transplants were carried out in 13 patients suffering from acute irradiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. Only blood relations of the patients were used as donors. The number of bone marrow cells transplanted must be at least 2x108 per kilogram of recipient weight. The experience of the present bone marrow transplants has shown defects in clinical methods of early diagnosis (during the first 7-10 days after exposure) of acute radiation injuries to the skin, intestine and lungs which are incompatible with survival. Another problem with bone marrow transplants for patients suffering from acute radiation sickness is to determine to what extent the depression of marrow activity is irreversible. Spontaneous regeneration of myelopoiesis was observed 22-30 days after exposure in patients who had received doses of 7-9 Gy. A lapse of this order before the onset regeneration is therefore, in principle, compatible with survival under the conditions of modern support therapy. Thus, the belief that prolonged acute radiation pancytopenia which is incompatible with survival starts already at doses of 5-6 Gy is evidently incorrect, at least for the relatively low exposure dose rates experienced by this group of victims. The results of bone marrow transplants in victims of the Chernobyl accident suggest that, in future, the following rules should be observed in transplanting human bone marrow to victims of acute radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identical transplants should be carried out; and (2) HLA-identical bone marrow transplants should be carried out only in patients who have received whole body doses of gamma radiation of 9.0 Gy or more. (author). 1 tab

  1. The role of radionuclide bone scanning in follow-up of asymptomatic patients with early breast cancer (stage TIa-c)and bone marrow micro metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The presence of bone marrow micro metastases (MM-BM) in women with early breast cancer is a significant biological factor for the survival of patients (pts) with this oncological disease. The study was designed to investigate the role of radionuclide bone scanning as a highly sensitive staging procedure for detection of bone metastases in pts with MM-BM and breast cancer, stage TIa-c. Methods: Whole-body scintigraphy was carried out in 100 pts with breast cancer, stage Ia-c (aged 26-76 years, median 56) according to the clinical protocol for the 5-year postoperative follow-up. Occult tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates, taken during the surgery, were detected by cytologic and cytochemical techniques in 28 of the cases. Tumoral size (TIa,b,c), axillary lymph node status, histological type, tumor grade and SR/PR receptor status were scored for all pts. CHI-SQUARE TEST x2 was used to evaluate statistical significance of these factors for developing of bone metastases in studied women. Results: Multiple bone metastases were found on bone scans in 13 of 28 pts with MM-BM (46.4%) and in 3 of 72 pts without MM-BM(4.1%). On statistical analysis of all studied pts with early breast cancer, tumoral size, clinical N-stage, histological type, tumor grade and ER/PR receptor status were not significant (p>0.05), whereas the presence of MM-BM was significant (p<0.001) bone marrow for the development of osseous metastases in early breast cancer. Conclusion: Early identification of MM-BM and bone scintigraphy regularly performed in these pts, may have a role as factors for preventive therapy with biphosphonates in early breast cancer patients. Recent studies have supported their potential clinical application to stratify patients for adjuvant therapy

  2. Partitioning of bone marrow into stem cell regulatory domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, M A; Lamela, R A; Banda, M J; Patt, H M

    1982-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that bone marrow consists of discrete stem cell regulatory volumes or domains, we studied spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) population growth kinetics in unirradiated WBB6F1-W/Wv mice receiving various doses of +/+ bone marrow cells. Assay of femoral marrow CFU-S content in the eight recipient dose groups revealed a family of growth curves having an initial dose-independent exponential phase and a subsequent dose-dependent deceleration phase. CFU-S content at the gr...

  3. The production of IL-1, IL-3, CSA by bone marrow nuclears during bone marrow haemopoiesis after lethal irradiation and syngenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of haemopoietic factors (IL-1, IL-3, CSA) by adherent and unadherent cells of lethally irradiate CBA mice bone marrow and after syngenic myelokaryocyte transplantation was studied. Radioresistant myelokaryocytes capable to produce haemopoetic factors IL-1, CSA as early as 24 hr after irradiation were found in adherent cell fraction. The synthesis of humoral factors (IL-3, CSA) by unadherent bone marrow elements was realised in a late of experiment (3-6 days) that was connected with forming of functionally valuable cell forms from transplanted or viable stem cells

  4. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolat...

  5. Effects of Platelet Factor 4 on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfate in Syngenic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡凯; 孙汉英; 刘文励; 袁慧玲; 徐惠珍; 孙岚; 周银莉; 任天华

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To explore the effects of platelet factor 4(PF4) on hematopoietic reconstitution and its mechanism in syngenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The syngenic BMT mice models were established. 20 and 26 h before irradiation, the mice were injected 20 μg/kg PF4 or PBS twice into abdominal cavity, then the donor bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were transplanted. On the 7th day, spleen clone forming units (CFU-S) were counted. On the 7th, 14th and 21st day after BMT, the BMNC and megakaryoryocytes in bone marrow tissue were counted and the percentage of hematopoietic tissue and expression level of heparan sulfate in bone marrow tissue were assessed. In PF4-treated groups, the CFU-S counts on the 7th day were higher than those in BMT groups after BMT. The BMNC and megakaryoryocyte counts and the percentage of hematopoietic tissue and heparan sulfate expression level were higher than those in BMT group on the 7th, 14th and 21st day after BMT (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). PF4 could accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution of syngenic bone marrow transplantation. The promotion of the heparan sulfate expression in bone marrow may be one of mechanisms of PF4.

  6. Evaluation of bone scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-phosphate compounds was evaluated from the analysis of 71 consecutive cases of various benign bone tumors whether the scintigrams could be helpful in their differential diagnosis. The characteristics of the scintigraphic image at the site of bone lesions were noticed as being marked (++), moderate (+) and poor or minimal (-), according to the degree of accumulation of the radioactivity. Fibrous dysplasia (8 among 9 cases) as well as aneurysmal bone cyst (3 among 4 cases) had strong tendency of marked accumulation. Poor or minimal accumulation was observed in almost all of the lesions of nonossifying fibroma including fibrous cortical defect (6 all cases), solitary bone cyst (4 among 6 cases) and enchondroma (3 among 4 cases). Moderate accumulation was said to be non-specific, since it could be encountered in any types of benign bone tumors. But it was noticed that the majority of the bone lesions of eosinophilic granuloma (7 among 9 cases) showed moderate accumulation and the scintigraphic evidence of the skeletal disease appeared to be less extensive than the roentgenogram. These scintigraphic characteristics realized in some benign bone tumors occasionally played an important role in clinical diagnosis, especially in the cases atypical on roentgenographic findings. Several instructive cases whose final diagnosis was strongly linked to the scintigraphic informations were demonstrated. (author)

  7. T1 value of hyperplastic and hypoplastic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the bone marrow of 18 patients (11 normal control, 4 aplastic anemia, 2 chronic myelocytic leukemia, 1 polycythemia vera) were discussed. MR imager had 0.15T registive system. Sagittal section of the body was obtained with inversion recovery (TR1,000, 1,600/TI 350, 450/TE 13, 40 msec) and saturation recovery (TR 1,000, 2,000/TE 13,40 msec) sequences. T1 relaxation time was calculated from those images. T1 value of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone marrow which contains red marrow even in elderly patients was measured. The results were as follows: 1) T1 values of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and polycythemia vera were longer than that of normal. 2) T1 values of four aplastic anemia were all shorter than normal. CML and polycythemia vera can be called myeloproliferative disease and their bone marrows are hyperplastic, which may explain elongated T1. The bone marrow of aplasticanemia is hypoplastic and shows fatty change which may have decreased T1. Our results suggest T1 value of bone marrow is useful to evaluate hematological disorders. (author)

  8. Evaluation of radiation effects on hematopoetic bone marrow by immunoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R.; Buell, U. [Technical Univ. of Aachen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause dose-dependent damage to the hematopoetic bone marrow (HBM) within the portal. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate acute suppression and long term recovery of HBM by use of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy (BMI) with monoclonal antibodies (1 mg of intact BW 250/183 labelled with 350-400 MBq Tc-99m) against NCA-95, expressed on granulocytes and their precursor cells. Ninety-five planar scintigrams covering 114 portals were analyzed. Antibody uptake of irradiated bone marrow was quantified by ROI-technique and expressed as percentage of uptake in corresponding areas outside the portal. During irradiation a marked drop of marrow uptake significantly correlating with the already received dose was observed. Scans obtained after completion of radiotherapy revealed a reduced uptake ({approximately}40% of the reference region) for about 4 years. Afterwards bone marrow normalized in portals with doses <35 Gy while following >35 Gy diminished uptake (70{plus_minus}25%) persisted indicating irreversible damage to HBM. We conclude that BMI is suitable for evaluation of acute damage and long time recovery of functional bone marrow after therapeutic irradiation and may be used for optimized planning of repeated radiotherapy.

  9. Bone scintigraphy and clinical outcome in rheumatoid gonarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: For evaluation of the effect of radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) on the early and delayed uptake of 99mTc-biphosphonates and its relation to clinical outcome we studied these variables before and after radiosynoviorthesis performed on 41 knees affected by rheumatoid arthritis. Method: Thirty-seven patients with rheumatoid gonarthritis were treated by intraarticular injection with 185 MBq yttrium-90 citrate. In four of them both knees were treated so that 41 therapies were evaluated. On the average 35 days before and 120 days after radiosynoviorthesis, the early and delayed uptake of 99mTc-diphosphonate (DPD) was measured with a planar gamma camera. Early and late DPD uptake was quantified as a ratio between count values derived from rectangular ROIs placed on the knee treated and on the ipsilateral thigh. The severity of clinical symptoms was assessed on two 3-point rating scales averaged. Results: 30 of the 41 cases favorably responded to radiosynoviorthesis. There was a significant correlation between clinical outcomeand pretherapeutic early DPD uptake (EDU) (p0.05). In 25 of the 30 responders EDU decreased; EDU increased or remained constant in five of the eleven non-responders. The correlation between outcome and the difference in EDU was significant (r = 0.344; p<0.05). There was no such significant relationship between the difference between pre- and posttherapeutic DDU and clinical course. Conclusion: Three-phase bone scintigraphy may contribute to predict and assess the success of radiosynoviorthesis in rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of unclassified arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Anne; Østergaard, M; Hørslev-Petersen, K;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value in clinical practice of hand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole body bone scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of patients with unclassified arthritis. METHODS: 41 patients with arthritis (> or = 2 swollen joints, > 6 months' duration) which...... joints of the most symptomatic hand and whole body bone scintigraphy were performed. Two rheumatologists agreed on the most likely diagnosis and the patients were treated accordingly. A final diagnosis was made by another specialist review 2 years later. RESULTS: Tentative diagnoses after MRI and bone...

  11. Cause of focal uptake in the cervical vertebral column in routine bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, U.; Winkler, U.

    1983-09-01

    Focal uptake was seen in the cervical vertebral column of 61 patients in the course of routine bone scintigraphy. These focal increases were subjected to close analysis. In 60 of these patients (98.4%) degenerative lesions became manifest as the cause of the scintigraphic finding already by the bone scintigraphy pattern (paravertebral localisation in the posterior and dorsal localisation in the lateral. Two typical examples of metastatic changes are presented to facilitate differentiation. The bone scintigraphic pattern in arthrosis of the intervertebral joint is so typical that X-ray control examinations to confirm the diagnosis can be omitted in many cases.

  12. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. R.; Williams, C E; Edwards, R H; Davies, J M

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen consecutive patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) referred for autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) underwent quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow. Markedly elevated lumbar vertebral marrow T1 values suggestive of bone marrow involvement with HD were seen in four patients, two of whom had no evidence of HD on bilateral iliac crest bone marrow biopsy. Serial studies showed normalisation of T1 values in the post-...

  13. Study on temporomandibular joint disorders by bone scintigraphy and bone metabolic markers (ICTP, PICP) in synovial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone metabolic condition in imaging findings of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) using bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity to bone metabolism, and two bone metabolic markers: pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) which influence both the formation and absorption of bone. The subjects were 92 patients (18 male, 74 female, mean age 40.3±18.2 years of age, 112 temporomandibular joints (TMJs)) with TMD who underwent bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate sodium (MDP) and/or had their concentration of bone metabolic markers (ICTP and PICP) measured in synovial lavage fluid by a radioimmunoassay kit using competitive inhibition. Synovial lavage fluid was a mixture of synovial fluid and physiological saline, obtained by irrigation of the superior joint compartment of TMD patients. Sixteen female controls (mean age 42.7±15.7 years of age) with no symptoms of TMD, but who had other diseases and who underwent bone scintigraphy, were selected. The position and configuration of the articular disk of patients with TMD were diagnosed by MRI and/or double contrastarthrography. All patients were examined for morphological bone change of the TMJ by tomography and were evaluated using both a positive ratio and an accumulation ratio (radioactivity counts of TMJ region/radioactivity counts of neck soft tissue region) by bone scintigraphy. We obtained the following results and conclusions. All the temporomandibular joints with morphological bone change showed an increase in accumulation by bone scintigraphy. Some of the temporomandibular joints without morphological bone change also showed an increase in accumulation. There were no statistically significant differences between disk position, disk configuration and accumulation ratio. Most of the temporomandibular joints, which had an increase in accumulation

  14. The role of bone scintigraphy in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present one case of bone-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a three-year-old male child presenting osseous lesions in the skull and the femur, which are very frequent localizations in histiocytosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful for both initial staging and follow-up associated with other imaging modalities. (authors)

  15. Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Özçivici

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types.

  16. 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of stress fracture of the metatarsal bones mimicking oligoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stress fractures are the injuries of soft tissues and bones caused by intensive and repeated stress on a bone. Repeated submaximal stress disturbs the balance between the processes of bone production and resorption that results in fracture. Case report. We presented a case of a patient with stress fracture of metatarsal bone. The patient was diagnosed and treated as having reactive oligoarthritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and administered antibiotics. Initial plain radiography was negative for bone fracture. Tc-99m bone scintigraphy suggested stress fracture of the second metatarsal. Plain radiography was became positive three weeks later, showing callus formation in the proximal part of the second metatarsal. Conclusion. Bone scintigraphy is a diagnostic test of choice in early diagnosis of stress fracture, and it is important to apply it timely in order to include the entire therapy and prevent complications, as well as to let a patient return to previous daily activites.

  17. The skeletal radiography vs bone scintigraphy in assessment of bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the radiography and bone scintigraphy for bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods: Skeletal radiographs and bone radionuclide images of 20 patients newly diagnosed as multiple myeloma were comparatively studied. Results: On radiograph, lytic bone destruction was seen in 90% cases, pathological fracture was revealed in 80% cases, and diffuse osteoporosis was shown in 80% cases. While the positive rate of the bone scintigraphy was 45%. Areas of increased uptake and filling defects were revealed on scintigraphic images. Conclusion: Radiography has higher sensitivity and specificity than radionuclide imaging in imaging bone destruction and pathological fracture in patients with multiple myeloma. Skeletal radiography is still the first choice of imaging modalities in assessing the bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma

  18. Whole-body MRI of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: comparison with radiography and bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Ra, Young Shin [Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Song, Joon Sup; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin; Ghim, Thad; Moon, Hyung Nam [Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-10-15

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Historically this is undertaken using plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Recently, whole-body (WB) MRI has been reported to be useful in detecting skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in both adults and children. To evaluate the usefulness of WB MRI in patients with LCH in comparison with plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. In nine children (1-7 years of age; mean 3.3 years) who had a pathological diagnosis of LCH and had either plain radiography or bone scintigraphy for comparison, 43 WB MR examinations were performed. Skeletal and extraskeletal lesions of the disease on WB MRI were compared with those on plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. LCH showed unifocal single-system involvement in one patient, multifocal single-system involvement in three, and multifocal multisystem disease in five. WB MRI identified additional skeletal lesions in three (38%) of eight patients, compared with plain radiography, and in two (25%) of eight, compared with bone scintigraphy. WB MRI detected extraskeletal lesions of the disease in five (56%) of the nine patients exclusively, except for one patient whose lung lesions were also detected on plain radiography. In two patients, treatment was changed according to WB MRI findings. (orig.)

  19. Whole-body MRI of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: comparison with radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Historically this is undertaken using plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Recently, whole-body (WB) MRI has been reported to be useful in detecting skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in both adults and children. To evaluate the usefulness of WB MRI in patients with LCH in comparison with plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. In nine children (1-7 years of age; mean 3.3 years) who had a pathological diagnosis of LCH and had either plain radiography or bone scintigraphy for comparison, 43 WB MR examinations were performed. Skeletal and extraskeletal lesions of the disease on WB MRI were compared with those on plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. LCH showed unifocal single-system involvement in one patient, multifocal single-system involvement in three, and multifocal multisystem disease in five. WB MRI identified additional skeletal lesions in three (38%) of eight patients, compared with plain radiography, and in two (25%) of eight, compared with bone scintigraphy. WB MRI detected extraskeletal lesions of the disease in five (56%) of the nine patients exclusively, except for one patient whose lung lesions were also detected on plain radiography. In two patients, treatment was changed according to WB MRI findings. (orig.)

  20. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells combined with Allograft Cancellous Bone in Treatment of Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thua Trung Hau; Duc Phu Bui; Nguyen Duy Thang; Pham Dang Nhat; Le Quy Bao; Nguyen Phan Huy; Tran Ngoc Vu; Le Phuoc Quang; Boeckx willy Denis; Mey Albert De

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cancellous bone graft is currently used as a gold standard method for treatment of bone nonunion. However, there is a limit to the amount of autologous cancellous bone that can be harvested and the donor site morbidity presents a major disadvantage to autologous bone grafting. Embedding viable cells within biological scaffolds appears to be extremely promising. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of autologous bone marrow stem cells combined with a cancellous bone a...

  1. A Survey of Bacterial Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Shirazi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Bacterial infec­tion is considered as one of the common and serious complications in bone marrow transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacterial infections in bone marrow transplant recipients."nMethods: Fifty-two blood and 25 catheter samples were obtained from 23 patients who were hospitalized in bone marrow trans­plantation unit in Shariati Hospital in Tehran. Bacterial strains were isolated and identified by the standard conven­tional bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the guidelines from NCCLS using 18 different antibiotics."nResults:  The strains of Staphylococci, Streptococcus viridans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were isolated from 8(66.7%, 1(8.3%, 2 (16.7% and the 1(8.3% cases, respectively."nConclusion: Current study indicated that the bacterial infections particularly those caused by the Gram-positive cocci were still as important problem in bone marrow transplant.

  2. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed

  3. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed

  4. Regulatory T cells in the bone marrow microenvironment in patients with prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ende; Wang, Lin; Dai, Jinlu; Kryczek, Ilona; Wei, Shuang; Vatan, Linda; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Sparwasser, Tim; Wang, Guobin; Evan T. Keller; Zou, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Human prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone marrow. What defines the cellular and molecular predilection for prostate cancer to metastasize to bone marrow is not well understood. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to self-tolerance and tumor immune pathology. We now show that functional Treg cells are increased in the bone marrow microenvironment in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis, and that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling pathway contributes to Treg cell bone marrow...

  5. Pulmonary Embolization of Fat and Bone Marrow in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Derek L; Murnane, Robert D; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Green, Damian J.; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2011-01-01

    Fat embolization (FE), the introduction of bone marrow elements into circulation, is a known complication of bone fractures. Although FE has been described in other animal models, this study represents the first reported cases of FE and bone marrow embolism in nonhuman primates. Histopathologic findings from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) indicated that in all 5 cases, fat and bone marrow embolization occurred subsequent to multiple bone marrow biopsies. In the most severe case, ex...

  6. Failure to Generate Bone Marrow Adipocytes Does Not Protect Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T.

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocal association between bone marrow fat and bone mass has been reported in ovariectomized rodents, suggesting that bone marrow adipogenesis has a negative effect on bone growth and turnover balance. Mice with loss of function mutations in kit receptor (kitW/W-v) have no bone marrow adipocytes in tibia or lumbar vertebra. We therefore tested the hypothesis that marrow fat contributes to development of osteopenia by comparing the skeletal response to ovariectomy (ovx) in growing wild t...

  7. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Henrich; René Verboket; Alexander Schaible; Kerstin Kontradowitz; Elsie Oppermann; Brune, Jan C; Christoph Nau; Simon Meier; Halvard Bonig; Ingo Marzi; Caroline Seebach

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or ...

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT bone/bone marrow findings in Hodgkin's lymphoma may circumvent the use of bone marrow trephine biopsy at diagnosis staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is necessary in selecting appropriate treatment. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is the standard procedure for depicting bone marrow involvement. BMB is invasive and explores a limited part of the bone marrow. 18F-FDG PET/CT is now widely used for assessing response to therapy in HL and a baseline study is obtained to improve accuracy. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess whether routine BMB remains necessary with concomitant 18F-FDG PET/CT. Data from 83 patients (newly diagnosed HL) were reviewed. All patients had received contrast-enhanced CT, BMB and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Results of BMB were not available at the time of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Seven patients had lymphomatous involvement on BMB. Four patients had bone involvement on conventional CT (two with negative BMB). All patients with bone marrow and/or bone lesions at conventional staging were also diagnosed on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. PET/CT depicted FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci in nine additional patients. Four of them had only one or two foci, while the other had multiple foci. However, the iliac crest, site of the BMB, was not involved on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Osteolytic/sclerotic lesions matching FDG-avid foci were visible on the CT part of PET/CT in three patients. MRI ordered in three other patients suggested bone marrow involvement. Interim and/or end-therapy 18F-FDG PET/CT documented response of FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci to chemotherapy in every patient. 18F-FDG PET/CT highly improves sensitivity for diagnosis of bone/bone marrow lesions in HL compared to conventional staging. (orig.)

  9. Bone remodelling after hip prostheses surgery: normal evolution patterns by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of hip prostheses is a common task in nuclear medicine practice. Physicians usually have problems to differentiate between changes in bone remodelling related to surgical procedures and complications like infection or loosening. Aim: To assess changes in bone remodelling after hip prostheses surgery by bone scintigraphy, and to determine normal evolution patterns of tracer uptake. To relate changes in bone remodelling with type of prostheses and clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: We studied 18 patients (6 males, mean age 68±10 years) who receipt a hip prostheses. Every patient underwent 3 bone scintigraphies, at 3 months, 1 year and 2 years after surgical implant of hip prostheses. Twelve prostheses were non-cemented, 3 were cemented and 3 hybrids. A semi-quantification of tracer uptake was performed, obtaining an uptake index from the average counts per pixel of regions of interest (ROIs) drawn around sacroiliac joints, acetabulum, greater trochanter, calcar, femur shaft, tip, and opposite normal femur. Sacroiliac joints and opposite normal femur were selected as reference areas. The uptake index was calculated by the formula: (ROI-reference)/reference. Clinical follow-up was performed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Results: While tracer uptake indexes of non-cemented prostheses decreased significantly in greater trochanter, calcar, femur shaft, and tip between 3 months-1 year studies, 1 year-2 years studies and between 3 months and 2 years studies (t-student, p<0.05), tracer uptake indexes did not decrease in acetabulum, opposite normal femur, and sacroiliac joint. On the contrary, cemented and hybrid prostheses did not show any significant difference in studied areas during the follow-up. All patients presented good clinical outcome, without pain and with correct mobility of the leg. Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that, when non-cemented hip prostheses are implanted, there are important bone remodelling changes at 3

  10. Specific absorbed fraction in bone tissue and bone marrow resulting from photons distributed in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code 'ALGAM: Monte Carlo Estimation of Internal Dose from Gamma -ray Sources in a Phanton Man' only provides for an average dose to bone marrow resulting from a photon source distributed in the human body. Since there is no realistic model for the separation of these doses in the present phantom, some modifications were performed in the ALGAM code in order to introduce an heterogeneous skeleton and through this new model it was possible to make the estimation of dose in bone marrow. The specific absorbed fraction resulting from running the new program for 12 monoenergetic photon sources distributed in three source organs - skeleton, red marrow and yellow marrow is presented. The results obtained show that for low photon energies, the old model overestimates the specific absorbed fraction in bone marrow up to a factor of 4; while in bone, it underestimates the specific absorbed fractions up to a factor of 1.6. (Author)

  11. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Comparison of conventional radiography, MR imaging, bone scintigraphy and arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective study of 22 patients (24 hips) with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) the findings at conventional radiography, arthrography, bone scintigraphy and MR imaging, obtained at the time of diagnosis, were compared. MR was superior to conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the detection of the extent of involvement in the femoral head. Arthrography was as good as or better than MR imaging in determining the shape of the articular surfaces and the occurrence of lateral subluxation. Conventional radiography was less sensitive in identifying the degree of lateral subluxation and the extent of the necrosis in the femoral head. MR imaging provided anatomical and pathophysiological information about the extent and location of head involvement as well as the degree of lateral subluxation. Revascularisation was more clearly demonstrated with MR than with bone scintigraphy, irrespective of symptom duration. (orig.)

  12. Prognosis and bone marrow recovery indicators in bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) were studied in 27 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Plasmatic lipo peroxide levels of those patients with unfavorable evolution were significantly increases on days 12-14 post-transplant (median 1,83 μM, range 0.78-5.82) compared with preconditioning levels (median 1.05 μM, range 0.36-1.84) (p<0.05). Patients with favorable evolution revealed significantly higher lipo peroxide levels during conditioning regime (median 1.42 μM, range 0.31-4.50) (p<0.05). Starting from the 3rd. post-transplant week a significant and continuous decrease was observed, with a median of 0.77 μM (range 0.21-1.48) (p<0.05) for the 3rd, and a median of 0.60 μM (range 0.11-1.48) for the 4th. week (p<0.01). A significant increase in total antioxidant activity was observed in the three patients who died up to the 35 days post-transplant. Recovery of bone marrow function was detected by RMI after a median time of 17 days (range 11-24) post-allogeneic transplantation. The threshold established for absolute neutrophil count was achieved after a median of 21 days (range 14-28) (p<0.001). An increase of plasma lipo peroxides on days 12-14 post transplant may be a predictive value of unfavourable evolution. RMI was the earlier indicator of engraftment in allogeneic BMT. (author)

  13. Bone marrow transplantation for an infant with neutrophil dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A child with severe neutrophil dysfunction and intractable infections received bone marrow transplants from histocompatible siblings. After a first transplant preceded by cyclophosphamide (CY), antithymocyte serum (ATS) and procarbazine (PCB) preconditioning, there was no evidence for engraftment and autologous marrow function rapidly returned. Cell mediated lysis showed no evidence of patient sensitization against the marrow donor suggesting that graft rejection did not cause the transplant failure. A second transplant was performed utilizing another matched sibling donor. Total body irradiation was added to CY, ATS, and PCB for preconditioning after in vitro studies of the colony forming capacity (CFUsub(c)) of the patient's marrow cells showed normal sensitivity to radiation. Full engraftment ensued with correction of granulocyte function abnormalities. The patient eventually died of intractable pulmonary disease. Experience with this child suggests that cyclophosphamide alone may be insufficient preparation for marrow transplantation in some patients with non-neoplastic hematologic disorders. Experimental and clinical data supporting this contention are reviewed. (author)

  14. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  15. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  16. Increased cartilagenous uptake on bone scintigraphy in a patient with relapsing polychondritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, E.J. ter; Piers, A.; Thijn, C.J.P.

    1988-09-01

    A patient with relapsing polychondritis and increased uptake on bone scintigraphy (using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP) in the cartilagenous parts of the ribs, the sternum and in the larynx region is described. A biopsy of a costochondral junction (where uptake on the bone scan was increased) was compatible with relapsing polychondritis. After treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine the patient improved and a repeated bone scan (after six years) showed less intensive uptake.

  17. Increased cartilagenous uptake on bone scintigraphy in a patient with relapsing polychondritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with relapsing polychondritis and increased uptake on bone scintigraphy (using 99mTc-MDP) in the cartilagenous parts of the ribs, the sternum and in the larynx region is described. A biopsy of a costochondral junction (where uptake on the bone scan was increased) was compatible with relapsing polychondritis. After treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine the patient improved and a repeated bone scan (after six years) showed less intensive uptake. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of an evolutive tertiary syphilis by bone scintigraphy. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One patient complained of persisting diffuse bone pain, with greater intensity in the pelvis. HDP 99mTc bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake around the right sacro-iliac joint and in the right iliac area due to increased osteoblastic activity, thereby providing functional information about the evolutive nature of the bone lesion. The X-scanner only revealed osteolysis in the same location. A blood test confirmed the diagnosis of tertiary syphilis. (author)

  19. Identifying A Molecular Phenotype for Bone Marrow Stromal Cells With In Vivo Bone Forming Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kenneth H; Frederiksen, Casper M; Burns, Jorge S;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The ability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts is being exploited in cell-based therapy for repair of bone defects. However, the phenotype of ex vivo cultured BMSCs predicting their bone forming capacity is not known. Thus, we employed DNA microarrays...... comparing two human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) populations: one is capable of in vivo heterotopic bone formation (hBMSC-TERT(+Bone)) and the other is not (hBMSC-TERT(-Bone)). Compared to hBMSC-TERT(-Bone), the hBMSC-TERT(+Bone) cells had an increased over-representation of extracellular matrix genes...... (17% versus 5%) and a larger percentage of genes with predicted SP3 transcription factor binding sites in their promoter region (21% versus 8%). On the other hand, hBMSC-TERT(-Bone) cells expressed a larger number of immune-response related genes (26% versus 8%). In order to test for the predictive...

  20. Hematogones: a multiparameter analysis of bone marrow precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, T A; Foucar, K; Crago, S; Chen, I M; Griffith, B; Dressler, L; McConnell, T S; Duncan, M; Gribble, J

    1989-02-01

    Morphologically distinct lymphoid cells with homogeneous, condensed chromatin and scant cytoplasm can be observed in large numbers in the bone marrow of children with a variety of hematologic and nonhematologic disorders. In some patients, these cells may account for greater than 50% of the bone marrow cells, creating a picture that can be confused with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or metastatic tumor. Although originally called hematogones (HGs), a variety of other names have been proposed for these unique cells. The clinical significance of expanded HGs has not been resolved, and the biologic features of these cells are incompletely described. In this study, we correlate the clinical, morphologic, cytochemical, flow cytometric, molecular, and cytogenetic properties of bone marrow samples from 12 children with substantial numbers of HGs (range 8% to 55% of bone marrow cells). Diagnoses in these patients included anemia, four; neutropenia, one; anemia and neutropenia, one; idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, two; retinoblastoma, two; Ewing's sarcoma, one; and germ cell tumor, one. Flow cytometric analyses of bone marrow cells demonstrated a spectrum extending from early B-cell precursors (CD10+, CD19+, TdT+, HLA-Dr+) to mature surface immunoglobulin-bearing B cells in these patients, corroborating our morphologic impression of HGs, intermediate forms, and mature lymphocytes. DNA content was normal, and no clonal abnormality was identified by either cytogenetic or immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement studies. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3 years. None of the patients has developed acute leukemia or bone marrow involvement by solid tumor. The possible role of HGs in immune recovery and hematopoiesis is presented. PMID:2917189

  1. Back Pain in Children and Diagnostic Value of 99mTc MDP Bone Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhawaldeh, Khaled; Ghuweri, Ali AL; Kawar, Jane; Jaafreh, Amany

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of our study is to assess the diagnostic value of Technituim-99m-Methyle diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) Bone scintigraphy in the assessment of children with back pain. Methods: Included in this retrospective study were 68 child referred to us complaining of back pain (mean age of 13+ 2). There were 45 boys and 23 girls. All children have been investigated with conventional x-ray which revealed normal or inconclusive result. All underwent bone scintigraphy after the injection ...

  2. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  3. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  4. Quantitative bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the differentiation of necrotizing external otitis from severe external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative technetium Tc 99m bone scintigraphy using phosphate compounds and gallium 67 scintigraphy were described as a helpful means in diagnosing necrotizing external otitis (NEO). They were, however, claimed to be nonspecific. Quantitative Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and gallium 67 scintigraphy were performed in eight patients with NEO and in 20 patients with severe external otitis, in order to prove usefulness of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of NEO. Ratios of lesion to nonlesion for bone scintigraphy were 1.67 ± 0.16 in patients with NEO and 1.08 ± 0.09 in patients with severe external otitis, and for gallium 67 scintigraphy they were 1.35 ± 0.24 in NEO patients and 1.05 ± 0.03 in patients with severe external otitis. There was no difference in uptake between diabetic patients with severe external otitis and nondiabetic patients. The scintigraphic studies were also evaluated using a qualitative scoring method (scores 0 to +4), according to the intensity of the radiopharmaceutical uptake. This method was found to be inferior in the diagnosis of NEO compared with the quantitative method. We conclude that lesion-to-nonlesion ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.3 on bone and gallium 67 scintigraphy, respectively, are indicative of NEO. Quantitative bone scintigraphy, which is quicker to perform, may be used as a single imaging modality for the diagnosis of NEO

  5. Autologous bone-marrow mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis (MCIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Woo; Shetty, Asode Ananthram; Ahmed, Saif; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Seok Jung

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative and traumatic articular cartilage defects are common, difficult to treat, and progressive lesions that cause significant morbidity in the general population. There have been multiple approaches to treat such lesions, including arthroscopic debridement, microfracture, multiple drilling, osteochondral transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) that are currently being used in clinical practice. Autologous bone-marrow mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis (MCIC) is a single-staged arthroscopic procedure. This method combines a modified microfracture technique with the application of a bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), hyaluronic acid and fibrin gel to treat articular cartilage defects. We reviewed the current literatures and surgical techniques for mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis. PMID:27489409

  6. Archival Bone Marrow Samples: Suitable for Multiple Biomarker Analysis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, A. Laeya; Wesolowska, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  7. Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

  8. Impaired function of bone marrow stromal cells in systemic mastocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztian Nemeth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM have a wide variety of problems, including skeletal abnormalities. The disease results from a mutation of the stem cell receptor (c-kit in mast cells and we wondered if the function of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs; also known as MSCs or mesenchymal stem cells might be affected by the invasion of bone marrow by mutant mast cells. As expected, BMSCs from SM patients do not have a mutation in c-kit, but they proliferate poorly. In addition, while osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs seems to be deficient, their adipogenic potential appears to be increased. Since the hematopoietic supportive abilities of BMSCs are also important, we also studied the engraftment in NSG mice of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, after being co-cultured with BMSCs of healthy volunteers vs. BMSCs derived from patients with SM. BMSCs derived from the bone marrow of patients with SM could not support hematopoiesis to the extent that healthy BMSCs do. Finally, we performed an expression analysis and found significant differences between healthy and SM derived BMSCs in the expression of genes with a variety of functions, including the WNT signaling, ossification, and bone remodeling. We suggest that some of the symptoms associated with SM might be driven by epigenetic changes in BMSCs caused by dysfunctional mast cells in the bone marrow of the patients.

  9. Apoptotic bone marrow CD34+ cells in cirrhotic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Suo Dang; Wen-Jun Wang; Ning Gao; Shun-Da Wang; Mei Li; La-Yang Liu; Ming-Zhun Sun; Tao Dong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To access the frequency and level of apoptotic CD34+ cells isolated from the marrow fluid of patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis.METHODS: The frequency of bone marrow CD34+ cells and apoptotic bone marrow CD34+ cells in 31 in-patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (cirrhosis group), and 15 out-patients without liver or blood disorders (control group) was calculated by flow cytometry. Pa-rameters were collected to evaluate liver functions of patients in cirrhosis group.RESULTS: The percentage of normal bone marrow CD34+ cells was 6.30% ± 2.48% and 1.87% ± 0.53% (t = 3.906, P < 0.01) while that of apoptotic marrow CD34+ cells was 15.00% ± 15.81% and 5.73% ± 1.57% (t = 2.367, P < 0.05) in cirrhosis and control groups, re-spectively. The percentage of apoptotic marrow CD34+ cells was 6.25% ± 3.30% and 20.92 ± 18.5% (t = 2.409, P < 0.05) in Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B + C cirrhotic patients, respectively. The percentage of late apoptotic marrow CD34+ cells was positively correlated with the total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels in patients with cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: The status of CD34+ marrow cells in cirrhotic patients may suggest that the ability of he-matopoietic progenitor cells to transform into mature blood cells is impaired.

  10. A study of bone marrow failure syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow failure syndrome (BMFS, or aplastic anemia, includes peripheral blood single cytopenias, as well as pancytopenia due to inability of the marrow to effectively produce blood cells. Aim: To study the clinico-hematological profile and etiological factors of bone marrow failure syndrome in children. Setting and Design: This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics of a university teaching hospital over 36 months. Materials and Methods: Children with pancytopenia (Hb < 10 g/dl, absolute neutrophil count < 1.5 x 10 9 /L, platelet count < 100 x 10 9 /L and bone marrow cellularity < 25% were included in the study. History of exposure to drugs, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and occupation of father were noted. Bone marrow aspiration; trephine biopsy; Ham test; viral studies for hepatitis A, B and C; and cytogenetic investigations were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Relative risk was estimated by odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI in matched cases and controls. Results: Of the 53 children studied, 6 (11.3% were diagnosed as Fanconi anemia. Two cases had features of myelodysplastic syndrome. Forty-five children were labeled as acquired aplastic anemia, of whom one had evidence of hepatitis B infection and two patients (5.8% had paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Aplastic anemia was more common in children from family with lower socioeconomic status; in Muslims; and where the father′s occupation was weaving, dyeing and painting. However, the number was small to make statistically significant conclusions. No correlation could be established with exposure to drugs. Conclusion: Fanconi anemia was responsible for approximately one-tenth of the cases of bone marrow failure syndrome. Majority of the patients had acquired aplastic anemia. Hepatitis B infection was an uncommon cause of acquired aplastic anemia.

  11. The use of bone scintigraphy to detect active Hansen's disease in mutilated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutilation of extremities was very frequent in patients affected by leprosy in the past; although it is now much less common, it is still seen, mainly in patients with long-term disease. In general, mutilation of the nose and ears is caused by the bacillus and mutilation of the hands and feet a consequence of chronic trauma. Leprosy must be chronically treated and any decision to interrupt therapy is based on laboratory tests and biopsy. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure which could be of great value in to determining disease activity. We studied eight patients (five males and three females, aged 64-73 years) who presented with mutilation of the nose (2), ear (1), feet (3) or foot and hand (2). Conventional three-phase bone scintigraphy (750 MBq) and X-ray examinations of the affected areas were performed in all patients. Bone scintigraphy was abnormal in four patients (the presence of bacilli was confirmed by biopsy in two of them), and normal in the other four. In all patients except for the one with ear mutilation, radiography only showed the absence of bone. We conclude that bone scintigraphy is very useful to determine disease activity in cases of mutilation caused by leprosy. It seems to be superior to conventional radiography and may enable bone biopsies to be avoided. (orig.)

  12. Cell fusion of bone marrow cells and somatic cell reprogramming by embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Sabrina; Pedram, Mehrdad; Stultz, Ryan; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for many diseases, including leukemia, autoimmune diseases, and a number of immunodeficiencies. Recently, it was claimed that bone marrow cells transdifferentiate, a much desired property as bone marrow cells are abundant and therefore could be used in regenerative medicine to treat incurable chronic diseases. Using a Cre/loxP system, we studied cell fusion after bone marrow transplantation. Fused cells were chiefly Gr-1+, a myeloid cell mar...

  13. GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this ...

  14. CXCR2 modulates bone marrow vascular repair and haematopoietic recovery post-transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Sarah J M; Hale, Ashley B H; Zhang, Youyi; Sweeney, Dominic; Fisher, Nita; van der Garde, Mark; Grabowska, Rita; Pepperell, Emma; Channon, Keith; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Watt, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Murine models of bone marrow transplantation show that pre-conditioning regimens affect the integrity of the bone marrow endothelium and that the repair of this vascular niche is an essential pre-requisite for successful haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell engraftment. Little is known about the angiogenic pathways that play a role in the repair of the human bone marrow vascular niche. We therefore established an in vitro humanized model, composed of bone marrow stromal and endothelial cel...

  15. Gelatinous Degeneration of the Bone Marrow in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsiang Chen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a chronic psychiatric process characterized by a restrictive disorderin alimentary habits. Hematologic alterations in the peripheral blood include cytopeniasinvolving one or more hematopoietic lineages. Morphologic changes in the bone marrowand stereologic alterations in bone marrow adiopocytes may also be observed in anorexianervosa. We present a 12-year-old girl who had chronic anorexia and one third of bodyweight loss during an 8-month period. She was apathetic and had missed several menstrualcycles. The sex maturity rating was Tanner stage IV. There was no lymphadenopathy, nohepatosplenomegaly, and no identifiable tumor mass. She was not anemic, but was found tohave leukopenia, neutropenia and a low level of triiodothyronine. Sections of the bone marrowbiopsy showed almost complete serous atrophy (gelatinous degeneration of the bonemarrow. In this patient, the bone marrow alteration is related to nutritional deprivation ofanorexia nervosa.

  16. TUMOR MARKERS IN BONE MARROW IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATIC CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, Akio; Ozono, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Yozo; Nagayoshi, Junichi; Hirayama, Akihide; Kumon, Toshihiko; Joko, Masanori; Hirata, Naoya; Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi; Tabata, Shoichi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Moriya, Akira; Kaneko, Yoshiteru; Okamoto, Shinji; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    1991-01-01

    We compared prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PAP), prostatic specificantigen (PA) and γ-seminoprotein (γ-SM) levels between bone marrow and serum for the purpose of assessing of the usefulness of these tumor markers in early detection ofbone metastasis in cases with prostatic cancer. Thirty-three patients were entered into this study. Of the patients, 20 had prostatic cancer including 11 with bone metastasis, and 13 patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) served as controls. It se...

  17. Gelatinous Degeneration of the Bone Marrow in Anorexia Nervosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Hsiang Chen; Iou-Jih Hung; Tang-Her Jaing; Chien-Feng Sun

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a chronic psychiatric process characterized by a restrictive disorderin alimentary habits. Hematologic alterations in the peripheral blood include cytopeniasinvolving one or more hematopoietic lineages. Morphologic changes in the bone marrowand stereologic alterations in bone marrow adiopocytes may also be observed in anorexianervosa. We present a 12-year-old girl who had chronic anorexia and one third of bodyweight loss during an 8-month period. She was apathetic and had ...

  18. The survival of cryopreserved human bone marrow stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R S; Mackinder, C A; Postlewaight, B F; Blacklock, H A

    1979-07-01

    Two methods for cryopreservation of bone marrow stem cells were compared using bone marrow obtained from 36 patients. Included in this group were 21 persons with the diagnosis of leukaemia including 14 either with acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukaemia in remission following intensive remission induction chemotherapy. After freeze-preservation and reconstitution, all marrow samples were tested for nucleated cell (NC) recovery and grown on agar to assess colony forming units (CFUC) and cluster forming units in culture (CluFUc). A slow dilution reconstitution method using freezing media containing AB negative plasma resulted in recovery of 85% of the CFUc activity of fresh marrow. This result was significantly better than the 47% CFUc recovery obtained when freezing media without plasma and a rapid dilution reconstitution technique were used. NC recoveries following slow dilution (51%) and rapid dilution (44%) were not significantly different. CluFUc were disproportionately reduced compared with CFUc although yielding similar results with both methods (26% and 32%). No correlation was found for either method between CFUc and NC recovery or between CFUc and CluFUc recovery in cryopreserved bone marrow. PMID:392422

  19. Bone marrow MRI in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the MR imaging of bone marrow in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and to reveal the rule of bone marrow infiltration and the role of MRI in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Methods: Thirty patients received MRI after the diagnosis based on clinic and FAB subtype study, including 16 with MDS and 14 with AML. MR image was obtained by T1-weighted spin echo and shot time inversion recovery in pelvis and femur. The examining results of morphology and blood routine were collected at the same time. 30 age-matched volunteers were selected as controls. Results: The MRI appearance was classified into their patterns based on scope of focus. MRI patterns from grade 1 to grade 3 was observed in patients with MDS. All patients with AML distributed in grade 2 to grade 3. The distribution of patterns had no significant difference between MDS and AML (P>0.05). The marrow ratio had significant difference among MDS, AML, and controls (P<0.05). The MRI grade was consistent with the clinic diagnostic indexes. Conclusion: MRI can provide a better understanding of the difference between MDS and AML. MRI can estimate the extent of disease in the marrow as a whole. MRI of bone marrow can provide imaging basis in diagnosis and predicting the prognosis for patients with MDS

  20. Influence of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation in an ovine model of vertebroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, J; Ferguson, S. J.; Hoerstrup, S P; Goss, B G; Haeberli, A; Aebli, N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular complications. Thus, the effects of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation du...

  1. Concise Review: Diabetes, the Bone Marrow Niche, and Impaired Vascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Ferraro, Francesca; Quaini, Federico; Asahara, Takayuki; Madeddu, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the physiological and molecular bone marrow abnormalities associated with diabetes and discusses how bone marrow dysfunction represents a potential root for the development of the multiorgan failure characteristic of advanced diabetes. The notion of diabetes as a bone marrow and stem cell disease opens new avenues for therapeutic interventions ultimately aimed at improving the outcome of diabetic patients.

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  1. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Mature adipocytes in bone marrow protect myeloma cells against chemotherapy through autophagy activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major problem in patients with multiple myeloma is chemotherapy resistance, which develops in myeloma cells upon interaction with bone marrow stromal cells. However, few studies have determined the role of bone marrow adipocytes, a major component of stromal cells in the bone marrow, in myeloma ch...

  5. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of radiation disease. Problems involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells still is one of the major means available for treatment of radiation injuries. The decisive indication is the diagnostic of irreversible damage to the hemopoietic stem cells, which becomes manifest about 5 or 6 days after exposure, by severe granulocytopenia and simultaneous, progressive thrombopenia. The radiation dose provoking such severe injury is estimated to be at least 9-10 Gy of homogeneous whole-body irradiation. Preparatory measures for transplantation include proof of tissue compatibility of donor and patient, sufficient immunosuppression prior to and/or after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. The donor's marrow should be free of T-cells. In spite of preparatory treatment, complications such as immunological reactions or disturbance of organ functions are to be very probable. These are treated according to therapy protocols. (orig./MG)

  6. Bone marrow uptake of 99mTc-sestamibi in patients with multiple myeloma and related gammopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) in the detection on bone marrow involvement in patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) or monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance. 99mTc-Sestamibi is routinely used in the diagnostic approach of several neoplastic diseases and a MIBI scan was recently proposed as a diagnostic tool for staging and monitoring the therapy in multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: 68 pts with MM and 82 pts with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) were enrolled in this study. Forty nine out sixty eight MM pts had active disease (AD), 11/68 were in complete remission (CR) and 8/68 in partial remission (PR) after chemotherapy. Diagnosis of the disease was made according to standard criteria (Greipp, 1992). The clinical status at time of the scan was assessed by complete clinical and biochemical evaluations including full blood counts, renal and liver function tests, protein electrophoresis and evaluation of monoclonal component, serum Ig concentration, CRP, 2-microglobulin, urinary light chain and bone marrow biopsy. In all the pts a whole-body scans were obtained 10 min after the i.v. injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI in anterior and posterior view. All the scans were scored semi quantitatively according to extension and intensity of tracer uptake (Pace, 1998). Results: 81 out 82 MGUS pts had a negative 99mTc-MIBI scan. One MGUS patient showed a mild diffuse pathologic uptake in bone marrow of the thighs. As to the MM pts, 54/68 pts (47 with AD, 8 with PR and 1 with CR) had a positive 99mTc-MIBI scan, while the 99mTc-MIBI scan was negative in 14/68 pts (10 with CR, 2 with PR and 2 with AD). The radioactivity ratios of the more evident bone marrow involvement or soft tissue uptake to a contralateral normal tissue (T/N) were calculated in AD patients(T/N=2.06 0.5). The overall sensitivity of the 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was 92% while specificity was 95% in overall

  7. Clostridium glycolicum Bacteremia in a Bone Marrow Transplant Patient▿

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed, Sameer; Zhang, Kunyan

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of Clostridium glycolicum bacteremia and septic shock in an adult woman with a recent bone marrow transplant for relapsed Hodgkin's disease. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This is the first published report of the recovery of this organism from human clinical material.

  8. Reactivation of polyomavirus in bone marrow transplant recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, H. A.; Macaulay, M. E.; Wong, V

    1992-01-01

    Polyomavirus was detected in the urine samples of 12 (48%) out of 25 patients within three months of receiving a bone marrow transplantation. The virus was first detected 11 to 46 days after the transplantation and excretion persisted for up to 42 days. Detection of the virus was not associated with symptoms and it seemed to be a marker of immunosuppression.

  9. Immunological aspects of unrelated bone marrow transplantation: alloreactivity and immunoreconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrigal J. Alejandro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main complications after bone marrow transplantation (BMT are graft versus host disease (GvHD, post-transplant viral infections and disease relapse. The underlying causes of these problems are the degree of HLA matching between donor and patient and the rate of immune reconstitution.

  10. Agent-Based Deterministic Modeling of the Bone Marrow Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhekar, Manish; Deshpande, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of stem cells not only describes but also predicts how a stem cell's environment can control its fate. The first stem cell populations discovered were hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this paper, we present a deterministic model of bone marrow (that hosts HSCs) that is consistent with several of the qualitative biological observations. This model incorporates stem cell death (apoptosis) after a certain number of cell divisions and also demonstrates that a single HSC can potentially populate the entire bone marrow. It also demonstrates that there is a production of sufficient number of differentiated cells (RBCs, WBCs, etc.). We prove that our model of bone marrow is biologically consistent and it overcomes the biological feasibility limitations of previously reported models. The major contribution of our model is the flexibility it allows in choosing model parameters which permits several different simulations to be carried out in silico without affecting the homeostatic properties of the model. We have also performed agent-based simulation of the model of bone marrow system proposed in this paper. We have also included parameter details and the results obtained from the simulation. The program of the agent-based simulation of the proposed model is made available on a publicly accessible website. PMID:27340402

  11. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T;

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  12. Successful nonsibling bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøe, K; Skinhøj, P; Andersen, V;

    1978-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was diagnosed in a girl immediately after birth; her older brother had SCID and was successfully reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation from his uncle. She was isolated in a laminar air flow bench and decontaminated. The father differed by one HLA...

  13. Identification of free nitric oxide radicals in rat bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksinskaya, Marina A; van Faassen, Ernst E H; Nelissen, Jelly;

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9)-dependent mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from bone marrow (BM). However, direct measurement of NO in the BM remained elusive due to its low in situ concentration and short lifetime. Using NO spin...

  14. Therapy Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinchun; Hu, Jinxia; Cui, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve functional outcome after stroke. In this review, we will focus on the protective effects of BMSCs on ischemic brain and the relative molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of BMSCs on stroke. PMID:27069533

  15. Complementary roles of bone scintigraphy and MR imaging in the detection and long-term follow-up of primary non-Hodgkin's bone lymphoma in a child-case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina, Vlajkovic; Milena, Rajic [Center of Nucler Medicine, Clinical Center Nis, Nis (Serbia); Vesna, Petronijevic [Clinic of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Prosthetics, Clinical Center Nis, Nis (Serbia); Sladana, Petrovic [Center of Radiology, Clinical Center Nis, Nis (Serbia); Vera, Artiko [Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our report is to demonstrate the complementary roles of bone scintigraphy (BS), magnetic resonance imaging (MR), and positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (F-18-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of a child with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone (PLB). Increased blood flow, high tissue accumulation, and markedly increased uptake on the late BS pointed toward an active bone process in the left femoral region. Bone marrow infiltration of the left femur and cortical sclerosis, which were both demonstrated by MR imaging, were later confirmed as PLB by bone marrow biopsy. The normalizations of the flow and tissue phases of BS a year after treatment and during the entire follow-up were in keeping with inactive disease and clinical remission. However, even 8 years after treatment and complete remission, MR imaging demonstrated persistent unmodified bone marrow alteration and appreciable cortical involvement. A slightly increased metabolic activity of the left femoral epiphysis demonstrated by F-18-FDG PET/CT and mild activity in the same region on delayed BS were demonstrated in the late follow-up. Our results strongly suggest that BS and MR imaging should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of children with undefined bone symptoms. However, mild metabolic activity on the F-18-FDG PET/CT scan could not reliably differentiate between the presence or absence of disease in a patient with PLB in clinical remission. (orig.)

  16. Complementary roles of bone scintigraphy and MR imaging in the detection and long-term follow-up of primary non-Hodgkin's bone lymphoma in a child-case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our report is to demonstrate the complementary roles of bone scintigraphy (BS), magnetic resonance imaging (MR), and positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (F-18-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of a child with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone (PLB). Increased blood flow, high tissue accumulation, and markedly increased uptake on the late BS pointed toward an active bone process in the left femoral region. Bone marrow infiltration of the left femur and cortical sclerosis, which were both demonstrated by MR imaging, were later confirmed as PLB by bone marrow biopsy. The normalizations of the flow and tissue phases of BS a year after treatment and during the entire follow-up were in keeping with inactive disease and clinical remission. However, even 8 years after treatment and complete remission, MR imaging demonstrated persistent unmodified bone marrow alteration and appreciable cortical involvement. A slightly increased metabolic activity of the left femoral epiphysis demonstrated by F-18-FDG PET/CT and mild activity in the same region on delayed BS were demonstrated in the late follow-up. Our results strongly suggest that BS and MR imaging should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of children with undefined bone symptoms. However, mild metabolic activity on the F-18-FDG PET/CT scan could not reliably differentiate between the presence or absence of disease in a patient with PLB in clinical remission. (orig.)

  17. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment.

  18. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment

  19. Distribution of Caesium-137 in Samples Consisting of Soft Tissue, Bone and Bone Marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations which were performed up to now on the distribution of-caesium-137 in the human organism could not explain exactly the distribution of the radiocaesium between bone and bone marrow. That is why a reliable estimation of the radiation burden of the skeleton caused by the incorporation of atmospheric caesium-137 is not given in the literature. Therefore, the concentration of caesium-137 in compact bones as well as in bone marrow was determined. Furthermore, the concentration of caesium-137 in the soft tissue of the same individuals was measured. (author)

  20. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3±2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10±1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU ≥2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  1. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Diehl, M.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3{+-}2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10{+-}1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU {>=}2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  2. A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayouth, John Ellis

    In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with

  3. Role of computed tomography and radionuclide scintigraphy in the localization of osteomyelitis in flat bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of radionuclide scintigraphy and computed tomography is recommended for evaluating children with laboratory and clinical data suggestive of flat bone osteomyelitis despite normal conventional radiographs. In addition, computed tomography may be helpful in the presence of abnormal radiographs in determining the exact location of the focus of osteomyelitis and the most suitable route for appropriate drainage or to obtain culture material

  4. Dissecting the Role of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Bone Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Buenrostro; Serk In Park; Julie A. Sterling

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-induced bone disease is a dynamic process that involves interactions with many cell types. Once metastatic cancer cells reach the bone, they are in contact with many different cell types that are present in the cell-rich bone marrow. These cells include the immune cells, myeloid cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells. Each of these cell populations can influence the behavior or gene expression of both the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. Addit...

  5. Ectopic and Serum Lipid Levels Are Positively Associated with Bone Marrow Fat in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gill, Corey M.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Landa, Melissa G.; Kumar, Vidhya; Daley, Scott M.; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Mean ectopic lipid levels, such as intrahepatic lipid and intramyocellular lipid levels, and serum lipid levels are significantly positively associated with bone marrow fat in young obese men and women; because bone marrow fat is known to be inversely related to bone mineral density, these results support the notion that ectopic and serum lipid levels are influenced by the same additional factors as bone marrow or may exert negative effects on bone.

  6. Bone Scintigraphy in a Patient With Giant Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Liu, JinJun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Huo-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Chest radiograph performed in a 61-year-old woman to evaluate cough showed a large mass in the right lung. On chest CT images, the mass was measured approximately 8.5 cm. Malignancy was considered, and bone scintigraphy was performed to assess possible osseous metastases. The bone scan images demonstrated increased tracer uptake by the lung mass. The mass was surgically resected, and the pathologic examination confirmed the rare diagnosis of a malignancy solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura. PMID:26914570

  7. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells during anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM : Bone marrow derived cell in GBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jennifer C.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor characterized by rapid and invasive tumor growth, followed by oxygen depletion, hypoxia and neovascularization, which generate a network of disorganized, tortuous and permeable vessels. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) is crucial for vascu

  8. Chronic radium intoxication: morphology of bone and marrow infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using direct and polarized light microscopy and a variety of standard histologic stains, the morphology of two groups of bone and marrow infarcts are compared. One group is from patients whose infarcts can, with confidence, be related to ischemia, trauma, or embolization and whose histories exclude radium ingestion or exposure. The second group is from radium dial painters whose pre-terminal body burdens of 226Ra ranged from 1.67 μCi to some value equal to or below 0.0042 μCi. The individual bone or marrow infarct among the radium cases does not differ radically from those in the ischemia-injury group, although taken as a whole, the radium-related infarcts are marked by less osteogenetic activity, a less prominent blood supply, much less cellular fibrous tissue and more extensive deposits of basophilic bone debris than the ischemia-injury group

  9. Bone scintigraphy in chronic knee pain: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegard, T.; Rudling, O.; Dahlstrom, J.; Dirksen, H.; Petersson, I.; Jonsson, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare increased bone uptake of 99Tcm-MDP and magnetic resonance (MR) detected subchondral lesions, osteophytes, and cartilage defects in the knee in middle aged people with longstanding knee pain.
METHODS—Fifty eight people (aged 41-58 years, mean 50) with chronic knee pain, with or without radiographic knee osteoarthritis, were examined with bone scintigraphy. The pattern and the grade of increased bone uptake was assessed. On the same day, a MR examination on a 1.0 T imager was performed. The presence and the grade of subchondral lesions, osteophytes, and cartilage defects were registered.
RESULTS—The κ values describing the correlation between increased bone uptake and MR detected subchondral lesions varied between 0.79 and 0.49, and between increased bone uptake and MR detected osteophytes or cartilage defects the values were <0.54. The κ values describing the correlation between the grade of bone uptake and the grade of the different MR findings was <0.57.
CONCLUSIONS—Good agreement was found between increased bone uptake and MR detected subchondral lesion. The agreement between increased bone uptake and osteophytes or cartilage defects was in general poor as well as the agreement between the grade of bone uptake and the grade of the MR findings.

 Keywords: knee; osteoarthritis; magnetic resonance imaging; bone scintigraphy PMID:10343536

  10. Bone marrow cells produce nerve growth factor and promote angiogenesis around transplanted islets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoaki; Sakata; Nathaniel; K; Chan; John; Chrisler; Andre; Obenaus; Eba; Hathout

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the mechanism by which bone marrow cells promote angiogenesis around transplanted islets.METHODS: Streptozotocin induced diabetic BALB/ c mice were transplanted syngeneically under the kidney capsule with the following: (1) 200 islets (islet group: n=12), (2) 1-5×106 bone marrow cells (bone marrow group: n=11), (3) 200 islets and 1-5×106 bone marrow cells (islet + bone marrow group: n= 13), or (4) no cells (sham group:n=5). All mice were evaluated for blood glucose, serum insulin, serum nerve...

  11. SPECT/CT in the assessment of bone scintigraphy in staging of patients with oncologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to assess the role of single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/ CT) for characterizing nonconclusive lesions, observed by planar WB bone scintigraphy and to evaluate the impact of SPECT/CT on oncologic patient management. Data from 269 patients with oncologic diseases who had undergone WB BS for staging and 29 of them with nonconclusive lesions, passed SPECT/CT of a selected volume, were retrospectively analyzed. Planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT images were independently evaluated in separate sessions to minimize recall bias. Among the 269 WB BS, in 37 patients multiple bone metastases were confirmed. In 161 patients degenerative lesions in the skeleton were defined, 42 patients were with normal bone scan and in 29 patients the results were nonconclusive for bone metastases. The fused scan after SPECT/CT imaging confirmed bone metastases in 11 (38%) patients with 27 new metastatic lesions and benign degenerative lesions in 18 patients. SPECT/CT is better than planar WB BS for characterizing equivocal lesions that are observed by bone scintigraphy, thus SPECT/CT can have a significant impact on patient management in staging the oncologic disease. (authors)

  12. Three-Phase 99mTc-MDP Bone Scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in Pediatric Pseudodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Sharjeel; Panchadar, Satish; Banna, Anwar al

    2015-11-01

    Pseudodystrophy is a rare condition clinically resembling reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Distinction between both disorders is based on clinical features and bone scintigraphy. We report a case of 12-year-old girl presented with pain, swelling, and functional impairment of left foot after minor trauma. Clinical assessment revealed atrophy of left calf, cyanosis and coldness of left foot. Laboratory investigations were normal. X-ray and MRI of the foot were unremarkable. Bone scintigraphy showed hypoperfusion and diffusely reduced tracer uptake in the left lower leg and left foot. Diagnosis of pseudodystrophy was made on the basis of history, clinical examination, and bone scintigraphy findings. PMID:26252332

  13. Cross-talk between Bone Marrow and Tissue Injury : Novel Regenerative Therapy for Severely Damaged Tissues by Mobilizing Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2013-01-01

    group box 1 (HMGB1), which mobilizes a sub-population of non-hematopoietic cells from bone marrow into the circulation to repair skin and restore Col 7 expression. These bone marrow-derived epithelial stem/progenitor cells are derived from a lineage-negative, platelet-derived growth factor alpha-positive mesenchymal stem cell pool in bone marrow, which represents less than 0.3% of the total bone marrow cell population. In addition, systemic administration of HMGB1 to wounded wild-type mice le...

  14. Technetium-99m human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in patients with adhesive capsulitis. A correlative study with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a disorder that is characterized by shoulder pain and progressive limitation of both active and passive shoulder motion. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of the disease are not well understood, the inflammatory reactions depending on the stage have been demonstrated histologically. The purpose of the study is to investigate the inflammatory changes that can be demonstrated with Tc-99m HIG in AC, and to determine the presence of correlations between scintigraphic findings and the clinical assessment. Twenty-one patients (12 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 50.57±8.49 were included in the study. AC was diagnosed according to recognized criteria. The planar X-ray images of the affected shoulders of all patients were normal. The patients were evaluated with the Constant Scoring System, and the functional and pain assessment parts of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons' Form (ASES). Three phase bone scans and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were performed at least two days apart. Bone scan and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were evaluated visually and HIG uptake was evaluated in comparison with the contralateral normal shoulder. Bone scan demonstrated hypervascularity in 9 of the 21 patients (43%), whereas increased osteoblastic activity was detected in 19 (90%) in the affected shoulder. Tc-99m, HIG uptake was positive in 12 (57%), and negative in 9 (43%) patients. All patients with increased Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder, also had increased osteoblastic activity on Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. A significant correlation was found between HIG uptake and constant, functional and pain scores. The difference between these scores was also statistically significant in patients with HIG positive and negative uptake. This study indicates that there is a good correlation between Tc-99m HIG scan findings and clinical scores. Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder may be related to continuing inflammatory reaction

  15. Diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficients to differentiate benign from malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balliu, E. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: eballiu@gmail.com; Vilanova, J.C. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Clinica Girona, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: Kvilanova@comg.es; Pelaez, I. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: isapelaezrx@yahoo.es; Puig, J. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: jpuigalcantara@yahoo.es; Remollo, S. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: sremollo@gmail.com; Barcelo, C. [Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Girona (Spain)], E-mail: carles.barcelo@udg.es; Barcelo, J. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Clinica Girona, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: rmgirona@comg.es; Pedraza, S. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)], E-mail: sapedraza@gmail.com

    2009-03-15

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained in diffusion-weighted (DW) MR sequences for the differentiation between malignant and benign bone marrow lesions. Method: Forty-five patients with altered signal intensity vertebral bodies on conventional MR sequences were included. The cause of altered signal intensity was benign osteoporotic collapse in 16, acute neoplastic infiltration in 15, and infectious processes in 14; based on plain-film, CT, bone scintigraphy, conventional MR studies, biopsy or follow-up. All patients underwent isotropic DW MR images (multi-shot EPI, b values of 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}). Signal intensity at DW MR images was evaluated and ADC values were calculated and compared between malignancy, benign edema and infectious spondylitis. Results: Acute malignant fractures were hyperintense compared to normal vertebral bodies on the diffusion-weighted sequence, except in one patient with sclerotic metastases. Mean ADC value from benign edema (1.9 {+-} 0.39 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher than untreated metastasic lesions (0.9 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Mean ADC value of infectious spondilytis (0.96 {+-} 0.49 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was not statistically (p > 0.05) different from untreated metastasic lesions. ADC value was low (0.75 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) in one case of subacute benign fracture. Conclusions: ADC values are a useful complementary tool to characterize bone marrow lesions, in order to distinguish acute benign fractures from malignant or infectious bone lesions. However, ADC values are not valuable in order to differentiate malignancy from infection.

  16. Stimulation of bone marrow cells and bone formation by nacre: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamghari, M; Almeida, M J; Berland, S; Huet, H; Laurent, A; Milet, C; Lopez, E

    1999-08-01

    There is frequently a loss of vertebral bone due to disease or aging. Nacre (mother of pearl from the oyster Pinctada maxima) stimulates bone cell differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Experimental bone defects were prepared in the vertebrae of sheep and used to test the suitability of nacre as an injectable osteogenic biomaterial for treating vertebral bone loss. Twenty-one cavities were prepared in the first four upper lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep and filled with nacre powder. The lumbar vertebrae were removed after 1 to 12 weeks, embedded undecalcified in methacrylate, and processed for histological studies. The nacre slowly dissolved and the experimental cavities contained a large active cell population. By 12 weeks, the experimental cavity was occupied by newly matured bone trabeculae in contact with or adjacent to the dissolving nacre. The functional new bone trabeculae were covered with osteoid lined with osteoblasts, indicating continuing bone formation. The in vitro study on rat bone marrow explants cultured with a water-soluble extract of the nacre organic matrix also resulted in the stimulation of osteogenic bone marrow cells with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. Thus, both the in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that nacre contains one or more signal molecules capable of activating osteogenic bone marrow cells. PMID:10458284

  17. MR imaging of the foot and ankle: patterns of bone marrow signal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis of marrow disorders of the foot and ankle is among the more challenging aspects of MR interpretation. Evaluation of normal and abnormal bone marrow with regard to pattern, distribution, and signal characteristics on different sequences often allows a specific diagnosis. This pictorial review illustrates MR imaging findings of normal variants of bone marrow of the foot and ankle, and the varied responses of bone marrow to trauma, stress, or disease. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean ±S.D.: 0.87±0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean ±S.D.: 0.34±0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean ±S.D. 1.35±0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean ±S.D.: 3.50±2.51 %/min vs. 7.13±1

  20. Biochemical markers of bone turnover and their association with bone marrow lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, D.J.; LaValley, M.; Li, J.; Bauer, D.C.; Nevitt, M.; Groot, J. de; Poole, R.; Eyre, D.; Guermazi, A.; Gale, D.; Totterman, S.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to determine whether markers of bone resorption and formation could serve as markers for the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Methods: We conducted an analysis of data from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study (BOKS). Knee magnetic resonance images were

  1. Changes in vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mass after gastric bypass surgery: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, A L; Li, X; Schwartz, A V; Tufts, L S; Wheeler, A L; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, S J; Carter, J T; Posselt, A M; Black, D M; Shoback, D M

    2015-05-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6 months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean ± SD decline 19.1 ± 6.1 kg or 36.5% ± 10.9%, pEffects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (-7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=-0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  2. Contribution of technetium 99m-labelled pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines the contribution of technetium 99m(sup(99m)Tc)-labelled pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in infectious spondylodiscitis and attempts to define its importance in the diagnosis of lesions and their subsequent supervision in patients under treatment. 5 to 15 millicuries of sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphates are injected intraveinously. Bone uptake is strong and durable; 1.3% of the injected activity is found in the blood by the fifth hour. The skeleton may be explored: - either one segment at a tome with a scintillation camera, - or all at once and more quickly with a whole-body device taking front and black exposures. Bone scintigraphy appears as a basic technique in the study of infectious spondylodiscitis. Moreover the use of increasingly efficient equipment, the quantification of results and perhaps the development of new tracers augur well for a technique which is already acknowledged to be of fundamental interest

  3. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  4. Evaluation of follow-up bone scintigraphy for assessing the effects of hormone and chemotherapy of bone metastases from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy for the osseous metastases of prostatic cancer after treatment, we attempted the correlative studies on laboratory data (TAP, PAP, ALP, and LDH) and scintigraphy. In 77 patients with prostatic cancer, bone scintigraphies were performed with sup(99m)Tc-phosphorous compounds to detect bone metastases. In 34 cases (44 %) bone metastases were detected. In 21 patients out of them, we assessed the effects of hormone and chemotherapy for bone metastases using serial bone scintigraphy. In 19 cases (24.7 %) of the bone scintigraphy showed equivocal results. Of 21 patients with bone metastases, 15 patients showed improvement on scintigram after hormone or chemotherapy. In much improved group (5 patients) and moderately improved group (5 patients). TAP and PAP levels were low and stable. On the other hand, in slightly improved group (5 patients) which showed partially effective on scintigram after treatment, serum TAP and PAP level were unstable. Some cases in the group of which the 1st scintigrams showed normal were turned to positive on scintigram, while TAP, PAP, ALP and LDH level were not elevated. Therefore, follow-up bone scintigraphies have value in evaluating the disease extent in patients with prostatic carcinoma. (author)

  5. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells combined with Allograft Cancellous Bone in Treatment of Nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thua Trung Hau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autologous cancellous bone graft is currently used as a gold standard method for treatment of bone nonunion. However, there is a limit to the amount of autologous cancellous bone that can be harvested and the donor site morbidity presents a major disadvantage to autologous bone grafting. Embedding viable cells within biological scaffolds appears to be extremely promising. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of autologous bone marrow stem cells combined with a cancellous bone allograft as compared to an autologous bone graft in the treatment of bone nonunion. Bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC was previously produced from bone marrow aspirate via a density gradient centrifugation. Autologous cancellous bone was harvested in 9 patients and applied to the nonunion site. In 18 patients of the clinical trial group after the debridement, the bone gaps were filled with a composite of BMAC and allograft cancellous bone chips (BMAC-ACB. Bone consolidation was obtained in 88.9 %, and the mean interval between the cell transplantation and union was 4.6 +/- 1.5 months in the autograft group. Bone union rate was 94.4 % in group of composite BMAC-ACB implantation. The time to union in BMAC-ACB grafting group was 3.3 +/- 0.90 months, and led to faster healing when compared to the autograft. A mean concentration of autologous progenitor cells was found to be 2.43 +/- 1.03 (x106 CD34+ cells/ml, and a mean viability of CD34+ cells was 97.97 +/- 1.47 (%. This study shows that the implantation of BMAC has presented the efficacy for treatment of nonunion and may contribute an available alternative to autologous cancellous bone graft. But large clinical application of BM-MSCs requires a more appropriate and profound scientific investigations. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 409-417

  6. Osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis. Its demonstration by 99m Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezai, Shu-ichi; Ishizawa, Suguru; Yoshino, Katsumasa

    1987-10-01

    In order to investigate the osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis, 21 liver cirrhotic patients having no malignancy and normal renal function were examined by 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy. The cirrhotic subjects consisted of 14 males and 7 females. Their age was 31 - 80, average 55.7 years. The causes of their cirrhotic damage were 1 primary biliary cirrhosis, 9 alcoholic, 2 HB viral and 9 cryptogenic. The contents of their illness showed 9 cases in A, 4 in B and 8 in C of Child's classification. Abnormal hot spot(s) on bone in the cirrhotics could be observed very frequently in 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy (47.6 %; 10/21 cases). Those spots were seen more frequently in female and advanced stage of cirrhosis. The number of spot(s) increased also in advanced liver cirrhosis. Serum Ca, P and PTH were in normal range. All of three vitamin D/sub 3/ fractions decreased and especially 1,25 (OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ was depressed more in scinti-positive cases. Metacarpal bone X-p with an alumimum step wedge as a reference was analyzed by a microdensitometry (MD) method (Inoue T et al) and the pattern of osteopathy (i.e. porosis, malacia and poromalacia) was examined according to Sumi Y et al. MD method was not known yet if there was any definite correlation with bone scintigraphy and the osteopathic pattern belonged to border categories. In conclusion, more attension on hepatic osteodystrophy will be significantly necessary due to the fact that it has been found very frequently in liver cirrhosis. 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy is a good means for detection of the hepatic osteodystrophy.

  7. Effects of prostaglandin on experimental bone malignancy and on scintigrams of bone and marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between prostaglandin E (PgE) and scintigrams of bone (Tc-99m MDP) and bone marrow (Tc-99m SC) was investigated in normal and VX-2-bearing rabbits. PgE in plasma of normal rabbits was 486.2. In rabbits with VX-2 transplanted into femoral muscles, PgE was in the normal range unless the tumor invaded bone. PgE was not increase significantly in rabbits when the tumor was transplanted into the marrow cavity. When tumor invaded bone, PgE increassed markedly (to 1335). Elevation of PgE did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not higher than in the untreated group. Indomethacin may suppress the local acceleration of calcium metabolism

  8. Iron-oxide-enhanced MR imaging of bone marrow in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: differentiation between tumor infiltration and hypercellular bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to differentiate normal, hypercellular, and neoplastic bone marrow based on its MR enhancement after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxides in patients with cancer of the hematopoietic system. Eighteen patients with cancer of the hematopoietic system underwent MRI of the spine before and after infusion of ferumoxides (n=9) and ferumoxtran (n=9) using T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and short tau inversion recovery sequences (STIR). In all patients diffuse or multifocal bone marrow infiltration was suspected, based on iliac crest biopsy and imaging such as conventional radiographs, MRI, and positron emission tomography. In addition, all patients had a therapy-induced normocellular (n=7) or hypercellular (n=11) reconversion of the normal non-neoplastic bone marrow. The MRI data were analyzed by measuring pre- and post-contrast signal intensities (SI) of hematopoietic and neoplastic marrow and by calculating the enhancement as ΔSI(%) data and the tumor-to-bone-marrow contrast as contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Changes in bone marrow signal intensity after iron oxide administration were more pronounced on STIR images as compared with T1- and T2-weighted TSE images. The STIR images showed a strong signal decline of normal and hypercellular marrow 45-60 min after iron oxide infusion, but no or only a minor signal decline of neoplastic bone marrow lesions; thus, ΔSI% data were significantly higher in normal and hypercellular reconverted marrow compared with neoplastic bone marrow lesions (p<0.05). Additionally, the contrast between focal or multifocal neoplastic bone marrow infiltration and normal bone marrow, quantified by CNR data, increased significantly on post-contrast STIR images compared with precontrast images (p<0.05). Superparamagnetic iron oxides are taken up by normal and hypercellular reconverted bone marrow, but not by neoplastic bone marrow lesions, thereby providing significantly different

  9. CD146 expression on primary nonhematopoietic bone marrow stem cells is correlated with in situ localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormin, Ariane; Li, Ou; Brune, Jan Claas;

    2011-01-01

    Nonhematopoietic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are of central importance for bone marrow stroma and the hematopoietic environment. However, the exact phenotype and anatomical distribution of specified MSC populations in the marrow are unknown. We characterized the phenotype of prim...

  10. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  11. Ethical issues in bone marrow transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, Aric; Kerridge, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    In the 50 years since the first successful human bone marrow transplant (BMT) was performed in 1959, BMT has become the optimal therapy for a wide variety of life-threatening paediatric haematological, immunological and genetic disorders. Unfortunately, while BMT generally provides the only possibility of cure for such afflicted children, few (25%) have a matched sibling available, and suitably matched unrelated donors are often not identified for many children in need of BMT. And even where BMT is possible, treatment is complex and arduous and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The issues raised when either or both the donor and recipient are children and lack the capacity to make informed and rational decisions relating to BMT pose great challenges for all involved. This paper examines some of the ethical dilemmas that confront patients, families and medical practitioners when considering bone marrow transplantation in a child. PMID:21951444

  12. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  13. A stochastic model of radiation-induced bone marrow damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotlet, G.; Blue, T.E.

    2000-03-01

    A stochastic model, based on consensus principles from radiation biology, is used to estimate bone-marrow stem cell pool survival (CFU-S and stroma cells) after irradiation. The dose response model consists of three coupled first order linear differential equations which quantitatively describe time dependent cellular damage, repair, and killing of red bone marrow cells. This system of differential equations is solved analytically through the use of a matrix approach for continuous and fractionated irradiations. The analytic solutions are confirmed through the dynamical solution of the model equations using SIMULINK. Rate coefficients describing the cellular processes of radiation damage and repair, extrapolated to humans from animal data sets and adjusted for neutron-gamma mixed fields, are employed in a SIMULINK analysis of criticality accidents. The results show that, for the time structures which may occur in criticality accidents, cell survival is established mainly by the average dose and dose rate.

  14. Bone Marrow Stem Cell as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The chronic hyperglycemia damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Curative therapies mainly include diet, insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, these therapies fail to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range all the time. Although pancreas or islet-cell transplantation achieves better glucose control, a major obstacle is the shortage of donor organs. Recently, research has focused on stem cells which can be classified into embryonic stem cells (ESCs and tissue stem cells (TSCs to generate functional β cells. TSCs include the bone-marrow-, liver-, and pancreas-derived stem cells. In this review, we focus on treatment using bone marrow stem cells for type 1 and 2 DM.

  15. Effect of 910-MHz Electromagnetic Field on Rat Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demsia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the possibility of electromagnetic fields (EMF developed by nonionizing radiation to be a noxious agent capable of inducing genotoxicity to humans, in the current study we have investigated the effect of 910-MHz EMF in rat bone marrow. Rats were exposed daily for 2 h over a period of 30 consecutive days. Studying bone marrow smears from EMF-exposed and sham-exposed animals, we observed an almost threefold increase of micronuclei (MN in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs after EMF exposure. An induction of MN was also observed in polymorphonuclear cells. The induction of MN in female rats was less than that in male rats. The results indicate that 910-MHz EMF could be considered as a noxious agent capable of producing genotoxic effects.

  16. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

  17. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carla P; Rankin, Sara M

    2011-07-01

    Adult bone marrow contains a number of discrete populations of progenitor cells, including endothelial, mesenchymal, and epithelial progenitor cells and fibrocytes. In the context of a range of diseases, endothelial progenitor cells have been reported to promote angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells are potent immunosuppressors but can also contribute directly to tissue regeneration, and fibrocytes have been shown to induce tissue fibrosis. This article provides an overview of the basic biology of these different subsets of progenitor cells, reporting their distinct phenotypes and functional activities. The differences in their secretomes are highlighted, and the relative role of cellular differentiation vs paracrine effects of progenitor cells is considered. The article reviews the literature examining the contribution of progenitor cells to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, and discusses recent studies using bone marrow progenitor cells as stem cell therapies in the context of pulmonary hypertension, COPD, and asthma. PMID:21729891

  18. Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells to Neural Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To explore the possibility and condition of differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) to neural cells in vitro, BMSCs from whole bone marrow of rats were cultured. The BMSCs of passage 3 were identified with immunocytochemical staining of CD44 ( + ), CD71 ( + )and CD45(-). There were type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells in BMSCs. Type Ⅰ BMSCs were spindleshaped and strong positive in immunocytochemical staining of CD44 and CD71, whereas flat and big type Ⅱ BMSCs were lightly stained. The BMSCs of same passage were induced to differentiate into neural cells by β-mercaptoethanol (BME). After induction by BME, the type Ⅰ BMSCs withdrew to form neuron-like round soma and axon-like and dendrite-like processes, and were stained positively for neurofilament (NF). The type Ⅱ BMSCs did not change in the BME medium and were negatively or slightly stained of NF.

  19. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction

  20. Comparative detectability of bone metastases and impact on therapy of magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altehoefer, Carsten E-mail: alca@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Ghanem, Nadir; Hoegerle, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Langer, Mathias

    2001-10-01

    Objective: to evaluate the comparative impact of magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy in bone metastases of breast cancer. Methods and patients: in 81 patients with histologically proven breast cancer magnetic resonance imaging of the axial skeleton and whole-body bone scintigraphy had been performed. Images were retrospectively reviewed and compared for detection of metastases, extent of metastatic disease and therapeutic implications according to the patients' records. Results: about 54/81 (67%) patients revealed bone metastases. In 7/54 (13%) patients with bone metastases, scintigraphy was false negative. In one patient a solitary sternal metastases was seen. In 26/53 [49%] patients with spinal metastases, magnetic resonance imaging showed more extensive disease. Local radiotherapy or surgery was indicated in ten patients with metastases not evident in bone scintigraphy, in 20 patients with positive results by both imaging modalities and in six patients with metastases of pelvis imaged by bone scintigraphy only. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging of the axial skeleton and pelvis appears superior for staging as only one patient had metastases merely outside the axial skeleton and local therapy was indicated even in spinal regions negative in bone scintigraphy.

  1. Nutritional therapy during bone marrow transplantation. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Normén, Lena; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Ekman, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a treatment which often results in nutritional complications. Common conditions affecting dietary intake are mucosal membrane injuries, nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Dietary advice is therefore a necessary part of treatment. The diet situation is complicated by the abscence of international dietary guidelines for BMT. The dietary approach varies between hospitals. Most commonly patients receive sterile, low-microbial, modified or normal diet. In Sweden al...

  2. Preparing the patient for bone marrow transplantation: nursing care issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, W.

    1990-01-01

    The phases of bone marrow transplantation can be identified as the pre-transplant period, the immediate post-transplant period, and the late post-transplant period. The pre-transplant period is characterized by identification of the appropriate type of transplant to be done and, if necessary, finding an appropriate donor; entry of the patient into the transplant unit; administration of the preparative chemotherapy/irradiation regime; management of early toxicities; and pre-transplant supporti...

  3. Psychological Impact of Bone Marrow Transplantation: Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

    1990-01-01

    Despite advances in bone marrow transplant technology, major psychological stresses remain. Donor selection has become psychologically more complex with the option of seeking an unrelated donor. Family dislocation continues to be necessary for many families despite the proliferation of transplant centers. The range of choices between treatment options, level of room sterility, and the like can leave families open to guilt about their choices. Unpredictability of the transplant course, difficu...

  4. Fatal adenovirus 32 infection in a bone marrow transplant recipient.

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, A K; Caul, E. O.; Porter, H J; Oakhill, A

    1995-01-01

    A case of disseminated adenovirus type 32 infection causing severe hepatitis, gastrointestinal ulceration and also with respiratory involvement is reported in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Typical viral inclusions were seen in the postmortem histological sections and adenovirus infection was confirmed using in situ hybridisation and isolation of adenovirus type 32 from separate organs at necropsy. This is the first case in which adenovirus 32 was the cause of fatal disseminated disease ...

  5. Regulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Bryan; Link, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized microenvironments (niches) in the bone marrow. The stem cell niche is thought to provide signals that support key HSC properties, including self-renewal capacity and long-term multilineage repopulation ability. The stromal cells that comprise the stem cell niche and the signals that they generate that support HSC function are the subjects of intense investigation. Here we review the complex and diverse stromal cell populations that reside ...

  6. Ovarian function after bone marrow transplantation performed before menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, M.; Shinohara, O; Ishiguro, H; Shimizu, T; Hattori, K.; Ichikawa, M; Yabe, H.; Kubota, C.; M. Yabe; Kato, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To examine the long term effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on ovarian function in girls.
METHODS—Eighteen girls who underwent BMT before menarche, had been disease free for more than six years, and were over 14 years of age at the time of study were investigated. The preparative regimen consisted of irradiation and chemotherapy. The occurrence of menarche and changes in basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were studied.
RESULTS—Twelv...

  7. Histopathological changes in the liver after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sloane, JP; Farthing, MJG; Powles, RL

    1980-01-01

    Postmortem and surgical specimens of liver from 20 patients who had undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for a variety of disorders were examined. The lesions fell into five major categories: bile duct atypia often associated with portal tract fibrosis (8 cases), veno-occlusive disease (2 cases), small foci of non-zonal hepatocyte necrosis (3 cases), opportunistic infections (3 cases), and a miscellaneous group of non-specific abnormalities. Our findings, in conjunction with those...

  8. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Gangwar, Devendra Singh; Singh, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective study was assessment of efficacy of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) (containing plasma rich in growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells) injection in treatment of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult patients of previously untreated tennis elbow were administered single injection of BMA. This concentrate was made by centrifugation of iliac BMA at 2000 rpm for 20-30 min and only upper layer containing platelet rich plasma and mononuc...

  9. Diagnostic utility of bone marrow sampling in HIV positive patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, M. G.; Ayles, H; Harrison, C.; Rowntree, C; Miller, R F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of bone marrow (BM) sampling in HIV positive patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Specialist HIV/AIDS service in London. SUBJECTS: 215 consecutive HIV infected patients undergoing 246 BM samplings for investigation of pyrexia without localising signs, haematological abnormalities, or staging/investigation of lymphoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnostic yield from (and impact on management of) BM sampling. RESULTS: Of 122 BM samp...

  10. Total hip arthroplasty in very young bone marrow transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Cameron K; Vap, Alexander R; Bolognesi, Michael P; Wellman, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    Concerns remain about total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed in very young patients, especially those with complex medical history such as allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). This study retrospectively reviews the perioperative courses and functional outcomes of ABMT patients history of severe hematopoietic conditions requiring ABMT, these very young patients do appear to have improved pain and function following primary THA with short-term follow-up. PMID:25988690

  11. Disseminated Microascus cirrosus infection in pediatric bone marrow transplant recipient.

    OpenAIRE

    Krisher, K K; Holdridge, N B; M. M. Mustafa; Rinaldi, M. G.; McGough, D A

    1995-01-01

    Microascus cirrosus Curzi and its associated anamorphic state, Scopulariopsis, were recovered from the cutaneous lesion of a 12-year-old male who had undergone an autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Histopathology sections from the biopsied lesion demonstrated septate hyphae consistent with a fungal etiology. Radiographic studies of the lungs subsequent to progression of the lesion revealed a consolidation in the right upper lobe suggesting a primary focus o...

  12. Bone marrow cells - a tool for spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva; Urdzíková, Lucia; Jendelová, Pavla; Burian, M.; Glogarová, Kateřina; Hájek, M.

    Elsevier. Roč. 193, č. 1 (2005), s. 261-262. ISSN 0014-4886. [Annual Conference of the American Society for Neural Transplantation and Repair /12./. 28.04.2005-02.05.2005, Clearwater] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : bone marrow cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  13. VIRAL INFECTIONS IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS: IS JC VIRUS INVOLVED?

    OpenAIRE

    Mischitelli, Monica; Fioriti, Daniela; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Barucca, Valentina; BOLDORINI, RENZO; Miglio, Umberto; Sica, Simona; Sorà, Federica; De Matteis, Silvia; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Haemorrhagic cystitis is characterized by haematuria due to inflammation of the bladder. In bone marrow transplants, this disease is linked to the infection by human polyomavirus BK, whereas the role of the human polyomavirus JC is unclear. The transcriptional control regions of both viruses contain important cellular transcription factor binding sites that undergo rearrangement process generating suitable variants that could be more active for viral replication and for th...

  14. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy. NK cells and bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, C.Y.; Welniak, L A; Murphy, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been increasingly used for the treatment of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders. However, serious obstacles currently limit the efficacy and thus more extensive use of BMT. These obstacles include: graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse from the original tumor, and susceptibility of patients to opportunistic infections due to the immunosuppressive effects of the conditioning regimen.Overcoming these ...

  15. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O.; OCHOA, OSCAR; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R.; Centonze, Victoria E.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Joel E. Michalek; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.

    2009-01-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type ...

  16. Diagnostic impact of bone marrow histopathology in polycythemia vera (PV)

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, J; Kvasnicka, H M

    2005-01-01

    The criteria of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group (PVSG), although acknowledged as the gold standard to establish the diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV), do not regard bone marrow (BM) histopathology. Arguments include the existence of sufficient objective markers of disease and the lack of independently performed morphological studies or standardized criteria. The aim of this review is to evaluate morphological characteristics of erythrocytosis and to det...

  17. I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging after bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for advanced neuroblastoma (NBL). The authors reviewed 26 pre-BMT and 91 post-BMT I-131 MIBG studies in 31 children with NBL. Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans and CT scans were obtained at the same time. In 10 of 16 living, disease-free patients, all pre- and post-BMT I-131 MIBG studies were negative; six had initially positive I-131 MIBG studies that became negative after BMT. I-131 MIBG studies normalized more rapidly than did bone scans. Two children with normal I-131 MIBF results developed new bone scan findings typical of trauma

  18. Bone metastasis in patients with para neoplastic myasthenic syndrome - Possible indication for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    injecting 750 MBq of technetium-99m labelled methylenediphosphonate. Static views were additionally performed when considered necessary. Results showed focal uptake consistent with bone metastasis in 13 cases, uncertain lesions (possible degenerative) in 6 cases and normal pattern in 9 cases. Most focal uptakes were suggestive of secondary lesions involving sternum and spine. Further investigations revealed the primary malignancy in 23 cases (11 thymoma, 3 lung cancer, 4 colonic cancer, 2 gastric cancer, 1 prostate carcinoma, 1 neoplasm of the cavum, 1 thyroid cancer). Based on our preliminary observations, we conclude that bone scan might be useful to detect secondary bone lesions in middle-aged and old aged patients with MG, under circumstances of clinical and biological suspicion of malignancy, even before confirmation of primary disease. Because of the usually small size of the primary lesions at the time of the PMS occurrence (for example, small thymoma), they are sometimes very difficult to diagnose by conventional procedures. Though metabolic imaging as PET scan is useful but in centres where this modality is not available, bone scintigraphy might be justified for selected patients and a positive yield in these patients can orient further investigation directed towards detecting the malignancy. (author)

  19. Usefulness of spatially adaptive noise reduction processing in computer-assisted diagnosis system for bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Pixon-processed images in comparison with raw images for computer-assisted interpretation of bone scintigraphy (BONENAVI). Whole-body scans of 57 patients with prostate cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy for suspected bone metastases were obtained approximately 3 h after intravenous injection of 740 MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. We obtained two image sets: raw images and images processed using the Pixon method. Artificial neural network (ANN) values, bone scan index (BSI), number of hotspots and regional ANN value of two images set were automatically calculated by the BONENAVI software. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated in patient-based and lesion-based analyses. In ten cases with bone metastases, ANN, BSI and number of hotspots for processed images were equivalent to those in the raw images. However, in 47 cases without bone metastases, ANN, BSI and number of hotspots for processed images showed significantly lower values than those for the raw images (p < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the raw images were 90.2, 44.7 and 65.9%, and those of the processed images were 90.2, 57.4 and 72.7%, respectively. The AUC for processed images was equivalent to that for raw images. Specificity and accuracy in the detection of bone metastases showed the Pixon-processed images to have high diagnostic performance. We conclude that the precision of computer-assisted interpretation of bone scintigraphy can be enhanced by using Pixon processing. (author)

  20. Bone marrow purging by a xanthine oxidase-antibody conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinota, A; Tazzari, P L; Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Gobbi, M; Stirpe, F

    1990-07-01

    The selective cytotoxicity of the xanthine oxidase conjugated to an 8A monoclonal antibody recognizing a human plasma cell-associated antigen has been described. The selectivity and the toxicity of the hypoxanthine/conjugated xanthine oxidase system was increased by removing the excess of conjugate and by adding chelated iron. Under these experimental conditions the cytotoxicity of the conjugate exceeded that of free xanthine oxidase by one order of magnitude. The conjugate effectively purged bone marrow from infiltrating neoplastic plasma cells and added target Raji cells, provided blood was removed and bone marrow peroxidases were exhausted. In conditions of purging effectiveness the conjugate had no toxicity to CFU-GM. No toxicity to mice was observed after i.v. injection of xanthine oxidase-antibody conjugate up to 2.9 U/kg body weight. Thus the hypoxanthine/conjugated xanthine oxidase system could be an effective and nontoxic tool for the ex vivo bone marrow purging in multiple myeloma patients for autologous transplantation. PMID:2390631

  1. Canine allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: technique and variables influencing engraftment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the toxicity and immune suppression of supralethal total body irradiation (800-2000 rads, 60Co) at three dose intensities (10 rads/min, 49 rads/min, and 100 rads/min). In 79 intensively supported radiation control animals, the LD/sub 50(5)/ (that theoretical dose at which 50 percent of the animals will die within 5 days) for these dose intensities is estimated to be 1556, 941, and 921 rads, respectively. A biomodal pattern of early (median 4 days) and late (median 9 days) deaths was observed corresponding to histopathological evidence of the intestinal and hematopoietic radiation syndromes. Random donor bone marrow transplants were performed in 83 animals to test immune suppression afforded by 800 rads and 1000 rads at dose intensities of either 10 rads/min or 49 rads/min. Bone marrow cell dose was varied to analyze its effect on engraftment. A greater degree of immunosuppression with less toxicity was achieved at the lower dose intensity. A minimum dose of 3-5 x 108 nucleated allogeneic bone marrow cells/kg (readily obtainable from living donors) resulted in a high percentage of engraftment with lethal graft-versus-host disease following conditioning with 1,000 rads midplane at 10 rads/min, the optimum regimen employed

  2. Differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Tao Zhan; Yu Wang; Lai Wei; Bin Liu; Hong-Song Chen; Xu Cong; Ran Fei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy.METHODS: Bone marrow cells were collected from the tibia of rat with partial hepatectomy, the medial and left hepatic lobes were excised. The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) were enriched from the bone marrow cells by depleting red cells and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The sorted bone marrow stem cells were labeled by PKH26-GL in vitro and autotransplanted by portal vein injection. After 2wk, the transplanted bone marrow stem cells in liver were examined by the immunohistochemistry of albumin (hepatocyte-specific marker).RESULTS: The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) accounted for 2.8% of bone marrow cells without red cells. The labeling rate of 10μM PKH26-GL on sorted bone marrow stem cells was about 95%.There were sporadic PKH26-GL-labeled cells among hepatocytes in liver tissue section, and some of the cells expressed albumin.CONCLUSION: Rat bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in regenerative environment and may participate in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

  3. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Li; Xuming Hua; Fang Hua; Wenwei Mao; Liang Wan; Shiting Li

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohistological staining and reverse transcription-PCR detection showed that transplanted bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells could migrate and survive in the ischemic regions, such as the cortical and striatal infarction zone. These cells promote vascular endothelial cell growth factor mRNA expression in the ischemic marginal zone surrounding the ischemic penumbra of the cortical and striatal infarction zone, and have great advantages in promoting the recovery of neurological function, reducing infarct size and promoting angiogenesis. Bone marrow regenerative cells exhibited stronger neuroprotective effects than bone marrow cells. Our experimental findings indicate that bone marrow regenerative cells are preferable over bone marrow cells for cell therapy for neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. Their neuroprotective effect is largely due to their ability to induce the secretion of factors that promote vascular regeneration, such as vascular endothelial growth factor.

  4. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Correlation with clinical or pathological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual phase 99mTc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31%) patients with 181 foci had a positive 99mTc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the 99mTc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69%) patients had a negative 99mTc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive 9mTc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61%) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.96 cm and 163.85 ng

  5. A clinical study of temporomandibular disorder. The value of bone scintigraphy as an aid to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is still not defined with respect to the point of an entity, terminological problems, and clinical classification and gradings. Moreover, diagnostic problems of internal deranegement and osteodeformity at the temporomandibular joint such as type IV and mechanism of bone remodeling at condylar head are also still not clear. In this investigation, we tried to classify the severity and progressive grading according to the symptoms and objective laboratory data taken from soft tissues such as muscles related to mastication, discs and ligaments, and hard tissues such as condylar head and temporal bone changes around the temporomandibular joint. Preliminary diagnostic clinical tool of the assessment of temporomandibular joint by maens of bone scintigraphy was attributed to the additional diagnostic procedure and research for the bone remodeling for the temporomandibular disorder because this can be defined between subjective and objective symptoms in this disorder. Bone scintigraphy will solve many problems concerning undefined degenerative bone changes in TMD, enable more accurate diagnosis, and the selection of treatment and prognosis in future investigation. Also, it is believed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear bone imaging is a highly accurate diagnostic method for craniomandibular disorders. (author)

  6. A clinical study of temporomandibular disorder. The value of bone scintigraphy as an aid to diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Masashi [Nippon Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata

    2000-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is still not defined with respect to the point of an entity, terminological problems, and clinical classification and gradings. Moreover, diagnostic problems of internal deranegement and osteodeformity at the temporomandibular joint such as type IV and mechanism of bone remodeling at condylar head are also still not clear. In this investigation, we tried to classify the severity and progressive grading according to the symptoms and objective laboratory data taken from soft tissues such as muscles related to mastication, discs and ligaments, and hard tissues such as condylar head and temporal bone changes around the temporomandibular joint. Preliminary diagnostic clinical tool of the assessment of temporomandibular joint by maens of bone scintigraphy was attributed to the additional diagnostic procedure and research for the bone remodeling for the temporomandibular disorder because this can be defined between subjective and objective symptoms in this disorder. Bone scintigraphy will solve many problems concerning undefined degenerative bone changes in TMD, enable more accurate diagnosis, and the selection of treatment and prognosis in future investigation. Also, it is believed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear bone imaging is a highly accurate diagnostic method for craniomandibular disorders. (author)

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Contaminant Risk on Bone Marrow Aspiration Material from Iliac Bone Patients with Active Tuberculous Spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim; Tri Kurniawati; Andriansjah Rukmana

    2016-01-01

    There was a concern on Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreading to the bone marrow, when it was applied on tuberculous spine infection. This research aimed to study the probability of using autologous bone marrow as a source of mesenchymal stem cell for patients with tuberculous spondylitis. As many as nine patients with tuberculous spondylitis were used as samples. During the procedure, the vertebral lesion material and iliac bone marrow aspirates were obtained for acid fast staining, bacteria c...

  8. The effect of mixed infusion of bone marrow cells and bone marrow stromal cells on hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the effect of mixed infusion of bone marrow and bone marrow stromal cells on hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice, Balb/c mice irradiated lethally received 1 x 107 syngeneic bone marrow cells and 2 x 105 syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells via the intravenous route. As compared with the simple BMT group, the WBC and the BPC in peripheral blood in mixed infusion group recover more quickly on day 14 after BMT and BMSCT. The numbers of CFU-GM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-S in mixed infusion group are higher than that of the simple BMT group on day 15 and day 20 after BMT and BMSCT. Conclusion: Primary cultured bone marrow stromal cells not only is transplantable , but also can accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution

  9. Diagnosis and monitoring of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Shavladze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 42 patients with verified Hodgkin lymphoma and confirmed metastatic skeletal lesion possibility of using specific pulse sequences in imaging of bone marrow involvement have been established. MRI pattern of bone marrow lesion, signal localization, distribution and intensity were revealed. In 33 patients with newly diagnosed bone lesions the MR images of the affected and intact bone marrow during chemotherapy were assessed during 10 months. In 2 patients MR images were assessed after radiotherapy. Several MRI patterns changes of affected bone marrow after 2, 6 and 8 chemotherapy cycles were identified.

  10. Hemopoietic precursor-cells in radiation chimeras restored by bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective capacity of bone marrow CFUs of adult thymectomized mice was studied. Lethaly irradiated mice were inoculated with bone marrow of mice thymectomized 8-11 months before. The colony forming capacity and proliferative rate of CFUs were studied 1-7.5 months after obtaining the radiation chimeras. It has been shown that proliferative capacity of bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice was reduced in comparison with that of normal animals. We also found that the content of CFUs in bone of those chimeras was reduced later - after 7.5 months. In this period (1-7.5 months) the cellularity of bone marrow did not change

  11. The influence of sterilization on the osteoinductive properties of bone in rat bone marrow cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone allografting is useful in the reconstruction of defects or supplementation of bone required during the treatment of bone tumors or comminuted fractures. Gamma-irradiation or heat-treatment at 60degC for 10 h or 80degC for 10 min are recognized procedures for the sterilization of bone before grafting. We investigated the ability of sterilized bone to induce proliferation in rat bone marrow cell cultures, and to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cells. Addition of irradiated bone resulted in increased numbers of bone marrow cells and ALP activity in such cultures. However, larger doses of radiation to the bones suppressed this cell proliferation-inducing activity, whereas induction of ALP activity was not depressed by higher radiation doses. When the inducing activity was compared after the various sterilization processes, processed bones increased the cell number in culture by 45 percent and 35 percent compared with controls on days 7 and 14, respectively, despite sterilization. ALP activity was also increased by the processed bones (37 percent and 9 percent compared with controls on days 7 and 14, respectively), and this was again independent of the sterilization method employed. These results indicate that osteoinductive activity is retained after sterilization by either of the common methods employed. (author)

  12. Effects of prostaglandin on experimental bone malignancy and on scintigrams of bone and marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between prostaglandin E (PgE) and scintigrams of bone (Tc-99m MDP) and bone marrow (Tc-99m SC) was investigated in normal and VX-2-bearing rabbits. PgE in plasma of normal rabbits was 486.2 +/- 185.7 pg/ml (n . 86) and the maximum-to-minimum (max/min) ratio was 1.85 +/- 0.26 at 4 wk after tumor implantation. In rabbits with VX-2 transplanted into femoral muscles, PgE was in the normal range unless the tumor invaded bone. PgE did not increase significantly in rabbits when the tumor was transplanted into the marrow cavity. When tumor invaded bone, PgE increased markedly (to 1335 +/- 584 pg/ml). Elevation of PgE did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group was not higher than in the untreated group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the time of appearance of abnormal bone scans. However, when the number of transplanted cells in the bone marrow was reduced, the treatment with indomethacin delayed the increase in tracer uptake in the affected bone and resulted in a photon-deficient area. Indomethacin may suppress the local acceleration of calcium metabolism

  13. Age-related distribution of vertebral bone-marrow diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine age-related diffusivity changes of the lumbar bone marrow by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained. The study group comprised 88 individuals including 75 healthy volunteers and 13 patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36 years, range 0–84 years). The pediatric cases were recruited from patients. Echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm2. ADC-values were calculated and measured in the 1st and 2nd vertebral body of the lumbar spine. Correlation between age and ADC-values was analyzed with Spearman's rho test. Results: The ADC values of the vertebral bone marrow of the lumbar spine showed a significant negative correlation with age (rho = −0.398, p = 0.001). The mean ADC values (×10−3 mm2/s) in the age groups 0–29 years (mean age 18.0 years, n = 42) and 30–88 years (mean age 51.6 years, n = 46) were 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively (p < 0.001, T-test). No significant differences were found between children and young adults. Conclusion: Bone marrow ADC values of the lumbar spine show a linear decrease with growing age and thereby reflect the gradual changes of cell composition occurring during marrow conversion.

  14. Infantile choriocarcinoma: a case report with MRI, angiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infantile and maternal choriocarcinoma is a very rare disease. We report a case with the characteristic clinical features of infantile choriocarcinoma: developing anemia, hemorrhagic liver tumors, rapid progression to death and maternal choriocarcinoma. Bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake by the liver tumors. In this case there were two possible primary sites: the placenta of this pregnancy and a hydatidiform mole that had been present 2 years previously. (orig.). With 1 fig

  15. Infantile choriocarcinoma: a case report with MRI, angiography and bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sashi, R. [Department of Radiology, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan); Sato, K. [Department of Radiology, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan); Hirano, H. [Department of Radiology, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan); Tomura, N. [Department of Radiology, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan); Watarai, J. [Department of Radiology, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan); Ishida, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan); Morita, M. [Department of Pathology, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita City (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    Infantile and maternal choriocarcinoma is a very rare disease. We report a case with the characteristic clinical features of infantile choriocarcinoma: developing anemia, hemorrhagic liver tumors, rapid progression to death and maternal choriocarcinoma. Bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake by the liver tumors. In this case there were two possible primary sites: the placenta of this pregnancy and a hydatidiform mole that had been present 2 years previously. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  16. Evaluation of perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 13 patients for femoral neck fracture. They consisted of 2 males and 11 females, and were classified according to Garden stage classification; Stage I, 3 cases; Stage II, 2 cases; Stage III, 2 cases; Stage IV, 4 cases. Two trochanteric fracture cases were used by control. We evaluated perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy, which is considered useful for evaluation of perfusion of the femoral neck before operation. (author)

  17. Utility of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of post- traumatic osteitis pubis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalawat, Tek Chand; Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravi, Parthasarathi; Lakshmi, Amancharla Yadagiri

    2013-01-01

    Minor musculoskeletal injuries usually heal within few weeks with conservative treatment, but in pelvic injuries, symptoms may persist for long duration and patient need medical attention to get relief from disturbing pain symptoms. We present a case of post-trauma osteitis pubis in a 58-year-old female, who reported with lower abdominal and left side hip joint pain since 2 months, after an episode of trivial trauma to her pelvis. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was p...

  18. A Multilingual Database for Bone Scintigraphy with Concept-Oriented Access Under the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Matthias; Bernauer, Jochen; Benneke, Andreas; Fueseschi, Attila; Haake, Thomas; Mennecke, Lars; Urban, Martin; Pretschner, Dietrich-Peter

    1996-01-01

    A multi-lingual data base for bone scintigraphy with instructive patient cases which is accessible under the WWW will be presented. It includes structured case records based on images and clinical information provided in different European languages. In order to support the retrieval of cases clinical information is represented in a language independent way by means of a formalized compositional concept system. This design allows for accessing cases under various clinical aspects and detail u...

  19. Uterine doughnut by intrauterine device-induced photon attenuation on three-phase bone scintigraphy: artifact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    A 44-year-old female underwent three-phase bone scintigraphy for an evaluation of right hip joint pain. The blood-flow and blood-pool images show a pelvic blush with a photopenic center (doughnut) prior to bladder filling. On the three hour delayed image, the pelvic uptake disappeared. The scintigraphic findings indicated the possibility of an early pregnancy. However, plain radiography demonstrated an intrauterine device. A uterine doughnut developed as a result of photon attenuation of intrauterine device.

  20. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairemo, Kalevi; Rasulova, Nigora; Suslaviciute, Justina; Alanko, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) stage T4N2M1b, with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume). In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed. PMID:27408870

  1. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC stage T4N2M1b, with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume. In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed.

  2. MR imaging fails to detect bone marrow oedema in osteomyelitis: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow oedema is the earliest and most sensitive sign in diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis. In the two demonstrated cases of acute and chronic osteomyelitis, MRI was not able to detect bone marrow oedema due to accompanying haemosiderosis and sclerosis surrounding a bone abscess. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging fails to detect bone marrow oedema in osteomyelitis: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingen, M.; Alzen, G.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Bone marrow oedema is the earliest and most sensitive sign in diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis. In the two demonstrated cases of acute and chronic osteomyelitis, MRI was not able to detect bone marrow oedema due to accompanying haemosiderosis and sclerosis surrounding a bone abscess. (orig.)

  4. Dominance and persistence of donor marrow in long-lived allogeneic radiation chimeras obtained with unmanipulated bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allogeneic, H-2-incompatible irradiation chimeras (H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b)) constructed with normal, unmanipulated bone marrow and with marrow-derived factors live long and do not manifest a GvH disease. Their response to primary immunization is deficient but their alloreactivity is normal. This chimeric allotolerance cannot be passively transferred from chimeric donors to normal irradiated recipients. Passive transfer of both donor- or recipient-type immuno-competent T-cells into the chimeric mice does not lead to syngeneic reconstitution, rejection of the engrafted marrow or GvH disease, and the mice maintain permanently their chimerism. This new model demonstrates that chimerism is not eradicable in long-lived chimeras reconstituted with unmanipulated bone marrow, and that the bone marrow itself plays a dominant role in maintenance of chimerism. (Auth.)

  5. Conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in the prognostic evaluation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The role of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy in predicting the outcome of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease was investigated. Material and Methods: The 75 children reviewed (86 hips) were followed up to the primary healing of the disease. The findings at conventional radiography (obtained at presentation, at the time of maximum capital head involvement, and at the end of the healing process of the disease) were compared to early bone scintigraphy features. Results and Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic process than initial radiographs. Moreover if could determine revascularization and consequently the stage of the disease. The method was, however, unable to predict the outcome of the disease in some of the cases, particularly if it was performed late after the onset of symptoms. Conventional radiography provided important information about other parameters such as 'head-at'risk' signs which facilitated treatment selection. Of thse signs not only lateral subluxation but also metaphyseal changes strongly predispose to severe deformity of the hip joint. (orig.)

  6. Osseous scintigraphy in exploration of fever osteo-articular pain in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteo articular complications of sickle cell disease are multiple and can occur in the acute mode, (Bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic (osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis).Through 6 cases we present the interest, lack and limitations of planar scintigraphy with bis phosphonates. Two patients underwent an early bone scan supplemented by medullary scintigraphy with nano colloids, the diagnosis was a bone infarction. In two children, the bone scan was performed between 5 and 7 days after the beginning of symptoms and did not objectify image of acute osteo articular complication. In the last patient, abnormal scintigraphy does not allow to differentiate osteomyelitis and bone infarction. The bone scan remains an essential consideration in the exploration of bone manifestations in sickle cell disease. Its association with bone marrow scintigraphy provides better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating osteomyelitis and bone infarction and adjusting the therapeutic management. (N.C.)

  7. The paradoxes in patterns and mechanism of bone marrow regeneration after irradiation. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow regeneration following irradiation has been largely studied as a dose-effect phenomenon, however, a large literature has simultaneously developed utilizing a wide variety of volumes, both in clinical studies and in experimental studies. Volume factors, more than dose, determine patterns of suppression and regeneration which have been documented by a variety of assay systems. Experimental evidence is presented which indicates that high dose irradiation to large volumes of bone marrow does not completely suppress bone marrow regeneration but results in a rapid compensatory response. Comparisons are made between the small and larger volumes at similar doses and indicate a greater overall compensatory response after the larger field irradiation, being more rapid in onset particularly after the 1000 rad dose. Although in-field regeneration of bone marrow occurs after single dose radiation to different volumes of bone marrow, experimental and clinical evidence from protracted conventional doses of irradiation to different volumes of bone marrow indicate significantly different response mechanisms. (Auth.)

  8. Comparison of bone scintigraphy and radiography in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide images and skeletal radiographs of 51 patients with multiple myeloma were compared to assess the sensitivity of scintigraphy in detecting radiographically evident disease. Comparable studies were available for 562 sites. The radionuclide image was relatively insensitive in detecting myeloma; it failed to show radiographically evident disease or underestimated its extent at 27% of the sites. On a limited number of serial images there were 7 sites at which a scintigraphic abnormality preceded the radiographic abnormality. No definite correlation was found between scintigraphic findings and hematologic parameters of myeloma activity. Although the radionuclide image may demonstrate a few sites of myeloma before the radiograph, radiography remains the primary method of evaluating skeletal involvement by myeloma

  9. Erythropoietic bone marrow in the pigeon: Development of its distribution and volume during growth and pneumatization of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During postnatal development of the pigeon, a large portion of the skeleton becomes pneumatized, displacing the hemopoietic bone marrow. The consequences of pneumatization on distribution and quantity of bone marrow as well as the availability of other sites for hemopoiesis have been investigated. Hemopoietic marrow of differently aged pigeons divided into five groups from 1 week posthatching (p.h.) up to 6 months p.h. was labeled with Fe-59 and examined by serial whole-body sections. Autoradiography and morphometry as well as scintillation counts of single bones and organs were also carried out. No sign of a reactivation of embryonic sites of erythropoiesis was found. Bone marrow weight and its proportion of whole-body weight increased during the first 4 weeks p.h. from 0.54% to 2.44% and decreased in the following months to about 1.0%. The developing bone marrow showed a progressive distribution during the first months of life, eventually being distributed proportionally over the entire skeleton, except for the skull. At the age of 6 months p.h. bone marrow had been displaced, its volume decreasing in correlation to increasing pneumaticity and conversion to fatty marrow. This generates the characteristic pattern of bone marrow distribution in adult pigeons, which shows hemopoietic bone marrow in ulna, radius, femur, tibiotarsus, scapula, furcula, and the caudal vertebrae

  10. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

  11. The value of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing of langerhans cells histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Langerhans cells histiocytosis (LCH). Methods: Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed in 23 patients, 16 males and 7 females, average age was 4.5+1.4, with histologic diagnosis of LCH. The clinical presentation varied from local mass (10 cases), tenderness (12 cases), othemorrhea (1 case), limb fatigue (3 cases), restriction of spinal activity (2 cases) to irregular fever, cough and rash (4 cases). 99Tcm-MDP was injected intravenously , the dose modified as age, according to the formula of [ adult dosage x [(age+l)/(age+7)] ] , and sedation was given to the young children who could not cooperate well. After 3 hours of administration whole-body bone scan was performed. Images were acquired using GE Millennium SPR, with a high-resolution low-energy collimator, 8 min/m sweep speed, matrix 1024 x 256, zoom 1. Results: 19 of 23 patients (82.6%) showed positive in their bone scan. 8 cases with cranial abnormal uptake, some of them exhibited peripheral high and central low uptake; clavicle, rib and pelvis involvements were 3 respectively; 2 cases in upper limb, 4 in lower limb, most lesions of limb were located in the diaphysis; spinal abnormal uptakes were seen in 5 patients, and 1 child had photon deficient area in the lower of sternium. Among 19 positive scintigram, single bone lesion was shown in 9 patients (47.3%), the most common lesion located in cranium (5 cases). Conclusion: Some characters of bone scintigraphy in LCH are useful in the diagnosis of this disease, and accompanied with comprehensive sensation of clinical manifestation of LCH, the diagnostic accuracy will be promoted. (authors)

  12. Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Muschler, George F.; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal f...

  13. Remyelination of the Spinal Cord Following Intravenous Delivery of Bone Marrow Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Yukinori; Radtke, Christine; HONMOU, OSAMU; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2002-01-01

    Bone marrow contains a population of pluripotent cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell lineages, including neural cells. When injected directly into the demyelinated spinal cord they can elicit remyelination. Recent work has shown that following systemic delivery of bone marrow cells functional improvement occurs in contusive spinal cord injury and stroke models in rat. We report here that secondary to intravenous introduction of an acutely isolated bone marrow cell fraction (mo...

  14. The Role of Bone Marrow Cells in the Phenotypic Changes Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Guang Yang; Qingli Cheng; Sheng Liu; Jiahui Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of bone marrow cells in the phenotypic changes that occur in diabetic nephropathy. Bone marrow cells were obtained from either streptozotocin-induced diabetic or untreated control C3H/He mice and transplanted into control C3H/He mice. Eight weeks after bone marrow cell transplantation, renal morphologic changes and clinical parameters of diabetic nephropathy, including the urine albumin/creatinine ratio and glucose tolerance, were measured in v...

  15. Tolerance to MHC class II disparate allografts through genetic modification of bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Jindra, Peter T.; TRIPATHI, SUDIPTA; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John; Bagley, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    Induction of molecular chimerism through genetic modification of bone marrow is a powerful tool for the induction of tolerance. Here we demonstrate for the first time that expression of an allogeneic MHC class II gene in autologous bone marrow cells, resulting in a state of molecular chimerism, induces tolerance to MHC class II mismatched skin grafts, a stringent test of transplant tolerance. Reconstitution of recipients with syngeneic bone marrow transduced with retrovirus encoding H-2I-Ab (...

  16. Intensive care outcomes in bone marrow transplant recipients: a population-based cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scales, Damon C.; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Kiss, Alexander; Sibbald, William J; Donald A Redelmeier

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Intensive care unit (ICU) admission for bone marrow transplant recipients immediately following transplantation is an ominous event, yet the survival of these patients with subsequent ICU admissions is unknown. Our objective was to determine the long-term outcome of bone marrow transplant recipients admitted to an ICU during subsequent hospitalizations. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort analysis of all adult bone marrow transplant recipients who received subsequent I...

  17. An Association between BK Virus Replication in Bone Marrow and Cytopenia in Kidney-Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Pambrun; Catherine Mengelle; Geneviève Fillola; Patrick Laharrague; Laure Esposito; Isabelle Cardeau-Desangles; Arnaud Del Bello; Jacques Izopet; Lionel Rostaing; Nassim Kamar

    2014-01-01

    The human polyomavirus BK (BKV) is associated with severe complications, such as ureteric stenosis and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), which often occur in kidney-transplant patients. However, it is unknown if BKV can replicate within bone marrow. The aim of this study was to search for BKV replication within the bone marrow of kidney-transplant patients presenting with a hematological disorder. Seventy-two kidney-transplant patients underwent bone-marrow aspiration for cytopenia....

  18. Expression Level of IL-6 Secreted by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Mice with Aplastic Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Feng Chen; Zhong Min Wu; Cong Xie; Shi Bai; Li Dong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Parasecretion of the hematopoietic cytokines is considered as one of the mechanisms account for bone marrow hematopoiesis disorder. In this study, the level of IL-6 secreted by bone marrow stromal cells from a mouse model of aplastic anemia was analyzed. The aplastic anemia mouse model was established with cyclophosphamide in combination with chloramphenicol and 60Co γ radiation. The impairment of bone marrow hematopoiesis induced by irradiation and chemotherapeutic drugs was subsequently cha...

  19. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat...

  20. Chitosan-collagen porous scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yan; Wei Yue; Yue-lin Zhang; Guo-chao Mao; Ke Gao; Zhen-xing Zuo; Ya-jing Zhang; Hui Lu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we successfully constructed a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffold in vitro, transplanted either the composite or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone into the ischemic area in animal models, and compared their effects. At 14 days after co-transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the hitosan-collagen scaffold, neurological function recovered noticeably. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and nestin-labe...

  1. Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Wislet-Gendebien; Emerence Laudet; Virginie Neirinckx; Bernard Rogister

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In th...

  2. Treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type B by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Vellodi, A.; Hobbs, J. R.; O'Donnell, N M; Coulter, B S; Hugh-Jones, K.

    1987-01-01

    Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was carried out on a 3 year old girl with Niemann-Pick disease type B. Successful engraftment was achieved, and nine months after the procedure there was definite clearing of the sphingomyelin from the liver and pronounced clearing from the bone marrow. Any patient with Niemann-Pick disease type B complicated by early or severe hepatic impairment should be considered for bone marrow transplantation.

  3. Following damage, the majority of bone marrow-derived airway cells express an epithelial marker

    OpenAIRE

    MacPherson, Heather; Keir, Pamela A; Edwards, Carol J; Webb, Sheila; Dorin, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Adult-derived bone marrow stem cells are capable of reconstituting the haematopoietic system. However there is ongoing debate in the literature as to whether bone marrow derived cells have the ability to populate other tissues and express tissue specific markers. The airway has been an organ of major interest and was one of the first where this was demonstrated. We have previously demonstrated that the mouse airway can be repopulated by side population bone marrow transplanted cells. Here we ...

  4. Absorbed dose to active red bone marrow from diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone-marrow dose arising from radiological procedures as carried out in Australia have been determined as part of a survey of population doses. This paper describes the method of calculation of the radiation doses to the active bone marrow from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy and radiotherapy. The results of the calculations are compared with the results of other models of bone-marrow dose for a number of diagnostic X-ray procedures

  5. Onset of apoprotein E secretion during differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    A number of macrophage functions were sequentially expressed when the bone marrow precursors of mononuclear phagocytes differentiated in culture in the presence of a specific growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1. We have defined the expression of apoprotein E (ApoE), a major secreted protein of resident peritoneal macrophages, during maturation of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes into macrophages. By 5 d the bone marrow macrophages were active secretory cells, but few...

  6. Bone Marrow SSEA1+ Cells Support the Myocardium in Cardiac Pressure Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Finan, Amanda; Sopko, Nikolai; Dong, Feng; Turturice, Ben; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Penn, Marc S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Stage specific embryonic antigen 1+ (SSEA1+) cells have been described as the most primitive mesenchymal progenitor cell in the bone marrow. Cardiac injury mobilizes SSEA1+ cells into the peripheral blood but their in vivo function has not been characterized. Objective We generated animals with chimeric bone marrow to determine the fate and function of bone marrow SSEA1+ cells in response to acute cardiac pressure overload. Methods and Results Lethally irradiated mice were transplan...

  7. B cell-autonomous somatic mutation deficit following bone marrow transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, A M

    2000-01-01

    The bone marrow is the major haematopoietic organ and is critically involved in the production of all formed blood elements in postnatal life. The bone marrow contains rapidly dividing cells and therefore is sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In certain types of cancers where a high dose of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents are needed, a bone marrow transplant is necessary to "rescue" the patient from the lethal side effects of radiation and chemotherapy. However, the immune system of tran...

  8. Successful Treatment with Ganciclovir for Cytomegalovirus Duodenitis following Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jin Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Kim, Woo-Kun; Lee, Jung-Shin; Bahng, Hyeseung; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Onja; Kim, Sang-Hee

    1999-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. CMV enteritis should be considered when nausea and vomiting continue 3 to 4 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The treatment of CMV enteritis is not well established. We report a CMV duodenitis patient following allogenic bone marrow transplantation. The patient had prolonged nausea and vomiting for 5 weeks after bone marrow transplantation and CMV duodenitis was diagnosed by t...

  9. The prognostic significance of bone marrow metastases: Evaluation of 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Bolat Kucukzeybek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow biopsy is widely used method for diagnosis, follow-up and staging of hemato-oncologic diseases. This procedure is also used for determining the bone marrow metastasis in patients with solid tumors. In this study, clinical, hematological, and pathological features of 58 patients with bone marrow metastases diagnosed by bone marrow biopsies were examined retrospectively Materials and Methods: Among 3345 bone marrow biopsies performed in our hospital between January 2006 and August 2013, 58 cases with solid tumor metastasized to bone marrow were included in this study. Results: Among 58 cases with solid organ carcinoma metastasis in bone marrow, mean age was 59.9. Thirty-nine cases were found to have a known primary tumor focus. The most common tumors metastasized to bone marrow were breast carcinomas (23 patients, 59%, gastric carcinomas (6 patients, 15.3%, prostate carcinomas (4 patients, 10,2%, and lung carcinomas (3 patients, 7.7%, respectively. Nineteen patients were firstly diagnosed from bone marrow biopsies as metastatic carcinomas. The median overall survival after bone marrow metastasis was 28 days (95% confidence interval: 7.5-48.4. The median overall survival difference was not statistically significant between patients with primary known and unknown tumor (P = 0.973. Statistically significant difference was observed between the survival of breast cancer and gastric cancer (P = 0.028. The most common hematologic symptom was the coexistence of anemia and thrombocytopenia (31%, thrombocytopenia (27.6% and anemia (20.7% alone. The median overall survival difference was statistically significant between patients who have anemia and thrombocytopenia (P < 0.005. Conclusion: Bone marrow biopsy is an easily accessible, easily applied, a useful procedure for diagnosing metastatic diseases in patients with hematologic symptoms such as anemia and thrombocytopenia besides being an uncomfortable procedure for patients

  10. Different expression of chemokines in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowska, Weronika J.; Radzikowska, Anna; Massalska, Magdalena A.; Burakowski, Tomasz; Kontny, Ewa; Słowińska, Iwona; Gasik, Robert; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction. In addition to involvement of the joints, there is growing evidence that inflammatory/autoimmune processes take place in bone marrow, beginning the disease onset. Activated T and B cells accumulate in bone marrow, where also effective antigen presentation takes place. An increased number of activated T cells was observed in RA in comparison to osteoarthritis (OA) bone marrow. In the present study we analyzed the levels of chemokines that may be responsible for accumulation/retention of T-cells in the bone marrow of RA and OA patients. Material and methods Bone marrow samples were obtained from RA and OA patients during total hip replacement surgery, and bone marrow plasma was obtained by gradient centrifugation. Levels of the chemokines CX3CL1, CCL5, CCL2, CXCL12 and CXCL1 were measured in bone marrow plasma by specific ELISAs. Comparison between the groups of patients and statistical significance were analyzed by the two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. Results Increased levels of CX3CL1 (818 ±431 pg/ml vs. 502 ±131 pg/ml, p < 0.0007) and CCL5 (5967 ±1680 pg/ml vs. 4878 ±2360 pg/ml, p < 0.05) respectively in bone marrow plasma from RA in comparison with OA patients were observed. In contrast, similar levels of CCL2, CXCL12 and CXCL1 in RA and OA bone marrow suggest that these cytokines do not play a significant role in the observed T cell accumulation in RA bone marrow. Conclusions CX3CL1 and CCL5 overproduced in RA bone marrow may contribute to the accumulation of T cells observed in RA bone marrow. PMID:27407279

  11. Detection of micrometastatic prostate cancer cells in the bone marrow of patients with prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, T; Yang, M..; Ehara, H.; Ito, S.; Nishino, Y; Takahashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Shimokawa, K; Tanaka, T.; Imaeda, T.; Doi, T.; Kawada, Y

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer were examined for micrometastases to the bone marrow using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene. Of nine patients with bone metastases detectable by bone scan imaging, five patients had PSA mRNA expression in the bone marrow detectable by RT-PCR. Of 26 patients with negative bone scan findings, seven patients had PSA mRNA expression detectable in the bone marrow. RT...

  12. Technetium bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 5 1/2-year retrospective study of hospitalized children with osteomyelitis who had technetium bone scans, we found that 32 of 38 (84%) had increased radionuclide uptake, 4 (11%) had normal uptake and 2 (5%) had decreased uptake. The two patients with decreased uptake had a stormy course with extensive bone destruction and pathologic fractures in spite of prolonged courses of antibiotic therapy. Decreased uptake on bone scan in patients with clinical evidence of osteomyelitis could indicate a poor prognosis and early surgical drainage is indicated in order to decrease morbidity

  13. RES scintigraphy in polycythemia vera and secondary or relative polycythemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudberg, U. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, St. Goeran' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Skaarberg, K.O. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, St. Goeran' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-03-01

    Scintigraphy of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) was performed in 19 patients with polycythemia vera (PCV) and in 18 with secondary or relative polycythemia (PS). Bone marrow extension was found in all patients with PCV and in 11 of 18 patients with PS. The patients with PCV had a higher degree of extension than those with PS. Increased pelvic bone marrow activity was found in 16 of 19 PCV patients, but in none with PS. Splenomegaly was found in 9 patients with PCV, and in none with PS. It is concluded that RES scintigraphy in the majority of patients may differentiate between PCV and PS using the parameters pelvic bone marrow activity, bone marrow extension and splenic size. (orig.).

  14. Male genital lichen sclerosus in recipients of bone marrow transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L J; Shim, T N; Borysiewicz, C; Dinneen, M; Fawcett, H; Roy, A; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2016-07-01

    We describe two patients who received haematopoietic stem cell marrow transplantation, and developed male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc), one of whom also had squamous carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease). MGLSc has previously been associated with graft-versus-host disease. Various aetiological factors for LSc have been proposed, including a role for chronic occluded epithelial exposure to urine. A number of factors imply that the risk of malignant transformation in this bone marrow transplant group is likely to be higher than the overall figure of 2-9% cited for MGLSc. It is vital, therefore, that clinicians involved in the care of those with haematological malignancies are adequately prepared to examine the genitals of their patients, and to recognize and refer any suspect penile lesions. PMID:26936088

  15. Effect of nephrotoxic drugs on the development of radiation nephropathy after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy. Rats received 11-17 Gy TBI in six fractions over 3 days followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplant. In conjunction with the bone marrow transplants, animals received either no drugs, cyclosporine, amphotericin, gentamicin, or busulfan. Drugs were given in schedules analogous to their use in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Drug doses were chosen so that the drug regimen alone caused detectable acute nephrotoxicity. Animals were followed for 6 months with periodic renal function tests. Gentamicin had no apparent interactions with TBI. Amphotericin increased the incidence of engraftment failure, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Cyclosporin with TBI caused late morbidity that appeared to be due to neurological problems, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Busulfan resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation nephropathy. Of the nephrotoxins used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation only radiation and busulfan were found to be risk factors for bone marrow transplant nephropathy. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Number of osteogenic precursor cells in bone marrow and their multiplication in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study which fraction of clonogenic cells (CFU /SUB f/ ) isolated from bone marrow possesses osteogenic properties and whether the number of osteogenic precursor cells increases during culture of bone marrow fibroblasts. Experiments were carried out on Californian rabbits. In the experiments, allogeneic bone marrow cells were irradiated in a dose of 6000 rads. The results described show that the proliferative potential of CFU /SUB f/ is extremely great and that the progeny of CFU /SUB f/ preserve the properties of osteogenic precursors during cell multiplication. Osteogenic stem CFU /SUB f/ account for not less than 4% of all clonogenic bone marrow stromal cells

  17. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, C M; Ambrus, J L

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colonyforming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls. PMID:124758

  18. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  19. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guihong; Yu, Fengbo; Lei, Ting; Gao, Haijun; Li, Peiwen; Sun, Yuxue; Huang, Haiyan; Mu, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  20. Argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) staining in normal bone marrow cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikicicz, E P; Norback, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Fifteen normal bone marrow aspirates were stained with the agyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) method. The results of the specific staining AgNORs as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic staining were analysed. A system was devised to characterise precisely the AgNORs present in the nuclei of bone marrow cells. Particular types of bone marrow cells had a characteristic AgNOR and non-AgNOR staining pattern. The bone marrow cells were identified easily and reliably with AgNOR staining and...