WorldWideScience

Sample records for bone marrow imaging

  1. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-label

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agool, Ali [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center Twente, Hengelo (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vellenga, Edo [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Hematology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, {sup 99m}Tc-sulphur colloid, {sup 111}In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Duerr, Hans-Roland [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.baur@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  5. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases....... This enables MRI to detect differences between fatty, fibrotic, aplastic and hypercellular marrow in patients with haematological disease. MRI can evaluate the distribution of bone marrow disease because it has the potential for visualization of almost the entire bone marrow compartment. However, MRI is unable...... to establish the primary diagnosis in haematological bone marrow disease with diffuse hypercellular marrow. In case of insufficient biopsy, MRI can provide important differential diagnostic information as well as guidance for further biopsy attempts. MRI is a useful complement to morphological bone marrow...

  6. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  7. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  8. Bone marrow MR imaging findings in disuse osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. de [Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Wesselly, Michelle; Chung, Christine B.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To demonstrate MR imaging findings in the cortical and trabecular bone as well as marrow changes in patients with disuse osteoporosis (DO). Sixteen patients (14 men, 2 women, aged 27-86 years) with clinical and radiographic evidence of DO of a lower limb joint (10 knees, 6 ankles) with MR examination of the same joint performed within a 1-month period were selected, as well as 16 healthy volunteers (7 men, 9 women, aged 25-75 years, 10 knees and 6 ankles). MR imaging findings of the bone marrow were analyzed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus regarding: diffuse or focal signal alteration, reinforcement of vertical or longitudinal trabecular lines, and presence of abnormal vascularization. All patients (100%,16/16) with DO presented MR imaging abnormalities of the bone marrow, such as: accentuation of vertical trabecular lines (50%, 8/16), presence of subchondral lobules of fat (37.5%, 6/16), presence of horizontal trabecular lines (31%, 5/16), prominence of bone vessels (25%, 4/16), and presence of dotted areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences (12.5%, 2/16). Such MR findings did not appear in the control individuals. There are several MR imaging findings in bones with DO that range from accentuation of vertical and horizontal marrow lines, presence of subchondral lobules of fat, prominent bone vascularization and the presence of dotted foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences. Recognition of these signs may prove helpful in the identification of DO as well as distinguishing these findings from other entities. (orig.)

  9. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  10. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author).

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  12. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  13. Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot: one year follow-up with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Canton, Guillermo; Casado, Oscar; Capelastegui, Ana; Astigarraga, Elena; Larena, Jose Alejandro; Merino, Amaya [OSATEK, Unidades de Resonancia Magnetica, Dr. Areilza 12-16, 48011, Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    To describe the MR findings of bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) of the foot and its evolution at 1 year follow-up.Design and patients Twenty-five of 32 patients with disabling foot and ankle pain unrelated to trauma diagnosed as BMES when MR imaging demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern in one or more bones without any radiological or underlying clinical cause, were re-evaluated by MR imaging 1 year later. On the initial MR examinations an average of 4.7 individual bones were involved by bone marrow edema. Soft tissue edema was present in every patient and joint effusion in 10 patients. MR imaging at 1 year showed resolution of bone edema in 18 patients (72%), partial improvement in five (20%) and no improvement in two (8%). Six patients (24%) developed similar symptoms in the other foot during follow-up. Ten of 17 available plain radiographs showed some loss of radiodensity. Further bone marrow edema developed in bones of the same foot that were initially normal, or in uninvolved distant bone marrow areas in the same affected bone, in six of seven patients on follow-up MR imaging. The evolution of the MR findings of BMES of the foot is to complete resolution or partial improvement at 1 year in the majority of cases. Migration to the other foot occurs in up to a quarter of patients. (orig.)

  14. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  15. Assessment of bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities: magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; TANG Guang-yu; TANG Rong-biao; PENG Yi-feng; LI Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. There are inconsistent findings on the relationship among marrow fat content, bone mineral density and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). This study aimed to prospectively explore the efficacy of MR spectroscopy (MRS)and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detecting vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities.Methods Both MRS and DWI of the lumber spine were performed in 102 postmenopausal women (mean age,(67.3±6.5) years; range, 55-83 years), who underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry. Marrow fat content and ADC were compared and correlated among three groups: 24 with normal bone density, 31 with osteopenia and 47 with osteoporosis.Results Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group ((65.60±7.68)%, P <0.001)and the osteopenic group ((57.68±6.45)%, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((51.67±3.27)%). ADC values were significantly decreased in the osteoporotic group ((0.39±0.03)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001)and in the osteopenic group ((0.42±0.02)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((0.47±0.03)×10-3 mm2/s). The marrow fat content negatively correlated with both bone density (r=-0.731, P <0.001)and marrow ADC (r=-0.572, P <0.001). The bone density positively correlated with the ADC values (r=0.802, P<0.001).Conclusions Postmenopausal women experience a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreases. Marrow fat content and ADC correlate to the bone density. MRS and DWI may indirectly assess the early bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  16. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  17. Acute bone marrow edema of the hip: role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-09-15

    Acute bone marrow edema of the hip is a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and clinicians. Marrow edema is often seen in patients with hip pain and restriction of motion. In patients with acute non-traumatic hip pain, whose radiographs are negative or inconclusive, MR imaging is the imaging study of choice. MR imaging is the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for detecting transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, as well as for detecting and staging fractures and microfractures. MR imaging is able to show marrow involvement in various inflammatory disorders and to diagnose reactive marrow edema from femoroacetabular impingment and greater trochanteric pain syndrome. In patients with septic arthritis, it may also depict associated marrow edema and suggest its reactive or infectious origin. For the neoplastic disorders, although plain radiographs should be the initial examination, MR imaging may follow for assessing extension to the surrounding soft tissues and/or associated pathologic fracture, facilitating thus the treatment planning. Computed tomography is more accurate compared with MR imaging in diagnosing intra-articular osteoid osteomas. (orig.)

  18. Syringomyelia in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome): imaging findings following bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Box 292, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krivit, W. [Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Haines, S.J. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Whitley, C.B. [Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We present the imaging findings in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) who developed holocord syringomyelia. This represents the only reported case of syrinx formation in a child with MPS VI. Clinical, neurologic and spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings are presented. The patient has maintained a stable clinical and neurologic course over the period following allogeneic bone marrow transplant. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  19. Frequency and spectrum of abnormalities in the bone marrow of the wrist: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, F.; Schweitzer, M.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Li Xiaoxian (Dept. of Radiology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan (China)); Malat, J. (Department of Radiology, Naples Radiologists, Naples (Italy)); Hussain, S.M. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1999-06-01

    Objective. To describe the frequency of marrow abnormalities on wrist MR imaging and the MR findings of these various abnormalities.Design and patients. Five hundred and nineteen patients were studied at 1.5 T. Two observers recorded the presence and location of avascular necrosis, occult fractures and arthritic edema [focal osteoarthritis, ulnolunate abutment, rheumatoid arthritis, septic arthritis, gouty arthritis and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC)].Results and conclusion. One hundred and eighty-seven (36%) patients demonstrated marrow abnormalities in the wrist, of which 101 were diagnosed as arthritis [64 (34%) as focal osteoarthritis, 17 (9%) as ulnolunate abutment, 15 (8%) as rheumatoid arthritis, 2 as septic arthritis, 2 as SLAC, and 1 as gouty arthritis]. Seventy-two patients had occult fractures and in 27 patients avascular necrosis was seen. MR imaging can reveal various abnormalities in bone marrow of the wrist when findings on radiography are normal or equivocal. (orig.) With 17 figs., 13 refs.

  20. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  1. Imaging characteristics of toxoplasmosis encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, C.; Mang, T.G.; Thurnher, M.M. [University Hospital Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Kalhs, P. [University Hospital Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Toxoplasmosis encephalitis is a severe, but often misdiagnosed complication in patients after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We describe the unique computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of cerebral toxoplasmosis in two bone marrow recipients and compare them to the cases in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the appearance of cerebral toxoplasmosis on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). (orig.)

  2. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  3. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E. [University of Ioannina, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  4. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  5. Bone marrow oedema assessment by magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Simon; Eshed, Iris; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different MRI unit field strengths, coil types and image resolutions on the OMERACT RA MRI scoring system (RAMRIS) of bone marrow oedema (BME) and image quality. METHODS: Forty-one patients and 12 healthy controls participated...... STIR image sets were anonymized and scored according to RAMRIS and parameters of image quality were measured. RESULTS: The BME sum scores were similar overall when comparing the different MRI units, coil types and voxel sizes, yet significantly higher at the higher resolution of 1.5T Extr compared......-88%]. The smallest detectable difference was better at 0.6, 1.5 and 3T (9-29% of maximum value) than at 0.23T (40%). Image quality was lowest at 0.23T. CONCLUSION: No major, consistent differences were found between BME scores using STIR sequences obtained at different field strengths, coil types and image...

  6. Molecular Imaging of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Survival and Homing in Murine Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bogt, Koen E.A.; Hellingman, Alwine A.; Lijkwan, Maarten A.; Bos, Ernst-Jan; de Vries, Margreet R.; Fischbein, Michael P.; Quax, Paul H.; Robbins, Robert C.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) therapy is a promising treatment for peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study aims to provide insight into cellular kinetics using molecular imaging following different transplantation methods. Methods and Results MNCs were isolated from F6 transgenic mice (FVB background) that express firefly luciferase (Fluc) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Male FVB and C57Bl6 mice (n=50) underwent femoral artery ligation and were randomized into 4 groups receiving: (1) single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 2×106 MNC; (2) four weekly i.m. injections of 5×105 MNC; (3) 2×106 MNCs intravenously (i.v.); and (4) PBS. Cellular kinetics, measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), revealed near-complete donor cell death 4 weeks after i.m. transplantation. Following i.v. transplantation, BLI monitored cells homed in on the injured area in the limb, as well as to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Ex vivo BLI showed presence of MNCs in the scar tissue and adductor muscle. However, no significant effects on neovascularisation were observed as monitored by Laser-Doppler-Perfusion-Imaging and histology. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to assess kinetics of transplanted MNCs in PAD using in vivo molecular imaging. MNC survival is short lived and MNCs do not significantly stimulate perfusion in this model. PMID:22239892

  7. Incidence and Evaluation of Incidental Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan L. Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The increased use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has resulted in reports of incidental abnormal bone marrow (BM signal. Our goal was to determine the evaluation of an incidental abnormal BM signal on MRI and the prevalence of a subsequent oncologic diagnosis. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients over age 18 undergoing MRI between May 2005 and October 2010 at Tufts Medical Center (TMC with follow-up through November 2013. The electronic medical record was queried to determine imaging site, reason for scan, evaluation following radiology report, and final diagnosis. Results. 49,678 MRIs were done with 110 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Twenty two percent underwent some evaluation, most commonly a complete blood count, serum protein electrophoresis, or bone scan. With median follow-up of 41 months, 6% of patients were diagnosed with malignancies including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. One patient who had not undergone evaluation developed breast cancer 24 months after the MRI. Conclusions. Incidentally noted abnormal or heterogeneous bone marrow signal on MRI was not inconsequential and should prompt further evaluation.

  8. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  9. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  10. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  11. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yunfei; Li, Maojin [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Yang, Jianyong [the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate the significance of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters of diffuse spinal bone marrow infiltration in patients with hematological malignancies. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed in 26 patients with histologically proven diffuse bone marrow infiltration, including multiple myeloma (n = 6), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2). Twenty subjects whose spinal MRI was normal, made up the control group. Peak enhancement percentage (E{sub max}), enhancement slope (ES), and time to peak (TTP) were determined from a time intensity curve (TIC) of lumbar vertebral bone marrow. A comparison between baseline and follow-up MR images and its histological correlation were evaluated in 10 patients. The infiltration grade of hematopoietic marrow with plasma cells was evaluated by a histological assessment of bone marrow. Differences in E{sub max}, ES, and TTP values between the control group and the patients with diffuse bone marrow infiltration were significant (t = -11.51, -9.81 and 3.91, respectively, p < 0.01). E{sub max}, ES, and TTP values were significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 1 and Grade 2 (Z = -2.72, -2.24 and -2.89 respectively, p < 0.05). E{sub max}, ES and TTP values were not significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 2 and Grade 3 (Z = -1.57, -1.82 and -1.58 respectively, p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between E{sub max}, ES values and the histological grade of bone marrow infiltration (r = 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between the TTP values and bone marrow infiltration histological grade (r = -0.54, p < 0.01). A decrease in the E{sub max} and ES values was observed with increased TTP values after treatment in all of the 10 patients who responded to treatment (t

  12. Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P T; Sivakumaran, M; Casey, M C; Liddicoat, A; Wood, J K

    1998-05-01

    A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis.

  13. Chemical shift imaging at 3 Tesla: effect of echo time on assessing bone marrow abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, F. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Radiologia, Lugano, TI (Switzerland); Subhawong, Ty [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Flammang, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Fayad, L.M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Our purpose is to test the effect of varied in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) sequence order on characterizing marrow signal changes at 3T. The study was HIPAA compliant and IRB approved. Informed consent was waived. At 3T, IP and OP sequences were acquired in three patients with biopsy-proven osteosarcomas, using two methods: approach 1 (OP acquisition before IP acquisition) and approach 2 (OP after IP). Signal intensity (SI) measurements in 12 locations of biopsy-proven osteosarcoma and in six locations with normal bone marrow were performed independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was measured within the marrow where there was T1 signal lower than skeletal muscle. A SIR < 20 % on the OP compared with IP imaging was considered positive for marrow replacement, while SIR > = 20 % was considered negative. Interobserver agreement was measured by the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). In 75 % (18/24) of locations within the biopsy-proven tumors, the SIR was >20 % (SI drop more than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 2 and in 100 % (24/24) of the locations the SIR was <20 % (SI drop less than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 1, indicating a high percentage of false-negative results by approach 2, and no false-negative results with approach 1. There was good agreement between observer measurement (CCC = 0.96). At 3T, the OP sequence should be acquired prior to the IP sequence, because susceptibility artifacts on a later-acquired OP sequence may lead to an erroneous interpretation of marrow signal abnormalities. (orig.)

  14. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  15. Age-related contrast enhancement study of normal bone marrow in lumbar spinal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young A; Ha, Doo Hoe [Pundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of contrast enhancement of normal bone marrow in L-spine relating to aging and to determine the range of contrast enhancement in normal bone marrow. We analyzed a total of 120 patients (20 per decade) who had undergone lumbar spinal MRI and who ranged in age from the 2nd decade to more than the 7th. Bone marrow revealed no abnormal pathology. Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained before and after gadolinium administration. For each sequence, a region of interest was drawn within the L1 vertebral body from the midsagittal slice. Signal intensity (SI) values of each sequence were ascertained and the percentage increase in SI was calculated. After contrast enhancement, lumbar MRI revealed no statistically significant in the percentage increase in SI of normal bone marrow in relation to aging. Most patients (99%) however showed an SI increase of between 10% and 49%. In only four, none of whom were aged over 40, was this increase above 50%. Lumbar MRI, revealed no statistically significant difference in percentage increase in SI in normal bone marrow relating to aging, but when the increase is above 50% in a patient aged over 40, bone marrow pathology should be further investigated.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, L.W.; Koch, J.A.; Scherer, A.; Boerner, D.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom; Niederau, C.; Haeussinger, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rechenzentrum

    2001-09-01

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  17. Imaging of malignant infantile osteopetrosis before and after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheow, H.K. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Steward, C.G. [Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Bristol (United Kingdom); Grier, D.J. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2001-12-01

    Background: Malignant infantile osteopetrosis (MIOP) is a sclerosing bone disease caused by absence or defective function of osteoclasts. Since these are of haemopoietic origin, the disease can be cured by allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, but there are no detailed studies of radiological follow-up of these procedures. Objective: To investigate the radiological findings at presentation and follow-up in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for MIOP. Materials and methods: Examination of the records and imaging studies of nine paediatric patients undergoing BMT for MIOP during 1988-2000. Results: Presentation findings included characteristic features such as fractures, subperiosteal new bone formation and rachitic appearances. Five children engrafted successfully, allowing assessment of the nature and speed of resolution of radiological features after transplantation. Conclusions: Radiological improvement was apparent within 2 months of successful engraftment with almost complete resolution of abnormalities after 1 year. Studies in two children who are, respectively, 58 and 83 months post-transplant show complete resolution of all bone changes. (orig.)

  18. SU-E-J-250: A Methodology for Active Bone Marrow Protection for Cervical Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using 18F-FLT PET/CT Image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a radiation therapy treatment planning that would spare active bone marrow and whole pelvic bone marrow using 18F FLT PET/CT image. Methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using 18F FLT/CT scans. Plans were generated for two cervical cancer patients, where pelvicactive bone marrow region was incorporated as avoidance regions based on the range: SUV>2., another region was whole pelvic bone marrow. Dose objectives were set to reduce the volume of active bone marrow and whole bone marraw. The volumes of received 10 (V10) and 20 (V20) Gy for active bone marrow were evaluated. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by 18F FLT with an SUV>2 represented an average of 48.0% of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose volume histograms for identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V10(average 18%), and V20(average 14%) were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusion: Incorporation of 18F FLT/CT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in cervical cancer.

  19. AGE-RELATED CHANGES OF BONE MARROW OF NORMAL ADULT MAN ON DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan Zhang; Rong Rong; Xiao-ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bone marrow of normal adult man on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and thirty-eight patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or normal prostate were enrolled in this study, with age range 28-82 years old (mean 55.26 ± 18.05 years). All people were examined with large field DWI on a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner, which ranges from the top of head to the lower limb. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the DWI and ADC of lumber vertebra at renal hilum level, left ilium and superior segment of left femur were measured. The measured SNR and ADC value of the above sites were compared by one way analysis of variance and their correlations with age were investigated by Pearson's correlation analysis. Results The SNR of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no significant difference (F = 0.271, P = 0.763). The SNR of lumber vertebra (r = 0.309, P = 0.024) and left ilium (r = 0.359, P = 0.008) showed positive correlation with age, while the SNR of left femur showed no correlation with age (r = -0.163, P = 0.283). The ADC of lumber vertebra [(0.617 ± 0.177) ×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of left ilium [(0.404 ± 0.112)×10-3 mm2/ P < 0.001] and left femur [(0.362 ± 0.092)×10-3mm2/s, P < 0.001], while the ADC of left ilium and left femur had no significant difference. The ADC of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no correlation with age. Conclusion Understanding of age-related changes of normal adult bone marrow on DWI is very important to differentiate the normal bone marrow and abnormal lesions.

  20. Application of Cell Penetrating Peptide in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LIU; You-Min GUO; Jun-Le YANG; Peng WANG; Lin-Yu ZHAO; Nian SHEN; Si-Cen WANG; Xiao-Juan GUO; Qi-Fei WU

    2006-01-01

    Tracking the distribution and differentiation of stem cells by high-resolution imaging techniques would have significant clinical and research implications. In this study, a model cell-penetrating peptide was used to carry gadolinium particles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and identified by osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The cellpenetrating peptide labeled with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and gadolinium was synthesized by a solid-phase peptide synthesis method. Fluorescein imaging analysis confirmed that this new peptide could internalize into the cytoplasm and nucleus at room temperature, 4℃ and 37℃. Gadolinium were efficiently internalized into mesenchymal stem cells by the peptide in a time or concentration-dependent manner,resulting in intercellular shortening of longitudinal relaxation enhancements, which were obviously detected by 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that the intercellular contrast medium incorporation did not affect cell viability at the tested concentrations. The in vitro experiment results suggested that the new constructed peptides could be a vector for tracking MSCs.

  1. IMAGE DNA ANALYSIS OF BONE MARROW MEGAKARYOCYTES IN DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF THROMBOCYTOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Vučković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Megakaryocyte (Mk nuclear DNA content was measured by image analysis using new S-Form software. Feulgen-stained bone marrow aspirates from 11 patients with reactive thrombocytosis and 12 patients with clonal thrombocytosis of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs were analysed. Ploidy of 100 Mk was calculated for each patient and the fractions of hyperploid cells were compared. The presence of more than 5% of Mk with nuclear ploidy > 96N or ≥ 2% of Mk with nuclear ploidy > 128N in patients with thrombocytosis strongly suggests CMPD. On the other hand, the absence of hyperploid cells > 128N or the presence of a small fraction (less than 5% of moderately hyperploid cells (96–128 N indicates reactive thrombocytosis. Image cytometry analysis therefore appears to add valuable information to conventional cytological examination in the diagnostic assesment of thrombocytosis.Conclusions. S-Form software image analysis is much faster and more reliable than microdensitometric DNA analysis, which we previously used for cytometric studies. We believe the method of image DNA analysis has the potential for widespread clinical use in the differential diagnosis of megakaryocyte disorders.

  2. Imaging findings in a child with calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome after bone marrow transplant for beta thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Arnold, Staci D.; Bhatia, Monica; Dastgir, Jahannaz [Columbia University Medical Center, Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome is an entity recognized in patients on immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Diagnosis is characterized by onset of pain beginning in the setting of an elevated calcineurin-inhibitor trough level. Reducing the medication dose relieves symptoms. Imaging findings can be nonspecific, including bone marrow edema and periosteal reaction. We present the unique case of calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome in a child and review the imaging findings. (orig.)

  3. Bone marrow dosimetry via microCT imaging and stem cell spatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Kayla N.

    In order to make predictions of radiation dose in patients undergoing targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer, an accurate model of skeletal tissues is necessary. Concerning these tissues, the dose-limiting factor in these therapies is the toxicity of the hematopoietically active bone marrow. In addition to acute effects, one must be concerned as well with long-term stochastic effects such as radiation-induced leukemia. Particular cells of interest for both toxicity and cancer risk are the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), found within the active marrow regions of the skeleton. At present, cellular-level dosimetry models are complex, and thus we cannot model individual stem cells in an anatomic model of the patient. As a result, one reverts to looking at larger tissue regions where these cell populations may reside. To provide a more accurate marrow dose assessment, the skeletal dosimetry model must also be patient-specific. That is, it should be designed to match as closely as possible to the patient undergoing treatment. Absorbed dose estimates then can be tailored based on the skeletal size and trabecular microstructure of an individual for an accurate prediction of marrow toxicity. Thus, not only is it important to accurately model the target tissues of interest in a normal patient, it is important to do so for differing levels of marrow health. A skeletal dosimetry model for the adult female was provided for better predictions of marrow toxicity in patients undergoing radionuclide therapy. This work is the first fully established gender specific model for these applications, and supersedes previous models in scalability of the skeleton and radiation transport methods. Furthermore, the applicability of using bone marrow biopsies was deemed sufficient in prediction of bone marrow health, specifically for the hematopoietic stem cell population. The location and concentration of the HSC in bone marrow was found to follow a spatial gradient from the bone trabeculae

  4. Bone marrow MR imaging as predictors of outcome in hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jun; Cheng, Li-Na; Duan, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Bi-Ling [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Griffith, James F. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xu, Hong-Gui [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Pediatrics, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of femoral marrow MR imaging as predictor of outcome for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in beta-thalassemia major. MR imaging of the proximal femur, including T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery and in-phase and out-of-phase fast field echo images, was prospectively performed in 27 thalassemia major patients being prepared for HSCT. The area of red marrow and its percentage of the proximal femur were measured, and the presence of marrow hemosiderosis was assessed. Age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between red marrow area percentage and marrow hemosiderosis and HSCT outcome. Red area percentage were less in patients with successful (90.25{+-}4.14%) compared to unsuccessful transplants (94.54% {+-}2.93%; p=0.01). Red marrow area percentage correlated positively with duration of symptoms(r=0.428, p=0.026) and serum ferritin (r=0.511, p=0.006). In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, red marrow area percentage was significantly inversely associated with successful HSCT (OR=1.383, 95% CI: 1.059-1.805, p=0.005). Marrow hemosidersosis and duration of sympotms and serum ferritin were not associated with HSCT outcome(p=0.174, 0.974, 0.762, respectively). Red marrow area percentage of proximal femur on MR imaging is a useful predictor of HSCT outcome. (orig.)

  5. Bone marrow changes in beta-thalassemia major: quantitative MR imaging findings and correlation with iron stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Radiology Department, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Maris, Thomas G. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion General Hospital, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the MR imaging features of bone marrow in beta-thalassemia major and investigate their relation to ferritin, liver and spleen siderosis. Spinal bone marrow was prospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 40 transfused beta-thalassemic patients and 15 controls using T1-w, Pd, T2*-w Gradient Echo (GRE) and T1-w turbo Spin Echo (TSE) sequences. Signal intensity (SI) ratios of liver, spleen and bone marrow to paraspinous muscles (L/M, S/M, B/M respectively) and the respective T2 relaxation rates (1/T2) were calculated. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Bone marrow hypointensity in at least T2*-w GRE sequence was noted in 29/40 (72.5%) patients. Eleven/40 patients exhibited normal B/M on all MR sequences. Five/40 patients had normal B/M and low L/M. B/M correlated with L/M in T1-w TSE sequence only (r = 0.471, p = 0.05). B/M correlated with S/M and mean ferritin values in all sequences (r > 0.489, p < 0.01 and r > - 0.496, p < 0.03 respectively). Marrow 1/T2 did not correlate with ferritin values or liver and spleen 1/T2. B/M in transfused beta-thalassemic patients is related to splenic siderosis and ferritin levels. Although marrow is usually hypointense, it may occasionally display normal SI coexisting with liver hypointensity, a pattern typical of primary hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  6. Perfusion of subchondral bone marrow in knee osteoarthritis: A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzik, Jean-François; Ding, Juliette; Norberciak, Laurène; Pascart, Tristan; Toumi, Hechmi; Verclytte, Sébastien; Coursier, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is being given major interest, and inflammation is closely linked with vascularization. It was recently demonstrated that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could identify the subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes occurring in osteoarthritis in animals. These changes appeared before cartilage lesions were visible and were correlated with osteoarthritis severity. Thus the opportunity to obtain an objective assessment of bone vascularization in non-invasive conditions in humans might help better understanding osteoarthritis pathophysiology and finding new biomarkers. We hypothesized that, as in animals, DCE-MRI has the ability to identify subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes in human osteoarthritis. We performed knee MRI in 19 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. We assessed subchondral bone marrow vascularization in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments with DCE-MRI and graded osteoarthritis lesions on MR images. Statistical analysis assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement, compared DCE-MRI values between the different subchondral zones, and sought for an influence of age, sex, body mass index, and osteoarthritis garde on these values. The intra- and inter-observer agreement for DCE-MRI values were excellent. These values were significantly higher in the femorotibial compartment the most affected by osteoarthritis, both in femur and tibia (posteoarthritis severity in humans.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in 84 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: bone marrow oedema predicts erosive progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, Espen A; Bøyesen, Pernille; Ostergaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the spectrum and severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the predictive value of MRI findings for subsequent development of conventional radiographic (CR) damage and MRI erosions. Methods: 84...... consecutive patients with RA with disease duration hands and wrists and MRI of the dominant wrist. MR...... images were scored according to the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS), and conventional radiographs according to the van der Heijde modified Sharp score. Results: MRI findings reflecting inflammation (synovitis, bone marrow oedema and tenosynovitis) decreased during...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in 84 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: bone marrow oedema predicts erosive progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, E.A.; Boyesen, P.; Østergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the spectrum and severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the predictive value of MRI findings for subsequent development of conventional radiographic (CR) damage and MRI erosions. METHODS: 84...... consecutive patients with RA with disease duration hands and wrists and MRI of the dominant wrist. MR...... images were scored according to the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS), and conventional radiographs according to the van der Heijde modified Sharp score. RESULTS: MRI findings reflecting inflammation (synovitis, bone marrow oedema and tenosynovitis) decreased during...

  9. [Atrophy of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziecioł, J; Kemona, A; Sulik, M; Sulkowski, S; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Ostapiuk, H

    1990-01-01

    The authors made a quantitative analysis of the active hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow with particular consideration of its atrophy in the course of various diseases. The material consisted of 407 non-selected autopsy cases. For a morphometric analysis the bone marrow was sampled from the sternum, ala ossis illi and spine. In the quantitative analysis of the active hematopoietic tissue we took into account age groups as quantitative changes appear with age. Atrophy of the bone marrow was in 19.4% of the studied cases. The presence of bone marrow atrophy was found in the course of various diseases, most frequently neoplastic, particularly in patients aged from 50 to 59 years.

  10. Feasibility of ASL spinal bone marrow perfusion imaging with optimized inversion time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dong; Zha, Yunfei; Yan, Liyong; Wang, Kejun; Gong, Wei; Lin, Hui

    2015-11-01

    To assess the correlation between flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the measurement of spinal bone marrow (SBM) perfusion; in addition, to assess for an optimized inversion time (TI) as well as the reproducibility of SBM FAIR perfusion. The optimized TI of a FAIR SBM perfusion experiment was carried out on 14 volunteers; two adjacent vertebral bodies were selected from each volunteer to measure the change of signal intensity (ΔM) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FAIR perfusion MRI with five different TIs. Then, reproducibility of FAIR data from 10 volunteers was assessed by the reposition SBM FAIR experiments. Finally, FAIR and DCE-MRI were performed on 27 subjects. The correlation between the blood flow on FAIR (BFASL ) and perfusion-related parameters on DCE-MRI was evaluated. The maximum value of ΔM and SNR were 36.39 ± 12.53 and 2.38 ± 0.97, respectively; both were obtained when TI was near 1200 msec. There were no significant difference between the two successive measurements of SBM BFASL perfusion (P = 0.879), and the within-subject coefficients of variation (wCV) of the measurements was 3.28%. The BFASL showed a close correlation with K(trans) (P FAIR perfusion scan protocol has good reproducibility, and as blood flow measurement on FAIR is reliable and closely related with the parameters on DCE-MRI, FAIR is feasible for measuring SBM blood flow. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion imaging characteristics of transient bone marrow edema, avascular necrosis and subchondral insufficiency fractures of the proximal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: d.mueller@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne (Germany); Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Schaeffeler, Christoph, E-mail: schaeffeler@me.com [Department of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-baum@gmx.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Walter, Flavia, E-mail: flavia_walter2000@yahoo.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Rechl, Hans, E-mail: rechl@tum.de [Department of Orthopaedics, Technische Universität München (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J., E-mail: rummeny@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Woertler, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.woertler@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DCE-MRI may add information to the pathophysiology of bone marrow edema (BME) of the proximal femur. • Patients with transient bone marrow edema (TBME) or subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) and avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) showed different MR perfusion patterns. • Perfusion characteristics suggest different pathophysiology for AVN compared with TBME or SIF. • Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was not able to discriminate necrotic from edematous bone marrow. • DWI is of limited value to evaluate BME of the proximal femur. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion imaging characteristics in patients with transient bone marrow edema (TBME), avascular necrosis (AVN), or subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) of the proximal femur. Materials and methods: 29 patients with painful hip and bone marrow edema pattern of the proximal femur on non-contrast MR imaging were examined using diffusion-weighted and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and perfusion parameters were calculated for different regions of the proximal femur. Regional distribution and differences in ADC values and perfusion parameters were evaluated. Results: Seven patients presented with TBME, 15 with AVN and seven with SIF of the proximal femur. Perfusion imaging showed significant differences for maximum enhancement values (E{sub max}), slope (E{sub slope}) and time to peak (TTP) between the three patient groups (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences for ADC values were calculated when comparing TBME, AVN, and SIF patients. Conclusion: Diffusion weighted imaging of bone marrow of the proximal femur did not show significant differences between patients with TBME, AVN or SIF. In contrast, MR perfusion imaging demonstrated significant differences for the different patient groups and may as a complementary imaging technique add information to the understanding of the pathophysiology

  12. Object analysis of bone marrow MR imaging using double echo STIR sequence in hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Hitomi [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    The bone marrow of 84 patients with hematological disorders was investigated using short inversion time inversion recovery sequence (STIR) on an 1.5 Tesla superconducting MRI system. Double echo times of 20 and 100 msec were applied to research the signal characteristics of the lesion and carry out quantitative analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The hematological diseases included 19 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 18 of multiple myeloma (MM), 18 of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), 9 of aplastic anemia (AA), 8 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), 3 of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3 of myelofibrosis, and 3 others. Using STIR with double echo times, bone marrow showed high signal intensity (SI) on short TE and low SI on long TE in MDS and CML; high SI on short and long TE in myelofibrosis and CLL; high SI on short TE and high to moderately high SI on long TE in MM; and low SI on short and long TE in AA. Quantitative analysis of 33 patients showed high sensitivity and specificity in AA (81% and 94%, respectively) and moderate sensitivity and high specificity in MM (61%, 88%). CML and MDS were similar with low sensitivities (40%, 41%) and high specificities (80%, 78%). Differential diagnosis between CML and MDS was difficult using STIR with the double echo time method. (author).

  13. Shifting bone marrow edema of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosikasuwan, Josh B.; Schultz, Elizabeth [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, NY 11030, Manhasset (United States); Miller, Theodore T. [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, NY 11030, Manhasset (United States); Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 825 Northern Boulevard, NY 11021, Great Neck (United States); Math, Kevin [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, First Avenue at 16th Street, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe shifting bone marrow edema in the knee as the MR imaging feature of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee. Five men, aged 45-73 years, were referred by orthopedic surgeons for MR imaging evaluation of knee pain, which had been present for 2 weeks to 6 months. One patient had a prior history of blunt trauma. None had risk factors for osteonecrosis. Four patients had two MR examinations and the patient with prior blunt trauma had four. Plain radiographs were obtained in all patients. In all cases, a large area of marrow edema initially involved a femoral condyle, with migration of the bone marrow edema to the other femoral condyle, tibia, and/or patella occurring over a 2- to 4-month period. Adjacent soft tissue edema was present in all five patients, while none had a joint effusion. Radiographs of two patients showed generalized osteopenia. In the absence of acute trauma or clinical suspicion of infection, a large area of bone marrow edema without a zone of demarcation may represent intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis. Demonstration of shifting bone marrow edema on follow-up examinations suggests this diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Role of bone marrow macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simranpreet; Raggatt, Liza Jane; Batoon, Lena; Hume, David Arthur; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Pettit, Allison Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages, named for their phagocytic ability, participate in homeostasis, tissue regeneration and inflammatory responses. Bone and adjacent marrow contain multiple functionally unique resident tissue macrophage subsets which maintain and regulate anatomically distinct niche environments within these interconnected tissues. Three subsets of bone-bone marrow resident tissue macrophages have been characterised; erythroblastic island macrophages, haematopoietic stem cell niche macrophages and osteal macrophages. The role of these macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches is reviewed in detail.

  15. A circumscribing active contour model for delineation of nuclei and membranes of megakaryocytes in bone marrow trephine biopsy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tzu-Hsi; Sanchez, Victor; EIDaly, Hesham; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of megakaryocytes (MKs) in bone marrow trephine images is an important step in the classification of different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In general, bone marrow trephine images include several types of cells mixed together, which make it quite difficult to visually identify MKs. In order to aid hematopathologists in the identification and study of MKs, we develop an image processing framework with supervised machine learning approaches and a novel circumscribing active contour model to identify potential MKs and then to accurately delineate the corresponding nucleus and membrane. Specifically, a number of color and texture features are used in a nave Bayesian classifier and an Adaboost classifier to locate the regions with a high probability of depicting MKs. A region-based active contour is used on the candidate MKs to accurately delineate the boundaries of nucleus and membrane. The proposed circumscribing active contour model employs external forces not only based on pixel intensities, but also on the probabilities of depicting MKs as computed by the classifiers. Experimental results suggest that the machine learning approach can detect potential MKs with an accuracy of more than 75%. When our circumscribing active contour model is employed on the candidate MKs, the nucleus and membrane boundaries are segmented with an accuracy of more than 80% as measured by the Dice similarity coefficient. Compared to traditional region-based active contours, the use of additional external forces based on the probability of depicting MKs improves segmentation performance and computational time by an average 5%.

  16. Bone Marrow Transplants: "Another Possibility at Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants “Another Possibility at Life” Past Issues / Summer 2011 ... for 16,000 of them, a bone marrow transplant is the best treatment option, notes Susan F. ...

  17. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement Therapy (GRT) In Sickle Cell Anemia. ... manifesting clinical disease, while the heterozygoste(AS) are clinically ... medicine, we argue here the case for Bone marrow transplantation

  18. Hemophagocytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology: Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes, clinical correlation and associated features on bone marrow ... on bone marrow examination between HLH and non HLH cases showing hemophagocytosis. Materials and .... hematopoietic cell transplantation HLH.[6] It should be.

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled chimeric anti-NCA 95 antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody for bone marrow imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, M.; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-09-01

    Chimeric mouse-human antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody (ch MAb) against non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA-95) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc (using a direct method) and {sup 125}I (using the chloramine T method), and its binding to human granulocytes and LS-180 colorectal carcinoma cells expressing carcinoembryonic antigen on their surfaces, cross-reactive with anti-NCA-95 chimeric monoclonal antibody, increased in proportion to the number of cells added and reached more than 80% and 90%, respectively. In biodistribution studies, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 125}I-labeled ch anti-NCA-95 MAb revealed high tumor uptake, and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 2.9 after 24 hours. The tumor-to-normal-organ ratio was also more than 3.0 in all organs except for the tumor-to-kidney ratio. Scintigrams of athymic nude mice confirmed the results of biodistribution studies that showed higher radioactivity in tumor and kidney of the mice administered with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ch MAb. A normal volunteer injected with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ch anti-NCA-95 antigranulocyte MAb showed clear bone marrow images, and a patient with aplastic anemia revealed irregular uptake in his lumbar spine, suggesting its utility for bone marrow scintigraphy and for the detection of hematological disorders, infections, and bone metastasis. (author)

  20. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging for detecting bone marrow infiltration in skull in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiguo; Liang, Changhong; Gen, Yungan; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Cailei; Sun, Longwei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement can detect skull bone marrow infiltration in newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children before therapy and normalization in complete remission after treatment. METHODS Fifty-one newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and 30 healthy age-matched subjects were included. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were reviewed, and skull marrow ADC values were compared before treatment and in complete remission after therapy. RESULTS Skull marrow infiltration, manifested with abnormal DWI signals, was present in 37 patients (72.5%) before treatment. Of these, 23 (62.2%) showed scattered signal abnormalities and 14 (37.8%) showed a uniform abnormal signal pattern. Compared with the control group, ADC was significantly decreased in patients with ALL. DWI signal intensity and ADC normalized in patients with complete remission. CONCLUSION DWI is a useful and noninvasive tool for detecting skull infiltration in ALL children before treatment and normalization at complete remission after therapy, and it is superior to conventional MRI in terms of conspicuity of these lesions. DWI could be used as an MRI biomarker for evaluation of treatment in ALL children. PMID:27763327

  1. MR imaging of hematopoietic regions in bone marrow of aplastic anemia. Diagnostic usefulness of opposed phase T1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Amano, Maki; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    The signal intensity of hematopoietic regions in the marrow of aplastic anemia were investigated on opposed phase T1-weighted images (op-T1WI) with a 0.5-Tesla MR unit. Hematopoietic regions were classified into two groups: low intensity hematopoietic areas (LH) isointense to normal marrow and high intensity hematopoietic regions (HH) with higher intensity than normal marrow on op-T1WI. The signal intensity of LH was significantly lower than that of HH on STIR. LH converted into HH with improvement of laboratory data after therapy, whereas HH decreased with impairment of data. HH were hyperintense to cerebrospinal fluid on op-T1WI. These results indicated that the signal intensity of hematopoietic regions on op-T1WI reflected the cellularity in these regions and that aplastic anemia included hypercellular regions relative to normal marrow. (author).

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow following treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Stenver, D; Jensen, M

    1990-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study vertebral bone marrow in hemodialysis patients during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). We found changes in T1 relaxation times and image contrast within 14 days after starting treatment, before any response was seen in the...

  3. [Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemona, A; Dziecioł, J; Sulik, M; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and histopathologic picture of gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow were analysed in non-selected autopsy material. It was found that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow occurred in terminal stages of various diseases (malignant neoplasms, chronic inflammation). Histological studies showed that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow led to atrophy of the hematopoietic and adipose tissues of the bone marrow and accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharides. The patients with gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow exhibit hematologic disorders, most frequently anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT imaging versus bone marrow biopsy in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma: a quantitative assessment of marrow uptake and novel insights into clinical implications of marrow involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Aamna; Siddique, Maimoona; Bashir, Humayun; Riaz, Saima; Nawaz, M.K. [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lahore (Pakistan); Wali, Rabia; Mahreen, Asma [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Paediatric Oncology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate whether positron emission tomography/computed tomography using fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) predicts bone marrow involvement (BMI) in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma (pHL) with sufficient accuracy to supplant routine staging bone marrow biopsy (BMB), and to assess the clinical importance of marrow disease by comparing the prognosis of stage IV HL with BMI versus that without BMI. Data were retrospectively analyzed for all cases of pHL between July 2010 and June 2015 referred for staging {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT scan and BMB. The reference standard was BMB. Stage IV patients were divided into three groups to compare their progression-free and overall survival: PET+ BMB-, PET+ BMB+, and PET- BMB-. Of the 784 patients, 83.3% were male and 16.7% female, with age ranging from 2 to 18 years (mean 10.3 years). Among the total cases, 104 (13.3%) had BMI; of these, 100 were detected by PET imaging and 58 by BMB. BMB and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were concordant for BMI detection in 728 patients (93%): positive concordance in 54 and negative in 674. Of the 56 discordant cases, four had a false-negative PET scans and were upstaged by BMB, 46 with focal uptake were PET/CT-positive and BMB-negative (not obtained from active sites), and six with diffuse uptake were false-positive on PET due to paraneoplastic marrow activation. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of PET for identifying BMI was 93.6, 94, 53, and 99.4% respectively. On quantitative assessment, mean iBM-SUV{sub max} of bilateral iliac crests was significantly higher in those with BMI versus those without (p < 0.05). {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT imaging is more sensitive than BMB for BMI detection in pHL staging. BMB should be limited to those with normal marrow uptake in the presence of poor risk factors or those with diffusely increased uptake to exclude marrow involvement in the background of reactive marrow. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of bone marrow lesions by MR imaging in knee osteoarthritis: The sensitivity to change assessed by two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming Kromann; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Peters, David Alberg

    2014-01-01

    values and standard deviations (STD) of the signal intensity (SI) of the normal marrow of the lateral femoral and tibial condyles were obtained by both methods. In three slices of the medial femoral condyle the volume of bone marrow with SIs exceeding the threshold values (BML) were measured. Threshold...... values were defined by mean value of normal bone marrow SI plus one or two STDs. STC was calculated by comparing the relative BML-involvement at baseline between the two readers using a Bland-Altman analysis. Any change in BML-volume exceeding the 95 % limits of agreement was considered significant...

  6. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  7. A clinical overview of bone marrow edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow edema (BME is a descriptive term which identifies a specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pattern that can be observed in a number of clinical entities, which are often characterized by pain as their main symptom, but show significant differences in terms of histopathological findings, causal mechanisms and prognosis. Bone marrow lesions in the subchondral bone of subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA seem to be associated with pain and progression of cartilage damage over time. Some histopathological studies of advanced OA have shown a prevalent fibrosis and bone marrow necrosis. BME of the subchondral bone in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts and has a predictive value of further development of erosions. In spondyloarthritis, BME of the sacroiliac joints identifies an active sacroiliitis and is associated with histological inflammation and radiographic progression, whereas the relationship between BME lesions of the spine and syndesmophyte development is still controversial. BME syndromes (BMES, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip, regional migratory osteoporosis, and transient post-traumatic BMES, are characterized by a BME pattern on MRI and a self-limiting course. The potential evolution of BMES toward osteonecrosis is still controversial.

  8. National Marrow Donor Program. HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Transplantation FINAL REPORT December 1, 2012 – November 30, 2014 Acronym List 3 BBMT Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation BCP Business Continuity...N00014-13-1-0039 HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation FINAL REPORT December 1, 2012 – November 30, 2014 Acronym List 9 OCR /ICR Optical...manuscript submitted and accepted for publication to the Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. National Marrow Donor Program® N00014-13-1-0039

  9. Bone marrow oedema on MR imaging indicates ARCO stage 3 disease in patients with AVN of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Reinhard; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Waldt, Simone; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kraus, Tobias M. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopaedics, Munich (Germany); Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Tuebingen, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Tuebingen (Germany); Torka, Sebastian [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopaedics, Munich (Germany); Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Murnau, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Murnau (Germany); Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Specht, Katja [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Rechl, Hans [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopaedics, Munich (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that bone marrow oedema (BME) observed on MRI in patients with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head represents an indicator of subchondral fracture. Thirty-seven symptomatic hips of 27 consecutive patients (53 % women, mean age 49.2) with AVN of the femoral head and associated BME on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included. MR findings were correlated with computed tomography (CT) of the hip and confirmed by histopathological examination of the resected femoral head. Imaging studies were analysed by two radiologists with use of the ARCO classification. On MR imaging a fracture line could be identified in 19/37 (51 %) cases, which were classified as ARCO stage 3 (n = 15) and stage 4 (n = 4). The remaining 18/37 (49 %) cases were classified as ARCO stage 2. However, in all 37/37 (100 %) cases a subchondral fracture was identified on CT, indicating ARCO stage 3/4 disease. The extent of subchondral fractures and the femoral head collapse was graded higher on CT as compared to MRI (P < 0.05). Histopathological analysis confirmed bone necrosis and subchondral fractures. In patients with AVN, BME of the femoral head represents a secondary sign of subchondral fracture and thus indicates ARCO stage 3 disease. circle BME on MRI in AVN of femoral head indicates a subchondral fracture. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia during and after chemotherapy. Changes in T1 relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Grundtvig Sørensen, P; Thomsen, C

    1990-01-01

    , also showed prolongation of T1 relaxation time in relation to leukemic relapse. The results indicate that changes observed in T1 relaxation times of the hemopoietic bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia reflect changes in disease activity, and, that serial measurements of T1 values may provide......Twenty-seven patients with acute leukemia were examined at the time of diagnosis with MR imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the hemopoietic bone marrow. A 1.5 T whole body magnetic resonance scanner was used. Twenty of the patients had follow-up examinations in relation...... to chemotherapy. Bone marrow biopsies from the posterior iliac crest were obtained within a short time interval of all MR examinations. At the time of diagnosis, T1 relaxation times were increased significantly in all the leukemic patients, compared with 24 age-matched controls. A decrease in T1 relaxation time...

  11. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Nielsen, H; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow...

  12. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Belinda A., E-mail: Belinda.Campbell@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Simoens, Nathalie [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Everitt, Sarah [Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Burbury, Kate [Department of Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  13. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Belinda A; Callahan, Jason; Bressel, Mathias; Simoens, Nathalie; Everitt, Sarah; Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J; Burbury, Kate; MacManus, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)-positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Good interrater reliability of a new grading system in detecting traumatic bone marrow lesions in the knee by dual energy CT virtual non-calcium images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jian-xin; Wang, Yi-min [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, 68 Huangpu Road, Wuhan 430010 (China); Kong, Xiang-quan, E-mail: kxq2013@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang, Cheng; Wang, Peng [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, 68 Huangpu Road, Wuhan 430010 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We use DECT image to show traumatic bone marrow lesions (BMLs). • Traumatic BMLs were assessed with quantitative and qualitative analysis. • Time interval between CT scanning and MRI was only 1.8 ± 0.6 days. • All patients have no obviously fracture, and bone bruise was diagnosed. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the capacity of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) virtual non-calcium (VNCa) images in detecting post-traumatic bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the knee with a new grading system. Methods: DECT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were used to examine acute trauma of the knee in 32 patients. VNCa images were generated by dual-energy subtraction of calcium, and the lower end of the femur and upper end of the tibia each were divided into six regions for grading of bone marrow by two musculoskeletal radiologists using a four-grading system (Grade 4, very obvious lesions; Grade 3, relatively obvious lesions; Grade 2, slight or suspicious lesion on VNCa image and mild lesion on MR image; Grade 1, normal bone marrow). CT values were obtained in the BMLs. MR images were used as the reference standard. Grade 3–4 bone marrow was regarded as a positive result to evaluate the performance of VNCa images in detecting traumatic BMLs in the knee, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of VNCa images for detection of knee BMLs was performed based on CT value of the bone marrow. Results: Bone marrow rating by the two radiologists showed very good consistency (κ = 0.850 and 0.869 for VNCa and MR images, respectively). VNCa and MR images had good consistency (κ = 0.799 for lower end of the femur; κ = 0.659 for upper end of the tibia). When Grade 3–4 bone marrow was regarded as a positive result, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of VNCa images for detection of BMLs in the lower end of the femur were 73.5%, 98.6%, 94.7%, and 91.6%, respectively, and the values in the

  15. Fast presurgical magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal tears and concurrent subchondral bone marrow lesions. Study of dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, J; d'Anjou, M-A; Cabassu, J; Chailleux, N; Blond, L

    2014-01-01

    Meniscal tears and subchondral bone marrow lesions have both been described in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture, but their possible concurrence has not been evaluated. In a population of 14 dogs exhibiting signs of stifle pain with surgically confirmed cranial cruciate ligament rupture, a short presurgical 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol including dorsal proton density, dorsal T1-weighted gradient recalled echo, and sagittal fat-saturated dual echo sequences was tested to further investigate these features and illustrate meniscal tears. Interobserver agreement for detection of medial meniscal tears (k=0.83) and bone marrow lesions (k=0.87) was excellent. Consensus MR reading allowed detection of nine out of 12 surgically confirmed medial meniscal tears and there was no false positive. All dogs had cruciate ligament enthesis-related bone marrow lesions in the tibia, femur or both bones. Additionally, among the 12 dogs with confirmed medial meniscal tears, subchondral bone marrow lesions were present in the caudomedial (9 dogs) and caudoaxial (11 dogs) regions of the tibial plateau, resulting in odds ratios (13.6, p=0.12, and 38.3, p=0.04, respectively) that had large confidence intervals due to the small group size of this study. The other two dogs had neither tibial bone marrow lesions in these locations nor medial meniscal tears. These encouraging preliminary results warrant further investigation using this clinically realistic preoperative MR protocol. As direct diagnosis of meniscal tears remained challenging in dogs even with high-field MR, identification of associated signs such as subchondral bone marrow lesions might indirectly allow suspicion of an otherwise unrecognized meniscal tear.

  16. The adipocyte component of bone marrow in heterotopic bone induced by demineralized incisor grafts The adipocyte component of bone marrow in heterotopic bone induced by demineralized incisor grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof H. Włodarski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative proportion of adipocytes to hematopoietic elements in the marrow of heterotopically
    induced bone evaluated 4–42 weeks post implantation of demineralized murine incisors was estimated by histological
    analysis of hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections. Using computerized image analysis of microphotographs,
    the proportion of nuclear cells vs. adipocytes was ascertained. The percentage of adipocytes in marrow
    increases over time. Such an effect, the replacement of myelopoietic marrow by adipogenic (yellow marrow
    and the resorption of induced bone, is observed in human osteoporosis. A decline in the non-adipogenic cell
    compartments of bone marrow accompanying induced bone begins in the fourth week of induction, gradually
    progresses until the 26th week, and does not change after that. The luminosity, a parameter used in image analysis
    and proportional to the number of nuclear cells, was 124 ± 3 in hematopoietic femoral bone marrow, and
    that of bone marrow of the induced bone was of a similar value (117 ± 8 in the fourth week. An evident decline
    in luminosity of bone marrow filling the foci of heterotopic bone was observed in samples taken at nine weeks
    (82 ± 20. This process progressed until the 26th week, reaching a luminosity of 70 ± 21. At the 42nd week, the
    luminosity remained at the same level (71 ± 27. This indicates that the replacement of hematopoietic bone
    marrow of heterotopically induced bone by unilocular adipocytes begins relatively early (the fourth week and is
    persistent.The relative proportion of adipocytes to hematopoietic elements in the marrow of heterotopically
    induced bone evaluated 4–42 weeks post implantation of demineralized murine incisors was estimated by histological
    analysis of hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections. Using computerized image analysis of microphotographs,
    the proportion of nuclear cells vs

  17. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M. [Department of Imaging, Schneider Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Beilinson Medical Campus, 49202 Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R. [Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Schneider Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel)

    1997-11-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P = 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  18. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  19. Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnot, C; Huang, S; Helms, J

    2006-11-24

    The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

  20. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of focal vertebral bone marrow lesions: initial experience of the differentiation of nodular hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow from malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Jae Ho [Ajou University School of Medicine, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Nam-Su [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jinwoo [Philips Healthcare, Department of Clinical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Young [Ajou University Medical Center, Regional Clinical Trial Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the ability of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters to differentiate nodular hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow (HHBM) from malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions (VBMLs). A total of 33 patients with 58 VBMLs, including 9 nodular HHBM lesions, 39 bone metastases, and 10 myelomas, were retrospectively assessed. All diagnoses were confirmed either pathologically or via image assessment. IVIM diffusion-weighted MRI with 11 b values (from 0 to 800 s/mm{sup 2}) were obtained using a 3.0-T MR imager. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion fraction (f), and pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) were calculated. ADC and IVIM parameters were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performances of ADC, D, f, and D* in terms of VBML characterization. The diagnostic performance of morphological MR sequences was also assessed for comparison. The ADC and D values of nodular HHBM were significantly lower than those of malignant VBML (both p values < 0.001), whereas the f value was significantly higher (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in D* between the two groups (p = 0.688). On ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for D was 1.000, which was significantly larger than that for ADC (AUC = 0.902). Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to differentiate between nodular HHBM and malignant VBML. The D value was significantly lower for nodular HHBM, and afforded a better diagnostic performance than the ADC, f, and D* values in terms of such differentiation. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging of bone marrow in healthy individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillengass, Jens (Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)), e-mail: j.hillengass@dkfz.de; Stieltjes, Bram (Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)); Baeuerle, Tobias (Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)) (and others)

    2011-04-15

    Background: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) displays microcirculation and permeability by application of contrast-media and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a tool for quantification of cellularity in the investigated area. Recently published examples cover breast cancer, CNS tumors, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, prostate cancer as well as hematologic malignancies. Purpose: To investigated the influence of age, sex, and localization of the investigated region on findings of DCE-MRI and DWI. Material and Methods: DCE-MRI-parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant kep as well as the DWI-parameter ADC of the bone marrow of the lumbar vertebral column of 30 healthy individuals covering the typical range of age of tumor patients were evaluated. ADC was calculated using b=0 and a maximal b value of either 400 or 750 s/mm2. Results: Amplitude A of DCE-MRI decreased with age (P = 0.01) and amplitude A, exchange rate constant kep as well as ADC based on b = 400 s/mm2 and b = 750 s/mm2, respectively, decreased significantly from the first to the fifth lumbar vertebra with P = 0.02, P = 0.05, P = 0.003, and P = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Quantitative parameters of functional imaging techniques in bone marrow are influenced by the age of the examined individual and the anatomical location of the investigated region

  2. Estimating the whole bone-marrow asset in humans by a computational approach to integrated PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genova (Italy); CNR Institute of Bioimages and Molecular Physiology, Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Genova (Italy); Brignone, Massimo [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genova (Italy); University of Genoa, Department of Mathematics, Genoa (Italy); Marini, Cecilia [CNR Institute of Bioimages and Molecular Physiology, Genova (Italy); Massollo, Michela; Fiz, Francesco; Morbelli, Silvia; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Piva, Roberta [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genova (Italy); Campi, Cristina [University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Helsinki (Finland); Massone, Anna Maria [CNR-SPIN, Genova (Italy); Piana, Michele [University of Genoa, Department of Mathematics, Genoa (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Genova (Italy); Frassoni, Francesco [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Genova (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Despite their relevance in clinical medicine, the extension and activity of the bone marrow (BM) cannot be directly evaluated in vivo. We propose a new method to estimate these variables by combining structural and functional maps provided by CT and PET. BM extension and glucose uptake were estimated in 102 patients undergoing whole-body PET/CT because of a history of nonmetastatic melanoma. Image analysis assumed that the BM is surrounded by compact bone. An iterative optimization scheme was applied to each CT slice to identify the external border of the bone. To identify compact bone, the algorithm measured the average Hounsfield coefficient within a two-pixel ring located just inside the bone contour. All intraosseous pixels with an attenuation coefficient lower than this cut-off were flagged as 1, while the remaining pixels were set at 0. Binary masks created from all CT slices were thus applied to the PET data to determine the metabolic activity of the intraosseous volume (IBV). Estimated whole-body IBV was 1,632 {+-} 587 cm{sup 3} and was higher in men than in women (2,004 {+-} 498 cm{sup 3} vs. 1,203 {+-} 354 cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001). Overall, it was strictly correlated with ideal body weight (r = 0.81, P = 0.001) but only loosely with measured body weight (r = 0.43, P = 0.01). The average FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was 2.01 {+-} 0.36, Accordingly, intraosseous voxels with SUV {>=}1.11 (mean spine SUV - 2.5 x SD) were considered as active ''red'' BM and those with SUV <1.11 as ''yellow'' BM. Estimated red BM volume was 541 {+-} 195 ml, with a higher prevalence in the axial than in the appendicular skeleton (87 {+-} 8 % vs. 10 {+-} 8 %, P < 0.001). Again, red BM volume was higher in men than in women (7.8 {+-} 2.2 vs. 6.7 {+-} 2.1 ml/kg body weight, P < 0.05), but in women it occupied a greater fraction of the IBV (32 {+-} 7 % vs. 36 {+-} 10 %, P < 0.05). Patient age modestly

  3. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  4. Prolonged bone marrow T1-relaxation in acute leukaemia. In vivo tissue characterization by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Sørensen, P G; Karle, H

    1987-01-01

    osseous tissue. Nine patients with acute leukaemia, one patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, and ten normal volunteers were included in the study. The T1- and T2-relaxation processes were measured in the lumbar spine bone marrow using a wholebody superconductive MR-scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla...

  5. Bone Marrow Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalayer, Emilie; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Ninet, Jacques; Durupt, Stephane; Tebib, Jacques; Asli, Bouchra; Lambotte, Olivier; Ffrench, Martine; Vasselon, Christian; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-05-19

    Besides peripheral cytopenias, bone marrow abnormalities, such as fibrosis, pure red cell aplasia, and aplastic anemia have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting that bone marrow may be a target organ in SLE. Our objective was to describe this bone marrow involvement. This registry is a nationwide retrospective study. Centers provided data concerning medical history, SLE manifestations, type of hematologic disorder, treatments and outcome. Bone marrow aspirations and/or biopsies were transferred for centralized review. Thirty patients from 19 centers were included. Central hematologic manifestations comprised bone marrow fibrosis (n=17; 57%), pure red cell aplasia (n=8; 27%), myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3; 10%), aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis (n=1; 3% each). Bone marrow involvement was diagnosed concomitantly with SLE in 12 patients. Bone marrow biopsies showed fibrosis in 19 cases, including one case of pure red cell aplasia and one case of agranulocytosis and variable global marrow cellularity. Treatments included corticosteroids (90%), hydroxychloroquine (87%), rituximab (33%), intravenous immunoglobulins (30%), mycophenolate mofetil (20%) and ciclosporine (20%). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 1-142), 24 patients manifested complete improvement. No patient died. This registry comprises the largest series of SLE patients with bone marrow involvement. It demonstrates the strong link between SLE and bone marrow fibrosis. Patients with atypical or refractory cytopenia associated with SLE should undergo bone marrow examination to enable appropriate, and often effective, treatment. Long-term prognosis is good. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. In Vivo Tracking of Systemically Administered Allogeneic Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Normal Rats through Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are increasingly used as a panacea for multiple types of disease short of effective treatment. Dozens of clinical trials published demonstrated strikingly positive therapeutic effects of MSCs. However, as a specific agent, little research has focused on the dynamic distribution of MSCs after in vivo administration. In this study, we track systemically transplanted allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs in normal rats through bioluminescence imaging (BLI in real time. Ex vivo organ imaging, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and RT-PCR were conducted to verify the histological distribution of BMSCs. Our results showed that BMSCs home to the dorsal skin apart from the lungs and kidneys after tail vein injection and could not be detected 14 days later. Allogeneic BMSCs mainly appeared not at the parenchymatous organs but at the subepidermal connective tissue and adipose tissue in healthy rats. There were no significant MSCs-related adverse effects except for transient decrease in neutrophils. These findings will provide experimental evidences for a better understanding of the biocharacteristics of BMSCs.

  7. Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiryayi, W.A.; Thiryayi, S.A. [Department of Histopathology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Freemont, A.J. [Division of Regenerative Medicine, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tony.freemont@manchester.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched.

  8. The Course of Bone Marrow Edema in Early Undifferentiated Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study at Bone Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Stomp, Wouter; Stijnen, Theo; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bloem, Johan L; van der Heijde, Désirée; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2016-05-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bone marrow edema (BME) scores are associated with development of erosions. However, little is known about the course and outcome of BME at bone level. We undertook this study to determine the association of BME and synovitis with the development of erosions in the same bone longitudinally. Using 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at 4- and 12-month follow-up, we studied 1,947 bones of the metacarpophalangeal, wrist, and metatarsophalangeal joints in 59 patients presenting with RA or undifferentiated arthritis. Scanning and scoring of BME, synovitis, and erosions were performed according to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring system. We evaluated the relationship of the course of BME and synovitis with erosive progression at bone level during 1 year. Of the bones showing BME at baseline (n = 203), BME persisted in 56%, disappeared in 39%, and disappeared and then reappeared in 5%. Stratified analyses at baseline revealed that BME was associated with erosive progression both in the presence and in the absence of local synovitis, with odds ratios (ORs) of 7.5 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.8-14.9) and 6.9 (95% CI 1.9-25.6), respectively. However, local synovitis was not associated with erosive progression in the presence or in the absence of BME (ORs of 2.0 [95% CI 0.6-7.0] and 1.9 [95% CI 0.8-4.1], respectively). In multivariable generalized estimating equation analyses, persistent BME was strongly associated with erosive progression (OR 60.5 [95% CI 16.8-218.1]) in contrast to persistent synovitis (OR 1.3 [95% CI 0.4-4.4]). BME frequently persists during the first year. Persistent BME was strongly associated with erosive progression in the same bone, independently of local synovitis. No independent association was observed for persistent synovitis. These findings are relevant for comprehending the development of erosions in RA. © 2016

  9. Efficient labeling in vitro with non-ionic gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and fluorescent transfection agent in bone marrow stromal cells of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Qin; Tang, Ying; Fu, Rao; Meng, Qiu-Hua; Zhou, Xue; Ling, Ze-Min; Cheng, Xiao; Tian, Su-Wei; Wang, Guo-Jie; Liu, Xue-Guo; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Although studies have been undertaken on gadolinium labeling-based molecular imaging in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the use of non-ionic gadolinium in the tracking of stem cells remains uncommon. To investigate the efficiency in tracking of stem cells with non-ionic gadolinium as an MRI contrast agent, a rhodamine-conjugated fluorescent reagent was used to label bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of neonatal rats in vitro, and MRI scanning was undertaken. The fluorescent-conjugated cell uptake reagents were able to deliver gadodiamide into BMSCs, and cell uptake was verified using flow cytometry. In addition, the labeled stem cells with paramagnetic contrast medium remained detectable by an MRI monitor for a minimum of 28 days. The present study suggested that this method can be applied efficiently and safely for the labeling and tracking of bone marrow stromal cells in neonatal rats.

  10. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Carolina; Altamirano, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Jesus A; Diaz-Hernandez, Raquel; Peregrina, Hayde; Olmos, Ivan; Alonso, Jose E; Lobato, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes) depending on the physician's experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes.

  11. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Carolina; Altamirano, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Diaz-Hernandez, Raquel; Peregrina, Hayde; Olmos, Ivan; Alonso, Jose E.; Lobato, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes) depending on the physician’s experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes. PMID:26107374

  12. Bone marrow examination in pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, M; Prabhu; Nandini, N M; Manjunath, G V

    2012-08-01

    Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia. Other causes were nutritional anaemia (16%), aplastic anaemia (14%), hypersplenism (10%), sepsis (9%) and leukaemia (5%). Less common causes were alcoholic liver disease, haemolytic anaemia, HIV, dengue, systemic lupus erythematosus, viral hepatitis, disseminated TB and multiple myeloma. Most of the patients were in the age group of 11-30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1.Generalised weakness and fatigue (88%) were the commonest presenting complaints. Haemoglobin level varied from 1-10 g/dl with majorIty (70%) of them in the range of 5.1-10 g/dI. TLC was in the range of 500-4000 cells/cmm. Most (34%) of them had 3100-4000 cells/cmm. Platelet count was in the range of 4000-1,40,000 cells/cmm. Reticulocyte count varied from 0.1%-15% with majority (82%) of them ranging from 0.1%-2%. The bone marrow cellularity was hypocellular in 14%, hypercellular in 75%, and normocellular in 11% of the patients. Pancytopenia is a relatively common entity with inadequate attention in Indian subcontinent. A comprehensive clinical and haematological study of patients with pancytopenia will usually help in the identification of the underlying cause. However in view of wide array of aetiologies, pancytopenia continues to be a diagnostic challenge for haematologists.

  13. AngioMap is a novel image analysis algorithm for assessment of plasma cell distribution within bone marrow vascular niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Mohamed E; Lange, Holger; Tripp, Sheryl R; Kohan, Jessica; Landis, Nicholas D; Krueger, Joseph S; Potts, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    The ability to characterize distribution of neoplastic hematopoietic cells and their progenitors in their native microenvironment is emerging as an important challenge and potential therapeutic target in many disease areas, including multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, bone marrow (BM) angiogenesis is typically increased and microvessel density is a known indicator of poor prognosis. However, the difficulty of consistently measuring 3D vessels from 2D cut sections has previously limited the study of spatial distribution of plasma cells (PC) and their interaction with BM microenvironment. The aim of the study is to report a novel method to study myeloma cells spatial distribution within their hematopoietic niche context using readily available tissue sections and standard histology approaches. We utilized a novel whole-tissue image analysis approach to identify vessels, and then applied computational grown regions extended out from each vessel at 15, 35, 55, 75, and 100 μm to identify the spatial distribution of PC on CD34/CD138 double-stained core biopsy slides. Percent PC to total cells (TC) was significantly higher at <15 μm distance compared with those at 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 75, and 76 to 100 μm distance (P=0.0001). Similarly, PC/TC at <35 μm region was significantly higher compared with 36 to 55 (P=0.0001), 56 to 75 (P≤0.0001), and 76 to 100 (P=0.0002) μm distances. The mean PC/TC differences in the spatial gradient of 36 to 55, 56 to 75, and 76 to 100 μm distance regions were not significant. Our findings suggest possible preferential advantage to neoplastic PC in the proximity of blood vessels compared with other hematopoietic marrow cells. We demonstrate the feasibility of analyzing the spatial distribution of PC, and possibly other hematopoietic/stem cells in their microenvironment, as characterized by the distance to vessels in BM using a novel image analysis approach.

  14. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part I. Reporter Gene Design, Characterization, and Optical in Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells after Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To use multimodality reporter-gene imaging to assess the serial survival of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) and to determine if the requisite preclinical imaging end point was met prior to a follow-up large-animal MSC imaging study. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Mice (n = 19) that had experienced MI were injected with bone marrow-derived MSC that expressed a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene. The TF reporter gene (fluc2-egfp-sr39ttk) consisted of a human promoter, ubiquitin, driving firefly luciferase 2 (fluc2), enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp), and the sr39tk positron emission tomography reporter gene. Serial bioluminescence imaging of MSC-TF and ex vivo luciferase assays were performed. Correlations were analyzed with the Pearson product-moment correlation, and serial imaging results were analyzed with a mixed-effects regression model. Results Analysis of the MSC-TF after cardiac cell therapy showed significantly lower signal on days 8 and 14 than on day 2 (P = .011 and P = .001, respectively). MSC-TF with MI demonstrated significantly higher signal than MSC-TF without MI at days 4, 8, and 14 (P = .016). Ex vivo luciferase activity assay confirmed the presence of MSC-TF on days 8 and 14 after MI. Conclusion Multimodality reporter-gene imaging was successfully used to assess serial MSC survival after therapy for MI, and it was determined that the requisite preclinical imaging end point, 14 days of MSC survival, was met prior to a follow-up large-animal MSC study. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis.

  16. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetan Vikas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplant with mild visual impairment and no recovery.

  17. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the proliferation of bone marrow CD34~+ cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on the marrow CD34+ cells by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC),VarioMACS was used to sort bone marrow CD34+ cells,and then the purity of CD34+ cell was tested by FCM. Marrow mononuclear cells from abortion fetal bone marrow were isolated,and BMMSC were

  18. Bone marrow granulomas in infiltrating lobular breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kettle, P.; Allen, D C

    1997-01-01

    A 50 year old woman with a history of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presented with back pain. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging were not conclusive. A bone marrow aspirate appeared normal. A routine trephine biopsy specimen showed granulomas but no obvious infiltration by carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial markers demonstrated carcinoma cells in the trephine specimen. This case illustrates the difficulty of detecting infiltrating lobular carcinoma in bone m...

  19. Chronic spinal cord injury treated with transplanted autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells tracked by magnetic resonance imaging: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotivichit, Areesak; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Chiewvit, Pipat; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak; Sujirattanawimol, Kittipong

    2015-04-09

    Intrathecal transplantation is a minimally invasive method for the delivery of stem cells, however, whether the cells migrate from the lumbar to the injured cervical spinal cord has not been proved in humans. We describe an attempt to track bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a patient with a chronic cervical spinal cord injury. A 33-year-old Thai man who sustained an incomplete spinal cord injury from the atlanto-axial subluxation was enrolled into a pilot study aiming to track bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, from intrathecal transplantation in chronic cervical spinal cord injury. He had been dependent on respiratory support since 2005. There had been no improvement in his neurological function for the past 54 months. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were retrieved from his iliac crest and repopulated to the target number. One half of the total cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles before transplantation to the intrathecal space between L4 and L5. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed immediately after the transplantation and at 48 hours, two weeks, one month and seven months after the transplantation. His magnetic resonance imaging scan performed immediately after the transplantation showed hyposignal intensity of paramagnetic substance tagged stem cells in the subarachnoid space at the lumbar spine area. This phenomenon was observed at the surface around his cervical spinal cord at 48 hours. A focal hyposignal intensity of tagged bone marrow-derived stem cells was detected at his cervical spinal cord with magnetic resonance imaging at 48 hours, which faded after two weeks, and then disappeared after one month. No clinical improvement of the neurological function had occurred at the end of this study. However, at 48 hours after the transplantation, he presented with a fever, headache, myalgia and worsening of his motor function (by one

  20. The pathology of bone marrow failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguit, Roos J; van den Tweel, Jan G

    2010-11-01

    An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerably between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure, but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children and adults. We classified the causes of bone marrow failure according to the main presenting haematological abnormality, i.e. anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia. The following red cell disorders are discussed: red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anaemia, congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, iron deficiency anaemia, anaemia of chronic disease and megaloblastic anaemia. The neutropenias occur in the context of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), severe congenital neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia, immune-related neutropenia and non-immune neutropenia. In addition, the following causes of thrombocytopenia are discussed: congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenia with absent radii, immune-related thrombocytopenia and non-immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, we pay attention to the following pancytopenic disorders: Fanconi anaemia, dyskeratosis congenita, aplastic anaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  1. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929 cells...... and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS...

  2. Changes in T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow following treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1990-01-01

    data from bone marrow biopsies obtained in close association to the MR examinations. Ten age matched children were examined as a control group. A 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner was used for the measurements. The pretreatment T1 relaxation times of the bone marrow were significantly prolonged, compared...

  3. Assessment of MR signal intensity of cranium and cervical spine bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Joh, Young Duk; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, So Sun [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    The components of bore marrow change dramatically during lifetime. To evaluate the bone marrow of cranium and upper cervical spine, the authors retrospectively evaluated 300 examinations of cranium and the second cervical bone in patients without known bone marrow abnormality. T1-weighted images were used to analyze the changes of lone marrow signal intensity according to the age and sex. The signal intensity of bone marrow of cranium increased most rapidly from birth to age of 10 years. Between 11 and 20 years of age, gradual increase of signal intensity was noted. There was minimal augment of signal intensity after age of 20 tears. The examination of signal intensity of bone marrow of the cranium revealed slightly higher score in male than in female. The synchondrosis of the second cervical vertebra was visible in 97%. These results may be useful in the detection of abnormal bone marrow signal of cranium and upper cervical spine.

  4. Bone marrow transplantation. [Mice, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation.

  5. Automated morphological analysis of bone marrow cells in microscopic images for diagnosis of leukemia: nucleus-plasma separation and cell classification using a hierarchical tree model of hematopoesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappe, Sebastian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Haferlach, Torsten; Münzenmayer, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The morphological differentiation of bone marrow is fundamental for the diagnosis of leukemia. Currently, the counting and classification of the different types of bone marrow cells is done manually under the use of bright field microscopy. This is a time-consuming, subjective, tedious and error-prone process. Furthermore, repeated examinations of a slide may yield intra- and inter-observer variances. For that reason a computer assisted diagnosis system for bone marrow differentiation is pursued. In this work we focus (a) on a new method for the separation of nucleus and plasma parts and (b) on a knowledge-based hierarchical tree classifier for the differentiation of bone marrow cells in 16 different classes. Classification trees are easily interpretable and understandable and provide a classification together with an explanation. Using classification trees, expert knowledge (i.e. knowledge about similar classes and cell lines in the tree model of hematopoiesis) is integrated in the structure of the tree. The proposed segmentation method is evaluated with more than 10,000 manually segmented cells. For the evaluation of the proposed hierarchical classifier more than 140,000 automatically segmented bone marrow cells are used. Future automated solutions for the morphological analysis of bone marrow smears could potentially apply such an approach for the pre-classification of bone marrow cells and thereby shortening the examination time.

  6. Bone marrow cells and myocardial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Sheng; Trester, Cathy

    2004-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years. Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the clinical application of HSC plasticity in regenerative medicine. Preclinical studies in animals suggest that the use of this kind of treatment can reconstruct heart blood vessels, muscle, and function. Some clinical study results have been reported in the past 2 years. In 2003, reports of myocardial regeneration treatment increased significantly. Other studies include observations on the cell surface markers of transplanted cells and treatment efficacy. Some investigations, such as HSC testing, have focused on clinical applications using HSC plasticity and bone marrow transplantation to treat different types of disorders. In this review, we focus on the clinical application of bone marrow cells for myocardial regeneration.

  7. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  8. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.

  9. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  10. Blood and Bone Marrow Evaluation for Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Daniel F

    2016-10-01

    Evaluation of peripheral blood and bone marrow for an indication of persistent eosinophilia can be a challenging task because there are many causes of eosinophilia and the morphologic differences between reactive and neoplastic causes are often subtle or lack specificity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the differential diagnosis for eosinophilia, to recommend specific steps for the pathologist evaluating blood and bone marrow, and to emphasize 2 important causes of eosinophilia that require specific ancillary tests for diagnosis: myeloproliferative neoplasm with PDGFRA rearrangement and lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow:Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ragab Nouh; Ahmed Fathi Eid

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance(MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast andnon-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1 W, fat-suppressed T2 W and short tau inversion recovery(STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrastedenhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up.

  12. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  13. Pain and Anxiety During Bone Marrow Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M.; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2013-01-01

    A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed

  14. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  15. Pain and Anxiety During Bone Marrow Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M.; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2013-01-01

    A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed

  16. Bone marrow scan evaluation of arthropathy in sickle cell disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dorwart, B.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1976-04-01

    Twelve patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and arthropathy were studied, using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scans. Eight of 12 had decreased marrow radionuclide activity adjacent to painful joints, suggesting obliteration of vessels supplying bone marrow. Four patients without marrow defects on scanning had causes other than infarction for their joint symptoms, viz, small fractures, postinfectious synovitis, degenerative arthritis, and osteochondromas. Roentgenograms never showed bony abnormalities in five patients with marrow infarctions, and, in three others, showed defects several months later than did the marrow scans. Bone marrow scans offer a sensitive and early diagnostic aid in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies with arthropathy.

  17. Bone marrow oedema assessment by magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints: the importance of field strength, coil type and image resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Simon; Eshed, Iris; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Bøyesen, Pernille; Møller, Jakob M; Therkildsen, Flemming; Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different MRI unit field strengths, coil types and image resolutions on the OMERACT RA MRI scoring system (RAMRIS) of bone marrow oedema (BME) and image quality. Forty-one patients and 12 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted sequences were obtained at 0.23, 0.6, 1.5 and 3T using flex coils (Flex). Additional STIR sequences were obtained with phased array extremity coils (Extr) (at 0.6 and 1.5T) and higher resolution (at 1.5T). In otal, 338 STIR image sets were anonymized and scored according to RAMRIS and parameters of image quality were measured. The BME sum scores were similar overall when comparing the different MRI units, coil types and voxel sizes, yet significantly higher at the higher resolution of 1.5T Extr compared with 0.23T Flex (P = 0.004), 0.6T Flex (P = 0.03), 1.5T Flex (P = 0.05) and 3T Flex (P = 0.001). Mean differences were relatively minor (0-3.5). Intrareader reliability of BME scores was high [intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.90 for all except 0.23T (0.81) and percentage exact agreement 81-88%]. The smallest detectable difference was better at 0.6, 1.5 and 3T (9-29% of maximum value) than at 0.23T (40%). Image quality was lowest at 0.23T. No major, consistent differences were found between BME scores using STIR sequences obtained at different field strengths, coil types and image resolutions, suggesting that these are equally suited for assessment of BME in RA. However, parameters of image quality and intrareader reliability (favouring 0.6, 1.5 and 3T) should be considered when selecting the MRI acquisition strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluation of the inflammatory potential of implant materials in a mouse model by bioluminescent imaging of intravenously injected bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Bushra; Köster, Mario; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Pils, Marina; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar; Mueller, Peter P

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the inflammatory potential of implants a bioluminescent imaging assay was developed using luciferase-expressing bone marrow cells that were injected into the blood circulation of wild-type mice. After subcutaneous implantation of titanium discs as an example for a clinically established biocompatible material, the luminosity was modest. Similarly, low luminosity signals were generated by pure magnesium implants that were used to represent metallic alloys that are presently under investigation as novel degradable implant materials. Increased luminosity was observed in response to degradable polymeric PLGA implants. Surgical wounds induced a basic luminescent response even in the absence of an implant. However, the material-independent response to injury could be minimized using injectable microparticle suspensions. In parallel with the resorption of biodegradable microparticles, the signal induced by PLGA declined faster when compared to non-degradable polystyrene suspensions. By using an interferon type I inducible Mx2 promoter construct to drive luciferase gene expression, the highest luminosity was observed in response to bacteria, indicating that the system could also be employed to monitor implant infections. Overall, labeled bone marrow cells yielded specific, well-defined localized signals that correlated with the inflammatory responses to implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2149-2158, 2016.

  19. Bone marrow: its contribution to heme catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähönen, Y; Anttinen, M; Vuopio, P; Tenhunen, R

    1976-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) and biliverdin reductase (BR), the two NADPH-dependent enzymes involved in the degradation of hemoglobin and its derivatives, were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 5 hematologically normal persons, 4 patients with chronic leucemia (CL), 11 patients with acute leucemia (AL), 8 patients with refractory sideroblastic anemia (RA), 7 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IA), 5 patients with hemolytic anemia (HA), and 7 patients with secondary anemia (SA) to determine the enzymatic capacity of the bone marrow in different hematologic disorders for heme catabolism. HO activity in the bone marrow of normal persons was 0.42 +/- 0.28 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 2.15 +/- 1.34; in AL, 0.39 +/- 0.25; in RA, 0.58 +/- 0.37; in IA, 0.41 +/- 0.28; in HA, 2.56 +/- 1.40; and in SA, 1.72 +/- 1.06. BR activity, respectively, was in normal persons 8.7 +/- 2.4 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 13.6 +/- 9.1; in AL, 3.8 +/- 3.1 in RA, 5.1 +/- 2.7; in IA, 5.5 +/- 3.7; in HA, 17.0 +/- 7.2; and in SA, 10.5 +/- 4.2. On the basis of these findings it seems evident that both oxygenase and biliverdin reductase activities of the bone marrow are capable of adaptive regulation. The physiologic role of bone marrow in heme catabolism seems to be of significant importance.

  20. Effects of Ligustrazine on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfates in Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天华; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 戴琪琳; 孙岚

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effects of ligustrazine on bone marrow heparan sulfates (HS) expression in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice, the syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg ligustrazine twice a day. On the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day after BMT, peripheral blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted, and the expression levels of HS in bone marrow and on the stromal cell surfaces were detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay respectively. In ligustrazine-treated group, the white blood cells (WBC) and BMNC on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day and platelets (PLT) on the 7th, 10th day were all significantly more than those in control group (P<0.05). The bone marrow HS expression levels in ligustrazine-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05) on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day. However, the HS expression levels on the stromal cell surfaces showed no significant difference between the two groups on the 18th day (P>0. 05). It was concluded that ligustrazine could up-regulate HS expression in bone marrow, which might be one of the mechanisms contributing to ligustrazine promoting hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  1. Biomarkers of bone and mineral metabolism following bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Kang, Moo Il

    2009-01-01

    The loss of bone mass often occurs after patients undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The rapid impairment of bone formation and the increase in bone resorption, as mirrored by the biochemical markers of bone turnover, might play a role in this bone loss, and especially during the immediate post-BMT period. The possible direct causes for this paradoxical uncoupling are exposure to immunosuppressants, hypogonadism, the changes of cytokines, the changes of the bone growth factors, and the damage to the osteoprogenitor cells because of myeloablative therapy. In this chapter, we discuss the general aspects of post-BMT bone loss with a peculiar focus on the remodeling imbalance of bone and its relation to the use of immunosuppressants and the changes of sex hormones, growth factors, and cytokines.

  2. Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers: a feasibility study in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Leland, Michelle M; Tsuchida, Eishun; Phillips, William T

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we described a novel surface-modified lipid vesicle formulation (liposome) that had very high targeting to bone marrow in normal rabbits. Because the bone marrow is the site of hematopoiesis, bone marrow-targeted drug-delivery systems have many potential applications. In this study we investigated whether these bone marrow-targeted vesicles are also similarly effective for bone marrow targeting in rhesus monkeys, a primate animal model that is more relevant to humans. The preformed vesicles encapsulating 30 mM glutathione were labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for scintigraphic imaging. The vesicles were 216 +/- 21 nm in diameter with a negative surface charge composed of DPPC, cholesterol, anionic amphiphile and poly(ethylene glycol)-DSPE (1:1:0.2:0.013 molar ratio). The whole-body images of rhesus monkeys receiving intravenous (99m)Tc vesicles revealed high uptake of the (99m)Tc vesicles in bone marrow. Based on image analysis, we estimated that approximately 70% of the injected dose of the (99m)Tc vesicles was taken up by the bone marrow. This finding increases the feasibility of using this bone marrow-specific drug-delivery system for clinical applications.

  3. Bone marrow micrometastasis detected by flow cytometry is associated bone, bone marrow, lung macrometastasis in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Salih Akin

    2014-04-01

    Material and Methods: Bone marrow samples were obtained from 52 breast cancer patients and 16 control patients via aspiration from the iliac spine at the time of first diagnosis after the surgery. Epithelial cells were identified with anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody, and double-staining with propidium iodide and CD45using flow cytometry. Results: In all, 2 (12.5% of the 16 control patients and 11 (21% of the 52 breast cancer patients had cytokeratin-18 positive cells in their bone marrow. A relationship between the presence of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow, and the presence/absence of lymph node metastases, tumor size, stage, menopausal status, hormone receptor status, histological grade, c-erb-B2 expression, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion, Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS component, and gender was not observed. Significant positive relationships were observed between bone marrow micrometastasis, and age, and bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases. Conclusion: Bone marrow micrometastasis was associated with age, bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 305-314

  4. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids.

  5. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.F. Chauffaille

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis. Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05. Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05. GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  6. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part II. In Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Swine with PET/CT and MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To quantitatively determine the limit of detection of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after cardiac cell therapy (CCT) in swine by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with cell prelabeling. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the institutional administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Seven swine received 23 intracardiac cell injections that contained control MSC and cell mixtures of MSC expressing a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene (MSC-TF) and bearing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) (MSC-TF-NP) or NP alone. Clinical MR imaging and PET reporter gene molecular imaging were performed after intravenous injection of the radiotracer fluorine 18-radiolabeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxyl methyl) butyl] guanine ((18)F-FHBG). Linear regression analysis of both MR imaging and PET data and nonlinear regression analysis of PET data were performed, accounting for multiple injections per animal. Results MR imaging showed a positive correlation between MSC-TF-NP cell number and dephasing (dark) signal (R(2) = 0.72, P = .0001) and a lower detection limit of at least approximately 1.5 × 10(7) cells. PET reporter gene imaging demonstrated a significant positive correlation between MSC-TF and target-to-background ratio with the linear model (R(2) = 0.88, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.523) and the nonlinear model (R(2) = 0.99, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.273) and a lower detection limit of 2.5 × 10(8) cells. Conclusion The authors quantitatively determined the limit of detection of MSC after CCT in swine by using clinical PET reporter gene imaging and clinical MR imaging with cell prelabeling. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  7. Dual-energy imaging of bone marrow edema on a dedicated multi-source cone-beam CT system for the extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbijewski, W.; Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Thawait, G.; Packard, N.; Yorkston, J.; Demehri, S.; Fritz, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Arthritis and bone trauma are often accompanied by bone marrow edema (BME). BME is challenging to detect in CT due to the overlaying trabecular structure but can be visualized using dual-energy (DE) techniques to discriminate water and fat. We investigate the feasibility of DE imaging of BME on a dedicated flat-panel detector (FPD) extremities cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a unique x-ray tube with three longitudinally mounted sources. Methods: Simulations involved a digital BME knee phantom imaged with a 60 kVp low-energy beam (LE) and 105 kVp high-energy beam (HE) (+0.25 mm Ag filter). Experiments were also performed on a test-bench with a Varian 4030CB FPD using the same beam energies as the simulation study. A three-source configuration was implemented with x-ray sources distributed along the longitudinal axis and DE CBCT acquisition in which the superior and inferior sources operate at HE (and collect half of the projection angles each) and the central source operates at LE. Three-source DE CBCT was compared to a double-scan, single-source orbit. Experiments were performed with a wrist phantom containing a 50 mg/ml densitometry insert submerged in alcohol (simulating fat) with drilled trabeculae down to ~1 mm to emulate the trabecular matrix. Reconstruction-based three-material decomposition of fat, soft tissue, and bone was performed. Results: For a low-dose scan (36 mAs in the HE and LE data), DE CBCT achieved combined accuracy of ~0.80 for a pattern of BME spherical lesions ranging 2.5 - 10 mm diameter in the knee phantom. The accuracy increased to ~0.90 for a 360 mAs scan. Excellent DE discrimination of the base materials was achieved in the experiments. Approximately 80% of the alcohol (fat) voxels in the trabecular phantom was properly identified both for single and 3-source acquisitions, indicating the ability to detect edemous tissue (water-equivalent plastic in the body of the densitometry insert) from the fat inside the trabecular matrix

  8. Assessment of bone marrow inflammation in patients with myelofibrosis: an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Alchalby, Haefaa; Triviai, Ioanna; Kroeger, Nicolaus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, Hamburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Myelofibrosis is a haematopoietic stem cell neoplasm characterized by bone marrow inflammation, reactive marrow fibrosis and extramedullary haematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to determine if {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can be used to noninvasively visualize and quantify the extent and activity of bone marrow involvement. In 30 patients, the biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FDG was analysed by measuring the standardized uptake value in the bone marrow compartment and spleen. Imaging findings were compared with laboratory, cytogenetic and histopathological data. Retention of {sup 18}F-FDG was observed in bone marrow and spleen. Bone marrow involvement varied, ranging from mildly increased uptake in the central skeleton to extensive uptake in most parts of the skeleton. The extent of bone marrow involvement decreased over time from initial diagnosis (r{sub s} = -0.43, p = 0.019). Metabolic activity of the bone marrow decreased as the histopathological grade of fibrosis increased (r{sub s} = -0.37, p = 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between the metabolic activity of the bone marrow and that of the spleen (p = 0.04). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is as a promising technique for the quantitation of bone marrow inflammation in myelofibrosis. Our data indicate that the intensity of bone marrow {sup 18}F-FDG uptake decreases as bone marrow fibrosis increases. Further evaluation in prospective studies is required to determine the potential clinical impact and prognostic significance of PET. (orig.)

  9. Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phiri, K.S.; Calis, J.C.J.; Kachala, D.; Borgstein, E.; Waluza, J.; Bates, I.; Brabin, B.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly used method of grading marrow iron remains highly subjective. AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in fragmen

  10. Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phiri, K.S.; Calis, J.C.J.; Kachala, D.; Borgstein, E.; Waluza, J.; Bates, I.; Brabin, B.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly used method of grading marrow iron remains highly subjective. AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in

  11. Bone Marrow Failure Secondary to Cytokinesis Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    have assessed the role of FA pathway in mitosis and confirmed that murine FA-deficient hematopoietic stem cells exhibit p53- mediated growth defects...results suggest that bone marrow failure in FA may be caused, in part, by p53- mediated cellular defects and underscore the importance of... mediated apoptosis of HSCs due to cytokinesis failure. The major goal of the project was to assess whether the p53- mediated apoptosis due to

  12. Acceleration of Immune Reconstitution after Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice by Bone Marrow Stromal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦凤华; 蒋激扬; 李爱玲; 金永柱; 郝洁; 谢蜀生

    2003-01-01

    To observe potential effect of the engineered bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 secreting IL-6 (QXMSCIL-6) on accelerating immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice, QXMSC1 was transfected with the eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNAIL-6, which contained hIL-6 cDNA by liposome-mediated gene transfecting technique. G418-resistance clone was selected by limiting dilution. The highest secreting clone was selected by ELISA assay and used in animal experiments. The recipient mice (BALB/c) were lethally irradiated and cotransplanted syngeneic bone marrow (107/mice) and the QXMSCIIL-6 (5×105/mice). Lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS, helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp), cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor (CTLp), plaque-forming cell (PFC), delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) were examined 30, 60 days in post transplantation respectively. The results showed that lymphocytes proliferation to ConA and LPS, HTLp, CTLp increased, DTH and PFC were improved by cografted stromal cells QXMSCIIL-6 on 30, 60 days after BMT. These results demonstrated that the bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 IL-6 transfected with IL-6 (QXMSC11L-6) accelerated immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  13. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis and idiopathic bone marrow aplasia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Karina Colossi; Pires, Mario Cezar; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27438213

  14. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis and idiopathic bone marrow aplasia*

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Karina Colossi; Pires,Mario Cezar; Kakizaki,Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Valente,Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection...

  15. Bone marrow segmentation based on a combined consideration of transverse relaxation processes and Dixon oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Mukund; Jarrett, Delma Y; Mulkern, Robert V

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that gradient-echo sampling of single spin echoes can be used to isolate the signal from trabecular bone marrow, with high-quality segmentation and surface reconstructions resulting from the application of simple post-processing strategies. Theoretical expressions of the time-domain single-spin-echo signal were used to simulate signals from bone marrow, non-bone fatty deposits and muscle. These simulations were compared with and used to interpret signals obtained by the application of the gradient-echo sampling of a spin-echo sequence to image the knee and surrounding tissues at 1.5 T. Trabecular bone marrow has a much higher reversible transverse relaxation rate than surrounding non-bone fatty deposits and other musculoskeletal tissues. This observation, combined with a choice of gradient-echo spacing that accentuates Dixon-type oscillations from chemical-shift interference effects, enabled the isolation of bone marrow signal from surrounding tissues through the use of simple image subtraction and thresholding. Three-dimensional renderings of the marrow surface were then readily generated with this approach - renderings that may prove useful for bone morphology assessment, e.g. for the measurement of femoral anteversion. In conclusion, understanding the behavior of signals from bone marrow and surrounding tissue as a function of time through a spin echo facilitates the segmentation and reconstruction of bone marrow surfaces using straightforward post-processing strategies that are typically available on modern radiology workstations.

  16. Tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendra, J.R.; Halil, O.; Barrett, A.J.; Selwyn, S. (Westminster Medical School, London (UK))

    1982-11-13

    A brief report is presented of a case of tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation complicated by radiation-induced pneumonitis. A 30-year-old army sergeant received a bone-marrow transplant from his brother for the treatment of a granulocytic sarcoma after local radiotherapy to the tumour. Six years earlier he had sustained an open, compound fracture of the left tibia and fibula while on army exercise. At the time a pin and plate had been inserted and booster anti-tetanus administered. Bone-marrow transplantation was performed after total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A was given against graft-versus-host disease. Fifty four days after transplantation tetanus was diagnosed and death followed 14 days later. Necropsy disclosed radiation-induced pneumonitis, but no organisms were cultured from the lungs or the old fracture site. It is suggested that spores were incorporated into the wound site before surgery and that oxygenation around the plate became compromised after transplantation, permitting germination of dormant spores, immunosuppression allowing development of the disease.

  17. Bone marrow processing for transplantation using Cobe Spectra cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dobrila; Nonković, Olivera Šerbić; Radonjić, Zorica; Kuzmanović, Miloš; Zečević, Zeljko

    2013-06-01

    Concentration of bone marrow aspirates is an important prerequisite prior to infusion of ABO incompatible allogeneic marrow and prior to cryopreservation and storage of autologous marrow. In this paper we present our experience in processing 15 harvested bone marrow for ABO incompatible allogeneic and autologous bone marrow (BM) transplantation using Cobe Spectra® cell separator. BM processing resulted in the median recovery of 91.5% CD34+ cells, erythrocyte depletion of 91% and volume reduction of 81%. BM processing using cell separator is safe and effective technique providing high rate of erythrocyte depletion and volume reduction, and acceptable recovery of the CD34+ cells.

  18. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  19. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis: pathogenesis, prognosis and targeted strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Abdallah Abou; Salama, Mohamed E.; Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. We discuss the rationale of various anti-fibrogenic treatment strategies targeting the clonal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, aberrant signaling pathways, fibrogenic cytokines, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27252511

  20. Bone marrow response in treated patients with Gaucher disease: evaluation by T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and correlation with reduction in liver and spleen volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terk, M.R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; LAC/USC Imaging Science Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dardashti, S. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Liebman, H.A. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Purpose. To determine whether T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images can demonstrate response in the marrow of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and to determine whether a relationship exists between liver and spleen volume reductions and visible marrow changes.Patients. Forty-two patients with type 1 Gaucher disease were evaluated on at least two occasions. Thirty-two patients received ERT. Of these patients, 15 had a baseline examination prior to the initiation of ERT. The remaining 10 patients did not receive ERT.Design. T1-weighted and gradient recalled echo (GRE) coronal images of the femurs and hips were obtained. Concurrently, liver and spleen volumes were determined using contiguous breath-hold axial gradient-echo images. T1-weighted images of the hips and femurs were evaluated to determine change or lack of change in the yellow marrow.Results. Of the 32 patients receiving ERT, 14 (44%) demonstrated increased signal on T1-weighted images suggesting an increase in the amount of yellow marrow. If only the 15 patients with a baseline examination were considered, the response rate to ERT was 67%. Using Student's t-test a highly significant correlation (P<0.005) was found between marrow response and reduction in liver and spleen volume.Conclusions. Marrow changes in patients receiving ERT can be detected by T1-weighted images. This response correlated with reductions in visceral volumes (P<0.0005). (orig.)

  1. In vivo cell kinetics of the bone marrow transplantation using dual colored transgenic rat system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Kotaro; Teraoka, Satoshi; Adachi, Yasushi; Ikehara, Susumu; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-02-01

    Because bone marrow is an adequate site for bone marrow stem cells, intra-bone marrow - bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is an efficient strategy for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, the fate of the transplanted cells remains unclear. Herein, we established a dual-colored transgenic rat system utilizing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a luciferase (luc) marker. We then utilized this system to investigate the in vivo kinetics of transplanted bone marrow cells (BMCs) after authentic intravenous (IV)-BMT or IBM-BMT. The in vivo fate of the transplanted cells was tracked using an in vivo luminescent imaging technique; alterations in peripheral blood chimerism were also followed using flow cytometry. IBM-BMT and IV-BMT were performed using syngeneic and allogeneic rat combinations. While no difference in the proliferation pattern was observed between the two treatment groups at 7 days after BMT, different distribution patterns were clearly observed during the early phase. In the IBM-BMT-treated rats, the transplanted BMCs were engrafted immediately at the site of the injected bone marrow and expanded more rapidly than in the IV-BMT-treated rats during this phase. Graft-versus-host disease was also visualized. Our bio-imaging system using dual-colored transgenic rats is a powerful tool for performing quantitative and morphological assessments in vivo.

  2. Utilization of chemical shift MRI in the diagnosis of disorders affecting pediatric bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfeld, Matthew; Ahlawat, Shivani; Safdar, Nabile

    2016-09-01

    MRI signal intensity of pediatric bone marrow can be difficult to interpret using conventional methods. Chemical shift imaging (CSI), which can quantitatively assess relative fat content, may improve the ability to accurately diagnose bone marrow abnormalities in children. Consecutive pelvis and extremity MRI at a children's hospital over three months were retrospectively reviewed for inclusion of CSI. Medical records were reviewed for final pathological and/or clinical diagnosis. Cases were classified as normal or abnormal, and if abnormal, subclassified as marrow-replacing or non-marrow-replacing entities. Regions of interest (ROI) were then drawn on corresponding in and out-of-phase sequences over the marrow abnormality or over a metaphysis and epiphysis in normal studies. Relative signal intensity ratio for each case was then calculated to determine the degree of fat content in the ROI. In all, 241 MRI were reviewed and 105 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 61 had normal marrow, 37 had non-marrow-replacing entities (osteomyelitis without abscess n = 17, trauma n = 9, bone infarction n = 8, inflammatory arthropathy n = 3), and 7 had marrow-replacing entities (malignant neoplasm n = 4, bone cyst n = 1, fibrous dysplasia n = 1, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis n = 1). RSIR averages were: normal metaphyseal marrow 0.442 (0.352-0.533), normal epiphyseal marrow 0.632 (0.566-698), non-marrow-replacing diagnoses 0.715 (0.630-0.799), and marrow-replacing diagnoses 1.06 (0.867-1.26). RSIR for marrow-replacing entities proved significantly different from all other groups (p < 0.05). ROC analysis demonstrated an AUC of 0.89 for RSIR in distinguishing marrow-replacing entities. CSI techniques can help to differentiate pathologic processes that replace marrow in children from those that do not.

  3. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    While much is understood about dendritic cells and their role in the immune system, the study of these cells is critical to gain a more complete understanding of their function. Dendritic cell isolation from mouse body tissues can be difficult and the number of cells isolated small. This protocol describes the growth of large number of dendritic cells from the culture of mouse bone marrow cells. The dendritic cells grown in culture facilitate experiments that may require large number of dendritic cells without great expense or use of large number of mice.

  4. Autologous bone marrow transplantation by photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.

    1992-06-01

    Simultaneous exposure of Merocyanine 540 dye containing cultured tumor cells to 514-nm laser light (93.6 J/cm2) results in virtually complete cell destruction. Under identical conditions, 40% of the normal progenitor (CFU-GM) cells survive the treatment. Laser- photoradiation treated, cultured breast cancer cells also were killed, and living tumor cells could not be detected by clonogenic assays or by anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody method. Thus, laser photoradiation therapy could be useful for purging of contaminating tumor cells from autologous bone marrow.

  5. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...... and regulation of BM adipocyte formation are not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pertaining to identification and characterization of adipocyte progenitor cells in BM and the regulation of differentiation into mature adipocytes. We have also emphasized the clinical relevance...

  6. Performing a Better Bone Marrow Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlis, Mayo F; Centeno, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is increasingly being used to harvest stem cells for use in regenerative medicine. The focus of BMA in interventional orthopedics is to maximize the yield of mesenchymal stem cells. The authors present an improved method for BMA that involves fluoroscope or ultrasound guidance combined with anesthesia; in the authors' experience, it produces the highest possible stem cell yield and is well tolerated by patients. The authors provide a step-by-step guide to the process, along with a discussion of technical and other considerations and quick reference guides for ultrasound- and fluoroscope-guided BMA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound imaging as the basis of a clinical diagnosis of systemic bartonellosis in a patient after bone marrow transplantation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krasowska-Kwiecień

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections in immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can have a severe and atypical course. Some opportunistic pathogens are difficult to detect in microbiological tests, and that is why treatment success depends on an accurate clinical diagnosis. This article presents a case of a 7-year-old girl with severe aplastic anemia treated with bone marrow transplantation with post-transplantation period complicated by persistent, hectic fever, with peak episodes of 39–40°C, lasting several weeks. Repeated microbiological tests failed to reveal the etiological agent, and empirical anti-infective treatment was ineffective. In the fourth week of fever, imaging showed multiple foci resembling abscesses in the patient’s internal organs and, subsequently, in soft tissues. The characteristics of these changes and data concerning environmental exposure led to the clinical diagnosis of cat scratch disease (bartonellosis with multi-organ involvement and enabled the targeted treatment to be implemented. Fever subsided and organ lesions regressed. In this case, repeated ultrasound imaging was the basic diagnostic tool that helped arrive at a correct diagnosis and implement effective treatment of this life-threatening complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  8. Optimal delivery route of bone marrow stromal cells for rat infarct brain – A study using non-invasive optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC have the potential to improve neurological function when transplanted into animal model of central nervous system (CNS disorders. However, there still exist several questions to solved prior to clinical application. In this study, therefore, we aimed to clarify the optimal delivery route of BMSC transplantation over a reasonable time window.MATERIALS AND METHODS - The rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The BMSC were labeled with quantum dot (QD 800. The labeled BMSC were transplanted into the infarct brain directly or intravenously at 7 days after the insult. Motor function was serially assessed. The BMSC were also tracked using near infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging technique every week. The fate of the transplanted BMSC was examined at 5 weeks after transplantation, using Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS - Direct, but not intravenous, transplantation of BMSC significantly enhanced functional recovery. NIR fluorescence imaging could visualize their migration towards cerebral infarct in directly, but not intravenously, injected animals. The findings were supported on histological analysis. Thus, the BMSC were widely engrafted in the infarct brain in the directly injected animals, but few BMSC were observed in the intravenously injected ones. CONCLUSION - This study strongly suggests that direct transplantation of BMSC may be more beneficial in treating patients with ischemic stroke than their intravenous transplantation. Therapeutic time window must be called into account when considering the route of BMSC transplantation.

  9. Ultrasound imaging as the basis of a clinical diagnosis of systemic bartonellosis in a patient after bone marrow transplantation. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska-Kwiecień, Aleksandra; Goździk, Jolanta; Woźniak, Magdalena; Czogała, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Infections in immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can have a severe and atypical course. Some opportunistic pathogens are difficult to detect in microbiological tests, and that is why treatment success depends on an accurate clinical diagnosis. This article presents a case of a 7-year-old girl with severe aplastic anemia treated with bone marrow transplantation with post-transplantation period complicated by persistent, hectic fever, with peak episodes of 39-40°C, lasting several weeks. Repeated microbiological tests failed to reveal the etiological agent, and empirical anti-infective treatment was ineffective. In the fourth week of fever, imaging showed multiple foci resembling abscesses in the patient's internal organs and, subsequently, in soft tissues. The characteristics of these changes and data concerning environmental exposure led to the clinical diagnosis of cat scratch disease (bartonellosis) with multi-organ involvement and enabled the targeted treatment to be implemented. Fever subsided and organ lesions regressed. In this case, repeated ultrasound imaging was the basic diagnostic tool that helped arrive at a correct diagnosis and implement effective treatment of this life-threatening complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  10. Ischemic stroke activates hematopoietic bone marrow stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courties, Gabriel; Herisson, Fanny; Sager, Hendrik B; Heidt, Timo; Ye, Yuxiang; Wei, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Severe, Nicolas; Dutta, Partha; Scharff, Jennifer; Scadden, David T; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K; Moskowitz, Michael A; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-30

    The mechanisms leading to an expanded neutrophil and monocyte supply after stroke are incompletely understood. To test the hypothesis that transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in mice leads to activation of hematopoietic bone marrow stem cells. Serial in vivo bioluminescence reporter gene imaging in mice with tMCAO revealed that bone marrow cell cycling peaked 4 days after stroke (Pcell cycle analysis showed activation of the entire hematopoietic tree, including myeloid progenitors. The cycling fraction of the most upstream hematopoietic stem cells increased from 3.34%±0.19% to 7.32%±0.52% after tMCAO (Pstroke. The hematopoietic system's myeloid bias was reflected by increased expression of myeloid transcription factors, including PU.1 (Pstem cell quiescence. In mice with genetic deficiency of the β3 adrenergic receptor, hematopoietic stem cells did not enter the cell cycle in increased numbers after tMCAO (naive control, 3.23±0.22; tMCAO, 3.74±0.33, P=0.51). Ischemic stroke activates hematopoietic stem cells via increased sympathetic tone, leading to a myeloid bias of hematopoiesis and higher bone marrow output of inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes and neutrophils. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Modeling selective elimination of quiescent cancer cells from bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavnar, Stephen P; Rickelmann, Andrew D; Meguiar, Kaille F; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D

    2015-08-01

    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Köller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  13. Examination of Glucocorticoid Treatment on Bone Marrow Stroma: Implications for Bone Disease and Applied Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Ryan Michael

    2002-01-01

    Long-term exposure to pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids has been associated with the development of osteopenia and avascular necrosis. Bone loss may be partially attributed to a steroid-induced decrease in the osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells found in the bone marrow. In order to determine if there is a change in the osteogenic potential of the bone marrow stroma following glucocorticoid treatment, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered methylprednisolone f...

  14. A Phase II prospective nonrandomized trial of magnetic resonance imaging-guided hematopoietic bone marrow-sparing radiotherapy for gastric cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jianyang Wang, Yuan Tian, Yuan Tangm, Xin Wang, Ning Li, Hua Ren, Hui Fang, Yanru Feng, Shulian Wang, Yongwen Song, Yueping Liu, Weihu Wang, Yexiong Li, Jing Jin Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: This study aimed to spare hematopoietical bone marrow (BM identified by magnetic resonance (MR radiation in order to alleviate acute hematologic toxicity (HT for gastric cancer patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT.Methods: A prospective, open-label, single-arm Phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT 01863420 was conducted in 25 patients with gastric cancer who were eligible for postoperative concurrent CRT. The MR images of vertebral body T8-L4 were fused with images of simulating computed tomography. Hematopoietical BM was contoured according to the MR and spared in radiotherapy plan. The CRT regimen consisted of daily capecitabine (1600 mg/m2/d and 45 Gy of radiation at 1.8 Gy per day. Primary endpoints were grade ≥3 HT that occurred within 2 months of initiation of CRT. The relationship between HT and dose–volume of BM was estimated by multivariable linear regression model.Results: Twenty four patients (96% had T3–4 disease and 22 (88% had disease with node positive. The median age was 53 years (range, 28–73 years. Before concurrent CRT, adjuvant chemotherapy was administered with a mean cycle of 4.3±0.5. Only five patients (20% developed grade 3–4 HT during treatment, among whom two (8.0% patients experienced grade 3–4 leucopenia, two (8.0% experienced neutropenia, and two (8.0% experienced thrombocytopenia, respectively. None of the patients showed grade 3–4 anemia. Multivariable linear regression revealed increased BM-V5 (P=0.03 and BM-V20 (P=0.002 were found to be significantly associated with decreased white blood cells nadirs in multivariable regression

  15. Aerobic nitroreduction of dehydrochloramphenicol by bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isildar, M; Abou-Khalil, W H; Jimenez, J J; Abou-Khalil, S; Yunis, A A

    1988-06-30

    It has been previously demonstrated that dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), a bacterial metabolite of chloramphenicol, induces DNA single strand breaks in intact cells and is profoundly more cytotoxic than chloramphenicol (CAP). In view of previous observations relating genotoxicity of nitrocompounds to their nitroreduction by the target tissue, we studied the nitroreduction of DH-CAP by human and rabbit bone marrow. Nitroreduction by tissue homogenates was determined by the Bratton Marshall colorimetric assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nitroreduction of DH-CAP by bone marrow cell homogenates was observed under aerobic conditions and the reduction was both cell concentration- and time-dependent. The formation of the amino product aminodehydrochloramphenicol was confirmed by HPLC. Reduction by other tissues including human liver, Raji cells, and HL-60 tumors was also observed. These results suggest that genotoxicity of DH-CAP may be related to its nitroreduction by the target tissue with in situ production of toxic intermediates. Together with previous studies, these observations lend support to the thesis that the p-NO2 group may be the structural feature underlying aplastic anemia from CAP.

  16. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic f

  17. Prospective study of bone marrow in haematological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed the usefulness of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in evaluation of the bone marrow in routine haematological disorders and also for understanding disease progression, for diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. These are also helpful in planning further investigation and management. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1917-1921

  18. Neuroamines — regulators of local processes at bone marrow autotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyova O.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the content of neuroamines (histamine, serotonin, catecholamines in bioamine structures of bone marrow after autotransplantation. Material and methods. Animals were injected into the tail vein of bone marrow suspension obtained from the femur of the same mouse. It was taken from the femoral bone marrow of 1 ml and placed in 2 ml of physiological saline and thoroughly stirred. 1 ml of bone marrow suspension was injected into the tail vein. Cryostat sections were treated with luminescent-histochemical methods. Results. After bone marrow autotransplantation marked changes were observed in the neurotransmitters of the bone marrow — an increasing number of granular luminescent cells decrease in the amount of granules in them, and a decrease in the number of mast cells because of their degranulation. A weak luminescence was determined in nuclei in neutrophils. Perhaps this proves the activation of the immune response. Conclusion. The bone marrow autotransplantation leads to a redistribution of the structures of the bone marrow of histamine, catecholamines and serotonin, which changes the direction of cytodifferentiation, the content of neuroamines in granular luminescent cells and mast cells (cells of autonomic regulation.

  19. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  20. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis.

  1. Reconversion of bone marrow in Gaucher disease treated with enzyme therapy documented by MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, J.W.; James, C.A. [Department of Radiology, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Arnold, G.L.; Stine, K.C.; Becton, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Bell, J.M. [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Background. Skeletal complications are responsible for significant morbidity in Gaucher patients. Plain radiographs have been unreliable in assessing bone marrow infiltration and activity. A way to assess bone marrow improvement is needed during enzyme therapy. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to assess the usefulness of MR in following improvement of abnormal bone marrow in Gaucher patients on enzyme therapy. Materials and methods. Three patients aged 2, 7, and 24 years underwent serial MR scans of the lower extremities before and during treatment with Alglucerase (two patients) and Imiglucerase (one patient). T1-weighted, T2-weighted, STIR and FSE T2-weighted images were utilized. Two patients were imaged after 16 months of therapy, and one patient was imaged after 6 months of therapy. Results. All patients had improvement in marrow signal consistent with partial reconversion to fatty marrow during treatment. The findings were more marked after prolonged therapy. T1-weighted images demonstrated findings most clearly. Conclusion. MR consistently showed improvement in marrow signal in Gaucher patients on enzyme therapy. As smaller doses of enzyme therapy are the trend, MR can be utilized to determine if therapy is effecting a change in the bone marrow. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  2. Role of whole bone marrow, whole bone marrow cultured cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Shareef, Shahjahan; Salgado, Marcela; Shabbir, Arsalan; Van Badiavas, Evangelos

    2015-03-13

    Recent evidence has shown that bone marrow cells play critical roles during the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases of cutaneous wound healing. Among the bone marrow cells delivered to wounds are stem cells, which can differentiate into multiple tissue-forming cell lineages to effect, healing. Gaining insight into which lineages are most important in accelerating wound healing would be quite valuable in designing therapeutic approaches for difficult to heal wounds. In this report we compared the effect of different bone marrow preparations on established in vitro wound healing assays. The preparations examined were whole bone marrow (WBM), whole bone marrow (long term initiating/hematopoietic based) cultured cells (BMC), and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). We also applied these bone marrow preparations in two murine models of radiation induced delayed wound healing to determine which had a greater effect on healing. Angiogenesis assays demonstrated that tube formation was stimulated by both WBM and BMC, with WBM having the greatest effect. Scratch wound assays showed higher fibroblast migration at 24, 48, and 72 hours in presence of WBM as compared to BM-MSC. WBM also appeared to stimulate a greater healing response than BMC and BM-MSC in a radiation induced delayed wound healing animal model. These studies promise to help elucidate the role of stem cells during repair of chronic wounds and reveal which cells present in bone marrow might contribute most to the wound healing process.

  3. Electron absorbed fractions in skeletal soft tissues based on red bone marrow segmentation at runtime in muCT images of human trabecular bone;Fracoes absorvidas de eletrons em tecidos moles do esqueleto avaliadas com base na segmentacao em tempo de execucao da medula ossea vermelha contida em imagens muCT do osso trabecular humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, J.W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Khoury, H.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Robson-Brown, K. [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeology and Anthropology

    2009-07-01

    Skeletal dosimetry determines equivalent dose or absorbed fractions in the red bone marrow (RBM) and the osteogenic cells on bone surfaces (BSC). Following a method used earlier for the BSC, RBM and yellow bone marrow (YBM) have been segmented in the marrow cavities of muCT images of human spongiosa at runtime, i.e. during the execution of the Monte Carlo calculation, which avoids the necessity to segment RBM and YBM externally in muCT images for many different cellularities and to store the data. Using this internal RBM/YBM segmentation, this study presents electron absorbed fractions for the RBM and the BSC as a function of the voxel resolution and also compares the results with data from other investigations. (author)

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT bone/bone marrow findings in Hodgkin's lymphoma may circumvent the use of bone marrow trephine biopsy at diagnosis staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin-Romsee, Gerard [Universite Paris 7, Service de Medicine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Institut Curie, Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif; Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Universite Paris 7, Service de Medicine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Cuenca, Xavier; Brice, Pauline; Sibon, David [Hopital Saint-Louis, Haemato-Oncology, Paris (France); Decaudin, Didier; Anitei, Marcela [Institut Curie, Haematology, Paris (France); Benamor, Myriam [Institut Curie, Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Briere, Josette [Hopital Saint-Louis, Pathology, Paris (France); Kerviler, Eric de [Hopital Saint-Louis, Radiology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is necessary in selecting appropriate treatment. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is the standard procedure for depicting bone marrow involvement. BMB is invasive and explores a limited part of the bone marrow. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is now widely used for assessing response to therapy in HL and a baseline study is obtained to improve accuracy. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess whether routine BMB remains necessary with concomitant {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Data from 83 patients (newly diagnosed HL) were reviewed. All patients had received contrast-enhanced CT, BMB and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Results of BMB were not available at the time of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Seven patients had lymphomatous involvement on BMB. Four patients had bone involvement on conventional CT (two with negative BMB). All patients with bone marrow and/or bone lesions at conventional staging were also diagnosed on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. PET/CT depicted FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci in nine additional patients. Four of them had only one or two foci, while the other had multiple foci. However, the iliac crest, site of the BMB, was not involved on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Osteolytic/sclerotic lesions matching FDG-avid foci were visible on the CT part of PET/CT in three patients. MRI ordered in three other patients suggested bone marrow involvement. Interim and/or end-therapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT documented response of FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci to chemotherapy in every patient. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT highly improves sensitivity for diagnosis of bone/bone marrow lesions in HL compared to conventional staging. (orig.)

  5. Cytokine production by bone marrow mononuclear cells in inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ken; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P; Pinto, Ligia A

    2013-10-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are characterized by the progressive development of bone marrow failure. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from activated bone marrow T-cells has been proposed as a mechanism of FA-related aplasia. Whether such overproduction occurs in the other syndromes is unknown. We conducted a comparative study on bone marrow mononuclear cells to examine the cellular subset composition and cytokine production. We found lower proportions of haematopoietic stem cells in FA, DC, and SDS, and a lower proportion of monocytes in FA, DC, and DBA compared with controls. The T- and B-lymphocyte proportions were similar to controls, except for low B-cells in DC. We did not observe overproduction of TNF-α or IFN-γ by T-cells in any patients. Induction levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in monocytes stimulated with high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were similar at 4 h but lower at 24 h when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, patient samples showed a trend toward higher cytokine level in response to low-dose (0·001 μg/ml) LPS. Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  6. Glutamine supplementation in bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Thomas R

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of clinical investigations have focused on supplementation of specialized enteral and parenteral nutrition with the amino acid glutamine. This interest derives from strong evidence in animal models and emerging clinical data on the efficacy of glutamine administration following chemotherapy, trauma, sepsis and other catabolic conditions. Glutamine has protein-anabolic effects in stressed patients and, among many key metabolic functions, is used as a major fuel/substrate by cells of the gastrointestinal epithelium and the immune system. These effects may be particularly advantageous in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), who exhibit post-transplant body protein wasting, gut mucosal injury and immunodeficiency. Studies to date indicate that enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation is well tolerated and potentially efficacious after high-dose chemotherapy or BMT for cancer treatment. Although not all studies demonstrate benefits, sufficient positive data have been published to suggest that this nutrient should be considered as adjunctive metabolic support of some individuals undergoing marrow transplant. However, BMT is a rapidly evolving clinical procedure with regard to the conditioning and supportive protocols utilized. Thus, additional randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials are indicated to define the efficacy of glutamine with current BMT regimens.

  7. Transient Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnur Konuralp

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES is accepted as a possible cause of acute disabling hip pain. This syndrome is defined as local osteoporosis in hip in radiographies, BME in MRI which can be rarely seen and has a self-limiting course. Although the disease generally has a self-limiting course, surgical treatment by early core decompression of the femoral head has proven effective in rapidly relieving the symptoms. Although BMES is relatively rare and probably underdiagnosed when compared to nontraumatic osteonecrosis, both conditions are associated with known osteonecrosis risk factors in middle aged men and especially with late (thirdhad trimester pregnancy in women. We have reported three cases with BMES that had different etiology and followed up presented the differential diagnosis to nontraumatic avascular osteonecrosis. These three cases were treated in early stage very succesfully.

  8. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Ayako; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Shu [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1998-06-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  9. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  10. A method for generation of bone marrow-derived macrophages from cryopreserved mouse bone marrow cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Marim

    Full Text Available The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L. amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells.

  11. No narcosis for bone marrow harvest in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, E G; Vriesendorp, R; Meinesz, A F; Mulder, N H; Postmus, P E; Sleijfer, D T

    1984-11-01

    A prospective study with mild general analgesia and sedation together with local anesthesia during bone marrow harvest was performed. Thirty-one patients underwent 33 bone marrow collections. Pretreatment consisted of 100 mg meperidine i.m. and 20 mg diazepam i.m. 1 h before start of procedure. Eight patients got additional meperidine and diazepam during the procedure, all patients got lidocaine 1% locally. A mean volume of 1.321 was obtained with 42.5 punctures. Twenty-two patients had no complications, 4 vomited, 4 had easily correctable hypotension of short duration, one got oxygen for cyanosis of short duration. Acceptance was good in 23 patients, in 6 reasonably well, in two bad. Only one patient experienced pain problems, due to suction. Anxiety was no major problem due to good information before the procedure and mild sedation. This form of anesthesia for bone marrow collection is a safe procedure, it is generally well accepted by the patient and it can be performed on an out-patient basis.

  12. Assessment of bone marrow plasma cell infiltrates in multiple myeloma: the added value of CD138 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quran, Samer Z; Yang, Lijun; Magill, James M; Braylan, Raul C; Douglas-Nikitin, Vonda K

    2007-12-01

    Assessment of bone marrow involvement by malignant plasma cells is an important element in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias. Microscope-based differential counts of bone marrow aspirates are used as the primary method to evaluate bone marrow plasma cell percentages. However, multiple myeloma is often a focal process, a fact that impacts the accuracy and reliability of the results of bone marrow plasma cell percentages obtained by differential counts of bone marrow aspirate smears. Moreover, the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of counting bone marrow plasma cells microscopically has not been adequately tested. CD138 allows excellent assessment of plasma cell numbers and distribution in bone marrow biopsies. We compared estimates of plasma cell percentages in bone marrow aspirates and in hematoxylin-eosin- and CD138-stained bone marrow biopsy sections (CD138 sections) in 79 bone marrows from patients with multiple myeloma. There was a notable discrepancy in bone marrow plasma cell percentages using the different methods of observation. In particular, there was a relatively poor concordance of plasma cell percentage estimation between aspirate smears and CD138 sections. Estimates of plasma cell percentage using CD138 sections demonstrated the highest interobserver concordance. This observation was supported by computer-assisted image analysis. In addition, CD138 expression highlighted patterns of plasma cell infiltration indicative of neoplasia even in the absence of plasmacytosis. We conclude that examination of CD138 sections should be considered for routine use in the estimation of plasma cell load in the bone marrow.

  13. Assessment of left ventricular segmental function after autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction by tissue tracking and strain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wen; PAN Cui-zhen; HUANG Guo-qian; LI Yan-lin; GE Jun-bo; SHU Xian-hong

    2005-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that stem cells can be used to improve cardiac function in patients after acute myocardial infarction. In this randomized trial, we aimed to use Doppler tissue tracking and strain imaging to assess left ventricular segmental function after intracoronary transfer of autologous bone-marrow stem cells (BMCs) for 6 months' follow up. Methods Twenty patients with acute myocardial infarction and anterior descending coronary artery occlusion proven by angiography were double-blindedly randomized into intracoronary injection of bone-marrow cell (treated, n=9) or diluted serum (control, n=11) groups. GE vivid 7 and Q-analyze software were used to perform echocardiogram in both groups 1 week, 3 months and 6 months after treatment. Three apical views of tissue Doppler imaging were acquired to measure peak systolic displacement (Ds) and peak systolic strain (εpeak) from 12 segments of LV walls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were obtained by Simposon's biplane method. Results (1) 3 months later, Ds and εpeak over the infract-related region clearly increased in the BMCs group [Ds: (4.49±2.71) mm vs (7.56±2.95) mm, P0.05; εpeak : (-13.84±6.05)% vs (-15.04±6.75)%, P>0.05]. At the same time, Ds over the normal region also increased, but the Ds enhancement was markedly higher in the BMCs group than that in the control group [(3.21±3.17) mm vs (0.76±1.94) mm, P0.05). (2) LVEF in treated and control groups were almost the same at baseline (1st week after PCI) [(53.37±8.92)% vs (53.51±5.84)%, P>0.05]. But 6 months later, LVEF in the BMCs group were clearly higher than that in the control group [(59.33±12.91)% vs (50.30±8.30)%, P0.05; ESV: (57.12±18.66) ml vs (62.09±17.68) ml, P>0.05]. Three months later, EDV and ESV in the control group were markedly greater than those in the BMCs group [EDV: (154.89±46.34) ml vs (104.85±33.21) ml, P0.05). Conclusions Emergency

  14. In vivo tracing of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted for traumatic brain injury by susceptibility weighted imaging in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jing-liang; YANG Yun-jun; LI Hua-li; WANG Juan; WANG Mei-hao; ZHANG Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in vitro, and to monitor the survival and location of these labeled BMSCs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)sequence.Methods:BMSCs were cultured in vitro and then labeled with SPIO. Totally 24 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups A-D (n=6 for each group). Moderate TBI models of all the rats were developed in the left hemisphere following Feeney's method. Group A was the experimental group and stereotaxic transplantation of BMSCs labeled with SPIO into the region nearby the contusion was conducted in this group 24 hours after TBI modeling. The other three groups were control groups with transplantation of SPIO, unlabeled BMSCs and injection of nutrient solution respectively conducted in Groups B, C and D at the same time. Monitoring of these SPIO-labeled BMSCs by SWI was performed one day,one week and three weeks after implantation.Results: Numerous BMSCs were successfully labeled with SPIO. They were positive for Prussian blue staining and intracytoplasm positive blue stained particles were found under a microscope (×200). Scattered little iron particles were observed in the vesicles by electron microscopy (×5000). MRI of the transplantation sites of the left hemisphere demonstrated a low signal intensity on magnitude images,phase images and SWI images for all the test rats in Group A, and the lesion in the left parietal cortex demonstrated a semicircular low intensity on SWI images, which clearly showed the distribution and migration of BMSCs in the first and third weeks. For Group B, a low signal intensity by MRI was only observed on the first day but undetected during the following examination. No signals were observed in Groups C and D at any time points.Conclusion:SWI sequence in vivo can consecutively and noninvasively trace and demonstrate the

  15. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jun, Jeong Su; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Yong Sik; Kwon, Soon Yong; Kim, Yoo Jin; Kim, Chun Choo [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    To retrospectively review findings of osteonecrosis of the femoral head after bone marrow transplantation. We reviewed the clinical and MR findings of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in 23 of 1112 patients who underwent marrow transplantation during a five-year follow-up period lasting from 1996 to 2000. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 31 (range, 20-47) years, and the mean time from transplant to diagnosis was 17 months. All patients developed variable graft-versus-host disease and seventeen were treated with high-dose prednisolone and/or cysclosporin for severe acute or extensive chronic graft versus host disease. Osteonecrosis was diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which allowed early detection of disease assessment of its stage. At the time of diagnosis, 15 hips were at stage I, 28 at stage II, two at stage III, and none at stage IV, according to the international ARCO classification system. Osteonecrosis of femoral diaphyses, the lower lumbar spine, or pelvic bones in the MR field was also found to have occurred in 11 patients. Initial treatment was conservative: 21 hips underwent surgery [core decompression (n=10), vascularized fibular bone graft (n=5), and joint replacement (n=6)]. In patients receiving high-dose steroids for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease, MR screening might help detect osteonecrosis at an early stage.

  16. Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with bone marrow necrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Najmaddin SH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bone marrow necrosis is a clinicopathological condition diagnosed most often at postmortem examination, but it is also seen during the course of malignancy and is not always associated with a poor prognosis. The morphological features of bone marrow necrosis are disruption of the normal marrow architecture and necrosis of myeloid tissue and medullary stroma. Non-malignant conditions associated with bone marrow necrosis are sickle cell anemia, infections, drugs (sulfasalazine, interferon α, all-trans retinoic acid, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and fludarabine, disseminated intravascular coagulation, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute graft versus host diseases. The malignant causes are leukemia, lymphoma and metastatic carcinomas. Herein we report the case of a patient with precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bone marrow necrosis at initial presentation. Case presentation A 10-year-old Kurdish boy was presented with generalized bone pain and fever of 1 month’s duration which was associated with sweating, easy fatigability, nose bleeding, breathlessness and severe weight loss. On examination, we observed pallor, tachypnea, tachycardia, low blood pressure, fever, petechial hemorrhage, ecchymoses, tortuous dilated veins over the chest and upper part of abdomen, multiple small cervical lymph node enlargements, mildly enlarged spleen, palpable liver and gross abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed pancytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging results showed mediastinal widening on a planar chest X-ray and diffuse focal infiltration of the axial bone marrow on magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral vertebrae. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy examination showed extensive bone marrow necrosis. Immunophenotyping analysis of the bone marrow biopsy confirmed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as CD3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl

  17. Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

  18. Last marrow standing: bone marrow transplantation for acquired bone marrow failure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerds, Aaron T; Scott, Bart L

    2012-12-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome are a spectrum of acquired marrow failure, having a common pathologic thread of both immune dysregulation and the development of abnormal hematopoiesis. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation plays a critical role in the treatment of these disorders and, for many patients, is the only treatment modality with demonstrated curative potential. In recent years, there have been many breakthroughs in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these uncommon disorders. The subsequent advances in non-transplant therapies, along with concurrent improvement in outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation, necessitate continual appraisal of the indications, timing, and approaches to transplantation for acquired marrow failure syndromes. We review here contemporary and critical new findings driving current treatment decisions.

  19. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  20. In vivo imaging studies of the effect of recipient conditioning, donor cell phenotype and antigen disparity on homing of haematopoietic cells to the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir; Farkas, Daniel L

    2003-02-01

    Homing of transplanted bone marrow cells (BMC) to the host bone marrow (BM) is the first step of engraftment towards durable multilineage haematopoietic reconstitution. We used an in vivo assay to track PKH-labelled cells in the BM of mice after transplantation, using fluorescence microscopy through an optical window placed over the distal femoral epiphysis. Within hours after intravenous injection, the cells moved in and out the femur, and were mobile within the marrow space. One hour after injection of whole BMC into non-conditioned syngeneic and allogeneic recipients, the homing efficiencies (HE) were 1.23 +/- 0.14% and 0.12 +/- 0.02% respectively (P 80%) were quiescent in the BM during the first 3 d. HE were twofold higher in busulphan-myeloablated recipients (P < 0.001 vs non-conditioned), and allogeneic transplantation resulted in 84 +/- 9% donor chimaerism at 4 weeks. The HE of lin- cells was 16-fold higher than that of lin+ cells (P < 0.001), and the subset of lin- SCA-1+ cells was 4.6-fold higher in the BM-homed cell population (P < 0.001 vs lin- cells). Approximately 1,500 of the BM-homed cells rescued 62-71% secondary syngeneic and allogeneic myeloablated recipients. Strikingly, the HE could be predicted during the first 3 d after transplantation by correcting the measurements performed in vivo for the enrichment of progenitors in donor inoculum, donor-recipient antigen disparity and myeloablative conditioning.

  1. Bone marrow edema pattern in advanced hip osteoarthritis: quantitative assessment with magnetic resonance imaging and correlation with clinical examination, radiographic findings, and histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Schwartz, Stephanie A. [The University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [The University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Benjamin, James B. [University Orthopaedic Specialists, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gmitro, Arthur F.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Tim B. [The University of Arizona, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Resnick, Donald L. [University of California, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    To correlate the amount of bone marrow edema (BME) calculated by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) with clinical findings, histopathology, and radiographic findings, in patients with advanced hip osteoarthritis(OA). The study was approved by The Institutional Human Subject Protection Committee. Coronal MRI of hips was acquired in 19 patients who underwent hip replacement. A spin echo (SE) sequence with four echoes and separate fast spin echo (FSE) proton density (PD)-weighted SE sequences of fat (F) and water (W) were acquired with water and fat suppression, respectively. T2 and water:fat ratio calculations were made for the outlined regions of interest. The calculated MRI values were correlated with the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings. Analyses of variance were done on the MRI data for W/(W + F) and for T2 values (total and focal values) for the symptomatic and contralateral hips. The values were significantly higher in the study group. Statistically significant correlations were found between pain and total W/(W + F), pain and focal T2 values, and the number of microfractures and calculated BME for the focal W/(W + F) in the proximal femora. Statistically significant correlations were found between the radiographic findings and MRI values for total W/(W + F), focal W/(W + F) and focal T2 and among the radiographic findings, pain, and hip movement. On histopathology, only a small amount of BME was seen in eight proximal femora. The amount of BME in the OA hip, as measured by MRI, correlates with the severity of pain, radiographic findings, and number of microfractures. (orig.)

  2. BONE MARROW EXAMINATION IN PANCYTOPENIA: A STUDY OF SIX YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja; Jayashankar; Pavani; Swamy; Ramamurti

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Pancytopenia is reduction in all the three hematopoietic cell lines as seen in the peripheral blood. As hematopoietic cells are produced in the marrow, its examination forms an important tool in assessing the etiology of pancytopenia. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify the etiology of pancytopenia using bone marrow examination and to correlate it with iron stores in the marrow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out over a p...

  3. Analysis of fatty acid composition in human bone marrow aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Ryota; Ishitani, Ken; Makita, Kazuya; Horiguchi, Fumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-09-01

    In the present study, the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates and serum phospholipids in nine patients with hematologic diseases was investigated, and the effect of fatty acids on osteoblast differentiation in ST2 cells was examined. The concentrations of oleic acid and palmitic acid were significantly higher in bone marrow aspirates than in serum phospholipids, but the concentrations of other fatty acids did not differ. The rate of alkaline phosphatase positive ST2 cells induced by BMP2 was significantly increased by oleic acid, but was unaffected by the presence or absence of palmitic acid. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates differs from that of serum phospholipids. This difference may affect osteoblast differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment.

  4. Bone marrow hypoplasia in a cat treated with griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, J B; English, R V; Breitschwerdt, E B; Duncan, D E

    1991-02-01

    Three weeks after initiation of griseofulvin treatment for dermatophytosis (40 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h), an 8-yr-old domestic shorthair cat developed depression, vomiting, and pyrexia. Abnormalities found during physical examination included bilateral mydriasis, visual impairment, grade-II/V systolic murmur and multiple areas of alopecia. The cat was pancytopenic; serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia, and urinalysis revealed proteinuria, glycosuria, and bilirubinuria. Examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed profound hypoplasia of all precursors. Griseofulvin toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of the temporal relationship of drug administration with onset of clinical, hematologic, and biochemical abnormalities and failure to identify an infective or neoplastic cause for the bone marrow hypoplasia. The condition was refractory to treatment and the cat was euthanatized. Pathologic changes in the bone marrow were consistent with severe hypoplasia of all bone marrow precursors.

  5. MRI bone marrow findings in 63 patients with type I Gaucher's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, L.W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Duisburg GmbH (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Information, Kommunikation und Medientechnologie; Haeussinger, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie; Moedder, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom [St.-Franziskus-Hospital Koeln, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether MR bone marrow findings in Gaucher patients may help to identify patients at high risk of developing severe Gaucher bone complications exemplified by avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Materials and Methods: MR images were obtained in 63 Type I Gaucher patients through a standard protocol using coronal T1 and T2-weighted sequences of the lower extremities. The location and extent of infiltrated marrow was established using a semi-quantitative MRI scoring method (Duesseldorf Gaucher score, DGS) and the morphological pattern of bone marrow involvement determined (whether homogeneous type A or non-homogeneous type B). The active marrow process with bone edema and AVN of the femoral head were also analyzed. Results: Bone marrow involvement was observed in femoral sites more than in tibial sites. A high DGS was significantly correlated with type B morphology and femoral AVN (both p < 0.0001). Splenectomized patients showed a significantly higher Duesseldorf Gaucher score and type B morphology than non-splenectomized patients (both p < 0.05). AVN was seen in 46 % of patients with type B morphology versus 3 % in type A morphology (p < 0.0001). DGS and morphology of bone marrow involvement were not significantly correlated with active marrow processes. Conclusion: Type B marrow morphology and extensive marrow packing were significantly associated with AVN of the femoral head (both p < 0.0001). These patterns are considered predictive and may be employed in a disease management context to alert physicians to the need for urgent therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  6. Bone marrow fat is increased in chronic kidney disease by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, W.; Eckert, G. J.; Ponsler-Sipes, K.; Moe, S. M.; Lin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In aging, the bone marrow fills with fat and this may lead to higher fracture risk. We show that a bone marrow fat measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a newer technique not previously studied in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is useful and reproducible. CKD patients have significantly higher bone marrow fat than healthy adults. Introduction Renal osteodystrophy leads to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Traditional bone biopsy histomorphometry is used to study abnormalities in CKD, but the bone marrow, the source of osteoblasts, has not been well characterized in patients with CKD. Methods To determine the repeatability of bone marrow fat fraction assessment by MRS and water-fat imaging (WFI) at four sites in patients with CKD, testing was performed to determine the coefficients of reproducibility and intraclass coefficients (ICCs). We further determined if this noninvasive technique could be used to determine if there are differences in the percent bone marrow fat in patients with CKD compared to matched controls using paired t tests. Results The mean age of subjects with CKD was 59.8±7.2 years, and the mean eGFR was 24±8 ml/min. MRS showed good reproducibility at all sites in subjects with CKD and controls, with a coefficient of reproducibilities ranging from 2.4 to 13 %. MRS and WFI assessment of bone marrow fat showed moderate to strong agreement (ICC 0.6–0.7) at the lumbar spine, with poorer agreement at the iliac crest and no agreement at the tibia. The mean percent bone marrow fat at L2–L4 was 13.8 % (95 % CI 8.3–19.7) higher in CKD versus controls (p<0.05). Conclusions MRS is a useful and reproducible technique to study bone marrow fat in CKD. Patients with CKD have significantly higher bone marrow fat than healthy adults; the relationship with bone changes requires further analyses. PMID:25701052

  7. Advances in bone marrow stem cell therapy for retinal dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, SS; Moisseiev, E; Bauer, G.; Anderson, JD; Grant, MB; Zam, A; Zawadzki, RJ; Werner., JS; Nolta, JA

    2017-01-01

    The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic ret...

  8. Immune Cell Isolation from Mouse Femur Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Quan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The bone marrow is the site of hematopoesis and contains mixed population of blood cells including erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. The following protocol provides a simple and fast method for isolation of bone marrow immune cells (no erythrocytes) from mouse femurs with a yield of approximate 8 × 107 cells in 5 ml culture media (1.6 × 104 cells/μl). Further isolation or flow cytometric analysis might be required for study of sp...

  9. Etiological Profile of Plasmacytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, during routine examination of bone marrow aspirates, an increased plasma cell per­centage has been noted in a good number of cases which included both neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. An attempt has been made to observe the spectra of condi­tions with plasmacytosis in bone marrow. Methods: The present study was conducted in the de­partment of pathology over a period of one year. A total of 114 bone marrow aspirates that showed increased plas­ma cells (>3.5% constitute the study material. A detailed relevant clinical examination followed by complete blood count, peripheral smear examination and bone marrow aspiration was done in all cases. Results: There was slight female predominance with male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The majority of patients were in 4th decade. The plasma cell concentration ranged from 5% to 36%. As far as the etiology is concerned, 96 cases (84.2% were non-neoplastic and 18 cases (15.7% had neoplastic etiology. Conclusion: Bone marrow plasmacytosis can present as diagnostic dilemma and some time can be challenging to differentiate reactive from neoplastic condition as there is an overlap both in counts and morphology. Each case with plasmacytosis especially in the overlap range requires complete clinical evaluation, individualized investigations and more specific tests like immunoelectrophoresis and bone marrow biopsy with immunohistochemistry to arrive at a final diagnosis for patient management.

  10. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, B.T.; Patton, D.; Ramsey, N.K.C.; Day, D.L.

    1988-02-01

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology.

  11. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Thalassemia (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zakerinia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades conventional therapy has improvedthe prognosis of thalassemia. However, despite such improvementit still remains a progressive disease with treatment-related complicationssuch as hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and cardiac disease.Bone marrow transplantation (BMT can prevent or delay progressionof the aforementioned complications. The importance ofclinical research in the field of BMT was recognized with theaward of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to E.Donnall Thomas, one of the pioneers of BMT in humans. GeorgeMathe' was a pioneer in the early development of clinical BMT.Mathe' et al. were the first to describe graft-versus-host-disease(GVHD and its treatment, and the graft-versus- leukemia (GVLeffect in human. The first BMT for β-thalassemia major was performedsuccessfully by Thomas et al. in Seattle, in 1981. In thesame year another patient with β-thalassemia major underwentBMT in Pesaro, Italy, by Lucarelli et al. Since then, several hundredtransplantations have been performed worldwide, the majorityof these in Italy. From 1991 through 2007 BMT have beenperformed on 497 (Tehran=342, Shiraz=155 blood transfusiondependent patients with thalassemia major in Iran, with diseasefreesurvival of 71-77% respectively. Due to high graft failureand GVHD rates, BMT from alternative donors should be restrictedto patients who have poor life expectancies because theycannot receive adequate conventional treatment or because of alloimmunizationto minor blood antigens. Beginning in the early1980s, it was shown that umbilical cord blood contained high levelsof hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  12. Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, T; Masutani, K; Yokoyama, M; Tokumoto, M; Tsuruya, K; Fukuda, K; Kanai, H; Katafuchi, R; Nagatoshi, Y; Hirakata, H

    2002-09-01

    A 15-year-old boy developed nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure 4 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for lymphoid crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. On admission, he presented with clinical features of chronic GVHD including transient exacerbation of cholestatic liver injury. Renal biopsy showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with cellular crescents. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1 g/day, for 3 days) followed by oral prednisolone. Renal function gradually improved but nephrotic state was persistent. A second renal biopsy showed improvement of acute tubular necrosis and endocapillary proliferation and transformation of crescents into a fibrous form. After tapering of oral prednisolone, cyclophosphamide was started, which resulted in a gradual improvement of proteinuria. Several cases of nephrotic syndrome occurring after BMT have already been reported, but most cases had membranous nephropathy. In our case, renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with findings of active cellular immunity, and aggressive treatment resulted in attenuation of these findings. Moreover, chronic GVHD-related liver injury was noted at the time of this episode. Our findings suggest that chronic GVHD may be complicated with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis through unknown cellular immune mechanism.

  13. Detection of Traumatic Bone Marrow Lesions after Knee Trauma: Comparison of ADC Maps Derived from Diffusion-weighted Imaging with Standard Fat-saturated Proton Density-weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klengel, Alexis; Stumpp, Patrick; Klengel, Steffen; Böttger, Ina; Rönisch, Nadja; Kahn, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    Purpose To compare single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with fat-saturated (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the detection of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) after knee trauma. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained from Leipzig University. Written informed consent was waived. Three radiologists retrospectively re-examined 97 consecutive patients with reported knee trauma who underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within 90 days of knee trauma. The following sequences were used: (a) sagittal T1-weighted TSE and FS PD-weighted TSE and (b) sagittal T1-weighted TSE and single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived ADC mapping. BMLs on the lateral and medial femoral condyle, lateral and medial aspect of the tibial plateau, and patella were documented. Volumetry was performed on BMLs with a thickness of at least 15 mm (major BMLs). ADC values were measured in intact bone marrow and major BMLs. A McNemar test and t tests were used as appropriate to test for significant differences between BML number and volume at an α level of .05. Results Significantly more patients showed at least one BML on ADC maps (98%, 95 of 97 patients) than on FS PD-weighted TSE images (86%, 84 of 97 patients) (P saturation, such as the patella. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  14. Optimized labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and in vivo visualization by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spray David C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising addition to traditional treatments for a number of diseases. However, harnessing the therapeutic potential of stem cells requires an understanding of their fate in vivo. Non-invasive cell tracking can provide knowledge about mechanisms responsible for functional improvement of host tissue. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been used to label and visualize various cell types with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this study we performed experiments designed to investigate the biological properties, including proliferation, viability and differentiation capacity of mesenchymal cells (MSCs labeled with clinically approved SPIONs. Results Rat and mouse MSCs were isolated, cultured, and incubated with dextran-covered SPIONs (ferumoxide alone or with poly-L-lysine (PLL or protamine chlorhydrate for 4 or 24 hrs. Labeling efficiency was evaluated by dextran immunocytochemistry and MRI. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated in vitro with Ki67 immunocytochemistry and live/dead assays. Ferumoxide-labeled MSCs could be induced to differentiate to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. We analyzed ferumoxide retention in MSCs with or without mitomycin C pretreatment. Approximately 95% MSCs were labeled when incubated with ferumoxide for 4 or 24 hrs in the presence of PLL or protamine, whereas labeling of MSCs incubated with ferumoxide alone was poor. Proliferative capacity was maintained in MSCs incubated with ferumoxide and PLL for 4 hrs, however, after 24 hrs it was reduced. MSCs incubated with ferumoxide and protamine were efficiently visualized by MRI; they maintained proliferation and viability for up to 7 days and remained competent to differentiate. After 21 days MSCs pretreated with mitomycin C still showed a large number of ferumoxide-labeled cells. Conclusions The efficient and long lasting uptake and retention of SPIONs by MSCs using a protocol

  15. Diffuse Hypermetabolism at Bone Marrow in F-18 FDG PET/CT: Correlation with Bone Marrow Biopsy and Complete Blood Cell Counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Increased FDG uptake in the bone marrow has been reported in patients taking erythropoietin or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the bone marrow and bone marrow finding, hematological parameters. Twenty patients who had diffuse FDG uptake at the bone marrow and received hematological examinations, bone marrow biopsy within 10 days before or after PET/CT were enrolled in this study. Among them, 11 patients were excluded; 4 patients received G-CSF or erythropoietin before PET/CT. Seven patients showed definite pathology in a bone marrow biopsy. The parameters included the measurement of WBC, hemoglobin, platelet and cellularity of the bone marrow. Bone marrow FDG uptake was correlated with a low hemoglobin but not WBC, platelet. Histopathologic findings in marrow biopsies were various: normal finding (n=3), hyperplasia of granulocytic cells (n=2), eosinophilic hyperplasia (n=1), reactive lymphoid nodules (n=1), hypercelluar marrow (n=1), hypocelluar marrow (n=1). All patients except two, showed normal marrow celluarity. FDG uptake by bone marrow correlated with anemia but not WBC, platelet, bone marrow cellularity.

  16. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  17. Effects of Platelet Factor 4 on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfate in Syngenic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡凯; 孙汉英; 刘文励; 袁慧玲; 徐惠珍; 孙岚; 周银莉; 任天华

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To explore the effects of platelet factor 4(PF4) on hematopoietic reconstitution and its mechanism in syngenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The syngenic BMT mice models were established. 20 and 26 h before irradiation, the mice were injected 20 μg/kg PF4 or PBS twice into abdominal cavity, then the donor bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were transplanted. On the 7th day, spleen clone forming units (CFU-S) were counted. On the 7th, 14th and 21st day after BMT, the BMNC and megakaryoryocytes in bone marrow tissue were counted and the percentage of hematopoietic tissue and expression level of heparan sulfate in bone marrow tissue were assessed. In PF4-treated groups, the CFU-S counts on the 7th day were higher than those in BMT groups after BMT. The BMNC and megakaryoryocyte counts and the percentage of hematopoietic tissue and heparan sulfate expression level were higher than those in BMT group on the 7th, 14th and 21st day after BMT (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). PF4 could accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution of syngenic bone marrow transplantation. The promotion of the heparan sulfate expression in bone marrow may be one of mechanisms of PF4.

  18. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-03-01

    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  19. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  20. ROLE OF BONE MARROW ASPIRATION IN DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Nanwani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The bone marrow examination is an essential investigation for the diagnosis of disorders of the blood and bone marrow. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important, particularly in resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking or absent. MATERIALS AND METHODS 189 patients of all age groups were studied for haematological and non-haematological disorders by bone marrow aspiration in the Department of Pathology, MGM Medical College during the period of 2014 to 2016. RESULTS Majority of the patients who had bone marrow aspiration were aged 0-15 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.03. Most (97% of the marrow aspirate examined had definitive pathologic features, while 14 (7% were normal marrow elements. Out of 189 cases of bone marrow aspiration, acute leukaemia was the most common haematological disease diagnosed using this procedure. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was more common than acute myeloid leukaemia. Aplastic anaemia was seen in 16% cases. Megaloblastic anaemia occurred more commonly than other anaemias. Megaloblastic anaemia was seen in 13 cases (7% and microcytic anaemia was seen in 5 cases (3%. There were 10 cases (5% of Idiopathic Thrombocypenic Purpura. Myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma was seen in 7% and 2% cases respectively. Storage disorder was seen in 3 cases (2%, out of this 02 cases were Gaucher’s disease and one case was Niemann-Pick’s disease. CONCLUSION Bone marrow examination is an important step to arrive at the confirmatory diagnosis of many haematological disorders. This procedure remains a veritable tool in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of haematological diseases, especially in a resource poor centre.

  1. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Thalassemia (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zakerinia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades conventional therapy has improvedthe prognosis of thalassemia. However, despite such improvementit still remains a progressive disease with treatment-relatedcomplications such as hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and cardiac disease.Bone marrow transplantation (BMT can prevent or delayprogression of the aforementioned complications. The importanceof clinical research in the field of BMT was recognizedwith the award of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology andMedicine to E. Donnall Thomas, one of the pioneers of BMT inhumans. George Mathe' was a pioneer in the early developmentof clinical BMT. Mathe' and co-workers were the first to describegraft-versus-host-disease and its treatment, and the graftversus-leukemia effect in human. The first BMT for β-thalassemia major was performed successfully by Thomas andcolleagues in Seattle, in 1981. In the same year another patientwith β-thalassemia major underwent BMT in Pesaro, Italy, byLucarelli and others Since then, several hundred transplantationshave been performed worldwide, mostly in Italy. From 1991through 2007 BMT have been performed on 497 (Tehran=342,Shiraz=155 blood transfusion dependent patients with thalassemiamajor in Iran, with disease-free survival of 71-77% respectively.Because of high graft failure and high rates of graftversus-host-disease rates, BMT from alternative donors shouldbe restricted to patients who have poor life expectancies becausethey cannot receive adequate conventional treatment or becauseof alloimmunization to minor blood antigens. Beginning in theearly 1980s, it was shown that umbilical cord blood containedhigh levels of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  2. Recurrent Hodgkin's disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, I; Greer, J P; Beeker, T A; Wolff, S N; Collins, R D; Cousar, J B

    1997-01-01

    Histologic features of recurrent Hodgkin's disease (HD) after conventional therapy are well known, but few studies describe HD after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Histologic material from 63 patients who underwent BMT performed to treat recurrent nodular sclerosing HD (NSHD) between 1985 and 1994 was examined; 13 of the 63 patients had histologically proved recurrent disease after BMT. Histologic material and clinical findings from the original diagnostic biopsy specimen and pre-BMT and post-BMT specimens were available from our study population of eight patients (five male, three female; age range, 16 to 38 years; median age, 27.5 years). Seven patients had recurrent NSHD after BMT; sites of recurrence included lymph nodes only (four patients), and lymph nodes and lung, lung and liver, and lung only (one patient each). In one patient, a high-grade non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma developed in the large intestine 5 years after BMT. In another, disease progressed from grade 1 in the original biopsy specimen to grade 2 in both the pre-BMT and post-BMT recurrent HD biopsy specimens. Post-BMT biopsy specimens of recurrent HD with lung involvement revealed a substantial increase in sclerosis and fibroblastic features. Paraffin immunoperoxidase studies in seven patients demonstrated substantial change in phenotype of Reed-Stemberg cell variants in only one post-BMT recurrent HD specimen, which showed a +2 reaction with CD30 (Ki-1). No substantial differences in the reactive component were noted between the original biopsy specimen and pre-BMT and post-BMT specimens of recurrent disease. In summary, histologic findings of post-BMT recurrent NSHD do not differ significantly from those of the original diagnostic biopsy or pre-BMT recurrent HD specimens. The lung is the most common site of extranodal post-BMT recurrence. In one patient, high-grade non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma developed after BMT performed to treat recurrent HD.

  3. Correlation of plasma FL expression with bone marrow irradiation dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Sproull

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ablative bone marrow irradiation is an integral part of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These treatment regimens are based on classically held models of radiation dose and the bone marrow response. Flt-3 ligand (FL has been suggested as a marker of hematopoiesis and bone marrow status but the kinetics of its response to bone marrow irradiation has yet to be fully characterized. In the current study, we examine plasma FL response to total body and partial body irradiation in mice and its relationship with irradiation dose, time of collection and pattern of bone marrow exposure. MATERIALS/METHODS: C57BL6 mice received a single whole body or partial body irradiation dose of 1-8 Gy. Plasma was collected by mandibular or cardiac puncture at 24, 48 and 72 hr post-irradiation as well as 1-3 weeks post-irradiation. FL levels were determined via ELISA assay and used to generate two models: a linear regression model and a gated values model correlating plasma FL levels with radiation dose. RESULTS: At all doses between 1-8 Gy, plasma FL levels were greater than control and the level of FL increased proportionally to the total body irradiation dose. Differences in FL levels were statistically significant at each dose and at all time points. Partial body irradiation of the trunk areas, encompassing the bulk of the hematopoietically active bone marrow, resulted in significantly increased FL levels over control but irradiation of only the head or extremities did not. FL levels were used to generate a dose prediction model for total body irradiation. In a blinded study, the model differentiated mice into dose received cohorts of 1, 4 or 8 Gy based on plasma FL levels at 24 or 72 hrs post-irradiation. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that plasma FL levels might be used as a marker of hematopoietically active bone marrow and radiation exposure in mice.

  4. Bone marrow evaluation in patients with fever of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow examination is commonly requested investigations in cases of fever of unknown origin, irrespective of alteration in hematological parameters. More than 200 etiologies are associated with fever of unknown origin, and they are broadly divided into infectious, neoplastic, collagen vascular diseases, miscellaneous and undiagnosed. Many of these conditions directly or indirectly affect bone marrow. Marrow may show changes in cellular components, interstitium or in the blood vessels depending on the underlying local or systemic conditions. The three main hematopoietic cell lines may show variable hyperplasia, hypoplasia or aplasia of one or more than one cell lines, and occasionally dyspoiesis. Interstitium may show fibrosis, gelatinous transformation, or infiltration by abnormal cells. Amyloid deposits may be seen around blood vessels. Marrow may also show granulomas, infectious agents or neoplastic cells. Various reactive changes can be seen in the bone marrow in neoplastic, infectious and in connective tissue diseases. Infectious agents can be cultured from the marrow aspirate or can be demonstrated in marrow. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6029 JPN 2012; 2(3: 231-240

  5. Effects of sublethal irradiation on patterns of engraftment after murine bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jacob; Ge, Shundi; Symbatyan, Goar; Rosol, Michael S; Olch, Arthur J; Crooks, Gay M

    2011-05-01

    Attempts to reduce the toxicity of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have led to the use of various immunosuppressive, yet nonmyeloablative preparative regimens that often include low-dose irradiation. To determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the dynamics of donor cell engraftment after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we coupled standard endpoint flow cytometric analysis with in vivo longitudinal bioluminescence imaging performed throughout the early (bone marrow. Flow cytometric analysis showed that sublethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI) significantly increased long-term (14 weeks) donor chimerism in the bone marrow compared with nonirradiated recipients (P bone marrow, confirming that sublethal irradiation does not enhance marrow chimerism early after transplantation. Local irradiation also significantly increased late (but not early) donor chimerism in the irradiated limb. Intrafemoral injection of donor cells provided efficient early chimerism in the injected limb, but long-term systemic donor chimerism was highest with i.v. administration (P marrow space. These findings suggest that the major effect of sublethal irradiation is to enhance long-term donor chimerism by inducing proliferative signals after the initial phase of homing.

  6. Bone marrow fiariasis presenting as aplastic anemia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 40-year old male who presented with complaints of generalized weakness, lethargy, breathlessness on exertion, easy fatigability for a 2-month duration. He also had the history of mild bleeding from gums and nose since 2 days ago and had pallor on general physical examination. The peripheral smear revealed pancytopenia with several microfilariae in the buffy coat. Bone marrow aspiration showed hypocellular marrow with microfilariasis and increase in mature plasma cells. The patient was starting on diethylcarbamazine. However, his bone marrow aspirate done 2 weeks later showed hypocellular marrow with no parasites and biopsy showed picture that was suggestive of aplastic anemia. He was later referred to higher center for further investigation and management. Pancytopenia as a presenting feature of filariasis is rare, but a few case reports have been published. Yet a causal relationship of filariasis and pancytopenia, hypoplasia or aplasia of bone marrow has not been determined. It has also not been proved that a treatment of filariasis has led to a reversal of bone marrow hypoplasia or aplasia.

  7. Marrow changes in anorexia nervosa masking the presence of stress fractures on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V. [Department of Radiology, RJAH Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) usually have abnormal bone and bone marrow metabolism resulting in osteopenia and serous bone marrow change. There is an increased risk of stress/insufficiency fractures and these can be the first presentation of AN. This case report describes a patient with previously undiagnosed AN who presented with foot pain. The serous bone marrow changes of AN were found to mask the MR imaging features of stress fractures, as both had low T1w and high T2w and STIR signal intensities. Contrast enhancement was not helpful but actually masked fractures. Scintigraphy was helpful. The radiologist might be the first clinician to raise the possibility of AN and should be aware of the difficulties in diagnosing stress fractures in bones with underlying serous bone marrow change. In this severe case of AN even the heel fat pad and the fat pad in Kager's triangle had undergone serous change.

  8. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Shaprio, R.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Grabowski, G. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1993-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  9. In vivo lipid diffusion coefficient measurements in rat bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Beloeil, Helene; Berde, Charles B; Ababneh, Anas M; Maier, Stephan E; Mulkern, Robert V

    2009-07-01

    The diffusion coefficient of lipids, D(l), within bone marrow, fat deposits and metabolically active intracellular lipids in vivo will depend on several factors including the precise chemical composition of the lipid distribution (chain lengths, degree of unsaturation, etc.) as well as the temperature. As such, D(l) may ultimately prove of value in assessing abnormal fatty acid distributions linked to diseases such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes and coronary heart disease. A sensitive temperature dependence of D(l) may also prove of value for MR-guided thermal therapies for bone tumors or disease within other fatty tissues like the breast. Measuring diffusion coefficients of high molecular weight lipids in vivo is, however, technically difficult for a number of reasons. For instance, due to the much lower diffusion coefficients compared to water, much higher b factors than those used for central nervous system applications are needed. In addition, the pulse sequence design must incorporate, as much as possible, immunity to motion, susceptibility and chemical shift effects present whenever body imaging is performed. In this work, high b-factor line scan diffusion imaging sequences were designed, implemented and tested for D(l) measurement using a 4.7-T horizontal bore animal scanner. The gradient set available allowed for b factors as high as 0.03 micros/nm(2) (30,000 s/mm(2)) at echo times as short as 42 ms. The methods were used to measure lipid diffusion coefficients within the marrow of rat paws in vivo, yielding lipid diffusion coefficients approximately two orders of magnitude smaller than typical tissue water diffusion coefficients. Phantom experiments that demonstrate the sensitivity of lipid diffusion coefficients to chain length and temperature were also performed.

  10. An open source image processing method to quantitatively assess tissue growth after non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging in human bone marrow stromal cell seeded 3D polymeric scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferink, Anne M; Fratila, Raluca M; Koenrades, Maaike A; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Velders, Aldrik; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs.

  11. An open source image processing method to quantitatively assess tissue growth after non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging in human bone marrow stromal cell seeded 3D polymeric scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Leferink

    Full Text Available Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs.

  12. Transplantable NK cell progenitors in murine bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T; Bennett, M; Kumar, V

    1995-02-15

    Differentiation of NK cells from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells is a poorly understood process. Although it is known that NK cells are bone marrow derived and dependent upon an intact bone marrow microenvironment for complete maturation, it is not known if they arise from an intermediate lymphoid stem cell or from progenitors exclusively committed to the NK lineage. To determine whether phenotypically distinct committed NK progenitor cells exist in murine bone marrow, we sorted cells capable of repopulating recipient mice with mature NK cells upon i.v. transfer. We identified a rare population of bone marrow cells with the phenotype Ly6+ Lin- c-kit+ CD43high Fall-3high TSA-1- AA4.1low Rh123high that is highly enriched for the ability to generate NK cells after transplantation. Although these cells are relatively depleted of Rh123low pluripotent stem cells, they are highly enriched for both lymphoid and myeloid repopulating ability. Thus, we have found no evidence to support the existence of a phenotypically distinct transplantable progenitor population in mouse bone marrow that is either exclusively committed to the NK cell lineage or exhibits the functional characteristics of a common lymphoid stem cell.

  13. A Survey of Bacterial Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Shirazi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Bacterial infec­tion is considered as one of the common and serious complications in bone marrow transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacterial infections in bone marrow transplant recipients."nMethods: Fifty-two blood and 25 catheter samples were obtained from 23 patients who were hospitalized in bone marrow trans­plantation unit in Shariati Hospital in Tehran. Bacterial strains were isolated and identified by the standard conven­tional bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the guidelines from NCCLS using 18 different antibiotics."nResults:  The strains of Staphylococci, Streptococcus viridans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were isolated from 8(66.7%, 1(8.3%, 2 (16.7% and the 1(8.3% cases, respectively."nConclusion: Current study indicated that the bacterial infections particularly those caused by the Gram-positive cocci were still as important problem in bone marrow transplant.

  14. Cardiomyocyte regeneration from circulating bone marrow cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yukio; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Migita, Makoto; Hayakawa, Jun; Hayashida, Mari; Uchikoba, Yohko; Fukumi, Daichi; Shimada, Takashi; Ogawa, Shunichi

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the role of circulating bone marrow cells (BMC) in cardiomyocyte regeneration. BMC, isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), were transplanted into lethally irradiated C57BL6 mice. Five weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), flow cytometric analysis for GFP-positive cells confirmed reconstitution of transplanted bone marrow. Bone marrow transplant mice subsequently underwent left coronary artery ligation (myocardial infarction) or sham-operation, and were killed at 1 mo or 3 mo after operation. Infarct size was similar in bone marrow transplant mice at 1 mo (47.1 +/- 5.9%) and at 3 mo (45.3 +/- 7.8%), and echocardiography at 2 and 8 wk revealed decreasing left ventricular function. In infarcted heart, GFP-positive cells that expressed desmin and troponin T-C were identified by confocal microscopy. GFP and troponin T-C double-positive cells were predominantly in the peri-infarcted region (1 mo, 365 +/- 45 cells/50 sections; 3 mo: 458 +/- 100 cells/50 sections; p infarct, and sham-operated regions). Furthermore, BMC mobilization and differentiation into cardiomyocytes was found to be complete within 1 mo after myocardial infarction. These results demonstrate that circulating BMC undergo mobilization and differentiation in cardiac cells after myocardial infarction. Future studies are required to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  15. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T 7-8 . Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunofluorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guidance. Our data confirm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic field guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively tracked in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  16. visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-ping Zhang; Cheng Xu; Yin Liu; Jian-ding Li; Jun Xie

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T7–8. Superparamagnet-ic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cordvia the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic ifeld was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunolfuorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guid-ance. Our data conifrm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic ifeld guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively trackedin vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  17. Spine fusion using cell matrix composites enriched in bone marrow-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschler, George F; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting.

  18. PET/CT versus bone marrow biopsy in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in various pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Claudia P; Cuglievan, Branko; Zapata, Catalina M; Olavarrieta, Raquel; Raskin, Scott; Desai, Kavita; De Angulo, Guillermo

    2017-09-13

    Accurate staging is essential in the prognosis and management of pediatric malignancies. Current protocols require screening for marrow infiltration with bone marrow biopsy (BMB) as the gold standard. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is commonly used to complete the staging process and can also be used to evaluate marrow infiltration. To compare PET-CT and BMB in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in pediatric cancers. We retrospectively reviewed new cases of EWS, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma diagnosed between January 2009 and October 2014. Each case had undergone both PET-CT and BMB within 4 weeks without treatment in the interval between screening modalities. We reviewed 69 cases. Bone marrow infiltration was demonstrated in 34 cases by PET-CT and in 18 cases by BMB. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of PET-CT were both 100%. Interestingly, the cases in which infiltration was not detected on BMB had an abnormal marrow signal on PET-CT focal or distant to iliac crest. PET-CT has a high sensitivity when assessing marrow infiltration in pediatric malignancies. Advances in radiologic modalities may obviate the use of invasive, painful, and costly procedures like BMB. Furthermore, biopsy results are limited by insufficient tissue or the degree of marrow infiltration (diffuse vs. focal disease). PET-CT can improve the precision of biopsy when used as a guiding tool. This study proposes the use of PET-CT as first-line screening for bone marrow infiltration to improve the accuracy of staging in new diagnoses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bone Marrow Fat Changes After Gastric Bypass Surgery Are Associated With Loss of Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany Y; Schwartz, Ann V; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaipin; Black, Dennis M; Petrenko, Dimitry M; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Posselt, Andrew M; Carter, Jonathan T; Shoback, Dolores M; Schafer, Anne L

    2017-08-09

    Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p loss may influence marrow fat behavior, and marrow fat may be a determinant of bone metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Bone marrow lambda-type light chain crystalline structures associated with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, H; Bonhomme, P; Caulet, S; Beorchia, A; Patey, M; Caulet, T

    1985-01-01

    A 58-year-old man showed bone marrow crystalline structures associated with a lambda light chain producing multiple myeloma. Analysis and processing of electron images clearly displayed the periodic structure of the crystals. Immunochemistry suggested that they contained the whole or a fragmented constant portion of immunoglobulin.

  1. Prolonged T1 relaxation of the hemopoietic bone marrow in patients with chronic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Sørensen, P G; Thomsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Eleven patients with chronic leukemia (7 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 4 with chronic myeloid leukemia) were evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1 relaxation time measurements by use of a 1.5 tesla whole body MR scanner. Bone marrow biopsies were obtained from the posterior...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging tracing of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of cardiac arrest-induced global brain ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Fu; Xiangshao Fang; Tong Wang; Jiwen Wang; Jun Jiang; Zhigang Luo; Xiaohui Duan; Jun Shen; Zitong Huang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect survival and migration of super paramagnetic iron oxide-labeled stem cells in models of focal cerebral infarction. OBJECTIVE: To observe distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model of global brain ischemia following cardiac arrest and resuscitation, and to investigate the feasibility of tracing iron oxide-labeled BMSCs using non-invasive MRI. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled, molecular imaging study was performed at the Linbaixin Medical Research Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, and the Institute of Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation, Sun Yat-sen University, China from October 2006 to February 2009.MATERIALS: A total of 40 clean, Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6 weeks and of either gender, were supplied by the Experimental Animal Center, Sun Yat-sen University, China, for isolation of BMSCs. Feridex (iron oxide), Gyroscan Inetra 1.5T MRI system, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation device were used in this study. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy, male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6 months, were used to induce ventricular fibrillation using alternating current. After 8 minutes, the rats underwent 6-minute chest compression and mechanical ventilation, followed by electric defibrillation, to establish rat models of global brain ischemia due to cardiac arrest and resuscitation. A total of 24 successful models were randomly assigned to Feridex-labeled and non-labeled groups (n=12 for each group). At 2 hours after resuscitation, 5 x 10 6 Feddex-labeled BMSCs, with protamine sulfate as a carrier, and 5 × 10 6 non-labeled BMSCs were respectively transplanted into both groups of rats through the right carotid artery (cells were harvested in 1 mL phosphate buffered saline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feridex-labeled BMSCs were observed by Prussian blue staining and electron microscopy. Signal intensity, celluar viability

  3. Composite vascularized skin/bone transplantation models for bone marrow-based tolerance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Ulusal, Betul G; Ulusal, Ali E; Izycki, Dariusz; Siemionow, Maria

    2006-03-01

    There is an ongoing need to understand the mechanisms of bone marrow-based allograft tolerance. This is important in clarifying the diverse variables influencing the ultimate outcome of the solid organ and composite tissue transplants. To establish bone marrow transplantation as a routine clinical application, further experimental studies should be conducted to overcome the obstacles related to the bone marrow transplantation. These obstacles include graft versus host disease, immunocompetence, and toxicity of the conditioning regimens. For these purposes, novel experimental models are needed. In an attempt to provide a reliable research tool for bone marrow-based tolerance induction studies, we introduced different experimental models of modified vascularized skin/bone marrow (VSBM) transplantation technique for tolerance induction, monitoring, and maintenance studies. In this skin/bone transplantation model, the technical feasibility of concurrent or consecutive transplantation of the combination of bilateral vascularized skin, vascularized bone marrow, or vascularized skin/bone marrow transplants was investigated. Isograft transplantations were performed between genetically identical Lewis (LEW, RT1) rats. Five different experimental designs in 5 groups of 5 animals each were studied. Group I: Bilateral vascularized skin (VS) transplantation; group II: bilateral vascularized skin/bone transplantation; group III: vascularized skin transplantation on one side and vascularized skin/bone transplantation on the contralateral side; group IV: vascularized bone transplantation on one side and vascularized skin/bone transplantation on the contralateral side; group V: vascularized bone transplantation on one side and vascularized skin transplantation on the contralateral side. Successful transplantations were performed in all groups. The survival of the isograft transplants was evaluated clinically and histologically. All skin flaps remained pink and pliable and grew new

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of erythropoietin-stimulated bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, P.F. (Hospital of St. Sacrement, Quebec); Chamberlain, J.K.; Weed, R.I.

    1975-01-01

    This work describes and illustrates the scanning electron microscopic modifications observed in the femoral bone marrow of normal mice 72 hours after a single injection of partly purified sheep erythropoietin and of mice afflicted with a chronic congenital hemolytic anemia analogous to the disease Hereditary Spherocytosis in man. In acordance with previous transmission electron microscopic studies, the observations are consistent with an effect of erythropoietin both on the frequency of cell migration across the normally intact marrow sinus endothelium and on the morphology of sinus adventitial cells. It is suggested that these ultrastructural modifications may be responsible for the greater patency of the marrow-blood barrier under erythropoietin stimulation.

  5. Qualitative Aspects of Bone Marrow Adiposity in Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford J Rosen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The function of marrow adipocytes and their origin has not been defined although considerable research has centered on their presence in certain conditions such as osteoporosis. Less work has focused on the qualitative aspects of marrow fat. Bone marrow serum is composed of multiple nutrients that almost certainly relate to functional aspects of the niche. Previous studies using non-­‐invasive techniques have shown that osteoporotic individuals have more marrow fat and that the ratio of saturated: unsaturated fatty acid is high. We recently reported that bone marrow sera from osteoporotic patients with fracture showed a switch toward decreased content of total saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids, compared to patients without fracture highlighting a dynamic relationship between the composition of fatty acids in the bone microenvironment and the metabolic requirements of cells. The relative distribution of fatty acids differed considerably from that in the serum providing further evidence that energy utilization is high and that marrow adipocytes may contribute to this pool. Whether these lipids can affect osteoblast function in a positive or negative manner is still not certain but will require further investigation.

  6. Femoroacetabular impingement: bone marrow oedema associated with fibrocystic change of the femoral head and neck junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom) and Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jamesslj@email.com; Connell, D.A. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Aim: To describe the association of bone marrow oedema adjacent to areas of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. Materials and methods: The clinical and imaging findings in six patients with bone marrow oedema adjacent to an area of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction are presented. There were five males and one female (age range 19-42 years, mean age 34.5 years). Three patients were referred with a clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement, two with suspected osteoid osteoma and one with a clinical diagnosis of sciatica. The volume of bone marrow oedema (grade 1: 0-25%, grade 2: 26-50%, grade 3: 51-75% and grade 4: 76-100% of the femoral neck width), presence of labral and articular cartilage abnormality, joint effusion, and femoral head and neck morphology were recorded. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified fibrocystic change in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head and neck junction in all cases (mean size 9 mm, range 5-14 mm, three multilocular and three unilocular cysts). The volume of oedema was variable (one grade 1, two grade 2, one grade 3 and two grade 4). All patients had abnormality of the anterosuperior labrum with five patients demonstrating chondral loss. An abnormal femoral head and neck junction was identified in five patients. Conclusion: The radiological finding of fibrocystic change at the anterosuperior femoral neck with or without bone marrow oedema should prompt the search for femoroacetabular impingement. Bone marrow oedema may rarely be identified adjacent to these areas of cystic change and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow oedema in the femoral neck.

  7. Suppressive activity of acivicin on murine bone marrow hemopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, G; Mencoboni, M; Lerza, R; Cerruti, A; Bogliolo, G; Pannacciulli, I

    1992-01-01

    Acivicin (AVC), a L-glutamine antagonist, is an intriguing antimetabolite coupling cell growth inhibition activity with differentiating effects. In this in vivo study the influence of acivicin on mice bone marrow hemopoietic progenitors was tested. 10 mg/kg b.w./day of acivicin were i.p. injected in B6D2F1 mice for nine days. Leucocyte and reticulocyte level (in peripheral blood), CFU-S (multipotent stem cells) and GM-CFU (granulocyte-macrophage committed progenitors) content in bone marrow were determined during drug administration and for 14 days thereafter. All tested populations decreased severely during the first days of treatment. The drop was particularly striking for bone marrow CFU-S. The recovery of hemopoietic progenitors, however, began while AVC was still administered. These results suggest that the effects of acivicin on normal mouse hemopoietic system are mainly inhibitory, causing considerable myelosuppression.

  8. Bone marrow edema syndrome in postpartal women: treatment with iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Nicholas; Meizer, Roland; Meraner, Dominik; Becker, Stephan; Meizer, Elizabeth; Landsiedl, Franz

    2009-04-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome of the femoral head in pregnant women is a rare disease resulting in disabling coxalgia, beginning in the last 3 months of pregnancy and persisting for several months after parturition. The parenteral administration of the vasoactive drug iloprost constitutes a new approach to the treatment of painful bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip of pregnant women. Six postpartal women (8 hips) with bone marrow edema syndrome of the femoral head were treated with iloprost followed by 3 weeks of partial weight-bearing. Relief from pain, restoration of functional capacity, and normalization of the MRI signal pattern were rapidly achieved, thus avoiding the need for surgical intervention. As the substance is contraindicated in pregnancy, therapy may begin only some days after parturition, with a short discontinuation in breastfeeding.

  9. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  10. Successful nonsibling bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøe, K; Skinhøj, P; Andersen, V

    1978-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was diagnosed in a girl immediately after birth; her older brother had SCID and was successfully reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation from his uncle. She was isolated in a laminar air flow bench and decontaminated. The father differed by one HLA......-A antigen but was HLA-Dw2 homozygous like the patient; his lymphocytes showed a slight response to the patient's cells in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). At the age of 2 1/2 months and again at 5 months, she was given a bone marrow transplant from the father. During the entire course the patient had...

  11. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2016-12-21

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  12. Blockage of caspase-1 activation ameliorates bone marrow inflammation in mice after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianlin; Wu, Jinyan; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Yuan; Chu, Peipei; Qi, Kunming; Yan, Zhiling; Yao, Haina; Liu, Yun; Xu, Kailin; Zeng, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    Conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), cause damage to bone marrow and inflammation. Whether inflammasomes are involved in bone marrow inflammation remains unclear. The study aims to evaluate the role of inflammasomes in bone marrow inflammation after HSCT. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after HSCT, mice were sacrificed for analysis of bone marrow inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, inflammasomes expression and caspase-1 activation. Bone marrow inflammation with neutrophils and macrophages infiltration was observed after HSCT. Secretion of IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 were elevated, with increased caspase-1 activation and inflammasomes expression. Caspase-1 inhibitor administration after HSCT significantly reduced infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into bone marrow and increased the numbers of megakaryocytes and platelets. In conclusion, inflammasomes activation is involved in bone marrow inflammation after HSCT and caspase-1 inhibition attenuates bone marrow inflammation and promoted hematopoietic reconstitution, suggesting targeting caspase-1 might be beneficial for improving HSCT outcomes.

  13. A study of bone marrow failure syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow failure syndrome (BMFS, or aplastic anemia, includes peripheral blood single cytopenias, as well as pancytopenia due to inability of the marrow to effectively produce blood cells. Aim: To study the clinico-hematological profile and etiological factors of bone marrow failure syndrome in children. Setting and Design: This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics of a university teaching hospital over 36 months. Materials and Methods: Children with pancytopenia (Hb < 10 g/dl, absolute neutrophil count < 1.5 x 10 9 /L, platelet count < 100 x 10 9 /L and bone marrow cellularity < 25% were included in the study. History of exposure to drugs, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and occupation of father were noted. Bone marrow aspiration; trephine biopsy; Ham test; viral studies for hepatitis A, B and C; and cytogenetic investigations were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Relative risk was estimated by odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI in matched cases and controls. Results: Of the 53 children studied, 6 (11.3% were diagnosed as Fanconi anemia. Two cases had features of myelodysplastic syndrome. Forty-five children were labeled as acquired aplastic anemia, of whom one had evidence of hepatitis B infection and two patients (5.8% had paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Aplastic anemia was more common in children from family with lower socioeconomic status; in Muslims; and where the father′s occupation was weaving, dyeing and painting. However, the number was small to make statistically significant conclusions. No correlation could be established with exposure to drugs. Conclusion: Fanconi anemia was responsible for approximately one-tenth of the cases of bone marrow failure syndrome. Majority of the patients had acquired aplastic anemia. Hepatitis B infection was an uncommon cause of acquired aplastic anemia.

  14. Frequency and natural history of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes: the Israeli Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamary, Hannah; Nishri, Daniella; Yacobovich, Joanne; Zilber, Rama; Dgany, Orly; Krasnov, Tanya; Aviner, Shraga; Stepensky, Polina; Ravel-Vilk, Shoshana; Bitan, Menachem; Kaplinsky, Chaim; Ben Barak, Ayelet; Elhasid, Ronit; Kapelusnik, Joseph; Koren, Ariel; Levin, Carina; Attias, Dina; Laor, Ruth; Yaniv, Isaac; Rosenberg, Philip S; Alter, Blanche P

    2010-08-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are rare genetic disorders characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Available single disease registries provide reliable information regarding natural history, efficacy and side effects of treatments, and contribute to the discovery of the causative genes. However, these registries could not shed light on the true incidence of the various syndromes. We, therefore, established an Israeli national registry in order to investigate the relative frequency of each of these syndromes and their complications. Patients were registered by their hematologists in all 16 medical centers in Israel. We included patients with Fanconi anemia, severe congenital neutropenia, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, dyskeratosis congenita, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and thrombocytopenia with absent radii. One hundred and twenty-seven patients diagnosed between 1966 and 2007 were registered. Fifty-two percent were found to have Fanconi anemia, 17% severe congenital neutropenia, 14% Diamond-Blackfan anemia, 6% congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, 5% dyskeratosis congenita, 2% Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and 2% thrombocytopenia with absent radii. No specific diagnosis was made in only 2 patients. Of the thirty patients (24%) developing severe bone marrow failure, 80% had Fanconi anemia. Seven of 9 patients with leukemia had Fanconi anemia, as did all 6 with solid tumors. Thirty-four patients died from their disease; 25 (74%) had Fanconi anemia and 6 (17%) had severe congenital neutropenia. This is the first comprehensive population-based study evaluating the incidence and complications of the different inherited bone marrow failure syndromes. By far the most common disease was Fanconi anemia, followed by severe congenital neutropenia and Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Fanconi anemia carried the worst prognosis, with severe bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility

  15. Bone Marrow Granuloma in Typhoid Fever: A Morphological Approach and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Muniraj; Somanath Padhi; Manjiri Phansalkar; Periyasami Sivakumar; Renu G’Boy Varghese; Reba Kanungo

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid fever is one of the few bacterial infections in humans where bone marrow evaluation is routinely recommended. However, the morphological aspect of typhoid fever in bone marrow has been rarely described in the literature. We describe a 25-year-old male patient who presented with prolonged fever suspected to be of tubercular etiology. Bone marrow examination showed well-formed histiocytic and epithelioid granulomas and erythrophagocytosis; and the bone marrow aspirate culture grew Salmo...

  16. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?★

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi; Hua, Xuming; Hua, Fang; Mao, Wenwei; Wan, Liang; Li, Shiting

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohist...

  17. Late effects on human bone marrow after extended field radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, C.; Morardet, N.; Tubiana, M.

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-two patients with lymphoma were treated by extended radiotherapy (RT) at a dose of 40 Gy and were studied by ferrokinetic studies and surface counting at various times following irradiation. Loss of hematopoietic activity in the irradiated areas is compensated by increased activity in the non-irradiated areas. Despite the return of peripheral blood counts to normal, the hyperactivity of the non-irradiated bone marrow persists over up to 13 years after RT, while the hematopoietic activity of the irradiated areas remains depressed and is only slightly higher than immediately after RT. The hypoactivity persisted even when the hemopoietic tissues had been subjected to the intense stimulation provoked by an aplasia caused by chemotherapy. However, a recovery was observed for dose of 20 Gy or lower. The hemopoietic activity of the irradiated bone marrow appears to be related to the volume of the marrow irradiated and is higher after a mantle + inverted Y field than after a mantle field. Bone marrow scintigraphies with /sup 59/Fe in 7 out of 9 patients studied revealed an extension of hematopoiesis into a normally dormant area of the marrow, such as the femora. In 2 patients an erythropoietic activity was observed in spleens which had received a dose of 40 Gy, and extra medullary erythropoiesis was found in approximately two-thirds of the patients.

  18. Bone regeneration in mandible defect with autograft bone and cell suspension from bone marrow in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the bone regeneration of a "gold standard" (autograft from iliac crest associated with cellular therapy in rabbits. A bone defect was created with 10x5x5mm in 28 rabbit mandibles. The control group animals (n=14 were repaired with autograft of iliac crest and the experimental group animals (n=14 received iliac crest autograft in association with mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of the femur. Weekly radiographs were taken of the surgery region and histological analyses was performed in seven animals in each group at 15 days and in seven animals of each group at 30 days after the surgery. A gradual increase of bone density was observed and the experimental animals presented the bone bridge in 85.7% (6/7 of the cases, while only 42.8% (3/7 of the animals in the control group presented this structure 28 days after the surgery. The histopathological parameters analyzed did not show any statistical difference between the control and experimental group in 15 and 30 days of analysis. The results suggest that the mononuclear cells from the marrow bone can better support the autograft regeneration in mandible defects in rabbits.

  19. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Severe Aplastic Anemia Secondary to Temozolomide

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, E. Brannon; Kasow, Kimberly; Reiss, Ulrike; Ellison, David; Broniscer, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) and concomitant/adjuvant therapy with temozolomide (Temodar) is a common treatment regimen for children and adults with glioma. Although temozolomide is generally well tolerated with temporary myelosuppression as the primary dose-limiting toxicity, irreversible bone-marrow aplasia after treatment with temozolomide has been reported. We report the case of an adolescent patient with a high-grade glioma who, after > 2 years of event-free survival, underwent successful bone marr...

  20. Role of staging bone marrow examination in children with Hodgkin disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, DH; Schreuders, LC; Gresik, MV; McClain, KL

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the value of bone marrow trephine biopsy as part of the clinical staging for children presenting with Hodgkin disease. Patients and Methods, A retrospective study of pre-treatment bone marrow examinations was undertaken to examine the value of bone marrow staging in children wi

  1. Primary bone marrow lymphoma: an uncommon extranodal presentation of aggressive non-hodgkin lymphomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, A.; Ponzoni, M.; Agostinelli, C.; Hebeda, K.M.; Matutes, E.; Peccatori, J.; Campidelli, C.; Espinet, B.; Perea, G.; Acevedo, A.; Mehrjardi, A.Z.; Martinez-Bernal, M.; Gelemur, M.; Zucca, E.; Pileri, S.; Campo, E.; Lopez-Guillermo, A.; Rozman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow involvement by lymphoma is considered a systemic dissemination of the disease arising elsewhere, although some tumors may arise primarily in the bone marrow microenvironment. Primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML) is a rare entity whose real boundaries and clinicobiological significance are

  2. Role of staging bone marrow examination in children with Hodgkin disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, DH; Schreuders, LC; Gresik, MV; McClain, KL

    Purpose. To determine the value of bone marrow trephine biopsy as part of the clinical staging for children presenting with Hodgkin disease. Patients and Methods, A retrospective study of pre-treatment bone marrow examinations was undertaken to examine the value of bone marrow staging in children

  3. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Histone Blood Leukemic bone marrow SRX471...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 TFs and others Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 TFs and others Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 DNase-seq Blood Leukemic bone marrow http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Unclassified Blood Leukemic bone marrow h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 TFs and others Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Histone Blood Leukemic bone marrow SRX471...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 All antigens Blood Leukemic bone marrow S...243 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 DNase-seq Blood Leukemic bone marrow http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 TFs and others Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  16. Bone marrow transplantation reverses new-onset immunoinflammatory diabetes in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cheng-Lan; Wang, Jing; Xie, Ting; Ouyang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation might be an effective method to cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate whether bone marrow transplantation could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and whether high-dose total body irradiation followed by high-dose bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating diabetic mice. Diabetic mice after multiple low doses of streptozotocin injection were irradiated followed by infusion with approximately 1×10(7) bone marrow mononuclear cells intravenously. Before and after bone marrow transplantation, fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, pancreatic histology, and the examination of insulin and glucagon in islets were processed. All recipients returned to near euglycemic within 1 week after undergoing bone marrow transplantation. No mice became hyperglycemia again during investigation period. The change of serum insulin, glucose tolerance test, pancreatic histology and the expression of insulin and glucagon in recipient islets after bone marrow transplantation all revealed islets regeneration and significant amelioration when compared respectively with those of diabetic mice without bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation contributed to reduce blood glucose, prevent further blood glucose hike in diabetic recipients, and promote islets regeneration. High-dose total body irradiation in combination with high-dose bone marrow monoclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  17. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 All antigens Blood Leukemic bone marrow S...261 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Histone Blood Leukemic bone marrow SRX471...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 DNase-seq Blood Leukemic bone marrow http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 All antigens Blood Leukemic bone marrow S...251 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 All antigens Blood Leukemic bone marrow S...243 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Unclassified Blood Leukemic bone marrow h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Unclassified Blood Leukemic bone marrow h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 DNase-seq Blood Leukemic bone marrow http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Histone Blood Leukemic bone marrow SRX471...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Unclassified Blood Leukemic bone marrow h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  7. Mature adipocytes in bone marrow protect myeloma cells against chemotherapy through autophagy activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major problem in patients with multiple myeloma is chemotherapy resistance, which develops in myeloma cells upon interaction with bone marrow stromal cells. However, few studies have determined the role of bone marrow adipocytes, a major component of stromal cells in the bone marrow, in myeloma ch...

  8. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047338,SRX1047346,SRX1047345,SRX1047347,SRX1047348,SRX1047349,SRX1047341 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX06...2947,SRX143852 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Histone Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX306591,SR...RX1156596,SRX1156598,SRX1156595,SRX692969,SRX1156602,SRX692971,SRX306594,SRX306593 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX06...130271,SRX209469,SRX209468,SRX036744,SRX036745 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX1302...72 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047349,SRX1047340,SRX1047339,SRX1047336,SRX1047338,SRX1047332,SRX1047341 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX1302...72 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047349,SRX1047340,SRX1047339,SRX1047336,SRX1047338,SRX1047332,SRX1047341 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047338,SRX1047346,SRX1047345,SRX1047347,SRX1047348,SRX1047349,SRX1047341 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX48...036744,SRX487081,SRX036745,SRX487083,SRX209469 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX48...130271,SRX209469,SRX209468,SRX036744,SRX036745 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047341,SRX1047332,SRX1047346,SRX1047345,SRX1047347,SRX1047349,SRX1047348 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX4870...36746 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX0629...09471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX14...3852,SRX062947 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047340,SRX1047338,SRX1047336,SRX1047332,SRX1047339,SRX1047327,SRX1047341 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX4870...09471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Histone Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX306591,SR...1156598,SRX1156601,SRX1156596,SRX1156602,SRX1156597,SRX1156595,SRX692969,SRX692971 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX14...3852,SRX062947 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX1302...72 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX48...487083,SRX811397,SRX225200,SRX130271,SRX209468 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX1302...72 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Histone Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX1156599,S...SRX692972,SRX1156597,SRX1156595,SRX306594,SRX692971,SRX1156602,SRX692969,SRX306593 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX06...2947,SRX143852 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Histone Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX062946,SR...02,SRX692969,SRX306598,SRX306599,SRX306593,SRX692970,SRX692972,SRX306594,SRX692971 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX4870...36746 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Unclassified Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047340,SRX1047338,SRX1047336,SRX1047332,SRX1047339,SRX1047327,SRX1047341 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 All antigens Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX104...047341,SRX1047332,SRX1047346,SRX1047345,SRX1047347,SRX1047349,SRX1047348 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  3. Correlation of MRI and histomorphological findings in bone marrow oedema syndrome of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedic University Clinic, Vienna (Austria)]|[Bone and Biomaterial Research Lab. of the Histology-Embryology Inst., Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR Inst. of the University, Vienna (Austria); Leder, K. [2. General Dept., Orthopaedic Hospital Speising, Vienna (Austria); Neuhold, A. [Inst. for Imaging Diagnostics, Rudolfinerhaus Hospital, Vienna (Austria); Plenk, H. Jr. [Bone and Biomaterial Research Lab. of the Histology-Embryology Inst., Vienna (Austria); Engel, A. [Orthopaedic University Clinic, Vienna (Austria)

    1993-10-01

    In 15 patients (16 hip joints) we found the clinical and radiological signs of BMOS. On T1-weighted MRI images areas of low signal intensity could be observed in the head, neck and the intertrochanteric region of the femur in various extensions. These areas showed a significant increase in signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. Because pain was resistant to conservative therapy all these patients were treated by core decompression of the femoral head in a prospective study. Bone cores were evaluated histologically using undecalcified sections and quantitative microradiography. The existence of intramedullary oedema in exactly the regions exhibiting the MRI pattern of bone marrow oedema was verified histologically; however, bone and marrow changes similar to those of early avascular necrosis (AVN) were also visible. (orig.)

  4. Bone marrow failure syndromes and refractory cytopenia of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Aalbers (Anna Maartje)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Hematopoiesis, or blood cell production, is sustained through hematopoietic stem cells, which are self-renewing cells that reside in the bone marrow, and that are capable of producing daughter cells that proliferate and mature to provide all adult blood effector cells,

  5. Neurokinin-1 receptor signalling impacts bone marrow repopulation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Berger

    Full Text Available Tachykinins are a large group of neuropeptides with both central and peripheral activity. Despite the increasing number of studies reporting a growth supportive effect of tachykinin peptides in various in vitro stem cell systems, it remains unclear whether these findings are applicable in vivo. To determine how neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R deficient hematopoietic stem cells would behave in a normal in vivo environment, we tested their reconstitution efficiency using competitive bone marrow repopulation assays. We show here that bone marrow taken from NK-1R deficient mice (Tacr1(-/- showed lineage specific B and T cell engraftment deficits compared to wild-type competitor bone marrow cells, providing evidence for an involvement of NK-1R signalling in adult hematopoiesis. Tachykinin knockout mice lacking the peptides SP and/or HK-1 (Tac1 (-/-, Tac4 (-/- and Tac1 (-/-/Tac4 (-/- mice repopulated a lethally irradiated wild-type host with similar efficiency as competing wild-type bone marrow. The difference between peptide and receptor deficient mice indicates a paracrine and/or endocrine mechanism of action rather than autocrine signalling, as tachykinin peptides are supplied by the host environment.

  6. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hao Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution P=0.001, band and segmented cells P=0.021, and lymphoid cells P=0.029 than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78, and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3% followed by respiratory failure (10%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P=0.001 and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P=0.004 megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group, as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P=0.011, were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  7. Increased rejection of murine allogeneic bone marrow in presensitized recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOs, R; deWitte, T; Dillingh, JH; Mauch, PM; Down, JD

    1997-01-01

    The role of presensitizing murine recipients with donor spleen cells prior to T cell-depleted or -repleted H-2 compatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was investigated at two different doses of total body irradiation (TBI). Recipients that were presensitized with 2 x 10(7) irradiated

  8. Successful nonsibling bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøe, K; Skinhøj, P; Andersen, V

    1978-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was diagnosed in a girl immediately after birth; her older brother had SCID and was successfully reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation from his uncle. She was isolated in a laminar air flow bench and decontaminated. The father differed by one HLA...

  9. Therapy Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Xinchun Ye; Jinxia Hu; Guiyun Cui

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve functional outcome after stroke. In this review, we will focus on the protective effects of BMSCs on ischemic brain and the relative molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of BMSCs on stroke.

  10. Pain During Bone Marrow Aspiration: Prevalence and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhelleputte, P.; Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Delforge, M.; Evers, G.; Vanderschueren, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Prevalence, intensity, determinants and prevention of pain during bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in adults are not well defined. In the first part of this prospective study (observational phase), 132 adult hematological patients undergoing BMA after local anesthesia scored the procedural pain by

  11. Archival bone marrow samples: suitable for multiple biomarker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Landsem, Veslemøy M; Rasmussen, Kirsten K; Borst, Louise; Gupta, Ramneek; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Klungland, Helge

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole genome amplification (WGA), multiple marker analysis including 10 short tandem repeats, and finally a comprehensive genotyping of 33,683 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with multiplexed targeted next-generation sequencing. A total of 73 samples from 21 bone marrow smears and 13 bone marrow biopsies from 18 Danish and Norwegian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients were included and compared with corresponding blood samples. Samples were grouped according to the age of sample and whether WGA was performed or not. We found that measurements of DNA concentration after DNA extraction was dependent on detection method and that spectrophotometry overestimated DNA amount compared with fluorometry. In the short tandem repeat analysis, detection rate dropped slightly with longer fragments. After WGA, this drop was more pronounced. Samples stored for 0 to 3 years showed better results compared with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP analysis seems feasible, but the method has to be further optimized.

  12. A Role For Photodynamic Therapy In Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Fritz

    1988-02-01

    Simultaneous exposure to the amphipathic fluorescent dye merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and light of a suitable wavelength rapidly kills leukemia, lymphoma, and neuroblastoma cells but spares normal pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Tests in several preclinical models and early results of a phase I clinical trial suggest that MC 540-mediated photosensitization may be useful for the extracorporeal purging of autologous remission bone marrow grafts.

  13. Pain During Bone Marrow Aspiration: Prevalence and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhelleputte, P.; Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Delforge, M.; Evers, G.; Vanderschueren, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Prevalence, intensity, determinants and prevention of pain during bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in adults are not well defined. In the first part of this prospective study (observational phase), 132 adult hematological patients undergoing BMA after local anesthesia scored the procedural pain by m

  14. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  15. Bone marrow dysfunction in chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Voors, Adriaan A.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schuringa, Jan J.; Klinkenberg, Theo; van der Harst, Pim; Vellenga, Edo; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with a general dysfunction of the haematopoietic compartment. Bone marrow was obtained during coronary artery bypass graft surgery from 20 patients with CHF (age 67 +/- 6 years, 75% NYHA class >= III, LVEF 32 +/- 6%), and 20 age- and g

  16. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Shree

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health. So far, the chemical stimulation of bone marrow has been widely used employing injection of colony stimulating factor. However, the role of physical factors such as mechanical stimulation and stretching has not been substantiated. It is claimed that practicing yoga delays senescence, improves the physiological functions of heart and lung and yoga postures make the body elastic. It remains to be seen whether the yoga therapy promotes trafficking of the stem cells from bone marrow for possible repair and regeneration of worn out and degenerating tissues. We cover in this short review, mainly the role of physical factors especially the yoga therapy on stem cells trafficking from bone marrow.

  17. Atypical diabetes mellitus associated with bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tor, Ozlem; Garg, Rajesh K

    2010-01-01

    To describe 3 cases of atypical diabetes mellitus following bone marrow transplantation. We describe the clinical presentation and relevant laboratory findings of 3 patients who presented with new-onset diabetes mellitus after bone marrow transplantation and discuss the possible mechanisms. A 52-year-old white man with chronic myelogenous leukemia, a 51-year-old white woman with acute myelogenous leukemia, and a 38-year-old Hispanic woman with acute myelogenous leukemia presented with acute onset of diabetes mellitus after bone marrow transplantation. Although blood glucose levels were initially very high, the patients required only small insulin dosages for glycemic control. Both the acute onset and requirement of relatively small insulin dosages were characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Onset of diabetes appeared to be unrelated to immunosuppressive drug therapy because it happened several months after starting these drugs. C-peptide was detectable, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies were absent. Diabetes mellitus remitted spontaneously after a few months while the immunosuppressive drugs were continued. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown, cytokine changes after bone marrow transplantation may have led to temporary beta-cell dysfunction in these patients.

  18. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Nitya; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health. So far, the chemical stimulation of bone marrow has been widely used employing injection of colony stimulating factor. However, the role of physical factors such as mechanical stimulation and stretching has not been substantiated. It is claimed that practicing yoga delays senescence, improves the physiological functions of heart and lung and yoga postures make the body elastic. It remains to be seen whether the yoga therapy promotes trafficking of the stem cells from bone marrow for possible repair and regeneration of worn out and degenerating tissues. We cover in this short review, mainly the role of physical factors especially the yoga therapy on stem cells trafficking from bone marrow. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng;

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-te...

  20. HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    Institute NIH National Institutes of Health NK Natural Killer NLM National Library of Medicine NMDP National Marrow Donor Program OCR /ICR...the underlying biology and medicine of ARS. A training course, NMDP Basic Radiation Training (BRT) course, was created and distributed to physicians...Rio de Janeiro Biology : • Introduction to Radiation Biology : Michael Robbins, Ph.D. - Wake Forest University School of Medicine • Biodosimetry

  1. Interpretation of bone marrow aspiration in hematological disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pudasaini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hematological disorders are quite frequent in all age group. Most of this hematological disorder first present as anemia. Bone Marrow Aspiration plays a major role in the diagnosis of its underlying cause. The aim of this study was to analyze the causes of hematological disorders, its spectrum and to interprete the bone marrow aspiration findings.Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective and prospective study carried out in the department of Pathology of Nepal Medical College in a period of two years. (July 2010 - June 2012. Bone marrow examination of 57 cases of suspected hematological disorders was carried out. All details of the patients were obtained from the record file in the department of pathology.Results: Out of 57 cases of bone marrow aspiration, erythroid hyperplasia was seen in 12 cases (21%. Megaloblastic anemia was seen in 7 cases (12.3% and microcytic anemia was seen in 4 cases (7%. There were 6 cases (10.5% of Idiopathic Thrombocypenic Purpura. Acute leukemia was diagnosed in 7 cases (12.3% and among this acute myeloid leukemia (10.5% was more common than acute lymphoid leukemia (1.8%. Myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma was seen in 3.5 % cases each. Aplastic anemia and kalaazar was seen in 5.3% and 1.8% cases respectively.Conclusion: Bone marrow examination is an important step to arrive at the confirmatory diagnosis of many hematological disorders.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 309-312DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6885

  2. Successful bone marrow transplantation in a patient with DNA ligase IV deficiency and bone marrow failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechtold Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA Ligase IV deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations in the DNA ligase IV gene (LIG4. The clinical phenotype shows overlap with a number of other rare syndromes, including Seckel syndrome, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and Fanconi anemia. Thus the clinical diagnosis is often delayed and established by exclusion. Methods We describe a patient with pre- and postnatal growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features in whom the diagnoses of Seckel-, Dubowitz-, and Nijmegen breakage syndrome were variably considered. Cellular radiosensitivity in the absence of clinical manifestations of Ataxia telangiectasia lead to the diagnosis of DNA ligase IV (LIG4 deficiency syndrome, confirmed by compound heterozygous mutations in the LIG4 gene. At age 11, after a six year history of progressive bone marrow failure and increasing transfusion dependency the patient was treated with matched sibling donor hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT using a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen without irradiation. Results The post-transplantation course was uneventful with rapid engraftment leading to complete and stable chimerism. Now at age 16, the patient has gained weight and is in good clinical condition. Conclusion HSCT using mild conditioning without irradiation qualifies as treatment of choice in LIG4-deficient patients who have a matched sibling donor.

  3. Bone marrow involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: correlation between FDG-PET uptake and type of cellular infiltrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paone, Gaetano; Itti, Emmanuel; Lin, Chieh; Meignan, Michel [Universite Paris 12, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Creteil (France); Haioun, Corinne; Dupuis, Jehan [Universite Paris 12, Department of Clinical Haematology, Hopital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Creteil (France); Gaulard, Philippe [Universite Paris 12, Department of Pathology, Hopital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Creteil (France); Universite Paris 12, INSERM U841, Hopital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Creteil (France)

    2009-05-15

    To assess, in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), whether the low sensitivity of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for bone marrow assessment may be explained by histological characteristics of the cellular infiltrate. From a prospective cohort of 110 patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma, 21 patients with DLBCL had bone marrow involvement. Pretherapeutic FDG-PET images were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively, then correlated with the type of cellular infiltrate and known prognostic factors. Of these 21 patients, 7 (33%) had lymphoid infiltrates with a prominent component of large transformed lymphoid cells (concordant bone marrow involvement, CBMI) and 14 (67%) had lymphoid infiltrates composed of small cells (discordant bone marrow involvement, DBMI). Only 10 patients (48%) had abnormal bone marrow FDG uptake, 6 of the 7 with CBMI and 4 of the 14 with DBMI. Therefore, FDG-PET positivity in the bone marrow was significantly associated with CBMI, while FDG-PET negativity was associated with DBMI (Fisher's exact test, p=0.024). There were no significant differences in gender, age and overall survival between patients with CBMI and DBMI, while the international prognostic index was significantly higher in patients with CBMI. Our study suggests that in patients with DLBCL with bone marrow involvement bone marrow FDG uptake depends on two types of infiltrate, comprising small (DBMI) or large (CBMI) cells. This may explain the apparent low sensitivity of FDG-PET previously reported for detecting bone marrow involvement. (orig.)

  4. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells during anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM : Bone marrow derived cell in GBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jennifer C.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor characterized by rapid and invasive tumor growth, followed by oxygen depletion, hypoxia and neovascularization, which generate a network of disorganized, tortuous and permeable vessels. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) is crucial for vascu

  5. Neonatal Bone Marrow Transplantation in MPS IIIA Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Adeline A; Shamsani, N Jannah; Winner, Leanne K; Hassiotis, Sofia; King, Barbara M; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with some neurological lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) exhibit improved clinical signs following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The failure of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIA patients and adult mice with the condition to respond to this treatment may relate to factors such as impaired migration of donor-derived cells into the brain, insufficient enzyme production and/or secretion by the donor-derived microglial cells, or the age at which treatment is initiated. To explore these possibilities, we treated neonatal MPS IIIA mice with whole unfractionated bone marrow and observed that nucleated blood cell reconstitution occurred to a similar degree in MPS IIIA mice receiving green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing normal (treatment group) or MPS IIIA-GFP marrow (control group) and normal mice receiving normal-GFP marrow (control group). Further, similar distribution patterns of GFP(+) normal or MPS IIIA donor-derived cells were observed throughout the MPS IIIA mouse brain. We demonstrate that N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH), the enzyme deficient in MPS IIIA, is produced and secreted in a manner proportional to that of other lysosomal enzymes. However, despite this, overall brain SGSH activity was unchanged in MPS IIIA mice treated with normal marrow and the lysosomal storage burden in whole brain homogenates did not decrease, most likely due to donor-derived cells comprising MPS IIIA patients and mice to respond to BMT may occur as a result of insufficient donor-derived enzyme production and/or uptake by host brain cells.

  6. Stem cell niche failure concerns bone marrow failure--a diagnostic and therapeutic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sujata; Chaudhuri, Samaresh

    2011-01-01

    Diseases of the bone marrow often referred to as "Bone marrow failure" have complicated pathophysiological picture with respect to hematopoietic systemic function. The reason for such bone marrow disorder is not well understood till date, although some sporadic etiological sources have been described earlier. With the advent of current investigations, hematopoietic stem cell involvement together with the failure of signaling interaction within the bone marrow niche has been found to reveal interesting correlations with the disease onset. The present review furnishes justification for bone marrow failure as a concern of stem cell niche failure and hints at providing important clues for disease diagnosis and therapeutic maneuver.

  7. Bone marrow cells produce nerve growth factor and promote angiogenesis around transplanted islets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoaki; Sakata; Nathaniel; K; Chan; John; Chrisler; Andre; Obenaus; Eba; Hathout

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the mechanism by which bone marrow cells promote angiogenesis around transplanted islets.METHODS: Streptozotocin induced diabetic BALB/ c mice were transplanted syngeneically under the kidney capsule with the following: (1) 200 islets (islet group: n=12), (2) 1-5×106 bone marrow cells (bone marrow group: n=11), (3) 200 islets and 1-5×106 bone marrow cells (islet + bone marrow group: n= 13), or (4) no cells (sham group:n=5). All mice were evaluated for blood glucose, serum insulin, serum nerve...

  8. Antibody formation by bone marrow cells in irradiated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfair, J. H. L.; Purves, Elizabeth C.

    1971-01-01

    Bone marrow-thymus cooperation experiments were carried out in lethally irradiated mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen and direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) as the end point. Various parameters were altered, with the following results: (1) Above 800 rad, the response by marrow cells alone, as well as the increase due to added thymus cells, was independent of irradiation dose. (2) The response of marrow cells was greatest at high SRBC concentrations, but the co-operative effect of thymus cells was most evident at lower SRBC levels, and completely absent at high levels. (3) Increasing the number of marrow cells, without thymus, gave increasing numbers of PFC, but the dose-response curve did not suggest cell synergism. (4) Thymectomy and antithymocyte serum treatment of host or donor did not prevent the response by marrow cells alone. It was concluded that this was a true IgM response by antibody-forming precursors from the marrow, unaided by thymus-derived cells. PMID:4934135

  9. MR analysis of sternal bone marrow using STIR in hematologic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, Eito [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity pattern of sternal bone marrow was examined in 21 normal volunteers and 10 patients with aplastic anemia (n=4), multiple myeloma (2), AML (2), gammaglobulinemia (1) and MDS (1) using a sagittal STIR sequence. Double Echo STIR images (TR/TI/TE/NEX=2000/180/20, 100/1) were obtained with a CP body array coil. Craniocaudal phase-encoding with a handmade positioning device effectively avoided overlapping artifacts due to cardiac pulsation. In the normal volunteers, age showed a significant inverse correlation with the calculated SIR (signal intensity ratio of bone marrow relative to subcutaneous fat) using STIR with short TE. The SIR in the sternal body was significantly higher than that in the manubrium (p<0.05). Knowledge of the sternal bone marrow distribution according to age is useful for evaluating hematologic diseases. The proposed method provided high spatial resolution and an excellent bone marrow signal, and may be useful for determining site for aspiration. (author)

  10. Mouse basophils reside in extracellular matrix-enriched bone marrow niches which control their motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaniotto, Salete; Schneider, Elke; Goudin, Nicolas; Bricard-Rignault, Rachel; Machavoine, François; Dardenne, Mireille; Dy, Michel; Savino, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Basophils co-express FcεRIα and CD49b, the α-2 chain of integrin-type receptor VLA-2 (α2β1), which recognizes type-1 collagen as a major natural ligand. The physiological relevance of this integrin for interactions with extracellular bone marrow matrix remains unknown. Herein, we examined the expression of several receptors of this family by bone marrow-derived basophils sorted either ex-vivo or after culture with IL-3. Having established that both populations display CD49d, CD49e and CD49f (α-4, α-5 and α-6 integrins subunits, respectively), we addressed receptor functions by measuring migration, adhesion, proliferation and survival after interacting with matched natural ligands. Type I collagen, laminin and fibronectin promoted basophil migration/adhesion, the former being the most effective. None of these ligands affected basophil viability and expansion. Interactions between basophils and extracellular matrix are likely to play a role in situ, as supported by confocal 3D cell imaging of femoral bone marrow sections, which revealed basophils exclusively in type-1 collagen-enriched niches that contained likewise laminin and fibronectin. This is the first evidence for a structure/function relationship between basophils and extracellular matrix proteins inside the mouse bone marrow.

  11. Mouse basophils reside in extracellular matrix-enriched bone marrow niches which control their motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Smaniotto

    Full Text Available Basophils co-express FcεRIα and CD49b, the α-2 chain of integrin-type receptor VLA-2 (α2β1, which recognizes type-1 collagen as a major natural ligand. The physiological relevance of this integrin for interactions with extracellular bone marrow matrix remains unknown. Herein, we examined the expression of several receptors of this family by bone marrow-derived basophils sorted either ex-vivo or after culture with IL-3. Having established that both populations display CD49d, CD49e and CD49f (α-4, α-5 and α-6 integrins subunits, respectively, we addressed receptor functions by measuring migration, adhesion, proliferation and survival after interacting with matched natural ligands. Type I collagen, laminin and fibronectin promoted basophil migration/adhesion, the former being the most effective. None of these ligands affected basophil viability and expansion. Interactions between basophils and extracellular matrix are likely to play a role in situ, as supported by confocal 3D cell imaging of femoral bone marrow sections, which revealed basophils exclusively in type-1 collagen-enriched niches that contained likewise laminin and fibronectin. This is the first evidence for a structure/function relationship between basophils and extracellular matrix proteins inside the mouse bone marrow.

  12. Bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride. A clinical value for the hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-10-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride (/sup 111/In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific.

  13. Bronchiolitis obliterans after allogenic bone marrow transplantation: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jung Im; Jung, Won Sang; Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee [St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Chang Ki; Kim, Chun Choo [College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To evaluate the high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). During the past three years, 11 patients were diagnosed as having BO after BMT when they developed irreversible air flow obstruction, with an FEV{sub 1} value of less than 80% of the baseline value, without any clinical evidence of infection. All 11 patients underwent HRCT, of whom eight also underwent follow-up HRCT. The HRCT images were assessed retrospectively for the presence of decreased lung attenuation, segmental or subsegmental bronchial dilatation, diminution of peripheral vascularity, centrilobular nodules, and branching linear structure on the inspiratory images. The lobar distribution of the decreased lung attenuation and bronchial dilatation was also examined. The presence of air trapping was investigated on the expiratory images. The interval changes of the HRCT findings were evaluated in those patients who had follow-up images. Abnormal HRCT findings were present in all cases; the most common abnormalities were decreased lung attenuation (n=11), subsegmental bronchial dilatation (n=6), diminution of peripheral vascularity (n=6), centrilobular nodules or branching linear structure (n=3), and segmental bronchial dilatation (n=3). Expiratory air trapping was noted in all patients. The decreased lung attenuation and bronchial dilatations were more frequent or extensive in the lower lobes. Interval changes were found in all patients with follow-up HRCT: increased extent of decreased lung attenuation (n=7); newly developed or progressed bronchial dilatation (n=4); and increased lung volume (n=3). HRCT scans are abnormal in patients with BO, with the most commonly observed finding being areas of decreased lung attenuation. While the HRCT findings are not specific, it is believed that their common features can assist in the diagnosis of BO in BMT recipients.

  14. Bone marrow aplasia in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: successful treatment with antithymocyte globulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Singal, R; Winfield, D A; Greaves, M.

    1991-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is a rare but well known association of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Pancytopenia due to bone marrow aplasia has not been previously described in CLL. A 42 year old man with B cell CLL became severely pancytopenic with bone marrow aplasia. Bone marrow culture resulted in a greatly reduced colony formation. High dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were unsuccessful. Prompt and complete marrow recovery ensued after administration of antith...

  15. CXCR2 modulates bone marrow vascular repair and haematopoietic recovery post-transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah J M; Hale, Ashley B H; Zhang, Youyi; Sweeney, Dominic; Fisher, Nita; van der Garde, Mark; Grabowska, Rita; Pepperell, Emma; Channon, Keith; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Watt, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Murine models of bone marrow transplantation show that pre-conditioning regimens affect the integrity of the bone marrow endothelium and that the repair of this vascular niche is an essential pre-requisite for successful haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell engraftment. Little is known about the angiogenic pathways that play a role in the repair of the human bone marrow vascular niche. We therefore established an in vitro humanized model, composed of bone marrow stromal and endothelial cells and have identified several pro-angiogenic factors, VEGFA, ANGPT1, CXCL8 and CXCL16, produced by the stromal component of this niche. We demonstrate for the first time that addition of CXCL8 or inhibition of its receptor, CXCR2, modulates blood vessel formation in our bone marrow endothelial niche model. Compared to wild type, Cxcr2(-/-) mice displayed a reduction in bone marrow cellularity and delayed platelet and leucocyte recovery following myeloablation and bone marrow transplantation. The delay in bone marrow recovery correlated with impaired bone marrow vascular repair. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CXCR2 regulates bone marrow blood vessel repair/regeneration and haematopoietic recovery, and clinically may be a therapeutic target for improving bone marrow transplantation.

  16. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  17. The Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Quantification of Liver, Pancreas, Spleen, Vertebral Bone Marrow, and Renal Cortex R2* and Proton Density Fat Fraction in Transfusion-Related Iron Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İdilman, İlkay S; Gümrük, Fatma; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-03-05

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of quantification of liver, pancreas, spleen, vertebral bone marrow, and renal cortex R2* and magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) and to evaluate the correlations among them in patients with transfusion-related iron overload. A total of 9 patients (5 boys, 4 girls) who were referred to our clinic with suspicion of hepatic iron overload were included in this study. All patients underwent T1-independent volumetric multi-echo gradient-echo imaging with T2* correction and spectral fat modeling. MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5 T MRI system. All patients had hepatic iron overload. Severe hepatic iron overload was recorded in 5/9 patients (56%), and when we evaluated the PDFF maps of these patients, we observed an extensive patchy artifact in the liver in 4 of 5 patients (R2* greater than 671 Hz). When we performed MRI-PDFF measurements despite these artifacts, we observed artifactual high MRI-PDFF values. There was a close correlation between average pancreas R2* and average pancreas MRI-PDFF (p=0.003, r=0.860). There was a significant correlation between liver R2* and average pancreas R2* (p=0.021, r=0.747), liver R2* and renal cortex R2* (p=0.020, r=0.750), and average pancreas R2* and renal cortex R2* (p=0.003, r=0.858). There was a significant negative correlation between vertebral bone marrow R2* and age (p=0.018, r=-0.759). High iron content of the liver, especially with a T2* value shorter than the first echo time can spoil the efficacy of PDFF calculation. Fat deposition in the pancreas is accompanied by pancreatic iron overload. There is a significant correlation between hepatic siderosis and pancreatic siderosis. Renal cortical and pancreatic siderosis are correlated, too.

  18. Panax notoginseng saponins mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibit marrow adiposity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing-Zheng; Wang, Yi; Meng, Yan; Li, Guan-Wu; Chang, Shi-Xin; Nian, Hua; Liang, Yong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Previous data have suggested that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) can prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by dual action: stimulation of new bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. Marrow adipogenesis has been identified as a negative indicator of skeletal strength and integrity. This study assessed the effects of early PNS supplementation on bone microarchitecture preservation and marrow fat content in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups for 12 weeks of treatment: (1) sham operation (SHAM) + vehicle; (2) ovariectomy (OVX) + vehicle; (3) OVX + 17β-estradiol (25 μg/kg); (4) OVX + PNS (300 mg/kg/d, PO). Marrow fat content of the femur was determined, using fat/water magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks after operation. At the end of the experiment, bone turnover, trabecular microarchitecture, and marrow adipocytes were assessed by serum biomarkers, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histopathology, respectively. The effects of PNS on adipocytic differentiation were reflected by expression levels of the adipogenic genes PPARγ2 and C/EBPα, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Ovariectomized rats experienced remarkable increases in marrow fat content across time points, which were accompanied by elevated rate of bone turnover, global volumetric bone density, and trabecular microarchitecture deterioration. These OVX-induced pathological changes are reversible in that most of them could be mostly corrected upon 17β-estradiol treatment. PNS treatment significantly reduced marrow adipogenesis (adipocyte density, -27.2%; size, -22.7%; adipocyte volume-to-tissue volume ratio, -53.3%; all P bone mass loss and microarchitecture deterioration. Moreover, PNS enhanced osteoblast activity but suppressed osteoclast turnover, as evidenced by decreased levels of serum C-terminal telopeptides of type

  19. Calcific tendinitis of the gluteus medius tendon with bone marrow edema mimicking metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor (United States); Hayes, Curtis W. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor (United States); Taubman Clinic, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Biermann, Sybil J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-06-01

    A case of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus medius is presented. This report describes a patient with a history of breast cancer who had the combination of amorphous calcifications in the gluteus medius tendon and the MR finding of conspicuous bone marrow edema in the adjacent greater trochanter, prompting concern for metastatic disease. We present images from radiography, bone scanning, CT, and MR imaging. The unusual combination of findings in these studies should be considered conclusive for calcific tendinitis, and should not be confused with malignancy. (orig.)

  20. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  1. Correlation of T1 and T2 relaxation rates in normal bone-marrow water with serum ferritin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, H. [Tano General Hospital, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Radiology]|[Gunma Univ. Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ishijima, H. [Gunma Univ. Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-11-01

    Purpose: This study was made to clarify the paramagnetic effect of iron stored in the hematopoietic tissue of bone marrow. Material and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of bone-marrow water in the L1-3 vertebrae of 20 healthy individuals were measured by MR imaging with a 1.5 T magnet. The chemical shift misregistration effect was used to isolate the bone-marrow water. The results were compared with the serum ferritin concentration. Results and Conclusion: Although no correlation between the T1 relaxation rate of the water fraction and the serum ferritin concentration was evident, the T2 relaxation rate of the water fraction showed strong linear correlation with the serum ferritin concentration (r=0.87, p<0.001). Thus, T2 of bone-marrow water accurately reflects the amount of iron in normal bone marrow. This finding may be useful in the evaluation of the characteristics of hematopoietic tissue in bone marrow. (orig.).

  2. Abdominal complications in pediatric bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D L; Carpenter, B L

    1993-09-01

    Abdominal problems and catastrophes often complicate the clinical course after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children. These complications can be grouped into categories of infection, chemotherapy and radiation toxicity, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), recurrent or de novo malignancy, and miscellaneous complications and can involve the hepatobiliary system, pancreas, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary tract. Infection is common after BMT: the causative organism depends on the changing immunologic state of the recipient and even on environmental factors such as recent construction, humidity, and antibiotic use. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease, pancreatitis, nephritis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. GVHD is a process in which donor lymphoid cells produce damage to recipient target organs, especially skin, liver, and intestinal mucosa. Recurrent or de novo disease or malignancies, particularly B-cell lymphomas, may develop in chronically immunocompromised children. Other problems include stone disease, splenic and renal infarction, and complications of hyperalimentation therapy. Abdominal imaging, including plain radiography, contrast material-enhanced studies of the bowel, real-time and duplex sonography, and computed tomography, is essential in diagnosing these problems and evaluating response to therapy.

  3. Splenic hemochromatosis incidentally found on Tc-99m MDP bone scan in a chronic myelogenous leukemia patient who received bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    Tc-99m MDP bone scan was performed to evaluate a generalized bone pain in a 24-year-old male chronic myelogenous leukemia patient who received bone marrow transplantation at 7 months ago. The patient had received large amounts of blood transfusion for managing symptoms related to anemia. Bone scan revealed substantial splenic tracer uptake. Magnetic resonance image and laboratory evidence of hemochromatosis suggests that the presence of large quantities of iron in the spleen of this patient may have been responsible for the splenic uptake of the bone scanning agent. The authors report a c ase of splenic hemochromatosis incidentally found on Tc-99m MDP bone scan.

  4. Use of gene marking in bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, H E; Rooney, C M; Rill, D R; Krance, R A; Brenner, M K

    1996-01-01

    We have used gene marking to investigate the mechanism of relapse and biology of reconstitution following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The rationale for our initial protocols was to learn if residual malignant cells in autologous marrow contribute to subsequent relapse. Marked malignant cells were found at the time of relapse in 6/8 patients relapsing after autologous BMT for AML or neuroblastoma showing the infused marrow contributed to disease recurrence. Modifications of this marker approach with two distinguishable vectors are now being used to compare the efficacy of purging techniques. We were also able to evaluate gene transfer to normal progenitors and demonstrated that the marker gene was expressed for up to 36 months. Gene marking is also being used to trace the fate of EBV-specific CTLs that we are administering to recipients of allogeneic BMT and has provided evidence of persistence of adoptively transferred CTL for up to 10 months.

  5. Discoidin Receptor 2 Controls Bone Formation and Marrow Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chunxi; Wang, Zhengyan; Zhao, Guisheng; Li, Binbin; Liao, Jinhui; Sun, Hanshi; Franceschi, Renny T

    2016-12-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play major roles in controlling progenitor cell fate and differentiation. The receptor tyrosine kinase, discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), is an important mediator of interactions between cells and fibrillar collagens. DDR2 signals through both ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase, which stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here we show that DDR2 is critical for skeletal development and differentiation of marrow progenitor cells to osteoblasts while suppressing marrow adipogenesis. Smallie mice (Ddr2(slie/slie) ), which contain a nonfunctional Ddr2 allele, have multiple skeletal defects. A progressive decrease in tibial trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) was observed when wild-type (WT), Ddr2(wt/slie) , and Ddr2(slie/slie) mice were compared. These changes were associated with reduced trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) in both males and females, but reduced cortical thickness only in Ddr2(slie/slie) females. Bone changes were attributed to decreased bone formation rather than increased osteoclast activity. Significantly, marrow fat and adipocyte-specific mRNA expression were significantly elevated in Ddr2(slie/slie) animals. Additional skeletal defects include widened calvarial sutures and reduced vertebral trabecular bone. To examine the role of DDR2 signaling in cell differentiation, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were grown under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions. Ddr2(slie/slie) cells exhibited defective osteoblast differentiation and accelerated adipogenesis. Changes in differentiation were related to activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and PPARγ, transcription factors that are both controlled by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation. Specifically, the defective osteoblast differentiation in calvarial cells from Ddr2(slie/slie) mice was associated with reduced ERK/MAP kinase and RUNX2-S319 phosphorylation and could

  6. Increased bone marrow adiposity in a context of energy deficit: the tip of the iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Ghali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elevated bone marrow adiposity is defined as an increase in the proportion of the bone marrow cavity volume occupied by adipocytes. This can be caused by an increase in the size and/or number of adipocytes. Bone marrow adiposity increases with age in a bone-site-specific manner. This increase may be linked to certain pathophysiological situations. Osteoporosis or compromised bone quality is frequently associated with high bone marrow adiposity. The involvement of bone marrow adipocytes in bone loss may be due to commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipogenic pathway rather than the osteogenic pathway. However, adipocytes may also act on their microenvironment by secreting factors with harmful effects for the bone health. Here, we review evidence that in a context of energy deficit (such as anorexia nervosa and restriction rodent models bone alterations can occur in the absence of an increase in bone marrow adiposity. In severe cases, bone alterations are even associated with gelatinous bone marrow transformation. The relationship between bone marrow adiposity and energy deficit, and the potential regulators of this adiposity in this context are also discussed. On the basis of clinical studies and preliminary results on animal model we propose that competition between differentiation into osteoblasts and differentiation into adipocytes might trigger bone loss at least in moderate-to severe anorexia nervosa and in some calorie restriction models. Finally, some of the main questions resulting from this hypothesis are discussed.

  7. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  8. Bone marrow uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in patients with multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonti, R. [Medicina Nucleare, Facolta di Medicina, Univ. Federico II, Naples (Italy); Centro per la Medicina Nucleare C.N.R., Cattedra di Medicina Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Del Vecchio, S.; Zannetti, A.; Di Gennaro, F.; Pace, L.; Salvatore, M. [Centro per la Medicina Nucleare C.N.R., Cattedra di Medicina Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); De Renzo, A.; Catalano, L.; Califano, C.; Rotoli, B. [Cattedra di Ematologia, Dipt. di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Napoli (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In a previous study, we showed the ability of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI) scan to identify active disease in patients with multiple myeloma (Eur J Nucl Med 1998; 25: 714-720). In particular, a semiquantitative score of the extension and intensity of bone marrow uptake was derived and correlated with both the clinical status of the disease and plasma cell bone marrow infiltration. In order to estimate quantitatively {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI bone marrow uptake and to verify the intracellular localization of the tracer, bone marrow samples obtained from 24 multiple myeloma patients, three patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and two healthy donors were studied for in vitro uptake. After centrifugation over Ficoll-Hypaque gradient, cell suspensions were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and the uptake was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity specifically retained within the cells. The cellular localization of the tracer was assessed by micro-autoradiography. Twenty-two out of 27 patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scan within a week of bone marrow sampling. Whole-body images were obtained 10 min after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of the tracer; the extension and intensity of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake were graded using the semiquantitative score. A statistically significant correlation was found between in vitro uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and both plasma cell infiltration (Pearson's coefficient of correlation r=0.69, P<0.0001) and in vivo score (Spearman rank correlation coefficient r=0.60, P<0.01). No specific tracer uptake was found in bone marrow samples obtained from the two healthy donors. Micro-autoradiography showed localization of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI inside the plasma cells infiltrating the bone marrow. Therefore, our findings show that the degree of tracer uptake both in vitro and in vivo is related to the percentage of infiltrating plasma cells which accumulate the tracer in their inner

  9. Bone marrow hypoplasia associated with fenbendazole administration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Anthony T; Kerl, Marie E; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Turnquist, Susan E; Cohn, Leah A

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old Doberman pinscher was presented with sudden-onset of fever and malaise. Twelve days prior to presentation, fenbendazole therapy was initiated for a suspected lungworm infection. Results of a complete blood count on presentation showed pancytopenia, while histopathological evaluation of a bone marrow core sample revealed bone marrow hypoplasia of undetermined etiology. Bactericidal antibiotics and fluid therapy, as well as discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, led to a complete resolution of clinical and hematological abnormalities within 15 days. An idiosyncratic reaction to fenbendazole was suspected based on the absence of infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, and toxic etiologies, as well as resolution of clinical signs and pancytopenia upon drug withdrawal.

  10. Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells to Neural Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To explore the possibility and condition of differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) to neural cells in vitro, BMSCs from whole bone marrow of rats were cultured. The BMSCs of passage 3 were identified with immunocytochemical staining of CD44 ( + ), CD71 ( + )and CD45(-). There were type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells in BMSCs. Type Ⅰ BMSCs were spindleshaped and strong positive in immunocytochemical staining of CD44 and CD71, whereas flat and big type Ⅱ BMSCs were lightly stained. The BMSCs of same passage were induced to differentiate into neural cells by β-mercaptoethanol (BME). After induction by BME, the type Ⅰ BMSCs withdrew to form neuron-like round soma and axon-like and dendrite-like processes, and were stained positively for neurofilament (NF). The type Ⅱ BMSCs did not change in the BME medium and were negatively or slightly stained of NF.

  11. Bone Marrow Stem Cell as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The chronic hyperglycemia damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Curative therapies mainly include diet, insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, these therapies fail to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range all the time. Although pancreas or islet-cell transplantation achieves better glucose control, a major obstacle is the shortage of donor organs. Recently, research has focused on stem cells which can be classified into embryonic stem cells (ESCs and tissue stem cells (TSCs to generate functional β cells. TSCs include the bone-marrow-, liver-, and pancreas-derived stem cells. In this review, we focus on treatment using bone marrow stem cells for type 1 and 2 DM.

  12. Juvenile xanthogranuloma with clonal proliferation in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mały, Ewa; Przyborska, Marta; Rybczyńska, Aleksandra; Konatkowska, Benigna; Nowak, Jerzy; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2012-04-01

    The triple association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and neurofibromatosis was described in literature in about 20 cases. In this paper, the case of an 11-month-old infant boy with a disseminated JXG with unusual cytogenetic representation in the bone marrow was reported. Neurofibromatosis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were excluded, just the same as other leukemias. Bone marrow and peripheral blood cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype with many rearrangements 46,XY,-6,der(12)t(6;12)(p21;p13),del(7)(p13p22),+9 once described in the literature as a B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia case. On the contrary, in our patient immunologic testing demonstrated a high activity of T lymphocytes, however, inflammation was excluded. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of systemic JXG with determined karyotype representing unusual chromosomal aberrations.

  13. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

  14. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  15. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  16. Neuromyelitis optica in an adolescent after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Fiona M; Kamihara, Junne; Gorman, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system complications of bone marrow transplant are a common occurrence and the differential diagnosis is quite broad, including opportunistic infections, medications toxicities, graft versus host disease, and other autoimmune processes. We summarize previously reported cases of autoimmune myelitis in post-transplant patients and discuss a 17-year-old boy who presented with seronegative neuromyelitis optica after a bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. Our patient had a marked improvement in symptoms after plasmapheresis. Including our patient, there have been at least eight cases of post-transplant autoimmune myelitis presented in the literature, and at least three of these are suspicious for neuromyelitis optica. Several of these patients had poor outcomes with persistent symptoms after the myelitis. Autoimmune processes such as neuromyelitis optica should be carefully considered in patients after transplant as aggressive treatment like early plasmapheresis may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organotins Are Potent Activators of PPARγ and Adipocyte Differentiation in Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow is potentially deleterious to both bone integrity and lymphopoiesis. Here, we examine the hypothesis that organotins, common environmental contaminants that are dual ligands for peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), are potent activators of bone marrow adipogenesis. A C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) line, BMS2, was treated with rosiglitazo...

  18. [Analysis of neoplasm metastases to the bone marrow in patients with lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziecioł, J; Kemona, A; Sulik, M; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Sulkowski, S; Ostapiuk, H; Pasztaleniec, L; Deregowski, K

    1989-04-01

    The authors analysed bone marrow metastases in lung cancer in 104 deceased patients. Trepano-biopsy was taken from the sternum, hip bone and spine. Bone marrow metastases were found in 33 cases (31.73%). Most often they were seen in small cell lung cancer (16 cases--35.56%). In 12 cases the bone marrow was the only site of lung cancer metastases.

  19. In Vivo Osteoinductive Effect and In Vitro Isolation and Cultivation Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Redžić, Amira; Smajilagić, Amer; Aljičević, Mufida; Berberović, Ljubomir

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow contains cell type termed Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC), first recognized in bone marrow by a German pathologist, Julius Cohnheim in 1867. That MSCs have potential to differentiate in vitro in to the various cells lines as osteoblast, chondroblast, myoblast and adipoblast cells lines. Aims of our study were to show in vivo capacity of bone marrow MSC to produce bone in surgically created non critical size mandible defects New Zeeland Rabbits, and then in second part of study to iso...

  20. Navigating Survival: Quality of Life Following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Identification of factors which detract from survivors quality of life can enable nurses to modify or prevent morbidity to improve the outcomes for... prevent infections have focused on using various forms of protective isolation, and prophylactic antibiotic therapy. These advances have increased the...successfully treated with BMT include disorders of the bone marrow stem cells. Patient’s with aplastic anemia, Falconi’s anemia, thalassemia , and sickle

  1. Bone marrow transplantation at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, P J; Armitage, J O

    1993-08-01

    The bone marrow transplant program at UNMC is currently one of the most active programs in the country. The benefits to patients who are cured of disease by transplantation cannot be measured. The large volume of clinical and basic science research related to transplantation has enhanced the academic stature of UNMC. The combination of patient care, education, clinical research, and basic science research provides an excellent model for the operation of an academic medical institution.

  2. Bone marrow myeloid cells in regulation of multiple myeloma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Sarah E; Lin, Cindy; Nefedova, Yulia

    2017-08-01

    Survival, growth, and response to chemotherapy of cancer cells depends strongly on the interaction of cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment. In multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells that localizes preferentially in the bone marrow, the microenvironment is highly enriched with myeloid cells. The majority of myeloid cells are represented by mature and immature neutrophils. The contribution of the different myeloid cell populations to tumor progression and chemoresistance in multiple myeloma is discussed.

  3. The bone marrow endosteal niche: how far from the surface?

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Taichman, Russell S; Balduino, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) self-renewal takes place in the same microenvironment in which massive hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, commitment, and differentiation will occur. This is only made possible if the bone marrow microenvironment comprises different specific niches, composed by different stromal cells that work in harmony to regulate all the steps of the hematopoiesis cascade. Histological and functional assays indicated that HSC and multipotent progenitors preferentially c...

  4. Glucocorticoids induce autophagy in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Fan, J.; Lin, Y. S.;

    2015-01-01

    and their responses to diverse stimuli, however, the role of autophagy in glucocorticoidinduced damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The current study confirmed that glucocorticoid administration impaired the proliferation of BMSCs. Transmission electron microscopy......Glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a widespread clinical complication following glucocorticoid therapy. This irreversible damage to boneforming and resorbing cells is essential in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Autophagy is a physiological process involved in the regulation of cells...

  5. [Effect of aclacinomycin A on bone marrow (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, K; Shirai, M; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H

    1980-04-01

    Japan White rabbits were treated with aclacinomycin A, a new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, at a dose of 6.25 or 25.0 mg/kg by single intravenous, or 12.5 or 50.0 mg/kg by single oral administration, respectively. Beagle dogs were treated at a dose of 3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg by single intravenous injection. In rabbits in higher dose groups, RBC and WBC counts as well as lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood decreased on day 1. Nucleated cell counts and erythroid elements in bone marrow decreased to raise M/E ratio (Myeloid/Erythroid ratio) on day 3. In a dog given at 6.0 mg/kg, WBC and platelet counts, lymphocyte and neutrocyte per cents in peripheral blood and also nucleated cells, particularly erythroid elements in bone marrow remarkably decreased on day 3 accompanied with an increase in M/E ratio. These changes were almost completely recovered by day 14 in both animals. No abnormalities were found in lower dose groups. Male Wistar rats, treated with the drug at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg by daily intraperitoneal injection for 30 days, showed slight decreases in peripheral WBC and RBC counts and M/E ratio in bone marrow. No change was observed in rats treated at 0.75 mg/kg and less for 30 days.

  6. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  7. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Chen, Jian; Kim, Jae Chan; Yao, Ke

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and involved in its destructive and regenerative disease course, tissue specimens were collected from 3 eyes of 3 patients with Mooren's ulcer that underwent lamellar keratectomy. Three normal donor limbal corneoscleras served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed by using the following antibodies: CD34 (a marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelium), c-kit (a marker of hematopoietic and stromal progenitor cells) and STRO-1 (a differentiation antigen present on bone marrow fibroblast cells and on various nonhematopoietic progenitor cells). Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stromal cells were seen in normal limbal cornea, but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 was found. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and contribute to its destructive and regeneration process by synergizing with other factors. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in Mooren's ulcer are anticipated.

  8. Occupational therapy and the pediatric division of bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Clemente Idemori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone Marrow Transplantation may cause a series of restrictions to patients. The child’s illness and hospitalization may further change daily life activities, playing and school routine; and social interaction, which will interfere in occupational roles. The occupational therapy procedures seek to provide a more accessible experience in hospital concerning the possibilities of involvement, favoring the child’s development through activities. Objective: This study aimed to describe the practice of an occupational therapist during therapeutic process with a school age child who has undergone bone marrow transplantation. Method: This is a qualitative research with a case study approach. Data was collected with a short form of personal and professional identification and characterization, and a semi-structured interview script. The interview was fully transcribed, and analyzed under the content analysis overview. Through the content obtained in the interviews, it was possible to raise four categories: occupational roles affected by illness, hospitalization; occupational therapy processes; benefits to children by the occupational therapy activities; and, successful practices: essential factors and theoretical principles. Results: The results showed that the occupational therapist took on roles as mediator between the hospital and the child’s original environment, and the relations to family, hospital team, towards the child’s needs and his/her life experience (school, family, hospital. Conclusion: It is expected that this study may contribute to the knowledge and propagation of the practice being developed by the therapists in children with bone marrow transplantation.

  9. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system.

  10. Evaluation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, G.Y., E-mail: tgy17@126.co [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Tenth People' s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lv, Z.W.; Tang, R.B.; Liu, Y.; Peng, Y.F.; Li, W.; Cheng, Y.S. [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Tenth People' s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To prospectively investigate the role of MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in assessing vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 +- 3.5 years; range 55-81 years), who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the spine, were divided into three bone density groups (24 with normal, 25 with osteopaenic, and 29 with osteoporotic) based on T score. Both MRS and DWI of the L3 vertebral body were performed to calculate the marrow fat content and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The results were compared between three groups and correlated with BMD. Results: Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group (59.97 +- 5.78%), when compared with that of the osteopaenic group (53.04 +- 7.66%, p = 0.001) and the normal bone density group (48.79 +- 7.1%, p < 0.001). ADC values in the osteoporotic, osteopaenic, and normal bone density groups were 0.39 +- 0.02 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, 0.41 +- 0.02 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and 0.47 +- 0.03 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation between T scores and ADC existed (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). The vertebral marrow fat content was negatively correlated to the bone density (r = -0.639, p < 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.554, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibited a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreased. Marrow fat content and ADC were related to the bone density. MRS and DWI are helpful in evaluating the bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  11. Marrow signal mimicking tumor on MRI T1-weighted imaging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in extremity osteosarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Deng

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for extremity osteosarcoma can result in a variety of changes of the MRI appearance of tumor and adjacent bone and marrow. Areas of signal change beyond the tumor that represent marrow conversion and not tumor progression appear on T1 weighted imaging to be lower in signal than subcutaneous fat and higher in signal than muscle. Recognizing the existence of the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the MR appearance of the tumor and surrounding bone and myeloid elements is important so as to plan for oncological sound tumor resections while avoiding resecting more normal bone than necessary.

  12. Use of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells and cultured bone marrow stromal cells in dogs with orthopaedic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovace, A; Favia, A; Lacitignola, L; Di Comite, M S; Staffieri, F; Francioso, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical application in veterinary orthopedics of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and cultured bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs) for the treatment of some orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The authors carried out a clinical study on 14 dogs of different breed, age and size with the following lesions: 1 bone cyst of the glenoid rime; 2 nonunion of the tibia; 3 nonunion of the femur; 2 lengthening of the radius; 1 large bone defect of the distal radius;1 nonunion with carpus valgus; 4 Legg-Calvé-Perthés disease. In 9 cases the BMMCNs were used in combination with a three dimensional resorbable osteogenic scaffold the chemical composition and size of which facilitates the ingrowth of bone. In these cases the BMMNCs were suspended in an adequate amount of fibrin glue and then distribuited uniformly on a Tricalcium-Phosphate (TCP) scaffold onto which were also added some drops of thrombin. In 1 case of nonunion of the tibia and in 3 cases of Legg-Calvè-Perthés (LCP) disease the cultured BMSCs were used instead because of the small size of the dogs and of the little amount of aspirated bone marrow. X-ray examinations were performed immediately after the surgery. Clinical, ultrasounds and X-ray examinations were performed after 20 days and then every month. Until now the treated dogs have shown very good clinical and X-ray results. One of the objectives of the study was to use the BMMNCs in clinical application in orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The advantages of using the cells immediately after the bone marrow is collected, are that the surgery can be performed the same day, the cells do not need to be expanded in vitro, they preserve their osteogenic potential to form bone and promote the proper integration of the implant with the bone and lastly, the technique is easier and the costs are lower.

  13. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Li; Xuming Hua; Fang Hua; Wenwei Mao; Liang Wan; Shiting Li

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohistological staining and reverse transcription-PCR detection showed that transplanted bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells could migrate and survive in the ischemic regions, such as the cortical and striatal infarction zone. These cells promote vascular endothelial cell growth factor mRNA expression in the ischemic marginal zone surrounding the ischemic penumbra of the cortical and striatal infarction zone, and have great advantages in promoting the recovery of neurological function, reducing infarct size and promoting angiogenesis. Bone marrow regenerative cells exhibited stronger neuroprotective effects than bone marrow cells. Our experimental findings indicate that bone marrow regenerative cells are preferable over bone marrow cells for cell therapy for neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. Their neuroprotective effect is largely due to their ability to induce the secretion of factors that promote vascular regeneration, such as vascular endothelial growth factor.

  14. Differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Tao Zhan; Yu Wang; Lai Wei; Bin Liu; Hong-Song Chen; Xu Cong; Ran Fei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy.METHODS: Bone marrow cells were collected from the tibia of rat with partial hepatectomy, the medial and left hepatic lobes were excised. The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) were enriched from the bone marrow cells by depleting red cells and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The sorted bone marrow stem cells were labeled by PKH26-GL in vitro and autotransplanted by portal vein injection. After 2wk, the transplanted bone marrow stem cells in liver were examined by the immunohistochemistry of albumin (hepatocyte-specific marker).RESULTS: The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) accounted for 2.8% of bone marrow cells without red cells. The labeling rate of 10μM PKH26-GL on sorted bone marrow stem cells was about 95%.There were sporadic PKH26-GL-labeled cells among hepatocytes in liver tissue section, and some of the cells expressed albumin.CONCLUSION: Rat bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in regenerative environment and may participate in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

  15. Training echo state networks for rotation-invariant bone marrow cell classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Philipp; Burgsteiner, Harald; Asslaber, Martin; Ahammer, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The main principle of diagnostic pathology is the reliable interpretation of individual cells in context of the tissue architecture. Especially a confident examination of bone marrow specimen is dependent on a valid classification of myeloid cells. In this work, we propose a novel rotation-invariant learning scheme for multi-class echo state networks (ESNs), which achieves very high performance in automated bone marrow cell classification. Based on representing static images as temporal sequence of rotations, we show how ESNs robustly recognize cells of arbitrary rotations by taking advantage of their short-term memory capacity. The performance of our approach is compared to a classification random forest that learns rotation-invariance in a conventional way by exhaustively training on multiple rotations of individual samples. The methods were evaluated on a human bone marrow image database consisting of granulopoietic and erythropoietic cells in different maturation stages. Our ESN approach to cell classification does not rely on segmentation of cells or manual feature extraction and can therefore directly be applied to image data.

  16. MRI of the femoral bone marrow in the assessment of aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Jun; Takagi, Shojiro [Jichi Medical School, Saitama (Japan) Omiya Medical Center

    1995-11-01

    MR imaging of the femoral bone marrow was performed in 12 patients with untreated aplastic anemia and six patients with hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The MRI appearance was classified into four patterns; fatty marrow faint signal, nodular pattern and heterogeneous infiltration. The MRI patterns of aplastic anemia were evaluated and compared with those of hypoplastic MDS. In spite of hypocellular biopsies, MRI of the femoral marrow showed unexpected abnormal signal intensities in aplastic anemia; nodular pattern in five and heterogeneous infiltration pattern in two patients. Completely fatty marrow was depicted in four patients mainly with severe aplastic anemia. The nodular pattern with a background of fatty marrow was commonly seen in moderate or severe cases, while the heterogeneous infiltration pattern was noted in mild cases of the disease. Compared with hypoplastic MDS, asymmetrical nodular pattern suggesting patchy hematopoiesis was thought to be a characteristic finding of aplastic anemia. One patient clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia, who had shown heterogeneous infiltration pattern, evolved to acute myeloid leukemia. We concluded that MRI of the femoral marrow could be useful in the assessment of aplastic anemia and detection of myelodysplastic or leukemic transformation. (author).

  17. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  18. Bone marrow edema of the femoral head and transient osteoporosis of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Bruno C. van de [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Universite Catholique de Louvain, University Hospital St Luc, 10 Avenue Hippocrate 1200, Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: bruno.vandeberg@uclouvain.be; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Koutaissoff, Sophie; Simoni, Paolo; Malghem, Jacques [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Universite Catholique de Louvain, University Hospital St Luc, 10 Avenue Hippocrate 1200, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    The current article of this issue aims at defining the generic term of bone marrow edema of the femoral head as seen at MR imaging. It must be kept in mind that this syndrome should be regarded, not as a specific diagnosis, but rather as a sign of an ongoing abnormal process that involves the femoral head and/or the hip joint. We aim at emphasizing the role of the radiologists in making a specific diagnosis, starting from a non-specific finding on T1-weighted images and by focusing on ancillary findings on T2-weighted SE or fat-saturated proton-density weighted MR images.

  19. ENRICHMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THYMUS-REPOPULATING CELLS IN STROMA-DEPENDENT CULTURES OF RAT BONE-MARROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRAKAPAS, Z; DENOYELLE, M; DARGEMONT, C; KROESE, FGM; THIERY, JP; DEUGNIER, MA

    1993-01-01

    The bone marrow precursor cells seeding the thymus have been difficult to investigate using fresh bone marrow and in vivo thymus reconstitution assays. We have therefore designed a short-term bone marrow culture system allowing the study of thymus-repopulating cells in the marrow microenvironment. L

  20. Bone marrow granuloma in typhoid Fever: a morphological approach and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Kavitha; Padhi, Somanath; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Sivakumar, Periyasami; Varghese, Renu G'Boy; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid fever is one of the few bacterial infections in humans where bone marrow evaluation is routinely recommended. However, the morphological aspect of typhoid fever in bone marrow has been rarely described in the literature. We describe a 25-year-old male patient who presented with prolonged fever suspected to be of tubercular etiology. Bone marrow examination showed well-formed histiocytic and epithelioid granulomas and erythrophagocytosis; and the bone marrow aspirate culture grew Salmonella typhi A. In view of potential clinical implications, typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis to tuberculosis in the evaluation of prolonged fever; especially in high prevalent areas. We suggest that erythrophagocytosis may serve as a morphological marker in typhoid granulomas in the bone marrow; and bone marrow culture should be submitted in every suspected case for appropriate patient management.

  1. The Application of Bone Marrow Transplantation to the Treatment of Genetic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Robertson

    1986-06-01

    Genetic diseases can be treated by transplantation of either normal allogeneic bone marrow or, potentially, autologous bone marrow into which the normal gene has been inserted in vitro (gene therapy). Histocompatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is used for the treatment of genetic diseases whose clinical expression is restricted to lymphoid or hematopoietic cells. The therapeutic role of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of generalized genetic diseases, especially those affecting the central nervous system, is under investigation. The response of a generalized genetic disease to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be predicted by experiments in vitro. Gene therapy can be used only when the gene responsible for the disease has been characterized. Success of gene therapy for a specific genetic disease may be predicted by its clinical response to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  2. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  3. Bone marrow changes adjacent to the sacroiliac joints after pelvic radiotherapy mimicking metastases on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanberoglu, K.; Mihmanli, I.; Kurugoglu, S.; Ogut, G.; Kantarci, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    2001-09-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the sacroiliac joints mimicking metastases on MR images were evaluated. Twelve patients who received radiotherapy to the pelvic region due to pelvic malignancy were included in the study. All patients had undergone external beam radiation therapy to the pelvic region, and 2 patients received supplementary internal radiation. The changes in the sacroiliac joints were evaluated. Computed-tomography-guided core bone biopsy from the bone marrow was taken from their corresponding MR sections in 5 of the patients. T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas with ill-defined margins in the bone marrow adjacent to the sacroiliac joints were observed in all patients. On bone scintigraphy all the lesions demonstrated increased activity. Other radiological modalities excluded fracture, soft tissue mass, and osseous destruction. Bone biopsies demonstrated peritrabecular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Patients receiving radiotherapy to the pelvis may demonstrate T1 hypointense/T2 hyperintense, ill-defined postradiotherapeutic benign changes in the sacroiliac joints. In the absence of any other signs of disease progression and when the imaging pattern is typical, close radiological follow-up should be sufficient to rule out metastases. (orig.)

  4. Gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆柳; 朴英杰; 邹飞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells.Methods Total RNA extracted from human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells underwent reverse transcription, and the products were labeled with α-32P dCTP. The cDNA probes of total RNA were hybridized to cDNA microarray with 1176 genes, and then the signals were analyzed by AtlasImage analysis software Version 1.01a.Results Fifteen genes associated with cell proliferation and signal transduction were up-regulated, and one gene that takes part in cell-to-cell adhesion was down-regulated in tendon cells.Conclusion The 15 up-regulated and one down-regulated genes may be beneficial to the orientational differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into tendon cells.

  5. Pancreatic Lipomatosis in a Patient with Pancytopenia and Hypoplastic Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Van Doren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipomatosis is the replacement of pancreatic parenchyma by adipose tissue. It is the most common pancreatic lesion encountered, and usually of little clinical significance. Although the exact pathobiology is not known, there are several associated risk factors, such as pancreatitis, obesity, and congenital syndromes. We describe a patient who was previously diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia, underwent induction chemotherapy without bone marrow recovery. On presentation to our institution, he was incidentally found to have near complete fatty replacement of the pancreas on computed tomography imaging studies which prompted further evaluation for pancreatic sufficiency. He was subsequently diagnosed with shwachman diamond syndrome. It is necessary for adult physicians to recognize shwachman diamond syndrome as a possible cause of pancreatic lipomatosis, particularly in patients who have cytopenia and hypoplastic bone marrow.c

  6. Failure to Generate Bone Marrow Adipocytes Does Not Protect Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocal association between bone marrow fat and bone mass has been reported in ovariectomized rodents, suggesting that bone marrow adipogenesis has a negative effect on bone growth and turnover balance. Mice with loss of function mutations in kit receptor (kitW/W-v) have no bone marrow adipocytes in tibia or lumbar vertebra. We therefore tested the hypothesis that marrow fat contributes to development of osteopenia by comparing the skeletal response to ovariectomy (ovx) in growing wild type (WT) and bone marrow adipocyte-deficient kitW/W-v mice. Mice were ovx at 4 weeks of age and sacrificed 4 or 10 weeks post-surgery. Body composition was measured at necropsy by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cortical (tibia) and cancellous (tibia and lumbar vertebra) bone architecture were evaluated by microcomputed tomography. Bone marrow adipocyte size and density, osteoblast- and osteoclast-lined bone perimeters, and bone formation were determined by histomorphometry. Ovx resulted in an increase in total body fat mass at 10 weeks post-ovx in both genotypes, but the response was attenuated in the in kitW/W-v mice. Adipocytes were present in bone marrow of tibia and lumbar vertebra in WT mice and bone marrow adiposity increased following ovx. In contrast, marrow adipocytes were not detected in either intact or ovx kitW/W-v mice. However, ovx in WT and kitW/W-v mice resulted in statistically indistinguishable changes in cortical and cancellous bone mass, cortical and cancellous bone formation rate, and cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast-lined bone perimeters. In conclusion, our findings do not support a causal role for increased bone marrow fat as a mediator of ovx-induced osteopenia in mice. PMID:23246792

  7. MRI findings of serous atrophy of bone marrow and associated complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, Robert D. [Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); White, Lawrence M. [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, Damon J. [New England Baptist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Lopez-Ben, Robert R. [Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology, Charlotte, NC (United States); Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To report the MRI appearance of serous atrophy of bone marrow (SABM) and analyse clinical findings and complications of SABM. A retrospective search of MRI examinations of SABM was performed. Symptoms, underlying conditions, MRI findings, delay in diagnosis and associated complications were recorded. We identified 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age: 46 ± 21 years) with MRI findings of SABM. Underlying conditions included anorexia nervosa (n = 10), cachexia from malignant (n = 5) and non-malignant (n = 7) causes, massive weight loss after bariatric surgery (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), AIDS (n = 3), endocrine disorders (n = 2) and scurvy (n = 1). MRI showed mildly hypointense signal on T1- weighted and hyperintense signal on fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images of affected bone marrow in all cases and similar signal abnormalities of the adjacent subcutaneous fat in 29/30 cases. Seven patients underwent repeat MRI due to initial misinterpretation of bone marrow signal as technical error. Superimposed fractures of the hips and lower extremities were common (n = 14). SABM occurs most commonly in anorexia nervosa and cachexia. MRI findings of SABM are often misinterpreted as technical error requiring unnecessary repeat imaging. SABM is frequently associated with fractures of the lower extremities. (orig.)

  8. Incorporation of bone marrow cells in pancreatic pseudoislets improves posttransplant vascularization and endocrine function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wittig

    Full Text Available Failure of revascularization is known to be the major reason for the poor outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed whether pseudoislets composed of islet cells and bone marrow cells can improve vascularization and function of islet transplants. Pancreatic islets isolated from Syrian golden hamsters were dispersed into single cells for the generation of pseudoislets containing 4×10(3 cells. To create bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets 2×10(3 islet cells were co-cultured with 2×10(3 bone marrow cells. Pseudoislets and bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets were transplanted syngeneically into skinfold chambers to study graft vascularization by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Native islet transplants served as controls. Bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets showed a significantly improved vascularization compared to native islets and pseudoislets. Moreover, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets but not pseudoislets normalized blood glucose levels after transplantation of 1000 islet equivalents under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals, although the bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets contained only 50% of islet cells compared to pseudoislets and native islets. Fluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets composed of bone marrow cells from GFP-expressing mice showed a distinct fraction of cells expressing both GFP and insulin, indicating a differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells to an insulin-producing cell-type. Thus, enrichment of pseudoislets by bone marrow cells enhances vascularization after transplantation and increases the amount of insulin-producing tissue. Accordingly, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets may represent a novel approach to increase the success rate of islet transplantation.

  9. Peripheral blood and bone marrow cell status of white rats with long-term lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudakova, A.I.; Shevchenko, Z.H.T.; Nosova, L.I.

    Blood test and bone marrow examination in experiments with albino rats weighing 100-110 g subjected to long-term lead influence (1% lead acetate per os) showed availability of reticulocytosis with thrombocytopenia (on the 62d day) and thrombocytosis on the 92d day of the experiment) in peripheral blood. Reduction of the bone marrow neutrophil index and leuko-erythroblastic ration due to an increase of an erythroblastic radicle was recorded in the bone marrow.

  10. MRI diagnosis of bone marrow relapse in children with ALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta [Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Frangoul, Haydar A. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Connolly, Susan A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia is well known, but there are few reports describing the MRI features of pediatric leukemic relapse. Our purpose was to describe the MRI appearance of pediatric leukemic relapse. A total of 53 consecutive children with a history of ALL were referred for musculoskeletal MRI from 1 January 1998 to 28 February 2007 at one center, and from 1 January 2000 to 2 May 2007 at a second center. From this group, 14 children seen at initial diagnosis of leukemia and 2 children who underwent MRI after therapy for relapse were excluded. The remaining 37 children, 8 with relapse and 29 in remission, were studied. Images of patients with relapse and in remission were reviewed for type and configuration of marrow infiltration; coexisting marrow alterations including osteonecrosis or stress reaction were also reviewed. All eight children with relapse demonstrated nodular lesions with well-defined margins. Coexisting osteonecrosis was present in three children (38%) and pathologic fracture in one. Among the 29 children in remission, 9 showed stress reaction/fracture, 14 showed osteonecrosis and 9 showed ill-defined nodules, and in 5 the marrow was completely normal. Well-defined nodules in all patients with leukemic relapse suggest that this appearance is characteristic and distinct from the published findings of diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of clival marrow in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Nishimura, Gen; Yamato, Minoru; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Hematological abnormalities, commonly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, are thought to be the results of serous atrophy in the bone marrow. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been utilized to ascertain T1 and T2 prolongation of marrow intensity in the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femora. The results correlate well with the severity of hematological abnormalities and body mass index. More importantly, the propensity for peripheral marrow involvement of T2 prolongation contrasts with the axial involvement in other marrow disorders. MRI undertaken in patients with AN to exclude hypothalamic tumor showed that the clival marrow was equivalent to the peripheral marrow. The signal pattern of clival marrow on sagittal T1 weighted MR images was evaluated in four teen-age female patients with AN complicated by hematological abnormalities. Although the clival marrow intensity should be uniformly high in teen-agers, three patients, two with pancytopenia and one with leukopenia and anemia, exhibited homogenous low intensity. One patient who had leukopenia only and the highest body mass index, showed inhomogeneous low intensity. The signal changes returned to normal in all patients but one, who died before examination after 6-11 months, at which time the others had almost recovered their original weight and normal hemogram. T1 prolongation in the clival marrow represents bone marrow dysfunction and the inhomogeneity of the signal change may imply relative preservation of hematopoiesis and body fat composition. Lack of knowledge of this phenomenon may lead to diagnostic confusion with other marrow disorders on cranial MRI. (author).

  12. Characterization of age-related gene expression profiling in bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Masami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While an increase in bone marrow adiposity is associated with age-related bone disease, the function of bone marrow adipocytes has not been studied. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the age-related gene expression profiles in bone marrow adipocytes and epididymal adipocytes. Results A total of 3918 (13.7% genes were differentially expressed in bone marrow adipocytes compared to epididymal adipocytes. Bone marrow adipocytes revealed a distinct gene profile with low expression of adipocyte-specific genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, perilipin (Plin1, adipsin (CFD and high expression of genes associated with early adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ, regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2. In addition, a number of genes including secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, transforming growth factor beta 1(TGFβ1, G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A and interleukin 6 (IL-6, that could affect adipose-derived signaling to bone are markedly increased in bone marrow adipocytes. Age had a substantial effect on genes associated with mitochondria function and inflammation in bone marrow adipocytes. Twenty seven genes were significantly changed with age in both adipocyte depots. Among these genes, IL6 and GPR109A were significantly reduced with age in both adipocyte depots. Conclusions Overall, gene profiling reveals a unique phenotype for primary bone marrow adipocytes characterized by low adipose-specific gene expression and high expression of inflammatory response genes. Bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes share a common pathway in response to aging in mice, but age has a greater impact on global gene expression in epididymal than in bone marrow adipocytes. Genes that are differentially expressed at greater levels in the bone marrow are highly regulated with age.

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  14. A stepwise procedure for isolation of murine bone marrow and generation of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Madaan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived Dendritic cells (BMDCs are routinely employed in cell based assays to evaluate immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, simplified, stepwise, defined and standardized methods are required for isolation of bone marrow cells from mice, propagating them in presence of growth factors and obtaining high and reproducible yields of BMDCs. Here, we describe a detailed, stepwise protocol with pictorial representation to isolate bone marrow from mouse femur and development of dendritic cells. Mouse bone marrow cells are cultured in presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF for 6 days to generate BMDCs.

  15. Necroptosis in spontaneously-mutated hematopoietic cells induces autoimmune bone marrow failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Junping; Breslin, Peter; Wei, Wei; Li, Jing; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cannova, Joseph; Ni, Allen; Ng, Grace; Schmidt, Rachel; Chen, Haiyan; Parini, Vamsi; Kuo, Paul C.; Kini, Ameet R.; Stiff, Patrick; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Jiwang

    2017-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an autoimmune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome. The mechanism by which such an autoimmune reaction is initiated is unknown. Whether and how the genetic lesions detected in patients cause autoimmune bone marrow failure have not yet been determined. We found that mice with spontaneous deletion of the TGFβ-activated kinase-1 gene in a small subset of hematopoietic cells developed bone marrow failure which resembled the clinical manifestations of acquired aplastic anemia patients. Bone marrow failure in such mice could be reversed by depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes or blocked by knockout of interferon-γ, suggesting a Th1-cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism. The onset and progression of bone marrow failure in such mice were significantly accelerated by the inactivation of tumor necrosis factor-α signaling. Tumor necrosis factor-α restricts autoimmune bone marrow failure by inhibiting type-1 T-cell responses and maintaining the function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Furthermore, we determined that necroptosis among a small subset of mutant hematopoietic cells is the cause of autoimmune bone marrow failure because such bone marrow failure can be prevented by deletion of receptor interacting protein kinase-3. Our study suggests a novel mechanism to explain the pathogenesis of autoimmune bone marrow failure. PMID:27634200

  16. Muscle-specific kinase antibody associated myasthenia gravis after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Zeinab; Mousavi, Seyyed-Asadollah; Ostovan, Vahid Reza; Nafissi, Shahriar

    2014-02-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a rare complication of bone marrow transplantation and graft versus host disease. We report a 30-year-old woman presented with oculobulbar and proximal limb weakness after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Also, she developed graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplantation. Investigations led to the diagnosis of muscle specific kinase antibody related myasthenia gravis. There have been only two case reports of muscle specific kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis after bone marrow transplantation in the literature, but none of the previously reported cases had graft versus host disease.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Optimal Bone Marrow Site for the Isolation of Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. McDaniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the most plentiful sources for MSCs is the bone marrow; however, it is unknown whether MSC yield differs among different bone marrow sites. In this study, we quantified cellular yield and evaluated resident MSC population from five bone marrow sites in the porcine model. In addition, we assessed the feasibility of a commercially available platelet concentrator (Magellan® MAR01™ Arteriocyte Medical Systems, Hopkinton, MA as a bedside stem cell concentration device. Methods. Analyses of bone marrow aspirate (BMA and concentrated bone marrow aspirate (cBMA included bone marrow volume, platelet and nucleated cell yield, colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F number, flow cytometry, and assessment of differentiation potential. Results. Following processing, the concentration of platelets and nucleated cells significantly increased but was not significantly different between sites. The iliac crest had significantly less bone marrow volume; however, it yielded significantly more CFUs compared to the other bone marrow sites. Culture-expanded cells from all tested sites expressed high levels of MSC surface markers and demonstrated adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Conclusions. All anatomical bone marrow sites contained MSCs, but the iliac crest was the most abundant source of MSCs. Additionally, the Magellan can function effectively as a bedside stem cell concentrator.

  18. Factors that influence Greeks' decision to register as potential bone marrow donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, P A; Sparos, L D; Katostaras, T; Velonakis, E; Kalokerinou, A

    2008-06-01

    Hemopoietic stem cells can be used from bone marrow or blood or umbilical cord blood of matched siblings or appropriately matched unrelated volunteers. Today, large bone marrow registries have been established to help identify volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors for patients lacking a family donor. Despite there being almost 10 million registered potential bone marrow donors (PBMD) worldwide, only 50% of white patients have a suitable bone marrow match. Growth in the number of PBMD increases the likelihood of finding a compatible donor for a patient. The attitudes and knowledge of 250 registered PBMD and 315 not registered PBMD toward bone marrow donation, tissues and organs donation, and blood donation were surveyed, using a questionnaire with 27 items. Multivariate logistic regression identified gender (females more often than males), regular blood donation, having a relative or a friend who has already been registered as PBMD, having a relative or a friend who needs bone marrow transplantation, family discussion about tissue and organ donation, knowledge about bone marrow transplantation, information about bone marrow transplantation, and trust in health professionals were independent predictive factors influencing people's decision to register as PBMD. Knowledge of these factors is important to target recruitment efforts.

  19. Effect of nephrotoxic drugs on the development of radiation nephropathy after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, C.A.; Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy. Rats received 11-17 Gy TBI in six fractions over 3 days followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplant. In conjunction with the bone marrow transplants, animals received either no drugs, cyclosporine, amphotericin, gentamicin, or busulfan. Drugs were given in schedules analogous to their use in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Drug doses were chosen so that the drug regimen alone caused detectable acute nephrotoxicity. Animals were followed for 6 months with periodic renal function tests. Gentamicin had no apparent interactions with TBI. Amphotericin increased the incidence of engraftment failure, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Cyclosporin with TBI caused late morbidity that appeared to be due to neurological problems, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Busulfan resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation nephropathy. Of the nephrotoxins used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation only radiation and busulfan were found to be risk factors for bone marrow transplant nephropathy. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation in leukemia and genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolina, M; Maximova, N; Rabusin, M; Vujic, D; Bunjevacki, G; Vidali, C; Beorchia, A

    2000-11-01

    From 1986 to June 2000, sixty children suffering from acute and chronic leukemia (n = 42, 33 of which in resistant relapse), genetic diseases (n = 11), aplastic anemia (n = 2, one of which with platelet refractoriness and bleeding), myelodysplasia (n = 5) received an haploidentical bone marrow, mismatched for 2-3 HLA loci. The donor's marrow was treated in vitro with vincristine and methylprednisolone to obtain a functional T depletion (MLC and CTL inhibition, functional blockade of Th1 and Th2). The prevalence of infectious complications and GVHD was similar to that recorded in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants. In situations of high risk of rejection (chronic leukemia, genetic diseases) we infused immediately one half of the harvest and then frozen aliquots from the second week. Of the 25 ALL and 8 AML in resistant relapse, 3 survived, disease-free at 14, 8 and 1 years respectively. Of the 3 ALL, transplanted during remission, 1 is surviving at 18 months. Of the 6 CML, 1 had fractionated bone marrow and is surviving at 3 years, and 5 had standard single dose infusion and died of progression of their disease after rejection of the graft (4) or blast crisis after complete engraftment (1). The 2 patients with aplastic anemia, those with myelodysplasia, and 6 of the 10 with genetic disorders died of transplant-related complications or disease progression. 4 patients with osteopetrosis (n = 2), MLD (n = 1), Wiskott Aldrich dis. (n = 1) survive at 8, 2, 5 and 1.5 years respectively. In patients transplanted with fractionated marrow GVHD > 2nd grade occurred in 15%. Only one patient rejected the graft. Compared with MUD transplantation, mismatched BMT whenever performed in patients in good conditions provides similar outcome and widens the donor availability.

  1. Diagnosis of traumatic injury of bone marrow in the knee using dual-energy CT virtual noncalcium images%双能量CT虚拟去钙图像诊断膝关节外伤性骨髓损伤的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建新; 王一民; 孔祥泉; 张羽; 刘莉; 陈宏才; 王鹏; 周志刚; 郑运祥

    2014-01-01

    位数和范围分别为-43.0(-81.2~ 47.4)HU和-91.3(-162.1-50.4)HU,胫骨上端相应CT值分别为-54.6(-96.6~55.4)HU和-103.1(-170.2-70.5)HU,差异均有统计学意义(股骨下端及胫骨上端Z值分别为-8.561和-10.365,P值均<0.01).结论 双能量VNCa图像可显示膝关节外伤性骨髓损伤CT值变化,可用于诊断膝关节骨挫伤.%Objective To evaluate dual-energy CT virtual noncalicium (VNCa) images in the diagnosis of traumatic injury of bone marrow in the knee.Methods Eighty consecutive patients suspected for fractures due to acute knee trauma were included in this study and underwent dual-energy CT examinations.According to the diagnostic criteria of bone bruise and exclusion criteria,32 patients were included in the study eventually.These 32 patients underwent MR examinations.The VNCa images were generated by subtracting calcium using the dual-energy CT software.Inferior femur and superior tibia on images were segmented into 6 regions each.The bone marrow lesions on VNCa and MR images were rated with a 4-point scale for each region by two radiologists (4=significant bone marrow lesion; 3=not significant but yet clearly visible bone marrow lesion; 2=mild or suspicious bone marrow lesion on VNCa images or mild bone marrow lesion on MR images; 1=normal bone marrow).Bone marrow lesions on VNCa images were compared to those on MR images,which served as the standard of reference.The bone marrow lesions with scores of 3 and 4 were regarded as bone bruise.The predictive values of VNCa images in the diagnosis of bone bruise were evaluated.CT values of bone marrow were measured for each region and subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for diagnosis of bone bruise.CT values of bone marrow with true positive and true negative bone bruise were also compared.Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the agreement of rating of bone marrow lesions between the two radiologists and the agreement of bone marrow lesions between VNCa and MR images

  2. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins.

  3. Bone marrow and nonbone marrow Toll like receptor 4 regulate acute hepatic injury induced by endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Hochhauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed in immune cells and hepatocytes. We examined whether hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is involved in the acute hepatic injury caused by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (septic shock model. METHODS: Wild type (WT, TLR4-deficient and chimera mice underwent myeloablative bone marrow transplantation to dissociate between TLR4 expression in the liver or in the immune-hematopoietic system. Mice were injected with LPS and sacrificed 4 hours later. RESULTS: Compared to TLR4 deficient mice, WT mice challenged with LPS displayed increased serum liver enzymes and hepatic cellular inflammatory infiltrate together with increased serum and hepatic levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα ,Up-regulation of hepatic mRNA encoding TLR4, IκB and c-jun expressions. TLR4 mutant mice transplanted with WT bone marrow were more protected than WT chimeric mice bearing TLR4 mutant hemopoietic cells from LPS, as seen by IL-1β and TNFα levels. We then used hepatocytes (Huh7 and macrophages from monocytic cell lines to detect TLR mRNA expression. Macrophages expressed a significantly higher level of TLR4 mRNA and TLR2 (more than 3000- and 8000-fold respectively compared with the hepatocyte cell line. LPS administration induced TLR4 activation in a hepatocyte cell line in a dose dependent manner while TLR2 mRNA hardly changed. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TLR4 activation of hepatocytes participate in the immediate response to LPS induced hepatic injury. However, in this response, the contribution of TLR4 on bone marrow derived cells is more significant than those of the hepatocytes. The absence of the TLR4 gene plays a pivotal role in reducing hepatic LPS induced injury.

  4. [Distribution of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells in lung tissue and bone marrow of mouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Ping; Wu, Ren-Na; Guo, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of compact bone mesenchymal stem cells(MSC) marked with lentiviral plasmid pGC FU-RFP-LV in lung tissue and bone marrow of mouse. The MSC were infected by lentivirus with infection efficiency 78%, the infected MSC were injected into BALB/c mice via tail veins in concentration of 1×10(6) /mouse. The mice were randomly divided into 4 group according to 4 time points as 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. The lung tissue and bone marrow were taken and made of frozen sections and smears respectively in order to observed the distributions of MSC. The results indicated that the lentiviral infected MSC displayed phenotypes and biological characteristics which conformed to MSC by immunophenotyping analysis and induction differentiation detection. After the MSC were infected with optimal viral titer MOI = 50, the cell growth no significantly changed; the fluorescent microscopy revealed that the distributions of MSC in bone marrow on day 1, 2, 5 and 7 were 0.50 ± 0.20, 0.67 ± 0.23, 0.53 ± 0.14, 0.33 ± 0.16; those in lung tissue were 0.55 ± 0.15, 0.47 ± 0.13, 0.29 ± 0.13, 0.26 ± 0.08. It is concluded that the distribution of MSC in lung tissue reaches a peak on day 1, while distribution of MSC in bone marrow reaches a peak on day 2. The distribution of mouse MSC relates with RFP gene expression and implantation of MSC in lung tissue and bone marrow.

  5. Perfusion Method for Intra-bone Marrow Collection and Stem Cell Transplantation: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrapati, Narasimhulu; Nanganuru, Harikrishna Yadav

    2014-03-19

    A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside our bones. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a powerful strategy for the treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, congenital immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases. In humans, bone marrow cells (BMCs) have usually been collected by multiple bone marrow aspirations from the iliac crest. We have established a new "perfusion" method for collecting BMCs with minimal contamination with the peripheral blood using the long bones of cynomolgus monkeys. This method has proven to be a simple and safe method for harvesting BMCs and reduces the risk of acute graft versus host disease in allogeneic BMT. Intra-bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT) provides distinct advantages because it recruits donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. IBM-BMT has been shown to currently be the best strategy for allogeneic BMT. Here we review the perfusion method (for harvesting BMCs) and IBM-BMT (for their transplantation) and show that this combination will become a powerful new clinical strategy for allogeneic BMT.

  6. Sex Differences and Bone Metastases of Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancers: Do Bone Homing Cancers Favor Feminized Bone Marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Farach-Carson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ. Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a “feminization” of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males

  7. Archival Bone Marrow Samples: Suitable for Multiple Biomarker Analysis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, A. Laeya; Wesolowska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... biopsies from 18 Danish and Norwegian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients were included and compared with corresponding blood samples. Samples were grouped according to the age of sample and whether WGA was performed or not. We found that measurements of DNA concentration after DNA extraction...

  8. Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra

    Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early

  9. A T Cell View of the Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Bonomo, Adriana; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves-Silva, Triciana; Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Galvani, Rômulo Gonçalves; Balduino, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The majority of T cells present in the bone marrow (BM) represent an activated/memory phenotype and most of these, if not all, are circulating T cells. Their lodging in the BM keeps them activated, turning the BM microenvironment into a “memory reservoir.” This article will focus on how T cell activation in the BM results in both direct and indirect effects on the hematopoiesis. The hematopoietic stem cell niche will be presented, with its main components and organization, along with the role...

  10. Tuberculosis in pediatric oncology and bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andrea T; Airewele, Gladstone; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    Five children with malignancies (3 hematologic, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 hepatoblastoma) and one bone marrow transplant patient were treated for tuberculosis over a 30-year period. Three had pulmonary disease, 3 disseminated tuberculosis, and 1 had scrofula. Four of five had positive tuberculin skin tests, cultures were positive in 5/6 children. One child died of disseminated TB after engraftment, and one child had hepatotoxicity likely related to tuberculosis therapy. All cases were potentially preventable had they been screened due to established risk factors of foreign birth (4/6) or parental foreign birth (2/6). All children should be screened for latent tuberculosis before chemotherapy.

  11. Contribution of bone marrow derived cells to pancreatic carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Scarlett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a complex, aggressive and heterogeneous malignancy driven by the multifaceted interactions within the tumor microenvironment. While it is known that the tumor microenvironment accommodates many cell types, each playing a key role in tumorigenesis, the major source of these stromal cells is not well understood. This review examines the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC to pancreatic carcinogenesis, with respect to their role in constituting the tumor microenvironment. In particular, their role in supporting fibrosis, immunosuppression and neovascularisation will be discussed.

  12. Mouse bone marrow cytogenetic damage produced by residues of tequila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Rojas, A; Ramos, A; Rosas, E; Díaz Barriga-Arceo, S

    1990-06-01

    Five concentrations (50-860 mg/kg) of residues obtained after distillation and lyophilization of commercial tequila were injected into mice for evaluation of chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, and proliferation kinetics in mouse bone marrow cells. Appropriate positive and negative controls were included. Our results showed significant dose-related increases of chromosomal aberrations starting at 50 mg/kg and for sister-chromatid exchanges at 430 mg/kg. Cellular proliferation kinetics showed no alterations. With these data we demonstrated that the residues of tequila are genotoxic in vivo.

  13. Successful conservative management of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects presenting with cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Sonneveld, Heleen [Meander Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Nix, Maarten [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    The dorsal patellar defect is a relatively rare entity that involves the superolateral quadrant of the patella. It is usually considered to represent a delayed ossification process, although its exact origin remains unclear. Because of its usually innocuous nature and clinical course, invasive interventions are generally deemed unnecessary, although curretage has been successfully performed on symptomatic cases. This case report presents a rather unusual case of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects with cartilage involvement and widespread surrounding bone marrow edema as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema should be considered part of the spectrum of associated MRI findings that can be encountered in this entity. Furthermore, the presented case shows that symptomatic dorsal patellar defects can be treated conservatively with success and that (decrease of) pain symptoms are likely related to (decrease of) bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  14. Data on bone marrow stem cells delivery using porous polymer scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasatyaveni Geesala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low bioavailability and/or survival at the injury site of transplanted stem cells necessitate its delivery using a biocompatible, biodegradable cell delivery vehicle. In this dataset, we report the application of a porous biocompatible, biodegradable polymer network that successfully delivers bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs at the wound site of a murine excisional splint wound model. In this data article, we are providing the additional data of the reference article “Porous polymer scaffold for on-site delivery of stem cells – protects from oxidative stress and potentiates wound tissue repair” (Ramasatyaveni et al., 2016 [1]. This data consists of the characterization of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs showing the pluripotency and stem cell-specific surface markers. Image analysis of the cellular penetration into PEG–PU polymer network and the mechanism via enzymatic activation of MMP-2 and MMP-13 are reported. In addition, we provide a comparison of various routes of transplantation-mediated BMSCs engraftment in the murine model using bone marrow transplantation chimeras. Furthermore, we included in this dataset the engraftment of BMSCs expressing Sca-1+Lin−CD133+CD90.2+ in post-surgery day 10.

  15. Gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Thompson, T C

    2008-05-01

    There is a critical need to develop new and effective cancer therapies that target bone, the primary metastatic site for prostate cancer and other malignancies. Among the various therapeutic approaches being considered for this application, gene-modified cell-based therapies may have specific advantages. Gene-modified cell therapy uses gene transfer and cell-based technologies in a complementary fashion to chaperone appropriate gene expression cassettes to active sites of tumor growth. In this paper, we briefly review potential cell vehicles for this approach and discuss relevant gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer. We further discuss selected studies that led to the conceptual development and preclinical testing of IL-12 gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of gene-modified cell therapy for metastatic prostate cancer, including the need to identify and test novel therapeutic genes such as GLIPR1.

  16. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Organ Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are prototypical adult stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with a broad tissue distribution. MSCs not only differentiate into types of cells of mesodermal lineage but also into endodermal and ectodermal lineages such as bone, fat, cartilage and cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, neurons, and pancreatic islets. MSCs have been identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population and can be isolated from different adult tissues, including bone marrow (BM, umbilical cord, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. MSCs secrete factors, including IL-6, M-CSF, IL-10, HGF, and PGE2, that promote tissue repair, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of endogenous tissue progenitors, and decrease inflammatory and immune reactions. In this paper, we focus on the role of BM-derived MSCs in organ repair.

  17. Computational modelling of the mechanics of trabecular bone and marrow using fluid structure interaction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, E; Grogan, J A; Niebur, G L; McNamara, L M; McHugh, P E

    2013-04-01

    Bone marrow found within the porous structure of trabecular bone provides a specialized environment for numerous cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Studies have sought to characterize the mechanical environment imposed on MSCs, however, a particular challenge is that marrow displays the characteristics of a fluid, while surrounded by bone that is subject to deformation, and previous experimental and computational studies have been unable to fully capture the resulting complex mechanical environment. The objective of this study was to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model of trabecular bone and marrow to predict the mechanical environment of MSCs in vivo and to examine how this environment changes during osteoporosis. An idealized repeating unit was used to compare FSI techniques to a computational fluid dynamics only approach. These techniques were used to determine the effect of lower bone mass and different marrow viscosities, representative of osteoporosis, on the shear stress generated within bone marrow. Results report that shear stresses generated within bone marrow under physiological loading conditions are within the range known to stimulate a mechanobiological response in MSCs in vitro. Additionally, lower bone mass leads to an increase in the shear stress generated within the marrow, while a decrease in bone marrow viscosity reduces this generated shear stress.

  18. Effect of autologous bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration or not in the treatment of peri-implant defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F V; Suaid, F F; Ruiz, K G S; Rodrigues, T L; Carvalho, M D; Nociti, F H; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration in the treatment of dehiscence bone defects around dental implants. Iliac-derived bone marrow cells were harvested from dogs and phenotypically characterized with regard to their osteogenic properties. After teeth extraction, three implant sites were drilled, dehiscences created and implants placed. Dehiscences were randomly assigned to: bone marrow-derived cells, bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration, and control (no treatment). After 3 months, implants with adjacent tissues were processed histologically, bone-to-implant contact, bone fill within the threads, new bone area in a zone lateral to the implant, new bone height, and new bone weight at the bottom of the defect were determined. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells presented osteogenic potential. Statistically higher bone fill within the threads was observed in both bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration bone marrow-derived cell groups compared with the control group (P0.05). For the other parameters (new bone area, bone-to-implant contact, new bone height and new bone weight), only the bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration group presented higher values compared with the non-treated control (Pregeneration, although the combined approach seems to be relevant, especially to bone formation out of the implant threads.

  19. Role of serum lipoprotein at the site of iloprost therapy in the treatment of painful bone marrow edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Orth, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the emergence of painful bone marrow edema occurs through microembolisms in the bone marrow that may be reflected in elevated plasma parameters of hypofibrinolysis or a disturbance of the lipid metabolism and that treatment with iloprost may lead to a decrease in or normalization of the elevated serum parameters and, therefore, to pain reduction. Twenty-one patients (12 men and 9 women; mean age, 50 years [range, 22-70 years]) with painful bone marrow edema and elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) serum values were treated with intravenous iloprost. Before and 6 weeks after iloprost therapy, the serum concentrations of Lp(a), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were determined. At 6-week follow-up, 17 patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms. For these patients, complete bone marrow edema resolution was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Four patients reported that their symptoms were either the same or had worsened but had partial bone marrow edema resolution on magnetic resonance imaging. In these patients, Lp(a) values either increased or remained the same. Hence, the total success rate of iloprost treatment was 86% at a mean follow-up of 17 months (range, 3-45 months). Before iloprost therapy, mean ApoA1, ApoB, and Lp(a) values were 159.8, 108.3, and 69.1 mg/dL, respectively. Six weeks after iloprost therapy, mean ApoA1, ApoB, and Lp(a) values decreased to 147.6 (P=.011), 98.4 (P=.042), and 38.3 (P<.001) mg/dL, respectively. The results of this study indicate a possible role of hypofibrinolysis or a disturbance in the lipid metabolism in the emergence of painful bone marrow edema. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Degradation of polysaccharide hydrogels seeded with bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Shiva H; Grover, Liam M; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Smith, Alan M

    2011-10-01

    In order to produce hydrogel cell culture substrates that are fit for the purpose, it is important that the mechanical properties are well understood not only at the point of cell seeding but throughout the culture period. In this study the change in the mechanical properties of three biopolymer hydrogels alginate, low methoxy pectin and gellan gum have been assessed in cell culture conditions. Samples of the gels were prepared encapsulating rat bone marrow stromal cells which were then cultured in osteogenic media. Acellular samples were also prepared and incubated in standard cell culture media. The rheological properties of the gels were measured over a culture period of 28 days and it was found that the gels degraded at very different rates. The degradation occurred most rapidly in the order alginate > Low methoxy pectin > gellan gum. The ability of each hydrogel to support differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to osteoblasts was also verified by evidence of mineral deposits in all three of the materials. These results highlight that the mechanical properties of biopolymer hydrogels can vary greatly during in vitro culture, and provide the potential of selecting hydrogel cell culture substrates with mechanical properties that are tissue specific.

  1. New approaches to graft engineering for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handgretinger, Rupert

    2012-12-01

    Haploidentical transplantation opens the possibility to offer this treatment to a large number of patients with an otherwise incurable disease, such as some hematologic or oncologic malignancies, inborn or acquired bone marrow failure syndromes, hemoglobinopathies, immunodeficiencies, or other genetic diseases. Initial attempts at haploidentical transplantation using unmanipulated bone marrow were associated with a high transplant-related mortality. However, recent insights into the biology of haploidentical transplantation, the availability of effective in vivo large-scale graft-manipulation technology, and improved supportive care strategies have led to and are still leading to significantly better outcomes compared to previous decades. Methods for the in vitro depletion of T lymphocytes from mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) have facilitated the wider use and acceptance of haploidentical transplantation in children and adult patients. Besides in vitro T-cell depletion techniques, other methods, such as the isolation of alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells, virus-specific T lymphocytes, and other effector or regulatory cells are nowadays available to rapidly rebuild the immune system after haploidentical transplantation for the prevention of severe infections or relapses of the underlying diseases.

  2. Bone Marrow Gene Therapy for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-07-17

    Bone marrow gene therapy remains an attractive option for treating chronic immunological diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This technology combines the differentiation and expansion capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with long-term expression of therapeutic transgenes using integrating vectors. In this review we summarize the potential of bone marrow gene therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. A broad range of antiviral strategies are discussed, with a particular focus on RNA-based therapies. The idea is to develop a durable gene therapy that lasts the life span of the infected individual, thus contrasting with daily drug regimens to suppress the virus. Different approaches have been proposed to target either the virus or cellular genes encoding co-factors that support virus replication. Some of these therapies have been tested in clinical trials, providing proof of principle that gene therapy is a safe option for treating HIV/AIDS. In this review several topics are discussed, ranging from the selection of the antiviral molecule and the viral target to the optimal vector system for gene delivery and the setup of appropriate preclinical test systems. The molecular mechanisms used to formulate a cure for HIV infection are described, including the latest antiviral strategies and their therapeutic applications. Finally, a potent combination of anti-HIV genes based on our own research program is described.

  3. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen-Nafarrate, Edmundo; Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis.

  4. The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Desales

    1989-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

  5. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Berumen-Nafarrate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis.

  6. Development of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; PENG Li-pan; WU Nan; LI Le-ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the in vitro development of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells culture (BM-MSC).Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed.The search terms were “bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell" and "cell culture".Study selection Articles regarding the in vitro development of BM-MSCs culture,as well as the challenge of optimizing cell culture environment in two-dimensional (2D) vs.3D.Results Improving the culture conditions increases the proliferation and reduces the differentiation.Optimal values for many culture parameters remain to be identified.Expansion of BM-MSCs under defined conditions remains challenging,including the development of optimal culture conditions for BMSC and large-volume production systems.Conclusions Expansion of BM-MSCs under defined conditions remains challenges,including the development of optimal culture conditions for BMSC and scale-up to large-volume production systems.Optimal values for many culture parameters remain to be identified.

  7. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  8. Entonox as a sedative for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudgin, E J; Besser, M W; Craig, J I O

    2008-02-01

    Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy can be a painful procedure. Sedation techniques may make this investigation more acceptable to patients, but have the potential to cause life-threatening complications, as well as requiring additional staff and equipment for safe administration. We assessed the use of Entonox, a 50 : 50 mix of nitrous oxide and oxygen, as a sedation and analgesic agent, and compared it to previous experience with the intravenous (i.v.) benzodiazepine midazolam. Patients' perception of pain, and both the operator and patient's views on the ease of the procedure and safety factors were recorded. Twenty-two patients who had previously required i.v. midazolam sedation (16), or who requested sedation (6) were studied. Fifteen of 16 (94%) found Entonox better or equal to midazolam, and only one patient (6%) found it worse. There were no serious adverse events due to Entonox. We have shown, in this small group of patients, that Entonox is an effective, safe alternative to intravenous midazolam for sedation during bone marrow biopsy, and is considered acceptable by both patients and staff. It has the major advantage that no additional staff or facilities are required for safe administration or monitoring the patient during or after the procedure.

  9. Ex vivo expansion of Primate CD34+ Cells isolated from Bone Marrow and Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells using a Novel Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaprasad D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived CD34+ cells have been in clinical application in patients with haematological malignancies. One of the major problems with this treatment is the non-availability of matched donors or the necessity of multiple transfusions depending upon the pathology. Recently evidences have been accumulating to prove the safety and efficacy of autologous CD34+ cells in diseases such as myocardial dysfunction, peripheral vascular diseases and neurological certain conditions. However there are only a few reports in the literature on ex vivo expansion of the bone marrow derived CD34+ cells. We have in two different studies proven that isolated CD34+ cells from baboon bone marrow and non-isolated BMMNCs from human bone marrow could be expanded with increase in percentage of CD34+ cells using a novel scaffold.

  10. Electrostimulation and morphologic study of the nerves to the bone marrow of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, D M; Webber, R H

    1975-01-01

    The innervation of the bone marrow of the albino rat was investigated by electrostimulation and morphological methods. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic trunks resulted in the release of reticulocytes and neutrophils into the circulating blood. The effects of stimulation on other cell types in the bone marrow could not be definitely established. It was concluded that the nerve fibers to the bone marrow were distributed to the arteries. It is postulated that the transmitter substance released at the autonomic nerve endings may have an effect upon the permeability of the venous sinusiods and the mobility of the blood cells in the marrow parenchyma resulting in their release into the circulating blood.

  11. A T Cell View of the Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Adriana; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves-Silva, Triciana; Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Galvani, Rômulo Gonçalves; Balduino, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The majority of T cells present in the bone marrow (BM) represent an activated/memory phenotype and most of these, if not all, are circulating T cells. Their lodging in the BM keeps them activated, turning the BM microenvironment into a “memory reservoir.” This article will focus on how T cell activation in the BM results in both direct and indirect effects on the hematopoiesis. The hematopoietic stem cell niche will be presented, with its main components and organization, along with the role played by T lymphocytes in basal and pathologic conditions and their effect on the bone remodeling process. Also discussed herein will be how “normal” bone mass peak is achieved only in the presence of an intact adaptive immune system, with T and B cells playing critical roles in this process. Our main hypothesis is that the partnership between T cells and cells of the BM microenvironment orchestrates numerous processes regulating immunity, hematopoiesis, and bone remodeling. PMID:27242791

  12. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, p...

  13. CD34 defines an osteoprogenitor cell population in mouse bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Al-Shammary, Asma; Skagen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) and their progenitors have been identified based on retrospective functional criteria. CD markers are employed to define cell populations with distinct functional characteristics. However, defining and pro...

  14. B cell-autonomous somatic mutation deficit following bone marrow transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The bone marrow is the major haematopoietic organ and is critically involved in the production of all formed blood elements in postnatal life. The bone marrow contains rapidly dividing cells and therefore is sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In certain types of cancers where a high dose of radiation

  15. 2012478 Biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and JAK2 mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田竑

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) and detect JAK2 mutation in BMSCs from myeloproliferative neoplasms(MPN) patients. Methods JAK2 V617F mutation and exon 12 mutation in 70 MPN patients’ blood or bone marrow samples were detected.

  16. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...... and capillarization, with the development of continuous sheets of basement membrane material beneath endothelial cells....

  17. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. James (Sally); J. Fox (James); F. Afsari (Farinaz); J. Lee (Jennifer); S. Clough (Sally); C. Knight (Charlotte); J. Ashmore (James); P. Ashton (Peter); O. Preham (Olivier); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin); R.D.A.R. Ponzoni (Raquel De Almeida Rocha); Y. Hancock; M. Coles (Mark); P.G. Genever (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis

  18. Knowledge and attitude of Lublin universities students' toward the opportunity of becoming unrelated bone marrow donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Agnieszka; Wiorkowski, Krzysztof; Szara, Paulina; Drabko, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a very important life-saving procedure to treat many disorders. In August 2014, there were more than 24.5 million donor registered in the Worldwide Bone Marrow Donor Register. In the Polish Register of Unrelated Bone Marrow and Umbilical Cord Blood Donors at the end of 2013 there were almost 540 thousand registered bone marrow donors. Despite increasing numbers of registered donors, the amount of requests also increased. It shows that the number of donors is still insufficient. The analysis of knowledge and attitude of Lublin universities students' toward the opportunity to become an unrelated bone marrow donor was the aim of our study. 1609 Lublin students from non-medical universities from different years and specializations of study, of both sexes, aged 19-35 took part in the survey. It consisted of 16 questions. There were knowledge-testing questions, and also personal ones. Among interviewees, 16% were registered as potential bone marrow donors. The reason for not being registered registration chosen most often was that the surveyed did not take this into consideration. Correct answers to all of the questions were given by 21% of students. The biggest number of incorrect answers was given to the question about a place from bone marrow is harvested - nearly 49%. Registered students showed a better level of knowledge than the unregistered. We noted a low level of knowledge about bone marrow donation and possibility of becoming potential bone marrow donor among Lublin universities students.

  19. SU-E-J-125: A Novel IMRT Planning Technique to Spare Sacral Bone Marrow in Pelvic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S; Bhatia, S; Sun, W; Menda, Y; Ponto, L; Gross, B; Buatti, J [University Of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop an IMRT planning technique that can preferentially spare sacral bone marrow for pelvic cancer patients. Methods: Six pelvic cancer patients (two each with anal, cervical, and rectal cancer) were enrolled in an IRB approved protocol to obtain FLT PET images at simulation, during, and post chemoradiation therapy. Initially, conventional IMRT plans were created to maintain target coverage and reduce dose to OARs such as bladder, bowel, rectum, and femoral heads. Simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans to spare bone marrow identified as regions with SUV of 2 or greater (IMRT-BMS) within the pelvic bones from top of L3 to 5mm below the greater trochanter without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing when compared to the initial IMRT plan. IMRT-BMS plans used 8–10 beam angles that surrounded the subject. These plans were used for treatment. Retrospectively, the same simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans that spared bone marrow located in the sacral pelvic bone region (IMRT-FAN) also without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing. IMRT-FAN plans used 16 beam angles every 12° anteriorly from 90° – 270°. Optimization objectives for the sacral bone marrow avoidance region were weighted to reduce ≥V10. Results: IMRT-FAN reduced dose to the sacral bone marrow for all six subjects. The average V5, V10, V20, and V30 differences from the IMRT-BMS plan were −2.2 ± 1.7%, −11.4 ± 3.6%, −17.6 ± 5.1%, and −19.1 ± 8.1% respectively. Average PTV coverage change was 0.5% ± 0.8% from the conventional IMRT plan. Conclusion: An IMRT planning technique that uses beams from the anterior and lateral directions reduced the volume of sacral bone marrow that receives ≤10Gy while maintaining PTV coverage and OAR sparing. Additionally, the volume of sacral bone marrow that received 20 or 30 Gy was also reduced.

  20. PPARγ antagonist attenuates mouse immune-mediated bone marrow failure by inhibition of T cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuya; Feng, Xingmin; Chen, Jichun; Li, Jungang; Muranski, Pawel; Desierto, Marie J; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Malide, Daniela; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease, in which T cells target hematopoietic cells; at presentation, the bone marrow is replaced by fat. It was reported that bone marrow adipocytes were negative regulators of hematopoietic microenvironment. To examine the role of adipocytes in bone marrow failure, we investigated peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, utilizing an antagonist of this factor called bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether. While bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether inhibited adipogenesis as expected, it also suppressed T cell infiltration of bone marrow, reduced plasma inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of multiple inflammasome genes, and ameliorated marrow failure. In vitro, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether suppressed activation and proliferation, and reduced phospholipase C gamma 1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 expression, as well as inhibiting calcium flux in T cells. The in vivo effect of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether on T cells was confirmed in a second immune-mediated bone marrow failure model, using different strains and non-major histocompatibility antigen mismatched: bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether ameliorated marrow failure by inhibition of T cell infiltration of bone marrow. Our data indicate that peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists may attenuate murine immune-mediated bone marrow failure, at least in part, by suppression of T cell activation, which might hold implications in the application of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists in immune-mediated pathophysiologies, both in the laboratory and in the clinic. Genetically "fatless" mice developed bone marrow failure with accumulation of marrow adipocytes in our model, even in the absence of body fat, suggesting different mechanisms of systematic and marrow adipogenesis and physiologic versus pathophysiologic fat accumulation.

  1. IMPACT OF IMMUNOGENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ON IMMUNE RESPONSE AND CLINICAL FEATURES IN BONE MARROW FAILURE SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Hematopietic stem cells (HSC) are responsible for the production of mature blood cells in bone marrow; peripheral pancytopenia may result from several different conditions, including hematological or extra-hematological diseases (mostly cancers) affecting the marrow function as well as primary failure of hematopoiesis. Although the clinical presentation may appear homogeneous, primary bone marrow failure syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases with specific pathogenic mechanisms, whic...

  2. Correlates of knee bone marrow lesions in younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Venn, Alison; Cicuttini, Flavia; March, Lyn; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Halliday, Andrew; Cross, Marita; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2016-01-26

    Subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and are associated with pain and structural progression in knee OA. However, little is known about clinical significance and determinants of BMLs of the knee joint in younger adults. We aimed to describe the prevalence and environmental (physical activity), structural (cartilage defects, meniscal lesions) and clinical (pain, stiffness, physical dysfunction) correlates of BMLs in younger adults and to determine whether cholesterol levels measured 5 years prior were associated with current BMLs in young adults. Subjects broadly representative of the Australian young adult population (n = 328, aged 31-41 years, female 48.7 %) underwent T1- and proton density-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their dominant knee. BMLs, cartilage defects, meniscal lesions and cartilage volume were measured. Knee pain was assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Cholesterol levels including high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were assessed 5 years prior to MRI. The overall prevalence of BML was 17 % (grade 1: 10.7 %, grade 2: 4.3 %, grade 3: 1.8 %). BML was positively associated with increasing age and previous knee injury but not body mass index. Moderate physical activity (prevalence ratio (PR):0.93, 95 % CI: 0.87, 0.99) and HDL cholesterol (PR:0.36, 95 % CI: 0.15, 0.87) were negatively associated with BML, while vigorous activity (PR:1.02, 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.03) was positively associated with medial tibiofemoral BMLs. BMLs were associated with more severe total WOMAC knee pain (>5 vs ≤5, PR:1.05, 95 % CI: 1.02, 1.09) and WOMAC dysfunction (PR:1.75, 95 % CI: 1.07, 2.89), total knee cartilage defects (PR:2.65, 95 % CI: 1.47, 4.80) and total meniscal lesion score (PR:1.92, 95 % CI: 1.13, 3.28). BMLs in young adults are

  3. Chitosan-collagen porous scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we successfully constructed a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffold in vitro, transplanted either the composite or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone into the ischemic area in animal models, and compared their effects. At 14 days after co-transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the hitosan-collagen scaffold, neurological function recovered noticeably. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and nestin-labeled neural precursor cells were detected in the ischemic area, surrounding tissue, hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Simultaneously, a high level of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and a low level of expression of neuron-specific enolase were visible in BrdU-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These findings suggest that transplantation of a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffold has a neuroprotective effect following ischemic stroke.

  4. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2006-08-01

    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  5. Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wislet-Gendebien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy.

  6. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fluorogold-labeled nerve fibers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was markedly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  7. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administrationvia the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve ifbers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and lfuorogold-labeled nerve ifbers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was mark-edly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  8. Chitosan-collagen porous scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yan; Wei Yue; Yue-lin Zhang; Guo-chao Mao; Ke Gao; Zhen-xing Zuo; Ya-jing Zhang; Hui Lu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we successfully constructed a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chitosan-collagen scaffoldin vitro, transplanted either the composite or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone into the ischemic area in animal models, and compared their effects. At 14 days after co-transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the hi-tosan-collagen scaffold, neurological function recovered noticeably. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and nestin-labeled neural precursor cells were detected in the ischemic area, surrounding tissue, hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Simultaneously, a high level of expression of glial ifbrillary acidic protein and a low level of expression of neuron-spe-ciifc enolase were visible in BrdU-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These ifndings suggest that transplantation of a composite of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and a chi-tosan-collagen scaffold has a neuroprotective effect following ischemic stroke.

  9. A comparative study of diazepam levels in bone marrow versus serum, saliva and brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, T; Tomii, S; Terazawa, K; Nagao, M; Kanamori, M; Tomaru, Y

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of diazepam in biological fluids and tissues of rats was examined 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after intraperitoneal administration by using a radioimmunoassay with specific anti-diazepam antibody. The diazepam levels in serum, saliva, brain and bone marrow decreased over a period of 2 h and levelled off 4 h after administration. The diazepam concentration in bone marrow was much higher than in serum, saliva and brain, suggesting an accumulation of diazepam in this tissue. This indicates that bone marrow could be a very useful material for the detection of diazepam in skeletonized remains. The diazepam concentrations in bone marrow, serum, saliva and brain showed a linear relationship (r = 0.860-0.997), indicating that a valid estimate of diazepam concentration in blood can be made from bone marrow samples.

  10. Allogenous bone grafts improved by bone marrow stem cells and platelet growth factors: clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho Cerruti, Humberto; Kerkis, Irina; Kerkis, Alexandre; Tatsui, Nelson Hidekazu; da Costa Neves, Adriana; Bueno, Daniela Franco; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2007-04-01

    In order to increase the amount of available bone where dental implants must be placed, the present study has associated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from bone marrow aspirate and bone scaffold (BS) in 32 patients aged between 45 and 75 years old. The MNC attainment and the adherence to the BS were confirmed through histology, cell culture, and scanning electron microscopy. The clinical results, analyzed by computed tomography, have showed that the scaffolds were well integrated and adapted to the cortical bone. We can conclude that the process of healing observed in the patients was due to the presence of mesenchymal stem cell in MNC fraction in the bone grafts.

  11. Identifying A Molecular Phenotype for Bone Marrow Stromal Cells With In Vivo Bone Forming Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kenneth H; Frederiksen, Casper M; Burns, Jorge S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The ability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts is being exploited in cell-based therapy for repair of bone defects. However, the phenotype of ex vivo cultured BMSCs predicting their bone forming capacity is not known. Thus, we employed DNA microarrays...... (17% versus 5%) and a larger percentage of genes with predicted SP3 transcription factor binding sites in their promoter region (21% versus 8%). On the other hand, hBMSC-TERT(-Bone) cells expressed a larger number of immune-response related genes (26% versus 8%). In order to test for the predictive...... value of these markers, we studied the correlation between their expression levels in 6 different hBMSC-derived clones and the ability to form bone in vivo. We found a significant correlation for, decorin, lysyl oxidase-like 4, natriuretic peptide receptor C, and tetranectin. No significant positive...

  12. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  13. Adipocyte tissue volume in bone marrow is increased with aging and in patients with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, J; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Ebbesen, E N

    2001-01-01

    Aging of the human skeleton is characterized by decreased bone formation and bone mass and these changes are more pronounced in patients with osteoporosis. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common precursor cell in the bone marrow, we hypothesized that decreased bone formation observed during...

  14. Strain energy density gradients in bone marrow predict osteoblast and osteoclast activity: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2015-03-18

    Huiskes et al. hypothesized that mechanical strains sensed by osteocytes residing in trabecular bone dictate the magnitude of load-induced bone formation. More recently, the mechanical environment in bone marrow has also been implicated in bone׳s response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesize that trabecular load-induced bone formation can be predicted by mechanical signals derived from an integrative µFE model, incorporating a description of both the bone and marrow phase. Using the mouse tail loading model in combination with in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) we tracked load induced changes in the sixth caudal vertebrae of C57BL/6 mice to quantify the amount of newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes. To identify the mechanical signals responsible for adaptation, local morphometric changes were compared to micro-finite element (µFE) models of vertebrae prior to loading. The mechanical parameters calculated were strain energy density (SED) on trabeculae at bone forming and resorbing surfaces, SED in the marrow at the boundary between bone forming and resorbing surfaces, along with SED in the trabecular bone and marrow volumes. The gradients of each parameter were also calculated. Simple regression analysis showed mean SED gradients in the trabecular bone matrix to significantly correlate with newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes R(2)=0.57 and 0.41, respectively, pbone marrow plays a significant role in determining osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  15. Comparisons of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Primary Adherent Culture of Compact Bone Fragments and Whole Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment culture was based on the fact that BMSCs were assembled in compact bones. Thus, the procedure included flushing bone marrow out of bone cavity and culturing the fragments without any collagenase digestion. The cell yield from cultured fragments was slightly less than that from cultured bone marrow using the same bone quantity. However, the trypsinized cells from cultured fragments exhibited significantly higher proliferation and were accompanied with more CD90 and CD44 expressions and less CD45 expression. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity of cells from cultured fragments were better than those of cells from bone marrow. The directly adherent culture of compact bone is suitable for mouse BMSC isolation, and more BMSCs with potentially improved proliferation capacity can be obtained in the primary culture.

  16. Bone metastasis versus bone marrow metastasis? Integration of diagnosis by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography in advanced malignancy with super bone scan: Two case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Super scan pattern on technetium-99m methyldiphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy is a special condition of extremely high bone uptake relative to soft tissue with absent or faint renal radioactivity visualization, which is usually seen in diffuse bone metastases or discrete endocrine entities. Here, two cases with super bone scan are presented. One was a young man diagnosed with gastric cancer. The other was a middle-aged woman with a history of breast cancer with recent recurrence. Both cases had 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis simultaneously. Based on imaging of 18F-FDG PET/CT, diffusely incremental 18F-FDG avidity in spine/pelvis on PET and subtle erosion of cortical bone on CT were seen. The cytological results of bone marrow biopsy showed evidence of malignant metastasis. However, there were several focal discrepant findings between the 18F-FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m MDP bone scan. According to integration of both imaging findings and the result of bone marrow biopsy, we believe that the disseminated malignant spread in bone marrow is a primitive alternation in the super bone scan and that it is also as a result of neoplasm-related endocrine factors.

  17. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Input control Blood Leukemic bone marrow ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Input control Blood Leukemic bone marrow ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Input control Blood Leukemic bone marrow ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 No description Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 Input control Blood Leukemic bone marrow ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 No description Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow mm9 No description Blood Leukemic bone marrow... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_bone_marrow.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells ERX534...209471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells ERX534...036746 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells ERX534...036746 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells DRX03...833680 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells SRX83...833545 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells ERX534...209471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells DRX03...833545 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells mm9 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells DRX03...833680 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 Input control Blood Bone Marrow Cells http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells hg19 No description Blood Bone Marrow Cells http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Bone_Marrow_Cells.bed ...

  20. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  1. MR abnormalities of the intervertebral disks and adjacent bone marrow as predictors of segmental instability of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braem, J.; Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J. [Orthopedic University Clinic Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Min, K. [Orthopedic University Clinic Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether MR abnormalities of the intervertebral disks and adjacent bone marrow can predict segmental instability of the lumbar spine as diagnosed on functional radiographs. Material and Methods: A consecutive review was made of 60 patients examined with MR imaging and with lateral flexion and extension views of the lumbar spine. Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images were evaluated blindly with regard to abnormalities of the intervertebral disk and the adjacent bone marrow. Segmental instability was diagnosed when a.p. translation of 3 mm or more was present on the functional radiographs. Moreover, the presence of osteophytes was evaluated on lateral standard radiographs. Results: Of a total of 300 segments, 32 (10.7%) were unstable. Anular tears were the most relevant MR finding. Their sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for segmental instability were 18.8%, 97.0%, 42.9% and 90.9%. The corresponding values for traction osteophytes were 12.5%, 98.1%, 44.4% and 90.4%. Abnormalities of bone marrow were not significantly related to segmental instability (p=0.35). Conclusion: Functional radiographs should be considered in patients with anular tears or traction osteophytes. No correlation was found between segmental instability and abnormalities of bone marrow adjacent to the endplates. (orig.).

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the bone marrow in children with common hematological diseases%小儿常见血液病的骨髓MRI与磁共振氢质子波谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽; 陈裕; 马言旭; 何家维; 严志汉; 叶信健; 白光辉; 张弦; 虞志康

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿常见血液病骨髓受侵的MRI与磁共振氢质子波谱(1H-MRS)表现.方法 收集温州医学院附属第二医院2007年9月至2010年9月儿童血液科收治的初发血液病35例,年龄2~14岁,男16例、女19例,包括经骨髓穿刺活检证实的急性白血病26例、再生障碍性贫血6例、其他类型长期贫血3例(地中海贫血2例、自身免疫性溶血性贫血1例)及正常对照组30名,均行腰椎、髂骨骨髓MRI及1 H-MRS检查.扫描序列包括T1WI、T2WI、脂肪抑制短时反转恢复脉冲序列(STIR)及1H-MRS.分析各组椎体、髂骨的骨髓信号及波谱特征,计算感兴趣区相对脂肪含量(FF%).结果 所有病例依据骨髓增生状态分为2种类型:Ⅰ型骨髓增生活跃型29例(包括急性白血病及其他类型长期贫血),表现为T1WI呈均匀低信号,T2WI呈均匀等低信号,STIR呈均匀高或稍高信号,1H-MRS特征为水峰高耸,脂峰低平或消失;急性白血病组L4椎体FF%值为0%,左侧髂骨FF%值0%,其他类型长期贫血组L4椎体FF%值为5.02%,左侧髂骨FF%值为3.70%.Ⅱ型骨髓增生抑制型6例(再生障碍性贫血),表现为T1WI呈均匀或不均匀高信号,T2WI呈均匀或不均匀高信号,STIR呈均匀或不均匀低信号,1H-MRS特征为脂峰高耸,水峰低平或消失;L4椎体FF%值74.69%,左侧髂骨FF%值91.51%.结论 骨髓MRI及1H-MRS可作为评价小儿常见血液病骨髓增生状态的无创伤检查方法.%Objective To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the diagnosis of pediatric hematological diseases.Methods A total of 35 cases with pediatric hematological diseases were confirmed by bone marrow puncturing.There were acute leukemia (n =26),aplastic anemia (n =6),thalassemia (n =2) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (n =1 ).All cases and thirty age-marched healthy children underwent MR imaging (T1 WI,T2WI,STIR) and 1 H-MRS of lumber

  3. Visual and quantitative approach to bone marrow foci of increased glucose uptake on PET/CT in a case of aplastic anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicone, F. [Sant' Andrea Hospital, Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Centre Hospitalier Univ. Vaudois (Switzerland). Nuclear Medicine; Lausanne Univ. (Switzerland); Stalder, M. [Institut Central des Hopitaux Valaisans, Sion (Switzerland). Service of Hematology; Cairoli, A. [Centre Hospitalier Univ. Vaudois (Switzerland). Service of Hematology; Lausanne Univ. (Switzerland); Bischof Delaloye, A.; Prior, J.O. [Centre Hospitalier Univ. Vaudois (Switzerland). Nuclear Medicine; Lausanne Univ. (Switzerland); Geiger, D.

    2010-07-01

    This case report shows the clinical impact of a FDG-PET/CT in the assessment of bone marrow (BM) of a patient with aplastic anemia. The feasibility of a quantitative approach to BM intensities on FDG-PET is also discussed. In the authors' opinion, a deeper understanding of the factors that might independently affect FDG uptake and the definition of normal ranges of BM SUV (standardized uptake value) might help to interpret PET/CT images. Further research is needed to understand the physio-pathological basis of FDG uptake in BM and the potential value of its quantification. The analysis of the bone marrow on PET/CT is an interesting field of research. A PET/CT scan contributed to differential diagnosis in a patient with suspected bone marrow aplasia for guiding bone marrow biopsies.

  4. Exploring the role of FDG-PET in the assessment of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma patients as interpreted by qualitative and semiquantitative disease metabolic activity parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Kand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow biopsy (BMB is currently the standard method to evaluate marrow involvement in malignant lymphomas. However, there exist a number of pitfalls in this technique that can have important implications for initial staging, prognostification, and treatment of the disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the utility of FDG-PET imaging in the detection of bone marrow involvement in untreated lymphoma patients. Forty untreated patients (36 males and 12 females with either Hodgkin′s disease (HD (n = 17 or non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL (n = 31 underwent whole body FDG-PET study for disease evaluation. Bone marrow uptake of FDG was graded as absence or presence of disease activity at marrow sites by qualitative assessment. Semiquantitative analysis involved deriving disease metabolic index (DMI using the following formula: DMI = SUV max of suitable circular ROI over PSIS or trochanteric region/ SUVmax of similar ROI over adjoining background. Findings of BMB and FDG-PET were compared for final analysis. Eleven out of 17 HD patients (12 males and 5 females demonstrated concordance between FDG PET findings and BMB reports. Remaining 6 cases showed discordance of FDG-PET demonstrating presence of marrow involvement at marrow sites and uninvolved marrow on BMB. Twenty six of the 31 NHL cases (24 males and 7 females demonstrated concordance between FDG PET findings and BMB reports. Remaining 5 cases showed discordance of FDG-PET demonstrating presence of marrow involvement at marrow sites and uninvolved marrow on BMB. All the BMB positive patients (2 of HD and 5 of NHL demonstrated disease activity in bone marrow on FDG-PET study. All patients with absence of disease activity at marrow sites on FDG-PET scan (9 of HD and 21 of NHL had histology proven uninvolved marrow. The quantitative assessment by DMI showed a mean of >2.5 in HD and NHL patients at the PSIS region and the trochanteric region bilaterally in cases of bone marrow

  5. Bone Marrow Vascular Niche: Home for Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though discovered later than osteoblastic niche, vascular niche has been regarded as an alternative indispensable niche operating regulation on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. As significant progresses gained on this type niche, it is gradually clear that the main work of vascular niche is undertaking to support hematopoiesis. However, compared to what have been defined in the mechanisms through which the osteoblastic niche regulates hematopoiesis, we know less in vascular niche. In this review, based on research data hitherto we will focus on component foundation and various functions of vascular niche that guarantee the normal hematopoiesis process within bone marrow microenvironments. And the possible pathways raised by various research results through which this environment undergoes its function will be discussed as well.

  6. MRI of intracranial toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, U.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Maschke, M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Prumbaum, M. [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma encephalitis was confirmed by biopsy in three patients with bone marrow (BMT) or peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT). All had MRI before antimicrobial therapy. The intensity of contrast enhancement was very variable. One patient had one large, moderately enhancing cerebral lesion and several smaller almost nonenhancing lesions. The second had small nodular and haemorrhagic lesions without any enhancement. The third had late cerebral toxoplasmosis and showed multiple lesions with marked contrast enhancement. The moderate or absent contrast enhancement in the two patients in the early phase of cerebral toxoplasmosis may be related to a poor immunological response, with a low white blood cell count in at least one patient. Both received higher doses of prednisone than the patient with late infection, leading to a reduced inflammatory response. In patients with a low leukocyte count and/or high doses of immunosuppressive therapy, typical contrast enhancement may be absent. (orig.)

  7. Bone marrow processing on the Haemonetics V50 cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N A; Cornish, J M; Godwin, V; Gunstone, M J; Oakhill, A; Pamphilon, D H

    1990-01-01

    We have processed 27 bone marrow (BM) harvests using the Haemonetics V50 cell separator with a paediatric plasmapheresis set and programmed for lymphocyte collection. The mean starting volume of 843 mL was processed in 6-8 cycles to a buffy coat (BC) with a mean volume of 230 mL. The mean starting mononuclear cell (MNC) count was 1.22 x 10 8/kg recipient weight, and recovery was 92%. Clonogenic potential of the BC was assessed using CFU-GM assays and recovery was measured after cryopreservation or purging. On 4 occasions where major ABO incompatibility existed between donor and recipient, both BM and BC were consecutively diluted in compatible blood and processed twice. This achieved a calculated reduction in donor erythrocytes of 98%. The procedure was efficient and yielded a BC fraction suitable for cryopreservation and purging. Adequate stem-cells were retained as verified by CFU-GM assays and documentation of stable engraftment.

  8. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  9. Bone marrow necrosis in systemic lupus erythematous patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Hilbig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE are causes of morbidity and increased risk of mortality. Young patient, female, with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS had severe pancytopenia after urinary tract infection. A biopsy of the bone marrow (BM showed necrosis and fibrosis. The most common pathophysiological mechanism for pancytopenia is the production of peripheral antibodies. However, pancytopenia with BM aplasia or necrosis is rare. BM necrosis is more common with neoplastic diseases, severe infections or sickle cell anemia but is also reported for patients with SLE. It is seen more rarely in patients with primary APS. Changes in the BM microcirculation lead to ischemia and subsequent necrosis. The main complications are pancytopenia and embolism. BM necrosis has been appointed in few clinical studies as a possible cause for pancytopenia in SLE patients. Among the findings, BM necrosis was present in 19% of the patients. BM necrosis is a relatively rare and poor prognosis entity.

  10. Short-term myeloid growth factor mediated expansion of bone marrow haemopoiesis studied by localized magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Hansen, P B; Larsen, V A

    1994-01-01

    (day 0), day 5 and day 12. Spectroscopic examinations were performed with the stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) method on a 1.5 T clinical whole-body imaging unit. A cubic volume of interest (VOI) was selected in the bone marrow of the left iliac bone. The patients responded with a rise in blood......-density cell proliferation rate in marrow samples increased from median 21.9 (range 4.5-31) x 10(3) cpm to 54.7 (range 13.9-94) x 10(3) cpm and the total number of myeloid progenitors enumerated as day 7/14 GM-CFUs per volume aspirated marrow increased from median 11/8 x 10(3) (range 4.0-87.5/2.2-103.0) to 64...

  11. Computed tomographic assessment of a new nonsurgical sinus trephination technique using a medical bone marrow drill

    OpenAIRE

    Caudal, Victor; Snead, Elisabeth C.; Starrak, Gregory S.; Sathya, Suresh; Feng, Cindy X.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of trephination of the frontal sinus and injection of antifungal cream using a medical bone marrow drill in dogs. Results were compared with frontal sinus trephination using a standard surgical technique. Bilateral trephination of the frontal sinuses was carried out in the heads of 11 cadavers using a medical bone marrow drill and a surgical bone chuck. The time taken to carry out the procedure using both techniques was compared. Be...

  12. [Weil's syndrome with bone marrow involvement after collecting walnuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, M; Gorissen, B; Wieshammer, S

    2001-10-12

    A 65 year-old man was transferred to our department from a neighbouring hospital with anuria and epistaxis. A few days prior to hospitalization, he had experienced severe muscular and joint pain accompanied by chills. A careful history revealed that, in recent weeks, the patient had frequently collected wild walnuts growing, for the most part, on the banks of a small stream, known to have an infestation of rats. The physical examination revealed pronounced jaundice of the skin and sclerae, and petechia on the lower legs. Laboratory results showed marked thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, appreciably elevated urine retention parameters and increased C-reactive protein. During the subsequent course of his illness, serum leptospiral antibody titres were elevated, indicating an acute leptospiral infection manifesting as Weil's syndrome. Silver staining (>Warthin-Starry<) revealed rod-shaped bacteria, presumably representing leptospires, in some bone marrow macrophages. Treatment with i. v. penicillin was immediately initiated, and urine output established by intravenous fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit, so that haemodialysis was not necessary. The platelet count returned to normal and bilirubin began to decrease again. The patient was discharged home after 2 weeks in the hospital. When a patient presents with the triad of renal failure, jaundice and thrombocytpenia in the setting of a possible infection, then the severe form of leptospirosis known as Weil inverted question marks syndrome must be considered, and antibiotic treatment initiated without delay. Of importance for the definitive diagnosis is the repeated determination of the titres of antibodies to leptospires in the serum and urine, which usually become positive only in the second week of the illness. In our case, we detected bacteria directly in some bone marrow macrophages as well.

  13. Histologia da medula óssea Bone marrow histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A biópsia de medula óssea, após a utilização da agulha de Jamshidi, tornou- se um evento de rotina em virtude da simplificação na obtenção do material. A adequação das dimensões da amostra e a diminuição do tempo de descalcificação melhoraram muito a qualidade histológica e possibilitaram ao patologista um aprofundamento da interpretação morfológica das doenças hematológicas e não hematológicas. Para um laudo correto é necessário o conhecimento do tecido hematopoético normal, suas diferentes linhagens celulares, variações dependentes da idade e integração com outros dados clínicos e laboratoriais.The bone marrow biopsy after the introduction of the Jamshidi needle has come into a routine practice due to the facilitation to obtain good sample. Due to the adequate size of the sample, the decalcification time decreased and consequently the histological quality improved allowing to the pathologist a more deep and precise morphological interpretation and diagnosis of the hematological and non- hematological disorders. For a correct diagnosis, the pathologist should be acquainted with the normal histology of the bone marrow parenchyma, it variations depending on age, as well as with the clinico- laboratorial data to integrate them with the morphological features.

  14. Vancomycin Utilization Review in Patients Undergoing Bone MarrowTransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Taheri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Infections  in  neutropenic  patients  are  considered  as  major  causes  of  mortality and the emergence of drug resistance. Gram positive bacterial infections are crucially important to be covered if indicated. Vancomycin is active against most Gram positive bacteria including Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA. In this study, we evaluated the appropriate utilization of this agent in bone marrow transplantation (BMT patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, all patients who received vancomycin in a seven months period at bone marrow transplantation research center in Shariati teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were entered to the study. Clinical and preclinical parameters such as serum creatinine, microbial culture, antibacterial sensitivity, WBC count and fever were collected and recorded for analysis. We also measured vancomycin trough level after administration of three doses.Results: Fifty one patients were entered in the study and reviewed in two adult BMT wards. The age range was 18 to 65 years. Most patients received allogenic versus autologous transplantation (56.9%, 43.1%. About 80% of the vancomycin used for the patients with febrile neutropenia was compatible with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guideline. 21.6% of patients received appropriate doses. Vancomycin trough serum concentration range was 15.0±11.9 μg/mL.Conclusion: Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat resistant gram-positive infections and must be prescribed by a specialist. Vancomycin wrong dosing or initiation prescribing with dose 1 gr/q12h increases the resistance and toxicity to drug, and cause an inappropriate response to the drug.

  15. MSC therapy attenuates obliterative bronchiolitis after murine bone marrow transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Raza

    Full Text Available Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and hematopoietic cell transplant. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties in chronic inflammatory disease.Administration of MSCs was evaluated for the ability to ameliorate OB in mice using our established allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT model.Mice were lethally conditioned and received allogeneic bone marrow without (BM or with spleen cells (BMS, as a source of OB-causing T-cells. Cell therapy was started at 2 weeks post-transplant, or delayed to 4 weeks when mice developed airway injury, defined as increased airway resistance measured by pulmonary function test (PFT. BM-derived MSC or control cells [mouse pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs or lung fibroblasts (LFs] were administered. Route of administration [intratracheally (IT and IV] and frequency (every 1, 2 or 3 weeks were compared. Mice were evaluated at 3 months post-BMT.No ectopic tissue formation was identified in any mice. When compared to BMS mice receiving control cells or no cells, those receiving MSCs showed improved resistance, compliance and inspiratory capacity. Interim PFT analysis showed no difference in route of administration. Improvements in PFTs were found regardless of dose frequency; but once per week worked best even when administration began late. Mice given MSC also had decreased peribronchiolar inflammation, lower levels of hydroxyproline (collagen and higher frequencies of macrophages staining for the alternatively activated macrophage (AAM marker CD206.These results warrant study of MSCs as a potential management option for OB in lung transplant and BMT recipients.

  16. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Henrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, and bovine cancellous bone (BS were assessed. Seeding efficacy on β-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and β-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo.

  17. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells. Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.

  18. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, G.; Habibovic, P.; Bao, C.; Hu, J.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Yuan, H.; Chen, W.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagl

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα stimulates the growth of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rougier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports that TNF-α is a potent mitogen for human bone marrow sternal cells in vitro (assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counts. In contrast, cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, LIF, SCF, M-CSF, G-CSF and GM-CSF had no effect. The effect of TNF-α on the growth of human bone marrow stromal cells could be of importance during inflammatory processes which take place in the marrow, for example marrow fibrosis.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of reactive hematopoietic bone marrow in aplastic anemia using MR spectroscopy with variable echo times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantitative and qualitative differences in water components between normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with variable echo times (TEs). Design: Water content, T2 value of the water component, and signal change in water related to TE were assessed in normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow by a stimulated echo acquisition mode with TEs of 30, 45, 60, and 90 ms. Patients: Six patients with aplastic anemia (13-84 years) and seven normal volunteers (25-38 years) were examined. Results and conclusion: Reactive hematopoietic marrow showed significantly higher water content than normal bone marrow. The T2 value of water components tended to be longer in reactive hematopoietic marrow. Water signal ratio related to TE was significantly higher in reactive hematopoietic marrow. These results suggest a quantitative and qualitative difference in water components between normal and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow. (orig.)