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Sample records for bone loss measurements

  1. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  2. Annual bone loss and success rates of dental implants based on radiographic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bone loss around dental implants is generally measured by monitoring changes in marginal bone level using radiographs. After the first year of implantation, an implant should have <0.2 mm annual loss of marginal bone level to satisfy the criteria of success. However, the process of

  3. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  4. Automatic methods for alveolar bone loss degree measurement in periodontitis periapical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P L; Huang, P Y; Huang, P W

    2017-09-01

    Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone loss measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an automatic length-based alveolar bone loss measurement system with emphasis on a cementoenamel junction (CEJ) localization method: CEJ_LG. The bone loss measurement system first adopts the methods TSLS and ABLifBm, which we presented previously, to extract teeth contours and bone loss areas from periodontitis radiograph images. It then applies the proposed methods to locate the positions of CEJ, alveolar crest (ALC), and apex of tooth root (APEX), respectively. Finally the system computes the ratio of the distance between the positions of CEJ and ALC to the distance between the positions of CEJ and APEX as the degree of bone loss for that tooth. The method CEJ_LG first obtains the gradient of the tooth image then detects the border between the lower enamel and dentin (EDB) from the gradient image. Finally, the method identifies a point on the tooth contour that is horizontally closest to the EDB. Experimental results on 18 tooth images segmented from 12 periodontitis periapical radiographs, including 8 views of upper-jaw teeth and 10 views of lower-jaw teeth, show that 53% of the localized CEJs are within 3 pixels deviation (∼ 0.15 mm) from the positions marked by dentists and 90% have deviation less than 9 pixels (∼ 0.44 mm). For degree of alveolar bone loss, more than half of the measurements using our system have deviation less than 10% from the ground truth, and all measurements using our system are within 25% deviation from the ground truth. Our results suggest that the proposed automatic system can effectively estimate degree of horizontal alveolar bone loss in periodontitis radiograph images. We believe that our proposed system, if implemented in routine clinical practice, can serve as a valuable tool for early and accurate

  5. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used.

  6. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  7. Comparison between inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic imaging in periodontal bone loss measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Scaf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in digital imaging technology in dentistry have provided an alternative to film-based radiography and have given new options to detect periodontal bone loss. The purpose of this study was to compare inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic imaging in periodontal bone loss measurements. Thirty-five film-based periapical radiographs of patients suffering from moderate to advanced untreated periodontal bone loss associated to lower premolar and molars was selected from the department files, with 40 bone loss areas. The film-based radiographs were digitized with a flatbed scanner with a transparency and radiograph adapter used for transilluminating the radiograph imaging. Digitization was performed at 600 dpi and in gray scale. The images were digitized using Image Tool software by applying image inversion, that is, transformation of radiopaque structures into radiolucent structures and vice-versa. The digital data were saved as JPEG files. The images were displayed on a 15-inch and 24-bit video monitor under reduced room lighting. One calibrated examiner performed all radiographic measurements, three times, from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss, in both types of image (inverted and unprocessed. Brightness and contrast were adjusted according to the examiner's individual demand. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to compare the measurements from both types of images. The means of radiographic measurements, in mm, for inverted and unprocessed digitized imaging were 6.4485 and 6.3790, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was significant (0.99 The inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic images were reliable and there was no difference in the diagnostic accuracy between these images regarding periodontal bone loss measurements.

  8. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss,

  9. Biologicals and bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory joint diseases are associated with extra-articular side effects including bone involvement.There is an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. The pathogeneses of local and generalized bone loss share a common pathway. Early and active rheumatoid arthritis is associated with

  10. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium supplement if necessary. • Vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and move it into ... bone density test? • Should I take calcium and vitamin D supplements? How much do I need? • Do I need medication for my bone loss? • ...

  11. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  12. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies. Keywords: osteoporosis, fracture, bone mineral density, postmenopausal, menopause, muscle strength, isokinetic, isometric

  13. Three-dimensional measurement of bone loss at implants in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Marcus; Swierkot, Katrin; Mengel, Reiner

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the three-dimensional marginal bone level around implants 5 to 15 years after loading in partially edentulous patients treated for generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Seventeen patients with GCP and 17 patients with GAgP were treated with a total of 119 implants. Patients were examined clinically on a 3-month recall schedule after insertion of the superstructure, and radiographs were taken at fixed intervals. At the end of the observation period, cone-beam computed tomography was used for the analysis of the circumferential three-dimensional bone level (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual/palatal) and determination of keratinized mucosa thickness (KMT). In both groups, a significant bone loss at implants was observed buccally (GAgP group: 4.49 ± 2.93 mm; GCP group: 3.57 ± 2.94 mm) with significantly more average bone loss in patients with GAgP (3.00 ± 1.67 mm) compared to in patients with GCP (2.45 ± 1.08 mm). The lowest values for KMT in both groups were found in the anterior mandible (GAgP group: 0.99 ± 1.13 mm; GCP group: 0.82 ± 0.91 mm). There were significant correlations between clinical parameters and bone loss in mandibles of patients with GAgP. The lowest value for KMT in both groups was found in the mandible. Bone loss was observed buccally and was more pronounced in patients with GAgP, with a significant correlation with keratinized mucosa and increased inflammation.

  14. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  15. Determination of vertical interproximal bone loss topography: correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurement and clinical measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeli, Farzad; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzie, Masoumeh; Abolfazli, Nader; Rasouli, Hossein; Fallahi, Saied

    2012-06-01

    Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configuration of bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis, treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosis can be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedures will be possible. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topography of interproximal bony defects. Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibular and maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique. The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using "Linear Measurement" software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD), alveolar crest (AC) and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were determined using a software. Subsequent to radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulously during flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontal probe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlation between these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depth determination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect width were 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively. Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseous defects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects.

  16. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  17. The Effect of Scapula Tilt and Best-Fit Circle Placement When Measuring Glenoid Bone Loss in Shoulder Instability Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Plachel, Fabian; Huettner, Anna; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Minkus, Marvin; Boehm, Elisabeth; Gerhardt, Christian; Scheibel, Markus

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effect of lack of standardization on the reliability of current measurement techniques for glenoid bone loss in clinical practice. Ten consecutive patients with anterior glenoid bone loss due to recurrent anterior shoulder instability and available computed tomographic (CT) scans of the affected shoulder were included in this study. One hundred seventy 3-dimensional en-face view images of the 10 glenoids with up to 20° degrees of tilt in the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior direction were rendered. Three independent observers first identified the en-face view images and subsequently performed measurements of the defect surface and diameter as well as the glenoid surface and diameter on all 170 images. Measurements were completed based on the conventional best-fit circle technique using the edge of the visible glenoid bone as reference and additionally based on the so-called spoon technique, which places the best-fit circle on the edge of the visible glenoid concavity. The overall agreement regarding en-face view image selection between the observers was 30% (K-alpha = 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.22). Tilt of the en-face view in any direction resulted in significant alterations of all 4 measurement parameters as well as the relative defect area and diameter (P techniques rendered significantly different results regarding all 4 measurement parameters as well as the relative defect area (P best-fit circle placement significantly alter glenoid defect size measurement results. Because the glenoid defect size plays an important role in the choice of treatment for anterior shoulder instability, measurement techniques need to be as precise as possible. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid Measurements of Bone Loss Using Tracer-less Calcium isotope Analysis of Blood and Urine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The resorption of bone when astronauts are exposed to microgravity is a major challenge for humans engaged in long-term space travel. The goal of our research is to...

  19. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants wit...

  20. The osteoimmunology of alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    The mineralized structure of bone undergoes constant remodeling by the balanced actions of bone-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). Physiologic bone remodeling occurs in response to the body's need to respond to changes in electrolyte levels, or mechanical forces on bone. There are many pathological conditions, however, that cause an imbalance between bone production and resorption due to excessive OCL action that results in net bone loss. Situations involving chronic or acute inflammation are often associated with net bone loss, and research into understanding the mechanisms regulating this bone loss has led to the development of the field of osteoimmunology. It is now evident that the skeletal and immune systems are functionally linked and share common cells and signaling molecules. This review discusses the signaling system of immune cells and cytokines regulating aberrant OCL differentiation and activity. The role of these cells and cytokines in the bone loss occurring in periodontal disease (PD) (chronic inflammation) and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) (acute inflammation) is then described. The review finishes with an exploration of the emerging role of Notch signaling in the development of the immune cells and OCLs that are involved in osteoimmunological bone loss and the research into Notch signaling in OTM and PD.

  1. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  2. Evaluating Bone Loss in ISS Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D; Spector, Elisabeth R; Johnston, Smith L; Tarver, William J

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the Medical Assessment Test used at the NASA Johnson Space Center to evaluate whether prolonged exposure to spaceflight increases the risk for premature osteoporosis in International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The DXA scans of crewmembers' BMD during the first decade of the ISS existence showed precipitous declines in BMD for the hip and spine after the typical 6-mo missions. However, a concern exists that skeletal integrity cannot be sufficiently assessed solely by DXA measurement of BMD. Consequently, use of relatively new research technologies is being proposed to NASA for risk surveillance and to enhance long-term management of skeletal health in long-duration astronauts. Sibonga JD, Spector ER, Johnston SL, Tarver WJ. Evaluating bone loss in ISS astronauts.

  3. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  4. Alveolar bone loss in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarim, Maher; Bissada, Nabil; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad; Ficara, Anthony; Siegel, Burton

    2005-04-01

    Obesity was found to be significantly associated with periodontal disease prevalence as measured by probing depth and clinical attachment loss. The aim of this study was to examine if obesity correlates with chronic periodontitis as diagnosed by radiographic alveolar bone loss. Four hundred subjects > or =18 years old were included; 200 with body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m2 (obese) and 200 with BMI periodontitis. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with periodontitis in the uni-variate regression analysis (OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.55-3.63). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, employment, diabetes, marital status, and number of teeth present, obese subjects were found to be 1.86 times more likely to have periodontitis (95% CI, 0.99-3.51) than non-obese ones. When the sample was stratified based on age, the multivariate association was statistically significant among individuals or = 40 years of age the association was statistically insignificant (OR = 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.95). Stratifying the sample based on gender and smoking status revealed a stronger association among females than males (OR = 3.14 vs. 1.95) and among non-smokers than smokers (OR = 3.36 vs. 2.22). Obesity is associated with increased prevalence of periodontitis as measured by radiographic alveolar bone loss, especially among younger individuals. Prevention and management of obesity may be considered to promote better systemic and periodontal health.

  5. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  6. Menopausal bone loss and estrogen replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meema, S; Meema, H E

    1976-07-01

    Throughout adult life the bone mineral mass of the radius is greater in males than in females. In males, it decreases after 60 years of age, while in females, it decreases earlier, at approximately 50 years, and the loss is greater. At the average age of 67 years, one half of the normal white female population has less than the normal amount of bone in the radius. Premenopausal women over the age of 50 do not show any decline of bone mineral mass, while in postmenopausal women, regardless of age, there is a loss of bone mass related to the number of years after menopause. Castrated women have significantly less bone mass than premenopausal women of the same average age. No decrease in cortical thickness of the radius was found in oophorectomized women treated with estrogens after castration. In a long-term, follow-up study, untreated postmenopausal women (after a natural or an artifical menopause) showed a significant loss of bone mass, while estrogen-treated, postmenopausal women showed no such loss. Estrogen treatment thus appears to prevent postmenopausal bone loss.

  7. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  8. Policosanol prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N; González, J

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, abnormal bone architecture and increased fracture risk. Ovariectomy impairs bone mass and metabolism in rats and ovariectomized rats are considered as a suitable model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mevalonate is required for producing lipoids that are important in osteoclast activity and thus drugs affecting mevalonate production can prevent bone loss in rodents. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through an indirect regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether policosanol could prevent bone loss in the bones of ovariectomized rats by comparing its effects with those induced by estradiol. Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in four groups: a sham-operated group treated with Tween/H2O vehicle and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg/day) or policosanol (50 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 3 months. At treatment completion the rats were sacrificed, their bones removed and variables of bone resorption and formation were investigated by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy increased trabecular separation but diminished the number and thickness of trabecules. Estradiol and policosanol prevented these effects compared with ovariectomized controls. Both treatments also prevented an increase in the number of osteoclasts and their surface area induced by ovariectomy. Estradiol, but not policosanol, significantly prevented an increase of osteoblast surface area compared with ovariectomized controls. In conclusion, policosanol prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it should be potentially useful in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  9. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  10. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases...

  11. Vitamin C reverses hypogonadal bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, ...

  12. Measures of Complexity to quantify Bone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparin, Peter; Gowin, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    1998-03-01

    We propose a technique to assess structure of the bone in its spatial distribution by describing and quantifying the structural architecture as a whole. The concept of measures of complexity based on symbolic dynamics is applied to computed tomography (CT) - images obtained from human lumbar vertebra. CT-images have been transformed into images consisting of 5 different symbols, whereby both statical and dynamical coding are included. Different aspects of the bone structure are quantified by several measures which have been introduced: index of global ensemble of elements composing the bone; complexity, homogeneity and dynamics within the bone architecture; complexity and inhomogeneity of the trabecular net. This leads to new insides to the understanding of bone's internal structure. The results give the first experimental and quantitative evidence of the theoretical prediction that complexity of bone structure declines rapidly with the increased disintegration of bone structures leading to the loss of bone mass and specify experimentally that bone structure is exponentially related to its density. Especially, osteoporotic vertebrae are less complex organized than normal ones. In addition, this method is significantly sensitive to changes in bone structure and provides improvements of diagnostic of pathological structural loss.

  13. Bone Loss Among Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Sharma, Anjali; Yin, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART. As bone loss and resulting increases in fracture incidence are a natural consequence of aging, there is now concern regarding the long-term consequences of HIV/ART-associated premature bone loss, given the transition of the HIV/AIDS population into an older age demographic. The development of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of bone disease within the context of HIV and ART has been an important recent step in raising awareness of the problem and the implications of bone fracture for patient health. Significant progress has also been made in recent years in dissecting the complex and multifactorial mechanisms driving bone loss in HIV/ART and the role of underlying immunological disruption in skeletal dysmorphogenesis. This review examines recent progress in the field and studies by Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)-associated investigators, inside and outside of the WIHS cohort, aimed at identifying skeletal abnormalities, quantifying facture incidence, management, and understanding underlying mechanisms in people living with HIV in the context of chronic ART.

  14. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants with SCI longitudinally and 16 on one occasion; 21 participants without SCI served as controls. In the first year post-SCI, 15% to 35% of BMD was lost at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal fibula. Bone loss at the distal fibula accelerated between 1 and 2 years post-SCI. BMD at these sites reached a steady state value of ~50% of the non-SCI value 4 years post-SCI. At the tibia diaphysis, cortical CSA decline was slower, eventually reaching 65% of the non-SCI value. Because of the extensive loss of bone observed at these sites, careful consideration needs to be given to the dose of musculoskeletal stress delivered during rehabilitation interventions like standing, muscle electrical stimulation, and aggressive stretching of spastic muscles.

  15. Osteopenia in anorexia nervosa: specific mechanisms of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennkh, C; de Zwaan, M; Bailer, U; Strnad, A; Nagy, C; el-Giamal, N; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Vytiska, E; Huber, J; Kasper, S

    1999-01-01

    Osteopenia is a well recognized medical complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). The mechanism of bone loss is not fully understood and there is uncertainty about its management. New markers of bone turnover have been developed. C-terminal type 1 propeptide (PICP) is a measure of bone formation and urinary pyridinolines such as deoxypyridinoline (DPYRX) and serum carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide (ICTP) are markers of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to examine these bone markers in patients with AN. Twenty female patients with AN and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of AN patients was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Lumbar bone density was significantly reduced in the AN group compared to standardised values of thirty year old adults (t-score 83.2%, S.D. 12.1). Femoral neck bone density showed an even greater reduction (t-score 79.4%, S.D. 13.5). We found a significant negative correlation between femoral BMD and the duration of the illness. Femoral BMD correlated significantly with minimal body weight (r(16) = 0.504, p = 0.033). The markers of bone resorption were significantly higher in the patients with AN compared to the values of the control group (ICTP t(30) = -2.15, p = 0.04, DPYRX t(25) = -2.26, p = 0.033), whereas the markers of bone formation did not differ significantly between the groups. AN appears to be a low turn over state associated with increased bone resorption without concomitant bone formation. This pattern differs from osteopenia in menopausal women and should, therefore, lead to the development of specific therapeutic strategies in AN associated osteopenia. Hormone replacement therapy as well as calcium and vitamine D-supplementation are so far discussed controversially. Long-term treatment studies are warranted.

  16. Bone loss rate in adrenal incidentalomas: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, I; Torlontano, M; Carnevale, V; Guglielmi, G; Cammisa, M; Trischitta, V; Scillitani, A

    2001-11-01

    Although by definition patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) do not have evident clinical syndromes, they may frequently suffer from subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). This is of some importance because of evidence that SH may lead to clinical complications, including bone loss. Thus, the understanding of bone involvement due to SH may be extremely important in the management of AI. Unfortunately, the available data on bone mineral density (BMD) in AI patients come from cross-sectional studies, which, to further complicate our understanding, are also conflicting, probably due to a different selection of patients and/or the variability in cortisol secretion (CS) often described in AI. To gain further insight about this topic, we performed a longitudinal study evaluating the rate of spinal and femoral bone loss levels in 24 females with AI. AI subjects were subdivided in two groups on the basis of the median of urinary cortisol secretion (UFC): group I (n = 12; UFC, 140.4 nmol/24 h). Spinal BMD was measured by both single energy quantitative computed tomography (L1-L4) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; L2-L4), and femoral BMD was determined by DXA. Bone loss rate was expressed as the change in z-score per yr. The spinal bone loss rate was higher (P < 0.005) in group II than in group I when measured by both quantitative computed tomography (-0.19 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.15) and DXA (-0.19 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.11). Moreover, CS and spinal bone loss rate were significantly correlated when patients were considered together. In conclusion, our data show that 1) AI patients with higher CS have increased lumbar trabecular bone loss rate than those with lower CS; and 2) the degree of spinal bone loss rate is related to the degree of CS. Thus, lumbar spine (LS) BMD has to be evaluated for well balanced decision-making on the treatment of choice for AI female patients.

  17. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  18. Interleukin-10 inhibits bone resorption: a potential therapeutic strategy in periodontitis and other bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  19. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  20. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  1. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking...

  2. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

  3. Marginal bone loss around implants placed in maxillary native bone or grafted sinuses: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, P; Fernández-Jiménez, A; Avila-Ortiz, G; Silvestre, F J; Hernández-Cortés, P; Wang, H L

    2014-03-01

    To assess differences in marginal bone loss around implants placed in maxillary pristine bone and implants placed following maxillary sinus augmentation over a period of 3 years after functional loading. Two cohorts of subjects (Group 1: Subjects who received sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement; Group 2: Subjects who underwent conventional implant placement in posterior maxillary pristine bone) were included in this retrospective study. Radiographic marginal bone loss was measured around one implant per patient on digitized panoramic radiographs that were obtained at the time of prosthesis delivery (baseline) and 12, 24, and 36 months later. The influence of age, gender, smoking habits, history of periodontal disease, and type of prosthetic connection (internal or external) on marginal bone loss was analyzed in function of the type of osseous support (previously grafted or pristine). A total of 105 subjects were included in this study. Cumulative radiographic marginal bone loss ranged from 0 mm to 3.9 mm after 36 months of functional loading. There were statistically significant differences in marginal bone loss between implants placed in grafted and pristine bone at the 12-month assessment, but not in the subsequent progression rate. External prosthetic connection, smoking, and history of periodontitis negatively influenced peri-implant bone maintenance, regardless of the type of osseous substrate. Implants placed in sites that received maxillary sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants placed in pristine bone, although marginal bone loss mainly occurred during the first 12 months after functional loading. Implants with external implant connection were strongly associated with increased marginal bone loss overtime. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  6. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) show microstructural bone loss during hibernation but preserve bone macrostructural geometry and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Stoll, Danielle M; Mantila, Emily R; Fahrner, Bryna K; Carey, Hannah V; Donahue, Seth W

    2011-04-15

    Lack of activity causes bone loss In most animals. Hibernating bears have physiological processes to prevent cortical and trabecular bone loss associated with reduced physical activity, but different mechanisms of torpor among hibernating species may lead to differences in skeletal responses to hibernation. There are conflicting reports regarding whether small mammals experience bone loss during hibernation. To investigate this phenomenon, we measured cortical and trabecular bone properties in physically active and hibernating juvenile and adult 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, previous genus name Spermophilus). Cortical bone geometry, strength and mineral content were similar in hibernating compared with active squirrels, suggesting that hibernation did not cause macrostructural cortical bone loss. Osteocyte lacunar size increased (linear regression, P=0.001) over the course of hibernation in juvenile squirrels, which may indicate an osteocytic role in mineral homeostasis during hibernation. Osteocyte lacunar density and porosity were greater (+44 and +59%, respectively; Phibernating compared with active squirrels, which may reflect a decrease in osteoblastic activity (per cell) during hibernation. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was decreased (-20%; P=0.028) in hibernating compared with physically active adult squirrels, but was not different between hibernating and active juvenile squirrels. Taken together, these data suggest that 13-lined ground squirrels may be unable to prevent microstructural losses of cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation, but importantly may possess a biological mechanism to preserve cortical bone macrostructure and strength during hibernation, thus preventing an increased risk of bone fracture during remobilization in the spring.

  7. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.E.H.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valasek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandor, G.K.; Marcian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  8. Novel Radiomitigator for Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-fard, Y.; Terada, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Steczina, S.; Medina, C.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss can occur with radiotherapy patients, accidental radiation exposure and during long-term spaceflight. Bone loss due to radiation is due to an early increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and bone resorption, resulting in an imbalance in bone remodeling. Furthermore, exposure to high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation will impair the bone forming progenitors and reduce bone formation. Radiation can be classified as high-LET or low-LET based on the amount of energy released. Dried Plum (DP) diet prevents bone loss in mice exposed to total body irradiation with both low-LET and high-LET radiation. DP prevents the early radiation-induced bone resorption, but furthermore, we show that DP protects the bone forming osteoblast progenitors from high-LET radiation. These results provide insight that DP re-balances the bone remodeling by preventing resorption and protecting the bone formation capacity. This data is important considering that most of the current osteoporosis treatments only block the bone resorption but do not protect bone formation. In addition, DP seems to act on both the oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Finally, we have preliminary data showing the potential of DP to be radio-protective at a systemic effect and could possible protect other tissues at risk of total body-irradiation such as skin, brain and heart.

  9. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  10. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  11. Measurement of fluoride in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrision, J.E.; Hancock, R.; McNeill, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The fluorine concentration in bone biopsy samples was measured by neutron activation analysis. The fluorine content was expressed in terms of the calcium content. Samples were irradiated in a reactor to induce the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reactions and after rapid transport from the reactor the resulting activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Reproducibility was better than 10% for the F/Ca ratio. The detection limit for F is 50 μg. This nondestructive technique will be used to assess the effect of fluoride therapy on bone metabolism of patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. (author)

  12. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  13. Biologically rational ways of bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Based on own and literature date to define biologically rational elements of complex approach to bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. Nowadays there are two points of view regarding bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. The first favor pharmaceuticals as a basic and physical exercises as additional. According to the second, therapeutic and prophylactic significance of physical exercises in maintenance and development of structural and functional capacities of musculoskeletal system is fundamental. The latter approach correspond to evolutionary formed biological model in that muscles act upon levers - bones that connected by means of joints and provide the movement of the body against gravity. The present work from pathogenethically point of view establish the systemic approach to the bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. It is based on physical exercises while additional pharmacotherapy that should aim for optimization of regulatory function of bone cells, first of all osteocytes providing for adaptational reorganisation of bone structures.

  14. Marginal bone loss in implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Fernández-Jiménez, Andrés; O'Valle, Francisco; Silvestre, Francisco J; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Monje, Alberto; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vertical and horizontal graft bone resorption (GR) in grafted maxillary sinuses and the marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants placed in the sinuses with different prosthetic connections and to determine the effect of other clinical factors on these tissue responses at 6 and 18 months postloading. A total of 254 implants were placed in 150 grafted maxillary sinuses of 101 patients (51.5% female) with mean age of 52.2 years (range, 32-82 years). GR and MBL measurements were made in implants placed with two different prosthetic connections (internal and external) at 6 and 18 months postloading. The complex samples general linear model was used to analyze the influence of patient age, gender, smoking habit, history of periodontal disease, implantation timing (simultaneous vs deferred), and prosthetic abutment length on radiographic GR and MBL values. At 18 months postloading, the MBL ranged from 0 mm to 5.89 mm; less than 1 mm was lost around 49.0% (mesial) and 44.3% (distal) of the implants, while no bone was lost around 32.9% (mesial) and 26.7% (distal). The GR was significantly affected by smoking, remnant alveolar bone height, graft length, graft height, gender, and age, and it significantly decreased over time. The MBL was influenced by the type of connection, implantation timing, and prosthetic abutment length. The MBL was greater with longer postloading interval and higher patient age and in smokers. Resorption of grafts that combine autogenous cortical bone with anorganic bovine bone is dependent on the anatomic features of the sinus and is not affected by the time elapsed after the first 6 months. The MBL in implants placed in these grafted areas is time dependent and mainly related to potentially modifiable clinical decisions and patient habits. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  16. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  17. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  18. AICRG, Part II: Crestal bone loss associated with the Ankylos implant: loading to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cherng-Tzeh; Morris, Harold F; Ochi, Shigeru; Walker, Lori; DesRosiers, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The Ankylos endosseous dental implant is a new implant design that will be available in the United States in early 2004. It features an internal tapered abutment connection, a smooth polished collar without threads at the coronal part of the implant body, and a roughened surface with variable threads on the body of the implant fixture. A precise, tapered, conical abutment connection eliminates the microgap often found in 2-stage implant systems. This microgap may allow the accumulation of food debris and bacteria, as well as micromovement between the parts during clinical function, both of which can lead to a localized inflammation and crestal bone loss. The purpose of this section of the study was to assess any crestal bone loss associated with this new implant. The clinical performance of this new implant design was studied under well-controlled clinical conditions. Over 1500 implants were placed and restored. The vertical crestal bone loss was measured "directly" between the time of implant placement and uncovering, using a periodontal probe. Serial dental radiographs were taken between loading, and the 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up visits to determine "indirect" crestal bone loss within a specific period. Bone loss varied among the participating centers from less than 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm. The largest amount of bone loss occurred between the time of placement and uncovering. Following loading, the mean bone loss for all implants for a period of 3 years was about 0.2 mm/y. The extent of the crestal bone loss after loading was minimal for patients regardless of age, gender, prosthetic applications, bone density, and remote or crestal incisions, as well as for smokers or nonsmokers. Bone loss per year is well within the guidelines of 0.2 mm/y proposed by others.

  19. Bone loss at implants and teeth in the same inter-proximal unit: A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Denis; Marino, Massimiliano; Toia, Marco; Cecchinato, Francesca; Lindhe, Jan

    2018-02-10

    This study was performed to determine whether the distance between an implant and a tooth present in an inter-proximal unit influenced the amount of marginal bone loss that occurred at the two facing (adjacent) surfaces. One hundred and eighty patients with a total of 278 inter-proximal units were included. Radiographs of implants that also included adjacent (facing) natural tooth/teeth were digitalized, and various linear measurements were performed using a software program. The marginal bone level and the bone level change that had occurred during a mean of 5.8 years were assessed as well as distance between the implant and the adjacent tooth/teeth. The mean amount of additional marginal bone loss that took place during the observation period was about 0.4 mm at both implants and adjacent tooth surfaces. The horizontal distance between an implant and the facing tooth did not influence the amount of marginal bone loss that had occurred. In most inter-proximal units, more advanced bone loss (>1 mm, >2 mm) had ensued either at the implant or at the facing tooth surface. Advanced additional bone loss occurred at both the implant and the tooth in only about 3% of the examined subjects. Bone loss at implants and teeth appears to be a site-specific phenomenon and not dependent on the inter-proximal distance. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  1. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...

  2. Bone loss following knee arthroplasty: potential treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasso, Michele; Beaufils, Philippe; Cerciello, Simone; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2014-04-01

    The management of bone loss is a crucial aspect of the revision knee arthroplasty. Bone loss can hinder the correct positioning and alignment of the prosthetic components, and can prevent the achievement of a stable bone-implant interface. There is still controversy regarding the optimal management of knee periprosthetic bone loss, especially in large defects for which structural grafts, metal or tantalum augments, tantalum cones, porous metaphyseal sleeves, and special prostheses have been advocated. The aim of this review was to analyze all possible causes of bone loss and the most advanced strategies for managing bony deficiency within the knee joint reconstruction. Most significant and recent papers about the management of bone defects during revision knee arthroplasty were carefully analyzed and reviewed to report the most common causes of bone loss and the most effective strategies to manage them. Modular metal and tantalum augmentation showed to provide more stable and durable knee revisions compared to allografts, limited by complications such as graft failure, fracture and resorption. Moreover, modular augmentation may considerably shorten operative times with a potential decrease of complications, above all infection which has been frequently associated to the use of allografts. Modular augmentation may significantly reduce the need for allografting, whose complications appear to limit the long-term success of knee revisions.

  3. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  4. The effect of peri-implant bone exposure on soft tissue healing and bone loss in two adjacent implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Yun; Kye, Seung-Boem; Hong, Jongrak; Paeng, Jun-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue and bone change around two adjacent implants in one-stage implant surgery. Methods Eleven subjects (7 males, 4 females) who were needed placement of 2 adjacent implants in the molar area were included. The two implants were placed with the platform at the level of the alveolar crest. The interproximal bone between the 2 implants was not covered with gingiva. After surgery, an alginate impression was taken to record the gingival shape and radiographs were taken to evaluate implant placement. Using a master cast, the gingival height was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. In the radiograph, the alveolar bone level was measured at the mesial and distal side of both implants at baseline and 12 weeks. Results The exposed bone was covered with gingiva at both 4 and 12 weeks. Loss of alveolar bone around implants was found in all areas. The alveolar bone level in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in the non-exposed area. Conclusions This study showed that the alveolar bone level and gingival height around 2 adjacent implants in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in unexposed bone area. PMID:22413070

  5. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHEIKHI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodontal surgery, in the posterior site of two jaws (in 6 and 7 teeth, the bone loss was measured from CEJ to the base of alveolar bone, and compared with the radiographic findings of proximal bone loss. Results. The average of distance between CEJ and alveolar bone in 48 surfaces were 4.27 in clinic, 4.80 in panoramic, 2.62 in periapical (bisecting technique, 2.98 in vertical bitewing and 4.05 in panoramic without magnification. Discussion. In this research we cancluded that both techniques (periapical and vertical bitewing are not accurate in detection of proximal bone loss and there was significant difference between quantity of proximal bone in clinical measurment than radiographic measurment and this study showed that the panoramic (specially panoramic without magnification is more careful than other radiographic techniques in detection of proximal bone loss.

  6. Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew M; Schenker, Mara L; Ahn, Jaimo; Willett, Nick J

    2017-09-01

    Segmental bone loss remains a challenging clinical problem for orthopaedic trauma surgeons. In addition to the missing bone itself, the local tissues (soft tissue, vascular) are often highly traumatized as well, resulting in a less than ideal environment for bone regeneration. As a result, attempts at limb salvage become a highly expensive endeavor, often requiring multiple operations and necessitating the use of every available strategy (autograft, allograft, bone graft substitution, Masquelet, bone transport, etc.) to achieve bony union. A cost-sensitive, functionally appropriate, and volumetrically adequate engineered substitute would be practice-changing for orthopaedic trauma surgeons and these patients with difficult clinical problems. In tissue engineering and bone regeneration fields, numerous research efforts continue to make progress toward new therapeutic interventions for segmental bone loss, including novel biomaterial development as well as cell-based strategies. Despite an ever-evolving literature base of these new therapeutic and engineered options, there remains a disconnect with the clinical practice, with very few translating into clinical use. A symposium entitled "Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss," was presented at the 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society Conference to further explore this engineering-clinical disconnect, by surveying basic, translational, and clinical researchers along with orthopaedic surgeons and proposing ideas for pushing the bar forward in the field of segmental bone loss. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1855-1864, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The role of stromal cells in inflammatory bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, C; Pap, T; Buckley, C D; Naylor, A J

    2017-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, local and systemic bone loss and a lack of compensatory bone repair. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are the most abundant cells of the stroma and a key population in autoimmune diseases such as RA. An increasing body of evidence suggests that these cells play not only an important role in chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia, but also impact bone remodelling. Under inflammatory conditions FLS release inflammatory cytokines, regulate bone destruction and formation and communicate with immune cells to control bone homeostasis. Other stromal cells, such as osteoblasts and terminally differentiated osteoblasts, termed osteocytes, are also involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and are dysregulated during inflammation. This review highlights our current understanding of how stromal cells influence the balance between bone formation and bone destruction. Increasing our understanding of these processes is critical to enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies with which to treat bone loss in RA. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Temporal bone imaging in osteogenesis imperfecta patients with hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, F.K.R.; Casselman, J.W.; Leenheer, E.M. De; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an autosomal-dominant connective-tissue disorder, predominantly characterized by bone fragility. Conductive hearing loss develops in half of the OI patients and often progresses to mixed loss. Findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic

  9. Conductive hearing loss and bone conduction devices: restored binaural hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; van Opstal, John; Snik, Ad F M

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of binaural hearing is the proper detection of interaural sound level differences and interaural timing differences. Assessments of binaural hearing were made in patients with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL, n = 11) or congenital UCHL (n = 10) after unilateral application of a bone conduction device (BCD), and in patients with bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss after bilateral BCD application. Benefit (bilateral versus unilateral listening) was assessed by measuring directional hearing, compensation of the acoustic head shadow, binaural summation and binaural squelch. Measurements were performed after an acclimatization time of at least 10 weeks. Unilateral BCD application was beneficial, but there was less benefit in the patients with congenital UCHL as compared to patients with acquired UCHL. In adults with bilateral hearing loss, bilateral BCD application was clearly beneficial as compared to unilateral BCD application. Binaural summation was present, but binaural squelch could not be proven. To explain the poor results in the patients with congenital UCHL, two factors seemed to be important. First, a critical period in the development of binaural hearing might affect the binaural hearing abilities. Second, crossover stimulation, referring to additional stimulation of the cochlea contralateral to the BCD side, might deteriorate binaural hearing in patients with UCHL. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Bone loss after bariatric surgery: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2014-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  12. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  13. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  14. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins e Souza, Patricia [Fleury Medicina e Saude and Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brandao, Bruno Lobo; Motta, Geraldo; Monteiro, Martim [Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brown, Eduardo [Grupo Fleury Medicina Diagnostica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  15. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  16. CCR2 elimination in mice results in larger and stronger tibial bones but bone loss is not attenuated following ovariectomy or muscle denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Tara L; Novotny, Susan A; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Lowe, Dawn A; Warren, Gordon L

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss due to age and disuse contributes to osteoporosis and increases fracture risk. It has been hypothesized that such bone loss can be attenuated by modulation of the C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and/or its ligands. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of genetic elimination of CCR2 on cortical and trabecular bones in the mouse tibia and how bone loss was impacted following disuse and estrogen loss. Female CCR2 knockout (CCR2(-/-)) and wildtype mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or denervation of musculature adjacent to the tibia (DEN) to induce bone loss. Cortical and trabecular structural properties as well as mechanical properties (i.e., strength) of tibial bones were measured. Compared to wildtype mice, CCR2(-/-) mice had tibiae that were up to 9% larger and stronger; these differences could be explained mainly by the 17% greater body mass (P bone loss per se. These findings indicate that while CCR2(-/-) mice do have larger and stronger bones than do wildtype mice, there is minimal evidence that CCR2 elimination provides protection against bone loss during disuse and estrogen loss.

  17. Bone mineral measurements and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteopenia) is a major factor in the development of osteoporotic fractures in women after the menopause. The pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been pursued by dual lines of investigation: (1) development of a model to describe involutional bone loss, (2) identification of those factors which result in some healthy women having a greater risk for osteoporosis than others. Bone mineral measurements have been made using in vivo neutron activation analysis and whole body counting for the measurement of total body calcium (TBCa), single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content of the distal radius and dual photon absorptiometry for measurement of the bone density of the spine. TBCa is higher in men than women and is lost at a slow linear rate in men. Blacks have a skeletal mass about 8-9% higher than Caucasians. Women have a similar loss of TBCa to men prior to menopause, but then have an accelerated rate of loss after menopause. The change in bone density of the radius and spine with increasing age is also best described by a 2 phase regression in women, with appreciable loss after age 50

  18. A multi-method assessment of bone maintenance and loss in an Imperial Roman population: Implications for future studies of age-related bone loss in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, Patrick; Agarwal, Sabrina C

    2017-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course. We test the hypothesis that bone mass and maintenance in trabecular bone sites versus cortical bone sites will show differing patterns of age-related bone loss, with cortical bone sites showing sex difference in bone loss that are similar to contemporary Western populations, and trabecular bone loss at earlier ages. We investigated this hypothesis in the Imperial Roman population of Velia using three methods: radiogrammetry of the second metacarpal (N = 71), bone histology of ribs (N = 70), and computerized tomography of trabecular bone architecture (N = 47). All three methods were used to explore sex and age differences in patterns of bone loss. The suite of methods utilized reveal differences in the timing of bone loss with age, but all methods found no statistically significant differences in age-related bone loss. We argue that a multi-method approach reduces the influence of confounding factors by building a reconstruction of bone turnover over the life cycle that a limited single-method project cannot provide. The implications of using multiple methods beyond studies of bone loss are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  20. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  1. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  2. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effectively suppresses bone loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  4. Rapid cortical bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Stein, Emily M; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Komandah-Kosseh, Mafo; Zhang, Chiyuan A; McMahon, Donald J; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may have high rates of bone loss and fractures, but microarchitectural and biochemical mechanisms of bone loss in CKD patients have not been fully described. In this longitudinal study of 53 patients with CKD Stages 2 to 5D, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), and biochemical markers of bone metabolism to elucidate effects of CKD on the skeleton. Median follow-up was 1.5 years (range 0.9 to 4.3 years); bone changes were annualized and compared with baseline. By DXA, there were significant declines in areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip and ultradistal radius: -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.1 to -0.6) and -2.4% (95% CI -4.0 to -0.9), respectively. By HRpQCT at the distal radius, there were significant declines in cortical area, density, and thickness and increases in porosity: -2.9% (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2), -1.3% (95% CI -1.6 to -0.6), -2.8% (95% CI -3.6 to -1.9), and +4.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 6.4), respectively. Radius trabecular area increased significantly: +0.4% (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), without significant changes in trabecular density or microarchitecture. Elevated time-averaged levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers predicted cortical deterioration. Higher levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted decreases in trabecular network heterogeneity. These data suggest that significant cortical loss occurs with CKD, which is mediated by hyperparathyroidism and elevated turnover. Future investigations are required to determine whether these cortical losses can be attenuated by treatments that reduce PTH levels and remodeling rates. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  6. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  7. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  9. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  10. Staged subtalar fusion for severe calcaneus fractures with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chad G; Coffey, Michael J; Shorten, Peter; Lyions, James D; Laughlin, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    With high energy fractures to the calcaneus there is the potential for significant bone loss. The loss of bone can make it difficult to fully regain calcaneal alignment. In addition these fractures are often associated with significant soft tissue injury. These two factors make it difficult to address this injury in a single stage, and can have significant complications. To address these issues our initial goal in treatment has been restoration of calcaneal alignment and stabilization of the surrounding soft tissue, followed by delayed/staged subtalar arthrodesis. Patients with calcaneus fractures treated by a single surgeon from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed. Injuries which were found to have medial extrusion of the posterior facet and bone loss, and subsequently underwent a staged protocol involving early provisional fixation and late subtalar fusion were included. We treated 6 calcaneus fractures with bone loss. All patients were treated with staged subtalar fusion after initial irrigation and debridement and provisional fixation. No soft-tissue complications were noted after the fusion procedure in any of the six cases. Fusion occurred in all six patients at an average of 20.6 weeks (range, 13-23 weeks). All patients were able to ambulate and wear a regular shoe by one year following the initial injury. It is important in the high energy calcaneus fracture to assess for both soft tissue integrity and bone loss. A thorough debridement of both the soft tissues and any devitalized bone should be performed as well as provisional fixation which attempts to restore near normal calcaneal anatomy. Definitive fusion should not be performed until the soft tissues have fully recovered.

  11. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  12. Soy Isoflavones and Osteoporotic Bone Loss: A Review with an Emphasis on Modulation of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Lee, Sun-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that affects both women and men, although estrogen deficiency induced by menopause accelerates bone loss in older women. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of men and women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Since the current drug therapies available have multiple side effects, including increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or complications, a search for potential nonpharmacologic alternative therapies for osteoporosis is of prime interest. Soy isoflavones (SI) have demonstrated potential bone-specific effects in a number of studies. This article provides a systematic review of studies on osteoporotic bone loss in relation to SI intake from diet or supplements to comprehensively explain how SI affect the modulation of bone remodeling. Evidence from epidemiologic studies supports that dietary SI attenuate menopause-induced osteoporotic bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Other studies have also illustrated that bone site-specific trophic and synergistic effects combined with exercise intervention might contribute to improve the bioavailability of SI or strengthen the bone-specific effects. To date, however, the effects of dietary SI on osteoporotic bone loss remain inconclusive, and study results vary from study to study. The current review will discuss the potential factors that result in the conflicting outcomes of these studies, including dosages, intervention materials, study duration, race, and genetic differences. Further well-designed studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanism and evaluate the effects of SI on osteoporosis in humans. PMID:26670451

  13. Bone transport and compression-distraction in the treatment of bone loss of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavini, Franco; Dall'Oca, Carlo; Bartolozzi, Pietro

    2010-11-01

    A clinical series of 17 adult patients operated due to significant by bone loss of the long bones of the lower extremity (3 femurs and 11 tibias), is presented. Their management consisted of 6 bone transports (6 tibias) and 11 compression distraction procedures (3 femurs and 8 tibiae) using monolateral external fixators. Bone loss ranged from 3.9 cm to 14.7 cm. Mean healing time was 301 days with a mean healing index of 45.6 days for cm of lengthening achieved. The clinical and radiological results were excellent in 9, good in 6 and fair in 2 patients according to the utilised criteria of assessment. Consolidation was achieved in all but one patient who developed an aseptic stiff non-union. Two patients developed residual limb-length discrepancy less than 1.5 cm, three tibias ended up with less than 5° of valgus deviation. In two cases the half-pins were re-inserted due to early loosening. In two cases reoperation was needed for late bending of the callus after fixator removal. Three cases of bone transport and 1 case of compression distraction needed bone grafting at the docking site. Bone transport and compression-distraction are effective methods for treating bone loss in the lower extremity. It is suggested that the compression-distraction technique is preferable, since this is associated with a lower incidence of complications than bone transport procedures. The deciding factor, however, is the actual extent of the bone loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G determines osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harre, Ulrike; Lang, Stefanie C; Pfeifle, René; Rombouts, Yoann; Frühbeißer, Sabine; Amara, Khaled; Bang, Holger; Lux, Anja; Koeleman, Carolien A; Baum, Wolfgang; Dietel, Katharina; Gröhn, Franziska; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Krönke, Gerhard; Kocijan, Roland; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Toes, René E M; Herrmann, Martin; Scherer, Hans Ulrich; Schett, Georg

    2015-03-31

    Immunglobulin G (IgG) sialylation represents a key checkpoint that determines the engagement of pro- or anti-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and the direction of the immune response. Whether IgG sialylation influences osteoclast differentiation and subsequently bone architecture has not been determined yet, but may represent an important link between immune activation and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that desialylated, but not sialylated, immune complexes enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that the Fc sialylation state of random IgG and specific IgG autoantibodies determines bone architecture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In accordance with these findings, mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), which results in increased IgG sialylation, are less susceptible to inflammatory bone loss. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism by which immune responses influence the human skeleton and an innovative treatment approach to inhibit immune-mediated bone loss.

  15. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-09-04

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-ε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-ε and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Use of 3D MR reconstructions in the evaluation of glenoid bone loss: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Beltran, Luis S.; Yemin, Avner; Recht, Michael P.; Strauss, Eric; Meislin, Robert; Jazrawi, Laith

    2014-01-01

    To assess the ability of 3D MR shoulder reconstructions to accurately quantify glenoid bone loss in the clinical setting using findings at the time of arthroscopy as the gold standard. Retrospective review of patients with MR shoulder studies that included 3D MR reconstructions (3D MR) produced using an axial Dixon 3D-T1W-FLASH sequence at our institution was conducted with the following inclusion criteria: history of anterior shoulder dislocation, arthroscopy (OR) performed within 6 months of the MRI, and an estimate of glenoid bone loss made in the OR using the bare-spot method. Two musculoskeletal radiologists produced estimates of bone loss along the glenoid width, measured in mm and %, on 3D MR using the best-fit circle method, which were then compared to the OR measurements. There were a total of 15 patients (13 men, two women; mean age, 28, range, 19-51 years). There was no significant difference, on average, between the MRI (mean 3.4 mm/12.6 %; range, 0-30 %) and OR (mean, 12.7 %; range, 0-30 %) measurements of glenoid bone loss (p = 0.767). A 95 % confidence interval for the mean absolute error extended from 0.45-2.21 %, implying that, when averaged over all patients, the true mean absolute error of the MRI measurements relative to the OR measurements is expected to be less than 2.21 %. Inter-reader agreement between the two readers had an IC of 0.92 and CC of 0.90 in terms of percentage of bone loss. 3D MR reconstructions of the shoulder can be used to accurately measure glenoid bone loss. (orig.)

  17. Effect of trabecular bone loss on cortical strain rate during impact in an in vitro model of avian femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefen Amit

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporotic hip fractures occur due to loss of cortical and trabecular bone mass and consequent degradation in whole bone strength. The direct cause of most fractures is a fall, and hence, characterizing the mechanical behavior of a whole osteopenic bone under impact is important. However, very little is known about the mechanical interactions between cortical and trabecular bone during impact, and it is specifically unclear to what extent epiphyseal trabecular bone contributes to impact resistance of whole bones. We hypothesized that trabecular bone serves as a structural support to the cortex during impact, and hence, loss of a critical mass of trabecular bone reduces internal constraining of the cortex, and, thereby, decreases the impact tolerance of the whole bone. Methods To test this hypothesis, we conducted cortical strain rate measurements in adult chicken's proximal femora subjected to a Charpy impact test, after removing different trabecular bone core masses to simulate different osteopenic severities. Results We found that removal of core trabecular bone decreased by ~10-fold the cortical strain rate at the side opposite to impact (p Conclusion We conclude that in our in vitro avian model, loss of over 10% of core trabecular bone substantially altered the deformation response of whole bone to impact, which supports the above hypothesis and indicates that integrity of trabecular bone is critical for resisting impact loads.

  18. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Key words: Alveolar bone loss, chronic periodontitis, dental, furcation defect, radiography. Date of Acceptance: 19-Jan- ... cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the alveolar crest (AC) or the bottom of the bony ..... prognosis of periodontal healing of infrabony defects: Two different definitions of defect depth.

  19. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  20. Interleukin-1 is essential for systemic inflammatory bone loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzer, K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Gasser, J.; Distler, J.H.; Ruiz, G.; Baum, W.; Redlich, K.; Bobacz, K.; Smolen, J.S.; Berg, W. van den; Schett, G.; Zwerina, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for systemic bone loss leading to osteoporotic fracture and substantial morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory cytokines, particularly tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL1), are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of

  1. Patterns of bone loss around teeth restored with endodontic posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsamakis, S.; Timmerman, M.; van der Velden, U.; de Cleen, M.; van der Weijden, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study described the pattern of bone loss around teeth with endodontic posts in periodontitis patients, and compared it with contra-lateral teeth without posts. Material and Methods: From full-mouth radiographic surveys of 146 periodontitis patients (35 years), 194

  2. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between interdental and interradicular bone loss and clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred-twenty intraoral periapical radiographs of first molars were obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis ...

  3. Bone growth stimulators. New tools for treating bone loss and mending fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James F; Morley, Paul; Willick, Gordon E

    2002-01-01

    In the new millennium, humans will be traveling to Mars and eventually beyond with skeletons that respond to microgravity by self-destructing. Meanwhile in Earth's aging populations growing numbers of men and many more women are suffering from crippling bone loss. During the first decade after menopause all women suffer an accelerating loss of bone, which in some of them is severe enough to result in "spontaneous" crushing of vertebrae and fracturing of hips by ordinary body movements. This is osteoporosis, which all too often requires prolonged and expensive care, the physical and mental stress of which may even kill the patient. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is caused by the loss of estrogen. The slower development of osteoporosis in aging men is also due at least in part to a loss of the estrogen made in ever smaller amounts in bone cells from the declining level of circulating testosterone and is needed for bone maintenance as it is in women. The loss of estrogen increases the generation, longevity, and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The destructive osteoclast surge can be blocked by estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as well as antiosteoclast agents such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin. But these agents stimulate only a limited amount of bone growth as the unaffected osteoblasts fill in the holes that were dug by the now suppressed osteoclasts. They do not stimulate osteoblasts to make bone--they are antiresorptives not bone anabolic agents. (However, certain estrogen analogs and bisphosphates may stimulate bone growth to some extent by lengthening osteoblast working lives.) To grow new bone and restore bone strength lost in space and on Earth we must know what controls bone growth and destruction. Here we discuss the newest bone controllers and how they might operate. These include leptin from adipocytes and osteoblasts and the statins that are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol and cardiovascular damage. But

  4. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  5. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  6. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  7. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  9. CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, M; García-Giralt, N; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Servitja, S; Balcells, S; Pecorelli, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Tusquets, I; Nogués, X

    2015-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (Pbone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Association Between Dietary Fiber Intake and Bone Loss in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Felson, David T; Kiel, Douglas P; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-02-01

    Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L 2 to L 4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m 2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m 2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (β) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (β = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (β = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  12. Sclerostin Antibody Reverses Bone Loss by Increasing Bone Formation and Decreasing Bone Resorption in a Rat Model of Male Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Villasenor, Kelly S; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Frank J; Xia, Xuechun; Grisanti, Mario; Wronski, Thomas J; Simonet, W Scott; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis. We treated 9-month-old ORX Sprague Dawley rats (3 months after ORX) subcutaneously twice weekly with vehicle or Scl-Ab (5 or 25 mg/kg) for 6 weeks (n = 10 per group). Both doses of Scl-Ab fully reversed the BMD deficit in the lumbar spine and femur and tibia in ORX rats. Microcomputed tomography showed that the bone mass in the fifth lumbar vertebral body, femur diaphysis, and femoral neck were dose-dependently restored by Scl-Ab. The bone strength at these sites increased significantly with Scl-Ab to levels matching those of sham-operated controls and correlated positively with improvements in bone mineral content, demonstrating bone quality maintenance. Dynamic histomorphometry of the tibial diaphysis and second lumbar vertebral body demonstrated that Scl-Ab significantly increased bone formation on periosteal, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces and significantly decreased bone resorption on endocortical and trabecular surfaces. The effects of Scl-Ab on increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption led to restoration of bone mass and strength in androgen-deficient rats. These findings support the ongoing evaluation of Scl-Ab as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in men. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  13. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  14. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  15. Use of non-vascularized autologous fibula strut graft in the treatment of segmental bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Y Z; Garba, E S; Ogirima, M O; Dahiru, I L; Maitama, M I; Abubakar, K; Ejagwulu, F S

    2011-01-01

    Fractures resulting in segmental bone loss challenge the orthopedic surgeon. Orthopedic surgeons in developed countries have the option of choosing vascularized bone transfers, bone transport, allogenic bone grafts, bone graft substitutes and several other means to treat such conditions. In developing countries where such facilities or expertise may not be readily available, the surgeon has to rely on other techniques of treatment. Non-vascularized fibula strut graft and cancellous bone grafting provides a reliable means of treating such conditions in developing countries. Over a period of six years all patients with segmental bone loss either from trauma or oncologic resection were included in the study. Data concerning the type of wound, size of gap and skin loss at tumor or fracture were obtained from clinical examination and radiographs. Ten patients satisfied the inclusion criteria for the study. The average length of the fibula strut is 7 cm, the longest being 15 cm and the shortest 3 cm long. The average defect length was 6.5 cm. Five patients had Gustillo III B open tibial fractures. One patient had recurrent giant cell tumor of the distal radius and another had a polyostotic bone cyst of the femur, which was later confirmed to be osteosarcoma. Another had non-union of distal tibial fracture with shortening. One other patient had gunshot injury to the femur and was initially managed by skeletal traction. The tenth patient had a comminuted femoral fracture. All trauma patients had measurement of missing segment, tissue envelope assessment, neurological examination, and debridement under general anesthesia with fracture stabilization with external fixators or casts. Graft incorporation was 80% in all treated patients. Autologous free, non-vascularized fibula and cancellous graft is a useful addition to the armamentarium of orthopedic surgeon in developing countries attempting to manage segmental bone loss, whether created by trauma or excision of tumors.

  16. Average annual crestal bone loss of ITI implants following the first year of loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hosseinzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long term success of dental implants directly depends on marginal bone resorption. The aim of this study was to determine the annual average bone loss on the mesial and distal aspects of implants following the first year of implantation. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytical study of patients treated with ITI (International Team of Implantology implants at the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1998-2002 (1377-81. A total of 15 patients with 41 implants were selected by convenience sampling method. The height of the alveolar bone was measured using panoramic radiography before and after loading with calipers to determine the average bone loss. Other information such as pocket depth, bleeding index, plaque index, gingival recession, was obtained by clinical examinations. The mean bone loss on the mesial & distal sides was analyzed by ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The average bone loss on the proximal sides of ITI implants obtained annually after the first year of loading was 0.084 ± 0.035 mm with slight difference on the mesial (0.092 ± 0.035 and distal (0.072 ± 0.033 sides. There was negligible difference between male and female patients. The average survival rate for thirty three months was 95.1%. CONCLUSION: The average bone loss on the mesial and distal sides of ITI implants compared with other studies was satisfactory. Survival and success rates were acceptable. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, bone resorption, survival rate, dental plaque index.

  17. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-12-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss.

  18. Short-Term Hypoxia Accelerates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats by Suppressing Osteoblastogenesis but Enhancing Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixin; Wang, Jia; Sun, Dawei; Xin, Jingyi; Wang, Liping; Huang, Dong; Wu, Weichi; Xian, Cory J

    2016-08-23

    BACKGROUND Although it has been reported that hypoxic exposure can attenuate hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and some other diseases, effects of hypoxia on osteoporosis are still unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS The current study investigated whether short-term hypoxic exposure (in comparison with normoxic conditions) affects bone metabolism in normal or ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats in an vivo study. Micro-computed tomography bone volume/structural analyses, histological examination, and serum bone turnover biochemical assays were used. In addition, the expressions of some associated major regulatory molecules were measured in osteoblastic cultures. RESULTS While the 14-day hypoxic exposure did not change the bone-remodeling process in normal adult female rats, it decreased bone volume, osteoclast density, and serum bone formation marker (alkaline phosphatase) level, but increased osteoclast density and serum bone resorption marker (C-telopeptide of collagen) level in OVX rats. The bone marrow adipocyte number and serum fatty acid binding protein-4 level were increased in OVX-hypoxic rats compared with OVX-normoxic rats. Consistently, in human MG-63 osteoblastic cultures, the hypoxic condition suppressed protein expression of osteogenic transcriptional factors Runx2 and osterix, elevated protein expression of osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, but reduced that of osteoclastogenic inhibitor osteoprotegerin. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that, although no change occurred in the bone-remodeling process in normal adult female rats after hypoxic exposure, under the estrogen-deficient osteoporotic condition, the hypoxic condition can alter the bone microenvironment so that it may further impair osteoblastic differentiation and enhance osteoclastic formation, and thus reduce bone formation, enhance bone resorption, and accelerate bone loss.

  19. Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space

  20. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  1. Management of metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Beltrame, Arianna; Colombo, Elia; Miani, Enrick; Bassini, Fabrizio

    2017-06-07

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually made more complex by the presence of bone defects, which may be caused by periprosthethic infection, polyethylene wear, implant loosening or fractures. The main aim of the present work is to review the available literature to understand the current options to manage with the bone loss during knee revisions. Available English literature for bone defects in revision TKAs has been evaluated looking at treatment options and their results in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes and failure rates. Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute (AORI) classification is the most frequently used because it helps in the choice of the most suitable treatment. Several options are available in the management of metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty. For small and contained defects (AORI type 1) cement with or without screws and auto- or allograft morcellized bone are available. In uncontained but mild defects (AORI type 2A) metal augments should be use while large and uncontained defects (AORI type 2B and 3) are best addressed with structural allograft or metal filling devices (cones and sleeves). Stemmed components, either cemented or cementless, are recommended to reduce the strain at the interface implant-host. The treatment of bone defects in revision TKAs has evolved during the last years providing different options with good results at a short/medium term follow up. With the increasing revision burden, further scientific evidence is requested to identify the best approach for each patient. Long-term clinical outcome as well as implant survival after revision TKA are still sub-optimal and depend upon many factors including cause for revision, surgical approach, type of implants used and various patient factors.

  2. Basis of bone metabolism around dental implants during osseointegration and peri-implant bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Angel; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Miron, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants. An update on the coupling mechanism occurring during bone resorption-bone remodeling is provided, focused on the relevance of the osteocytes, bone lining cells and immune cells during bone maintenance. An electronic and manual literature search was conducted by three independent reviewers in several databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases for articles up to September 2016 with no language restriction. Local bone metabolism is subject to signals from systemic calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. Three areas of interest were reviewed due to recent reported compromises in bone healing including the putative effects of (1) cholesterol, (2) hyperlipidemia, and (3) low vitamin D intake. Moreover, the prominent influence of osteocytes and immune cells is discussed as being key regulators during dental implant osseointegration and maintenance. These cells are of crucial importance in the presence of biofilm accumulation and their associated byproducts that leads to hard and soft tissue breakdown; the so called peri-implantitis. Factors that could negatively impact osteoclastogenesis or osteal macrophage activation should be monitored in future research including implant placement/torque protocols, bone characteristics, as well as meticulous maintenance programs to favor osseointegration and future long-term stability and success of dental implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res

  3. Bone loss and human adaptation to lunar gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T. S.; Strauss, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Long-duration space missions and establishment of permanently manned bases on the Moon and Mars are currently being planned. The weightless environment of space and the low-gravity environments of the Moon and Mars pose an unknown challenge to human habitability and survivability. Of particular concern in the medical research community today is the effect of less than Earth gravity on the human skeleton, since the limits, if any, of human endurance in low-gravity environments are unknown. This paper provides theoretical predictions on bone loss and skeletal adaptation to lunar and other nonterrestrial-gravity environments based upon the experimentally derived relationship, density approximately (mass x gravity)(exp 1/8). The predictions are compared to skeletal changes reported during bed rest, immobilization, certrifugation, and spaceflight. Countermeasures to reduce bone losses in fractional gravity are also discussed.

  4. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  5. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of disease activity, duration of the disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Axial and appendicular bone mass were studied in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aims were to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate the importance of disease activity, duration of disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment for bone loss in patients...... activity at the time of investigation. By contrast, BMDARM was decreased in patients with active disease. BMD in any of the three measured locations was not directly correlated to duration of the disease. However, the bone mass in the appendicular skeleton was already decreased within the first two years...... to clinical improvement, which may counteract the expected negative effect of these drugs on bone in rheumatoid arthritis....

  6. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    electrically and compared with the losses obtained with the calorimetric method. The results obtained by the two methods are consistent. Based on an I2 (current) fitting procedure, the loss, caused by the eddy current generated in the stainless steel cryostat housing, and the hysteresis loss generated......A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...

  7. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Changes in trabecular bone composition during development of osteoporosis are used as a model for bone loss in microgravity conditions during a space flight. Symbolic dynamics and measures of complexity are proposed and applied to assess quantitatively the structural composition of bone tissue from...

  8. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  9. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  10. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  11. Post-traumatic bone mineral loss in tibial shaft fractures treated with a weight-bearing brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, S M; Nilsson, B E

    1979-12-01

    The bone mineral content in the upper ends of the tibia and the fibula was measured in 27 patients with tibial shaft fracture. The loss of bone mineral associated with the fracture did not differ between patients who were allowed weight-bearing in a functional below-knee brace and patients treated with a long leg plaster cast without weight-bearing.

  12. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...

  13. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of marginal bone loss among implant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Denis; Parpaiola, Andrea; Lindhe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional retrospective study was to determine bone loss in a sample of subjects restored with implant-supported prostheses and the prevalence and severity of peri-implantitis in a sub-sample. A total of 139 patients who had attended a follow-up visit in 2007 were considered for inclusion. Subjects with implants that had been in function for less than 3 years or had poor quality radiographs were excluded. The final study population comprised 133 subjects with a total of 407 implants. Radiographic measurements identified subjects who had ≥1 implant site exhibiting marginal bone loss of >0.5 mm; 40 subjects met this criterion and were recalled for a clinical examination. Of the 40 subjects that were recalled for the clinical examination, 30 attended. The following parameters were recorded at mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual/palatal aspects of all implants: oral hygiene standard (plaque), bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth (PPD). The mean interval between the baseline (1-year post-loading) and the follow-up radiographs was 4.8 ± 2.3 years. In the total subject sample (133 subjects and 407 implants), the mean amount of marginal bone loss that had occurred was 0.2 ± 1.2 mm. Ninety-three subjects with 246 implant sites exhibited no bone level alteration (group A), whereas 40 subjects with 161 implant sites (group B) displayed marginal bone loss of >0.5 mm at ≥1 implant (loser site). Sixty-eight implant sites in group B exhibited bone loss of >0.5 mm. However, only 20% of subjects and 11% of sites had lost >1 mm marginal bone, and 8% of subjects and 4% of sites had lost >2 mm bone. The total amount of bone loss that had occurred in group B was (i) 0.88 ± 1.5 mm and (ii) among the loser sites 2.1 ± 1.4 mm. Thirty subjects from group B were exposed to a clinical examination; out of 37 sites with bone loss >0.5 mm in this subgroup, 29 sites had a PPD value of ≥4 mm. Marginal bone loss (>0.5 mm) at implants

  14. Comparison of Bone Loss around Bone Platform Shift and Non-Bone Platform Shift Implants After 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirReza Rokn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present randomized clinical trial was to evaluate marginal bone loss around two types of implants modified at the neck area: Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy, both manufactured by Nobel Biocare.Materials and Methods: A total of 25 Nobel Active and 21 Nobel Replace Groovy implants were included in the present study. The implants were placed based on the relevant protocol and patient inclusion and exclusion criteria. The amount of bone loss around implants was compared at 6 and 12-month intervals using digital periapical radiographs.Results: The mean bone loss values in the Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy groups were 0.682 mm and 0.645 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant difference based on the results of independent t-test (P=0.802.Conclusion: Use of both implant types yielded favorable results, with high durability.The two implant types exhibited no superiority over each other in terms of bone loss.

  15. Zanthoxylum piperitum reversed alveolar bone loss of periodontitis via regulation of bone remodeling-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Hye Ji; Park, Jung-Chul; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-04

    Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100). Sterilized 3-0 nylon ligature was placed into the subgingival sulcus around the both sides of mandibular first molar. After topical application of 1 and 100mg/mL ZP for 2 weeks, mandibles was removed for histology. In addition, SaOS-2 osteoblast cells were treated 1, 10 and 100μg/mL ZP for 24h to analyze the expressions of alveolar bone-related markers. Several alveolar bone resorption pits, which indicate cementum demineralization were decreased by ZP treatment. Topical ZP treatment inhibited periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss. In addition, there were significant reduction of osteoclastic activities following topical ZP treatment in periodontium. The expression of RANKL was decreased in SaOS-2 osteoblast cells by treating ZP, while that of OPG was increased. ZP treatment increased the expressions of Runx2 and Osterix in SaOS-2 cells. In summary, ZP treatment inhibited alveolar bone loss as well as maintained the integrity of periodontal structures via regulation of bone remodeling. ZP may be a therapeutic target for treating periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alveolar bone loss and mineralization in the pig with experimental periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandee Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To address how experimental periodontal disease affects alveolar bone mass and mineral apposition in a young pig model. Materials and methods: Seven three-month-old pigs were periodically inoculated with 4 types of periodontal bacteria, along with a ligature around the last maxillary deciduous molar for 8 weeks to induce periodontal disease (PG. Eight same-aged pigs served as the control (CG. Segmentations of 3D cone-beam CT images were performed to quantify volumes of the total alveolar bone, alveolar ridge, and all roots of the target molar. Calcein and alizarin were administered for labeling mineral apposition before euthanasia. The harvested molar blocks were sectioned and examined under epifluorescence. The inter-label distance between the two vital markers at regional bone surfaces were measured and mineral apposition rate (MAR was calculated. Results: A significant reduction of total alveolar bone volume was seen in PG with the major loss at the alveolar ridge. MAR was significantly higher at the root furcation region than those at both buccal and palatal ridges in CG. Compared with CG, PG animals showed more interrupted labeled bands with significantly lower MAR at the furcation region. MARs were positively associated with both the volumes of total alveolar bone and ridge in CG, but only with the total alveolar bone in PG. Conclusions: In young growing pigs, mineral apposition is region specific. The experimental periodontal disease not only leads to alveolar bone loss, but also perturbs mineral apposition for new bone formation, thus impairing the homeostasis of alveolar bone remodeling. Keyword: Dentistry

  17. Is there loss of vibration amplitude across the snap coupling of the bone-anchored hearing aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Osama; Van Wijhe, Rene G; Bance, Manohar

    2006-04-01

    There is loss of vibration transmission across the snap coupling connecting the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid transducer to the implanted abutment on the head. The only nonrigid part of the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid system is the connection between the output of the transducer and the abutment. Vibration losses across the coupling have not been previously measured. If a loss is found, a change in design could improve the efficiency of the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid. This would be very helpful in borderline cases in which the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid does not have enough power to achieve adequate hearing threshold levels. A laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure vibrations on the output stem and four points on the abutment of the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid. The Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid was coupled to a dry skull through a plexiglas bite bar screwed to the skull. The impedance load was varied by fixing the skull. A control loose coupling was measured. Five Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Compacts were measured. There was little loss across the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid snap coupling. At frequencies above 500 Hz, there was no more than 5-dB loss at any frequency. Changing the impedance load by fixing the skull did not change the loss across the coupling. The snap coupling is an efficient means of transmitting vibrations to the skull. There is little loss of vibration attenuation across it. Increases in functional Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid amplification gain cannot be achieved by further optimizing this interface.

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of zoledronic acid and amifostine on radiation induced bone loss in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sueum; Kang, Sohi; Moon, Cahng Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeungeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham control and three irradiated groups (3 Gy, gamma ray). The irradiated mice were treated for 12 weeks with vehicle, amifostine (intraperitoneal injection), or ZA (subcutaneous injection). Grip strength, uterus weight, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) levels were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of ZA (100 μg·kg{sup -1}·week{sup -1}) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, and cortical bone volume, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. The administration of ZA for 12 weeks lowered serum ALP and TRAP levels in irradiated mice, suggesting that ZA can reduce the bone turnover rate in mice. No differences were apparent between the amifostine-treated group and the irradiation control group. The results indicate that ZA can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.

  19. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  20. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  1. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  2. Possible Role of Garlic Oil and Parsley Extract in Ameliorating Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, L.; El-Sabbagh, W.; Kenawy, S.

    2011-01-01

    To Investigate the possible protective effect of garlic oil and parsley extract against bone loss resulted in female virgin rats exposed to fractionated doses of gamma-radiation (1 Gy 3 times weekly for 5 weeks). Urinary calcium (U Ca), calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), hydroxyproline and serum phosphorus were measured as bone resorption bio markers, while serum osteocalcine (OST) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as bone formation bio markers. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) which represents the balance in bone remodeling was measured. Malondiadehyde level (MDA) as well as superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was measured as oxidative stress bio markers. Female irradiated rats in the present study had significant increases in both bone resorption and bone formation bio markers after 6 weeks from the last exposure to gamma-radiation. Irradiated rats also had significant decreases in plasma NO indicating imbalance in bone remodeling as well as significant increase in oxidative stress bio markers. Daily treatment with garlic oil extracted in olive oil improved all measured parameters except OST level, while the vehicle used for garlic oil (extra virgin olive oil) significantly decreased bone resorption bio markers. Parsley extract induced normalization to all bone resorption and formation parameters measured in irradiated rats. Daily administration of garlic oil and parsley extract protected the bone from degeneration induced by exposure to fractionated doses of gamma radiation.

  3. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking......: DXR-BMD was measured from hand x-rays in a reference cohort (1485 men/2541 women) without arthritis randomly selected from an urban Danish population. Sex- and age-related HBL/year was estimated. DXR-BMD was measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 350: at start of TNFI, and ~2 years after TNFI...... start), of which 135 patients had three x-rays (~2 years prior to TNFI, at start of TNFI, and ~2 years after TNFI start). Individual HBL/year prior to and during TNFI was calculated and compared to reference values. RESULTS: Estimated HBL/year varied strongly with age and sex. Compared to the reference...

  4. A Radiographic Comparison of Progressive and Conventional Loading on Crestal Bone Loss and Density in Single Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sorouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crestal bone loss is a biologic complication in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of progressive and conventional loading on crestal bone height and bone density around single osseointegrated implants in posterior maxilla by a longitudinal radiographic assessment technique.Materials and methods: Twenty micro thread implants were placed in 10 patients (two implants per patient. One of the two implants of each patient was assigned to progressive and the other to conventional loading groups. Eight weeks after surgery, conventional implants were restored with a metal ceramic crown and progressive group underwent a progressive loading protocol. The progressive loading group takes different temporary acrylic crowns at 2, 4 and 6 months. After eight months, acrylic crowns were replaced with metal ceramic crown. Computer radiography of both progressive and conventional implants was taken at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Image analysis was performed to measure height of crestal bone loss and bone density.Results: The mean values of crestal bone loss at month 12 were 0.11 (0.19 mm for progressively and 0.36 (0.36 mm for conventionally loaded implants, with a statistically significant difference (P 0.05.Conclusion: Progressive group showed less crestal bone loss in single osseointegrated implant than conventional group. Bone density around progressively loaded implants showed increase in crestal, middle and apica

  5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  6. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Bone Loss in the Acute Stage Following Burn Injury - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Leblebici

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a bone loss occurs during acute period following burn injury or not, and to investigate the effects of various parameters on it. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 19 patients, ages between 20 and 50, who had a burn injury with more than %20 of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA. We recorded the patients’ burn cause, localization, percantage, ambulation and functional status. At the end of the first month, we measured bone mıneral densıty of total L1-L4 vertebrae, left distal forearm, left total femur, in all patients. A Z score less than –1 was accepted to be the indicator of bone loss. Results: The mean age of the patients (14 male and 5 female was 33.09±11.61. We found a Z score less then -1 in 68.4% of left distal forearm, 21.1% of left total femur and 36.8% of total L1-L4 vertabrae measurements. There were no significant correlations between TBSA, Functional Ambulatıon Scale and Functional Independence Measure, and Z scores. Conclusion: There is a reduction in Bone Mineral Density in patıents wıth moderate/severe burn ınjuries in the acute period which is not correlated wıth neither TBSA nor functional status. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:33-6

  8. Dihydromyricetin Protects against Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Mice by Suppressing Osteoclast Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dihydromyricetin (DMY, the main flavonoid component of Ampelopsis grossedentata, possesses pharmacological activities useful for treatment of diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative damage. Because osteoclasts are often involved in chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative damage, we hypothesized that DMY may be an effective treatment for osteoclast-related diseases. The effects of DMY on osteoclast formation and activity were examined in vitro. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized to mimic menopause-induced bone loss and treated with DMY, and femur samples were subjected to bone structure and histological analysis, serum biochemical indicators were also measured. DMY suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB, c-Fos and mitogen-activated protein kinase, and prevented production of reactive oxygen species. DMY decreased expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including Trap, Mmp-9, Cathepsin K, C-Fos, Nfatc1, and Rank. In addition, DMY prevented bone loss and decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, and with a decrease in the ratio between receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG in vivo. These findings demonstrate that DMY attenuates bone loss and inhibits osteoclast formation and activity through modulation of multiple pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling. DMY may thus be a useful option for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  9. Candidate salivary biomarkers associated with alveolar bone loss: cross-sectional and in vitro studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Patricia Yen Bee; Donley, Maureen; Hausmann, Ernest; Hutson, Alan D.; Rossomando, Edward F.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss and the concentration of host-derived bone resorptive factors (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, prostaglandin-E2), and markers of bone turnover [pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), osteocalcin, osteonectin] in stimulated human whole saliva collected from 110 untreated dental patients. Alveolar bone loss scores for ...

  10. Cadmium-induced bone loss: Increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sacco-Gibson, N.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone {sup 45}Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/L Cd in drinking water. The {sup 45}Ca response was greater in ovariecotomized (OV) animals than in sham-operated (SO) controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood Cd concentrations were 3--8 {mu}g/L during the earliest bone resorption response and 13--15 {mu}g/L at the end of the study. During 7 mo of Cd exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the OV animals exposed to Cd: {minus}15.4 {plus minus} 4.3% for the tibia distal end and {minus}7.2 {plus minus} 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean {plus minus} SE, n=4). Results indicate that Cd may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to Cd in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of Cd-induced bone loss. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cheriyan Kovoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods : 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 - 20 cm. The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 - 21 cm. The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 - 164 months. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results : Graft

  12. Bioactive silica nanoparticles reverse age-associated bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ha, Shin-Woo; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Beck, George R

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that in vitro, engineered 50nm spherical silica nanoparticles promote the differentiation and activity of bone building osteoblasts but suppress bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Furthermore, these nanoparticles promote bone accretion in young mice in vivo. We have now investigated the capacity of these nanoparticles to reverse bone loss in aged mice, a model of human senile osteoporosis. Aged mice received nanoparticles weekly and bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and bone turnover were quantified. Our data revealed a significant increase in BMD, bone volume, and biochemical markers of bone formation. Biochemical and histological examinations failed to identify any abnormalities caused by nanoparticle administration. Our studies demonstrate that silica nanoparticles effectively blunt and reverse age-associated bone loss in mice by a mechanism involving promotion of bone formation. The data suggest that osteogenic silica nanoparticles may be a safe and effective therapeutic for counteracting age-associated bone loss. Osteoporosis poses a significant problem in the society. Based on their previous in-vitro findings, the authors' group investigated the effects of spherical silica nanoparticles in reversing bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis. The results showed that intra-peritoneal injections of silica nanoparticles could increase bone mineral density, with little observed toxic side effects. This novel method may prove important in future therapy for combating osteoporosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effects of Weight Loss on Lean Mass, Strength, Bone, and Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Edward P; Jordan, Richard C; Frese, Ethel M; Albert, Stewart G; Villareal, Dennis T

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that exercise attenuates the reductions in lean mass, muscle strength, bone mineral density, and V˙O2max that accompany modest weight loss induced by calorie restriction (CR). Overweight, sedentary women and men (n = 52, 45-65 yr) were randomized to 6%-8% weight loss by using CR, endurance exercise training (EX), or both (CREX). The CR and the CREX groups underwent counseling to reduce energy intake by 20% and 10%, respectively. The EX and the CREX groups exercised 7.4 ± 0.5 and 4.4 ± 0.5 h·wk, respectively. Before and after 16.8 ± 1.1 wk of weight loss, lean mass and bone mineral density were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, strength was measured with dynamometry, and aerobic capacity (V˙O2max) was measured with indirect calorimetry during maximal-intensity treadmill exercise. Weight loss was ~7% in all groups. Decreases in whole-body (~2%, P = 0.003) and lower extremity (~4%, P weight loss, these reductions were attenuated in the CREX group (~1%, P = 0.44 and ~2%, P = 0.05, respectively) and absent in the EX group. Absolute aerobic capacity decreased ~6% in the CR group (P = 0.04), was unchanged in the CREX group (P = 0.28), and increased ~15% in the EX group (P weight loss (~7%) induced by 20% CR in overweight women and men decreases lean mass and reduces absolute V˙O2max. Exercise protects against these effects. Although the CR-induced changes might be considered physiologically appropriate for a reduced body weight, exercise preserves and/or improves these parameters during weight loss, which likely improves physical function. These findings support the notion of using exercise as an important component of weight loss programs.

  14. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  15. Weight-loss-associated changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover after partial weight regain with or without aerobic exercise in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, P S; Rector, R S; Linden, M A; Warner, S O; Dellsperger, K C; Chockalingam, A; Whaley-Connell, A T; Liu, Y; Thomas, T R

    2012-05-01

    Moderate, long-term weight loss results in the loss of bone mass in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, whether these changes persist during weight maintenance or regain remains to be determined. Overweight or obese (body mass index: 25.8-42.5 kg/m(2)) women (n=40) with at least two risk factors for the metabolic syndrome participated in this 12-month study that examined the effects of prescribed weight loss and regain, with or without exercise, on bone turnover and on bone mineral density (BMD) in a subset of participants (n=24). During the first 6 month, participants lost ≈ 10% of their initial body weight via energy restriction and supervised aerobic exercise. Following weight loss, participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise or a no exercise treatment for the regain (+50% of weight lost) phase. A one-way (time) repeated measures one-factor analysis of variance (RMANOVA) tested the effects of weight loss on BMD and bone turnover, and a two-way RMANOVA (time, exercise) was used to examine the effects of exercise during weight regain. Hip (P=0.007) and lumbar spine (P=0.05) BMD decreased with weight loss, and remained reduced after weight regain with or without exercise. Likewise, the weight-loss-associated increases in osteocalcin (Pexercise. The results of the present study, which is the first to examine changes in bone mass and turnover during carefully controlled weight regain, suggest that weight-loss-induced perturbations in bone mass and turnover persist after partial weight regain, regardless of whether regular weight-bearing aerobic exercise was continued.

  16. Bone-anchored hearing devices in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss: a patient-carer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Rupan; Doshi, Jayesh; Child, Anne; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Reid, Andrew; McDermott, Ann-Louise

    2013-09-01

    We sought to determine the outcome of implantation of a bone-anchored hearing device in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss. A retrospective case note analysis was used in a tertiary referral pediatric hospital to study 17 consecutive cases of pediatric patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss who were fitted with a bone-anchored hearing device between 2005 and 2010. The average age of the patients at the time of bone-anchored hearing device fitting was 10 years 6 months (range, 6 years 3 months to 16 years). Qualitative subjective outcome measures demonstrated benefit. The vast majority of patients reported improved social and physical functioning and improved quality of life. All 17 patients are currently using their bone-anchored hearing device on a daily basis after a follow-up of 6 months. This study has shown improved quality of life in children with unilateral hearing loss after implantation of their bone-anchored hearing device. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement in health status reported by children and/or carers. Bone-anchored hearing devices have an important role in the management of children with symptomatic unilateral hearing loss. Perhaps earlier consideration of a bone-anchored hearing device would be appropriate in selected cases.

  17. Marginal bone loss as success criterion in implant dentistry: beyond 2 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; León-Cano, Ana; Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Monje, Alberto; O'Valle, Francisco; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze marginal bone loss (MBL) rates around implants to establish the difference between physiological bone loss and bone loss due to peri-implantitis. Five hundred and eight implants were placed in the posterior maxilla in 208 patients. Data were gathered on age, gender, bone substratum (grafted or pristine), prosthetic connection, smoking and alcohol habits, and previous periodontitis. MBL was radiographically analyzed in three time frames (5 months post-surgery and at 6 and 18 months post-loading). Nonparametric receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis and mixed linear model analysis were used to determine whether implants could be classified as high or low bone loser type (BLT) and to establish the influence of this factor on MBL rates. Marginal bone loss rates were significantly affected by BLT, connection type, bone substratum, and smoking. Bone loss rates at 18 months were associated with initial bone loss rates: 96% of implants with an MBL of >2 mm at 18 months had lost 0.44 mm or more at 6 months post-loading. Implants with increased MBL rates at early stages (healing and immediate post-loading periods) are likely to reach MBL values that compromise their final outcome. Initial (healing, immediate post-loading) MBL rates around an implant of more than 0.44 mm/year are an indication of peri-implant bone loss progression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment......CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...

  19. Overview of LHC Beam Loss Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Fadakis, E; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Kruk, G; Kurfuerst, C; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M; Zamantzas, C; Grishin, V; Griesmayer, E

    2011-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring system provides measurements with an update rate of 1 Hz and high time resolution data by event triggering. These informations are used for the initiation of beam aborts, fixed displays and the off line analysis. The analysis of fast and localized loss events resulted in the determination of its rate, duration, peak amplitudes, its scaling with intensity, number of bunches and beam energy. The calibration of the secondary shower beam loss signal in respect to the needed beam energy deposition to quench the magnet coil is addressed at 450GeV and 3.5T eV . The adjustment of collimators is checked my measuring the loss pattern and its variation in the collimation regions of the LHC. Loss pattern changes during a fill allow the observation of non typical fill parameters.

  20. Measurement of mismatch loss in CPV modul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingguo; Kinsey, Geoffrey S.; Bagienski, Will; Nayak, Adi; Garboushian, Vahan

    2012-10-01

    A setup capable of simultaneously measuring I-V curves of a full string and its individual cells has been developed. This setup enables us to measure mismatch loss from individual cells in concert with various string combinations under varying field conditions. Mismatch loss from cells to plates at different off-track angles and mismatch from plates to strings in Amonix system during normal operation have been investigated.

  1. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  2. Increased risk for bone loss in women with systemic sclerosis: a comparative study with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gamze; Kilic, Erkan; Akgul, Ozgur; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2016-04-01

    To assess bone mass in women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in comparison to age and sex-matched patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD). Patients were consecutively recruited and assessed for BMD at the lumbar spine and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) using a densitometer. In SSc, the extent of skin involvement, modified Rodnan skin thickness score (mRSS) and Medsger disease severity index were assessed. Forty-three patients with SSc and 38 age-matched patients with RA were included. There was no difference in BMD measurements between patients with diffuse or limited SSc. Patients with SSc had similar risk factors associated with osteoporosis (OP) or low bone mass except for low body mass index (BMI) and low vitamin D levels compared to patients with RA. Lumbar spinal BMD and T score were similar between groups. Total hip and femoral neck BMD and T score at femoral neck and total hip were significantly lower in patient with SSc versus RA. There was significant association between mRSS, Medsger severity score (peripheral vascular involvement and skin) and femoral BMD. There is an increased risk for bone loss in patients with SSc and the risk of OP is associated with disease severity, prolonged menopause and disease duration. The complex pathophysiology of bone metabolism as well as complex pathogenesis of the SSc pose some difficulty reaching clear-cut conclusions on the causal relationship between SSc and bone loss. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Impact of marked weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on bone mineral density and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Data about the impact of bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent weight loss on bone are limited. The objective of the present study was to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone remodeling metabolites and hormones that influence bone trophism in premenopausal women submitted to BS 9.8 months, on average, before the study (OGg, N = 16. The data were compared to those obtained for women of normal weight (CG, N = 11 and for obese women (OG, N = 12. Eight patients in each group were monitored for one year, with the determination of BMD, of serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and osteocalcin, and of urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline. The biochemical determinations were repeated every three months in the longitudinal study and BMD was measured at the end of the study. Parathyroid hormone levels were similar in the three groups. IGF-I levels (CG = 332 ± 62 vs OG = 230 ± 37 vs OGg = 128 ± 19 ng/mL were significantly lower in the operated patients compared to the non-operated obese women. Only OGg patients presented a significant fall in BMD of 6.2% at L1-L4, of 10.2% in the femoral neck, and of 5.1% in the forearm. These results suggest that the weight loss induced by BS is associated with a significant loss of bone mass even at sites that are not influenced by weight overload, with hormonal factors such as IGF-I being associated with this process.

  4. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone mineral content measurement in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L.M.; Gross, M.D.

    1987-02-01

    Objective determinations of bone mineral content (BMC) are seldom required for the diagnosis of the metabolic and hormonal disorders which may result in osteoporosis. They are, however, required to document the osteoporosis itself as this is usually subclinical until late in the natural history of the disease process. Measurement of BMC in these disease processes is an important research tool in determining the effect of the disorder on the skeleton at different stages of the natural history and in investigating the effects of therapy and other interventions. Measurements of BMC may be useful in clinical practice in deciding whether to intervene in certain circumstances (e.g. asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism) or to withhold certain therapies (e.g. glucocorticoids) or to alter therapy (e.g. change from glucocorticoids to nonsteroidal immunosuppressives in autoimmune diseases). It may also play a role in monitoring the responses to therapeutic interventions.

  6. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    were killed 4 weeks after surgery. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), biochemical markers, and histomorphometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the male mice, there were only few effects of bgn deficiency on bone metabolism...... to biglycan deficiency. INTRODUCTION: Biglycan (bgn) is a small extracellular matrix proteoglycan enriched in skeletal tissues, and biglycan-deficient male mice have decreased trabecular bone mass and bone strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone phenotype of the biglycan...

  7. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W.; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Nelson, O. Lynne; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus a...

  8. Impact of annual bone loss and different bone quality on dental implant success - A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetskiy, Igor; Demenko, Vladyslav; Linetska, Larysa; Yefremov, Oleg

    2017-12-01

    For dental implant success, experimentally established thresholds should limit bone stresses and strains. From these metrics, the ultimate functional load, which determines the implant load-carrying capacity, can be calculated. Obviously, its decrease due to bone loss shortens implant service life. A comparison of how bone loss affects the ultimate functional loads of various implants can provide the clinician with meaningful feedback concerning the suitability and longevity of implants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lifetime of different dental implants placed in I-IV bone types on the basis of a comparison of their ultimate functional loads with consideration of the bone loss factor. Von Mises stress and first principal strain distributions in bone-implant interface were studied and ultimate functional loads were calculated. Models of I-IV bone types were designed. 3.3 × 8.0 mm (A), 4.1 × 12.0 mm (B) and 4.8 × 14.0 mm (C) implants were analyzed at 10 levels of bone loss. Ultimate functional loads, which generated the ultimate von Mises stress and first principal strain in bone, were computed. For the implants A, B, and C placed in type I bone, ultimate functional load values were above 120.92 N experimental functional load, which corresponded to 10+, 10+, and 10 + years of service with 0.2 mm annual bone loss. For type II bone, the lifetime was 4, 10+, and 10 + years. For type III bone, the lifetime was 4, 5, and 5 years. For type IV bone, first principal strains were initially deleterious for all implants. In oral implantology, bone loss is an essential factor for implant longevity prognosis. While evaluating implant load-carrying capacity, clinicians should take into account the factor of implant longevity decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory periodontitis regarding bone loss in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    We have invented a mouse model of periodontitis associated with alveolar bone loss induced by lipopolysaccharide. Ovariectomized (OVX) animals are widely used as a model for osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency. To define the relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis, we examined the influence of estrogen deficiency on the mouse alveolar bone mass. In OVX mice, bone loss was detected not only in the femur, but also in the alveolar bone, indicating that estrogen deficiency could induce resorption in alveolar bone. In experiments using a combination of osteoporosis and periodontitis models, OVX significantly enhanced the alveolar bone loss in the model of periodontitis. Therefore, postmenopausal osteoporosis may enhance the risk of periodontitis associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption.

  10. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  11. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  12. Pattern of bone loss in dry Mandibles of individuals who died before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of bone loss in dry Mandibles of individuals who died before 1957. ... The total mean bone loss for all teeth was 2.51 (SD 1.15) with a range of 0.85-5.80. ... Thus susceptibility to periodontal disease is evident in a small proportion of individuals even in populations not exposed to modern diet and formal dental ...

  13. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Increases Bone Formation and Prevents Bone Loss in Weight-Reduced Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie R; Hartmann, Bolette; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Torekov, Signe S

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss-induced bone mass reduction. Randomized control study. Outpatient research hospital clinic. Thirty-seven healthy obese women with body mass index of 34 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) and age 46 ± 2 years. After a low-calorie-diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/d) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be replaced with a low-calorie-diet product to maintain the weight loss. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52-week weight maintenance. Primary endpoints were changes in BMC and bone markers after 52-week weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance in the control group (P GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low-calorie diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent.

  14. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Age- and menopause-related bone loss compromise cortical and trabecular microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Ego

    2013-10-01

    All factors influencing the material composition and structure of bone do so through the final common cellular pathways of modeling and remodeling. During growth, modeling, the formation of new bone in different locations without prior bone resorption, deposits matrix upon the periosteum, enlarging the cross-sectional area of bone. Concurrently, endocortical resorption excavates the medullary canal while remodeling, the resorption and deposition of bone in the same location, assembles cortical osteons, each with their central Haversian canal. The Haversian canals and the connecting Volkmann canals form an intracortical canal network that occupies 30% of the total cortical volume. The remaining 70% is mineralized bone matrix volume. Around midlife, in women, remodeling balance becomes negative; less bone is deposited than it is resorbed by each bone's basic multicellular units (BMUs), and remodeling rate increases; there are more BMUs removing bone upon its intracortical, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces. Canals enlarge and coalesce creating giant pores. Remodeling upon trabeculae removes them, whereas intracortical and endocortical remodeling cavitates and fragments the cortex. Bone loss becomes almost entirely cortical as trabeculae disappear. Remodeling removes more bone from a diminishing total mineralized bone matrix volume so that by old age, total mineralized bone matrix volume is halved; 70% of all bone loss is cortical because 80% of the skeleton is cortical; 30% of the bone loss arises from the 20% of the skeleton that is trabecular. Of all fractures occurring, 80% are nonvertebral and 20% are vertebral. The notion of osteoporosis as a disease of trabecular bone loss and vertebral fractures needs to be revised.

  16. Loss-resistant unambiguous phase measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Dinani, Hossein T.; Berry, Dominic W.

    2014-01-01

    Entangled multi-photon states have the potential to provide improved measurement accuracy, but are sensitive to photon loss. It is possible to calculate ideal loss-resistant states that maximize the Fisher information, but it is unclear how these could be experimentally generated. Here we propose a set of states that can be obtained by processing the output from parametric down-conversion. Although these states are not optimal, they provide performance very close to that of optimal states for...

  17. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  18. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  19. The regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin contributes to unloading-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi; Sun, Weijia; Li, Yuheng; Ling, Shukuan; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Song, Jinping; Song, Hailin; Li, Jinqiao; You, Linhao; Nie, Guangjun; Chang, Yanzhong; Li, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload inhibits osteoblast function and promotes osteoclastogenesis. Hepcidin plays an important role in this process. The changes in iron content and the regulation of hepcidin under unloading-induced bone loss remain unknown. A hindlimb suspension model was adopted to simulate unloading-induced bone loss in mice. The results showed that iron deposition in both liver and bone was markedly increased in hindlimb unloaded mice, and was accompanied by the upregulation of osteoclast activity and downregulation of osteoblast activity. The iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) reduced the iron content in bone and alleviated unloading-induced bone loss. The increased iron content in bone was mainly a result of the upregulation of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter 1 with iron response element (DMT1+IRE), rather than changes in the iron transporter ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The hepcidin level in the liver was significantly higher, while the FPN1 level in the duodenum was substantially reduced. However, there were no changes in the FPN1 level in bone tissue. During hindlimb unloading, downregulation of hepcidin by siRNA increased iron uptake in bone and liver, which aggravated unloading-induced bone loss. In summary, these data show that unloading-induced bone loss was orchestrated by iron overload and coupled with the regulation of hepcidin by the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Protease inhibitor-associated bone mineral density loss is related to hypothyroidism and related bone turnover acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinai, Ei; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Mizushima, Daisuke; Nishijima, Takeshi; Aoki, Takahiro; Genka, Ikumi; Teruya, Katsuji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-05-01

    Clinical and experiments evidence indicate that protease inhibitors (PI) can cause bone mineral density (BMD) loss. However, the mechanism of such loss remains obscure. This single-center, cross-sectional study included 184 HIV-infected patients treated with PI who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Serum phosphorus, percentage of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP), thyroid and parathyroid function (iPTH), vitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-NTx) were measured. The rate of hypothyroidism in PI-users [32/117 (27%)] was double that in non-PI users [8/67 (12%), p = 0.016] and was significantly associated with PI use in multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) 11.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.358-95.17, p = 0.025]. Spine BMD was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients than euthyroid, for both total population (-1.37 vs. -1.00, p = 0.041) and PI users (-1.56 vs. -1.13, p = 0.029). Multivariate regression analysis identified inverse correlation between hypothyroidism and spine BMD [estimate -0.437, 95% CI -0.858 to -0.024, p = 0.042]. OC, DPD and u-NTx were significantly higher in PI users than in non-PI users (p = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). PI use is associated with hypothyroidism as well as bone turnover acceleration, which worsens PI-associated BMD loss. In PI-treated patients, thyroid function tests are warranted to prevent further progression of PI-associated BMD loss. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased activity of osteocyte autophagy in ovariectomized rats and its correlation with oxidative stress status and bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuehua, E-mail: yuesjtu@126.com; Zheng, Xinfeng, E-mail: zxf272@126.com; Li, Bo, E-mail: libo@126.com; Jiang, Shengdan, E-mail: jiangsd@126.com; Jiang, Leisheng, E-mail: leisheng_jiang@126.com

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Examine autophagy level in the proximal tibia of ovariectomized rats. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with oxidative stress status. - Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to investigate ovariectomy on autophagy level in the bone and to examine whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss and oxidative stress status. Methods: 36 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (Sham), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated either with vehicle or 17-β-estradiol. At the end of the six-week treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture in proximal tibias were assessed by micro-CT. Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) level were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity in proximal tibia was also determined. The osteocyte autophagy in proximal tibias was detected respectively by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescent histochemistry (IH), realtime-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the spearman correlation between bone mass, oxidative stress status, serum E2 and autophagy were analyzed. Results: Ovariectomy increased Atg5, LC3, and Beclin1 mRNA and proteins expressions while decreased p62 expression. Ovariectomy also declined the activities of T-AOC, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with E2 prevented the reduction in bone mass as well as restored the autophagy level. Furthermore, LC3-II expression was inversely correlated with T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities. A significant inverse correlation between LC3-II expression and BV/TV, Tb.N, BMD in proximal tibias was found. Conclusions: Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress, autophagy and bone loss. Autophagy of osteocyte was inversely correlated with oxidative stress status and bone loss.

  3. Three-dimensional quantification of structures in trabecular bone using measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2009-01-01

    evaluate different aspects of organization and complexity of 3D structures, such as complexity of its surface or shape variability. We apply these measures to 3D data acquired by high-resolution microcomputed tomography (µCT) from human proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae at different stages...... of osteoporotic bone loss. The outcome is compared to the results of conventional static histomorphometry and exhibits clear relationships between the analyzed geometrical features of trabecular bone and loss of bone density, but also indicate that the measures reveal additional information about the structural...

  4. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  5. Marginal bone loss with mandibular two-implant overdentures using different loading protocols and attachment systems: 10-year outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sunyoung; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Thomson, W Murray; Payne, Alan G T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term marginal bone levels for two unsplinted implants supporting mandibular overdentures using conventional and early loading protocols with different implant surfaces and attachment systems. A cohort of 106 edentulous participants (mean age: 65 years) was treated with mandibular two-implant overdentures opposing complete maxillary dentures. Participants were randomly allocated into three loading protocol groups using four implant systems; single-stage surgery was performed for all participants, followed by an unsplinted prosthesis using six different attachment systems. Standardized intraoral radiographs taken at baseline (loading) and over 10 years appraised marginal bone levels mesially and distally from reference points under magnification. Three calibrated examiners repeated measurements, diminishing intra- and interobserver variability. Progressive attrition of participants occurred as a result of deaths, dropouts, and emigration. Seventy-nine participants (74.5%, mean age: 72 years) were available at the 10-year recall. Differences in bone loss among different loading protocols, implant surfaces, and attachment systems were tested using chi-square and one-way analysis of variance tests. Minimal, time-dependent, long-term marginal bone loss occurred with all loading protocols. Annual marginal bone loss progressed at low levels after the first year with episodes of bone loss and gain. There was stability in marginal bone levels over the long term, with the majority of remodeling occurring during the first year of function. Roughened implant surfaces may be beneficial during the early remodeling period. The amount of marginal bone loss in the first year of loading differed significantly by loading protocol and implant surface, whereas attachment system had a minor influence. Differences were not reflected in the success rates calculated using standard criteria. The remaining participants at 10 years were classified as

  6. Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, L T; Vu, B Q; Lai, T Q; Nguyen, N D; Nguyen, T V

    2012-01-01

    The effect of vegan diet on bone loss has not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between veganism and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The study was designed as a prospective longitudinal investigation with 210 women, including 105 vegans and 105 omnivores. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 2008 and 2010 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR4500). The incidence of vertebral fracture was ascertained by X-ray report. Serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were measured by Roche Elecsys assays. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were measured by electrochemiluminescence. Among the 210 women who initially participated in the study in 2008, 181 women had completed the study and 29 women were lost to follow-up. The rate of loss in FN BMD was -1.91±3.45%/year in omnivores and -0.86±3.81%/year (P=0.08) in vegans. Lower body weight, higher intakes of animal protein and lipid, and corticosteroid use were associated with greater rate of bone loss. The 2-year incidence of fracture was 5.7% (n=5/88) in vegans, which was not significantly different from omnivores (5.4%, n=6/93). There were no significant differences in βCTX and PINP between vegans and omnivores. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in vegans was higher than in omnivores (73% versus 46%; P=0.0003). Vegan diet did not have adverse effect on bone loss and fracture. Corticosteroid use and high intakes of animal protein and animal lipid were negatively associated with bone loss.

  7. Effects of COLIA1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on perimenopausal bone mass, postmenopausal bone loss and fracture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Bofill, N; Husted, Camilla L.; Harsløf, Torben

    2011-01-01

    mineral density (BMD) and increased bone turnover at menopause and after 10 years of follow-up. Introduction We wanted to investigate whether the -1997G/T, -1663indelT and +1245G/T polymorphisms in the COLIA1 gene are associated with perimenopausal bone mass, early postmenopausal bone loss and interact.......015±0.006 g/cm2 and 0.017±0.006 g/cm2, respectively (pchanges in bone mass and fracture risk and no overall interaction with the effects of hormone therapy could be demonstrated for any of the polymorphisms in COLIA1. Conclusions The -1997G/T polymorphism...... and haplotype 3 are significantly associated with perimenopausal bone mass, and these effects were sustained up to 10 years after menopause. No association between the -1663indelT or +1245G/T polymorphisms and peri- or postmenopausal bone mass could be demonstrated....

  8. Racial differences in bone loss and relation to menopause among HIV-infected and uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Flom, Peter L; Rosen, Clifford J; Schoenbaum, Ellie E

    2015-08-01

    To characterize changes in bone mineral density (BMD) according to race among HIV-infected and uninfected women, and to evaluate the relationship between race and menopause-related bone loss. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measured BMD on study entry and a minimum of 18 months later in 246 HIV-infected and 219 HIV-uninfected women in the Menopause Study. Linear regression analyses determined percent annual BMD change at the total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and lumbar spine (LS) after adjusting for potential confounders. Race-stratified and HIV-infected subgroup analyses were performed. At baseline, mean age was 45 years, 19% of women were postmenopausal. HIV-infected women were more likely to be black (58% vs. 38%), and had lower BMI and less cigarette exposure when compared to HIV-uninfected women. Women who were perimenopausal at baseline and postmenopausal at follow-up had the greatest TH bone loss (-1.68%/yr, p change at the FN and TH. In race-stratified analyses, HIV infection was associated with TH BMD loss in non-black women. Black women experienced greater menopause-associated decline in TH BMD compared with non-black women. The association of HIV and BMD differs strikingly by race, as do the effects of the menopausal transition on bone. Determining the extent to which the effect of HIV on fracture risk varies by race will be crucial to identify HIV-infected women at greatest risk for osteoporotic fracture, particularly as they enter menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Test Do? The T-Score World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Low Bone Mass ... number, the more severe the osteoporosis. World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Level Definition Normal ...

  10. Loss of bone strength in response to exercise-induced weight loss in obese postmenopausal women: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, K L; Gozansky, W S; Sherk, V D; Swibas, T A; Wolfe, P; Scherzinger, A; Stamm, E; Kohrt, W M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise-induced weight loss (WL) can lead to decreased areal bone mineral density (aBMD). It is unknown whether this translates into decreased volumetric BMD (vBMD) or bone strength. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether exercise-induced WL results in decreased vBMD and bone strength in postmenopausal women. Fourteen subjects participated in a 4-month endurance exercise WL intervention. A weight stable (WS) control group (n=10) was followed for 4 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured by DXA. Femoral neck vBMD and estimates of bone strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and section modulus (SM)) were measured by quantitative CT. Women were 54.6±2.4 years, BMI 32.1±5.9 kg/m(2) and 54.4±2.9 years, BMI 27.9±3.6 kg/m(2) in the WL and WS groups, respectively. The WL group lost 3.0±2.6 kg which was predominately fat mass. There was a significant decrease in SMmax. Changes in CSMImax and total hip aBMD were not significant. Total hip vBMD did not decrease significantly in response to WL. There were no significant changes in the WS group. WL may lead to decreased bone strength before changes in BMD are detected. Further studies are needed to determine whether bone-targeted exercise can preserve bone strength during WL.

  11. Andrographolide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevents inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Z J; Li, H W; Liu, G W; Qu, X H; Tian, B; Yan, W; Lin, Z; Tang, T T; Qin, A; Dai, K R

    2014-02-01

    Osteoclasts play a pivotal role in diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumour bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. Here, we examined changes in osteoclastogenesis and LPS-induced osteolysis in response to andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Effects of AP on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were measured in vitro. Western blots and RT-PCR techniques were used to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. The bone protective activity of AP in vivo was assessed in a mouse model of osteolysis. AP concentration-dependently suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptors and cathepsin K. Further molecular analysis revealed that AP impaired RANKL-induced NF-κB signalling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase 1, suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. AP also inhibited the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway without affecting p38 or JNK signalling. AP suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through attenuating NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signalling pathways in vitro, thus preventing bone loss in vivo. These data indicated that AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. The Use of Structural Allograft in Primary and Revision Knee Arthroplasty with Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A. Kuchinad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss around the knee in the setting of total knee arthroplasty remains a difficult and challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. There are a number of options for dealing with smaller and contained bone loss; however, massive segmental bone loss has fewer options. Small, contained defects can be treated with cement, morselized autograft/allograft or metal augments. Segmental bone loss cannot be dealt with through simple addition of cement, morselized autograft/allograft, or metal augments. For younger or higher demand patients, the use of allograft is a good option as it provides a durable construct with high rates of union while restoring bone stock for future revisions. Older patients, or those who are low demand, may be better candidates for a tumour prosthesis, which provides immediate ability to weight bear and mobilize.

  13. A full-mouth radiographic survey of periodontal bone loss in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Z.; Erjavec, V.; Erzen, D.; Petelin, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clinically observed periodontal disease indicators and radiographic findings using fullmouth radiographs in poodles. The dogs were divided into three groups according to their age. Upper and lower incisors, canines and premolars/molars were used for clinical and radiographic analyses. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease increased with age. In addition, the deepest pockets and most severe bone loss were found around the canine teeth. The values obtained from radiographic analysis correlated well with clinical measurements. Fullmouth radiographic surveys show clearly the alveolar bone level around the whole dentition of dogs. It should be performed prior to the institution of any treatment

  14. Dried Root of Rehmannia glutinosa Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o for eight weeks. We measured the body, organs, and uterus weights, and femur and lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density (BMD, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, estradiol levels. The treatments with DRGE 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited BMD decrease in the femur and lumbar (17.5% and 16.4%, p < 0.05, respectively by OVX without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights. Also, serum ALP level in the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group was significantly decreased, but the estradiol level did not change in serum of the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group. These results show that DRGE is able to prevent OVX-induced bone loss without influencing hormones such as estrogen.

  15. Relationship Between Osteoporosis and Marginal Bone Loss in Osseointegrated Implants: A 2-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera-Flores, José R; Alonso-Domínguez, Ana M; Serrera-Figallo, M Ángeles; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Fitting implants in osteoporotic patients has traditionally been controversial, and there is little scientific evidence relating osteoporosis to marginal bone loss (MBL). The aims of this study are as follows: 1) to evaluate the possibility of a correlation between osteoporosis, as measured by the mandibular cortical index (MCI), and MBL and 2) to assess how various systemic diseases, periodontitis, and placement of implants in regenerated bone are correlated with MBL and MCI. This retrospective study examines 212 implants inserted in 67 patients. To take a possible cluster failure into account, an implant for each patient was selected (n = 67 implants). MBL was assessed. Osteoporosis was evaluated using the MCI. Both MBL and MCI were assessed from panoramic radiographs. χ(2) test was performed (Haberman post hoc test). Significance was P implant (N = 212) was evaluated, a significant association was found between the presence of osteoporosis and MCI (P implants in regenerated sites (P periodontitis (P implants (one per patient, n = 67), significant differences appear to relate only to the MBL with the placement of implants in regenerated bone sites (P periodontitis and especially the placement of implants at sites of bone regeneration.

  16. Simple method of glenoid bone loss calculation using ipsilateral magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Brett D; Burns, Travis C; Campbell, Scot E; Svoboda, Steven J; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2013-03-01

    Current methods for estimating glenoid bone loss in patients with chronic shoulder instability include computed tomography imaging with 3-dimensional reconstruction, specialized computer software, and imaging of the contralateral shoulder. An ideal method of glenoid measurement would require only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injured shoulder. To determine whether MRI measurement of glenoid height, as well as sex, could be used to estimate glenoid width in healthy subjects with no history of shoulder instability. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Bilateral shoulder MRIs were obtained in a healthy cohort of young athletes as part of the baseline assessment in a prospective cohort study. A musculoskeletal radiologist measured glenoid height and width using the sagittal MRI cuts. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine whether demographic and MRI measurements of the glenoid could be used to estimate glenoid width. Of the 1264 shoulder MRIs evaluated, the mean glenoid width was 26.67 mm (±2.49 mm), and the mean glenoid height was 42.15 mm (±3.00 mm). There were significant differences between the 129 female glenoids and the 1035 male glenoids for both width (23.1 mm, 27.1 mm, respectively, P calculation of the amount of glenoid bone loss with only a ruler and an MRI of the injured shoulder.

  17. Measuring Risk When Expected Losses Are Unbounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Balbás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to introduce coherent risk measures for risks with infinite expectation, such as those characterized by some Pareto distributions. Extensions of the conditional value at risk, the weighted conditional value at risk and other examples are given. Actuarial applications are analyzed, such as extensions of the expected value premium principle when expected losses are unbounded.

  18. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  19. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben; Odgaard, Anders; Vesterby, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  1. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  2. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  4. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (p<0.0001). Lean mass was not associated with hip BMD loss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass p<0.01). Maintaining body weight is important for bone health in elderly men. Body fat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Propranolol Attenuates Risperidone-Induced Trabecular Bone Loss in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; DeMambro, Victoria E; Barlow, Deborah; Olshan, David; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Houseknecht, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AA) drugs cause significant metabolic side effects, and clinical data are emerging that demonstrate increased fracture risk and bone loss after treatment with the AA, risperidone (RIS). The pharmacology underlying the adverse effects on bone is unknown. However, RIS action in the central nervous system could be responsible because the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to uncouple bone remodeling. RIS treatment in mice significantly lowered trabecular bone volume fraction (bone volume/total volume), owing to increased osteoclast-mediated erosion and reduced osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Daytime energy expenditure was also increased and was temporally associated with the plasma concentration of RIS. Even a single dose of RIS transiently elevated expression of brown adipose tissue markers of SNS activity and thermogenesis, Pgc1a and Ucp1. Rankl, an osteoclast recruitment factor regulated by the SNS, was also increased 1 hour after a single dose of RIS. Thus, we inferred that bone loss from RIS was regulated, at least in part, by the SNS. To test this, we administered RIS or vehicle to mice that were also receiving the nonselective β-blocker propranolol. Strikingly, RIS did not cause any changes in trabecular bone volume/total volume, erosion, or formation while propranolol was present. Furthermore, β2-adrenergic receptor null (Adrb2(-/-)) mice were also protected from RIS-induced bone loss. This is the first report to demonstrate SNS-mediated bone loss from any AA. Because AA medications are widely prescribed, especially to young adults, clinical studies are needed to assess whether β-blockers will prevent bone loss in this vulnerable population.

  6. Bilateral bone conduction devices: improved hearing ability in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Catharina A J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether children with bilateral conductive hearing loss benefit from their second device (i.e., the bilateral bone conduction device [BCD]). Speech recognition in noise was assessed in 10 children fitted with bilateral BCDs during childhood. Speech recognition was measured in 2 conditions with both BCDs active. Spatial resolution was tested with the Minimum Audible Angle test in the bilateral and monaural listening conditions. Children demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition when speech was presented from the front and noise was presented from the right-hand side as compared with both speech and noise being presented from the front. The minimum audible angle decreased from 57° in the best monaural condition to 13° in the bilateral condition. The audiological outcomes demonstrate the advantage of bilateral BCD fitting in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss.

  7. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  8. Differential roles of MAPK kinases MKK3 and MKK6 in osteoclastogenesis and bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Boyle

    Full Text Available Bone mass is maintained by osteoclasts that resorb bone and osteoblasts that promote matrix deposition and mineralization. Bone homeostasis is altered in chronic inflammation as well as in post-menopausal loss of estrogen, which favors osteoclast activity that leads to osteoporosis. The MAPK p38α is a key regulator of bone loss and p38 inhibitors preserve bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. p38 function is regulated by two upstream MAPK kinases, namely MKK3 and MKK6. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of MKK3- or MKK6-deficiency on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and on bone loss in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice. We demonstrated that MKK3 but not MKK6, regulates osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow cells in vitro. Expression of NFATc1, a master transcription factor in osteoclastogenesis, is decreased in cells lacking MKK3 but not MKK6. Expression of osteoclast-specific genes Cathepsin K, osteoclast-associated receptor and MMP9, was inhibited in MKK3-/- cells. The effect of MKK-deficiency on ovariectomy-induced bone loss was then evaluated in female WT, MKK3-/- and MKK6-/- mice by micro-CT analysis. Bone loss was partially inhibited in MKK3-/- as well as MKK6-/- mice, despite normal osteoclastogenesis in MKK6-/- cells. This correlated with the lower osteoclast numbers in the MKK-deficient ovariectomized mice. These studies suggest that MKK3 and MKK6 differentially regulate bone loss due to estrogen withdrawal. MKK3 directly mediates osteoclastogenesis while MKK6 likely contributes to pro-inflammatory cytokine production that promotes osteoclast formation.

  9. The clinical and radiological assessment of periodontal bone loss treatment using Emdogain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajuk, G; Pawińska, M; Kedra, B A

    2006-01-01

    ADMISSION: Emdogain is the only one biomaterial using biomicra effect which is practiced in periodontal surgery. The purpose of the study was a clinical and radiological assessment of bone loss treatment using Emdogain. There were 19 persons examined (11 women and 8 men) which have bone loss treated. Initial and monitoring examination after 10 months embraced clinical parameters such as PPD, CAL and radiological--based on intraoral x-ray pictures. Emdogain treatment was made according to surgical procedures. The research has shown reduction of the depth of periodontal pockets average about 3.4 mm and attachment connective tissue growth about 2.2 mm. Bone loss filling was on 67.1% level. Bone loss filling and growth of connective tissue attachment are in our research lower than in most of the others publications. Our observation concerned 10 months period so we should expect better effects after longer time. MOTIONS: Emdogain is safe and effective regeneration material.

  10. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  11. Vitamin K’s role in age-related bone loss: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective role of vitamin K in age-related bone loss continues to be controversial. The results of observational analyses are inconsistent with respect to associations between vitamin K status and bone, which arguably may be related to the limitations of observational study designs and analyt...

  12. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect ...

  13. The influence of smoking on bone loss and response to nasal estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N.H.; Nielsen, T.F.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of smoking on bone during therapy with nasally administrated estradiol in sequential combination with oral progesterone in early postmenopausal women. In addition, to observe the consequences of smoking on bone in untreated women. Methods Post-hoc explorator...... estradiol to increase bone mass in early postmenopausal women. In addition, smoking may increase spontaneous bone loss in untreated women Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Objective To investigate the influence of smoking on bone during therapy with nasally administrated estradiol in sequential combination with oral progesterone in early postmenopausal women. In addition, to observe the consequences of smoking on bone in untreated women. Methods Post-hoc exploratory...... analyses of data from 270 postmenopausal women randomized to 2 years' therapy with daily nasal administration of 17-estradiol or placebo sequentially combined with oral micronized progesterone in the active groups or placebo in the placebo group. Results During treatment with nasal estradiol, the bone...

  14. Antiepileptic drug-induced bone loss in young male patients who have seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andress, Dennis L; Ozuna, Judy; Tirschwell, David; Grande, Lucinda; Johnson, Meshell; Jacobson, Arnold F; Spain, William

    2002-05-01

    Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy is a known risk factor for bone loss and fractures. Vitamin D deficiency is frequently cited as a cause for bone loss in patients who have seizures. To determine whether men who have seizures, but who are otherwise healthy, suffer substantial bone loss in the hip while taking AEDs. We prospectively examined femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 81 consecutive men, aged between 25 and 54 years old (mean age, 45 years), who were attending an outpatient seizure clinic. Low BMD values were analyzed for known risk factors for bone loss. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were repeated in 54 patients, 12 to 29 months later (mean, 19 months), to assess the rate of change in BMD over time. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (P<.001) and time receiving AEDs (P<.003) were the 2 important risk factors associated with low femoral neck BMD. Neither vitamin D deficiency, hypogonadism, cigarette smoking, nor excess alcohol intake were associated with low BMD after correcting for age and time on AEDs. Longitudinal analysis of femoral neck BMD revealed that only those in the youngest age group (25-44 years) showed significant declines in femoral neck BMD (1.8% annualized loss; 95% confidence interval, -3.1 to -0.9; P<.003) while receiving AED therapy. There was no evidence that a specific type of AED was more causally related to bone loss in this group although most patients were taking phenytoin sodium or carbamazepine during the longitudinal assessment. Long-term AED therapy in young male patients who have seizures causes significant bone loss at the hip in the absence of vitamin D deficiency. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning of the hip is useful in identifying patients who are particularly susceptible to rapid bone loss while taking AEDs.

  15. Marginal bone loss around implants with platform-switched Morse-cone connection: a radiographic cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Daprile, Giuseppe; Piattelli, Adriano

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the present cross-sectional study are to evaluate the bone remodeling around Morse-cone implants placed subcrestally 1 year after loading and the prevalence of bone loss >0.5 mm after at least 3 years of loading. Subjects who underwent a radiographic check in 2013 with implants that had been in function for at least 3 years were considered for inclusion. The study population comprised of 145 subjects with a total of 523 implants. At the moment of insertion, all the implants were placed subcrestally from 1 to 3 mm as clinically measured. Radiographs taken at baseline, that is 1 year after loading (T0), and at the follow-up visit in 2013 (T1) were examined. The distance between the rim of the implant and the marginal bone level at mesial and distal aspects of each implant was determined and the mean bone loss calculated. In the total sample, the mean bone loss occurred between baseline and 2013 examination was 0.42 ± 0.77 mm; at T1 424 implants presented the marginal bone level at the implant rim (78) or above it (346). On the other hand, 99 implants presented the rim above the bone crest. Fifty-one implants that at T1 presented the rim above the bone crest, and that between T0 and T1 had lost at least 0.5 mm, were considered losers: 10 implants lost up to 0.5 mm, 11 lost from 0.6 to 1 mm, 16 lost from 1.1 to 2 mm, and 14 lost more than 2 mm of bone. On a subject basis, 34 subjects (group A) with a total of 200 implant sites presented loser implants, while 111 subjects (group B) with 323 implants displayed non-loser implants. Within the limits of a cross-sectional study, the results show that Morse-cone implants placed subcrestally in the vast majority of cases (89.9%) are able to maintain the bone crest at level of the rim or above it 1 year after loading. The incidence of loser sites (bone loss >0.5 mm) after at least 3 years of follow-up is 9.7% at implant level and 23.5% at patient level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  16. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Systemic Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Manasa G; Kour, Supinder; Piprode, Vikrant; Mittal, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Rani, Lekha; Pote, Satish T; Mishra, Gyan C; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases. However, the role of MSCs in prevention of bone destruction in RA is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on in vitro formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and pathological bone loss in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. We observed that ASCs significantly inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in both a contact-dependent and -independent manner. Additionally, ASCs inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-1β. Furthermore, treatment with ASCs at the onset of CIA significantly reduced clinical symptoms and joint pathology. Interestingly, ASCs protected periarticular and systemic bone loss in CIA mice by maintaining trabecular bone structure. We further observed that treatment with ASCs reduced osteoclast precursors in bone marrow, resulting in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, ASCs suppressed autoimmune T cell responses and increased the percentages of peripheral regulatory T and B cells. Thus, we provide strong evidence that ASCs ameliorate inflammation-induced systemic bone loss in CIA mice by reducing osteoclast precursors and promoting immune tolerance. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Mammary tumorigenesis causes bone loss and dietary selenium supplementation does not affect such bone loss in male MMTV-PyMT mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer progression is accompanied by wasting that eventually results in cachexia characterized by significant weight loss and multi-organ functional failures. Limited clinical trials indicate that bone is adversely affected by cancer-associated wasting. To determine the effects of breast cancer on...

  18. Residual ridge dimensions at edentulous maxillary first molar sites and periodontal bone loss among two ethnic cohorts seeking tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Aneesha; Hao, Jia; Mattheos, Nikos; Chau, Anson; Shirke, Prashant; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-12-01

    To study residual ridge dimensions at edentulous first molar sites in relation to periodontal bone loss among cohorts of partially edentulous Asian Indian and Hong Kong Chinese subjects seeking tooth replacement. A total of 628 edentulous maxillary first molar sites were analyzed on Cone Beam Computed Tomography scans of 225 Asian Indian (I) and 232 Hong Kong Chinese (C) partially edentulous adults seeking tooth replacement. Age, ethnicity, gender, total tooth loss, the presence or absence of adjacent teeth, categories of periodontal status defined according to radiographic alveolar bone loss (P0: periodontal health, P1: incipient to moderate disease, P2: severe periodontal disease) and sinus membrane abnormalities were noted. Alveolar ridge height (RH), widths at 1 and 3 mm from crest (RW1; RW3), and relative position of the bone crest (RR) were measured. Prevalence of P2 status was most frequent in both cohorts(C: 50.4% I: 49.2%). P2 had lowest ridge heights; 13.1% C P2 and 14%I P2 had RH Periodontal status and sinus membrane abnormality increased the odds of RH periodontal disease was common among Asian Indian and Hong Kong Chinese subjects seeking tooth replacement and associated with lower available bone heights. Ethnicity, gender, sinus membrane thickening affected available bone height in the subsinus region, while the presence of adjacent teeth- and age-affected residual ridge width. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Bone loss in the lower leg during 35 days of bed rest is predominantly from the cortical compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Rittweger, Joern; Mekjavić, Igor B.; Eiken, Ola; Pišot, Rado; Biolo, Gianni; Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Šimunič, Boštjan; Narici, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization-induced bone loss is usually greater in the epiphyses than in the diaphyses. The larger fraction of trabecular bone in the epiphyses than in the diaphyses offers an intuitive explanation to account for this phenomenon. However, recent evidence contradicts this notion and suggests that immobilization-induced bone loss from the distal tibia epiphysis is mainly from the cortical compartment. The aim of this study was to establish whether this pattern of bone loss was a general rul...

  20. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of aging...... in vivo, leading to decreased ability to form and maintain bone homeostasis with age. In this review we summarize evidence of MSC involvement in age related bone loss and suggest new emerging targets for intervention....

  1. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Influence of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue on Bone Loss and of Osteocalcin on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira L. Mendonça

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university hospital, involving 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT and 21 controls (CG. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and marrow adipose tissue was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biochemical evaluation included the determination of parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: A negative association was found between the bone mass at the 1/3 radius and parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.69; p<0.01. Marrow adipose tissue was not significantly increased in patients (CG = 32.8±11.2% vs PHPT = 38.6±12%. The serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in patients (CG = 8.6±3.6 ng/mL vs PHPT = 36.5±38.4 ng/mL; p<0.005, but no associations were observed between osteocalcin and insulin or between insulin and both marrow adipose tissue and bone mass. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increment of adipogenesis in the bone marrow microenvironment under conditions of high bone turnover due to primary hyperparathyroidism is limited. Despite the increased serum levels of osteocalcin due to primary hyperparathyroidism, these patients tend to have impaired insulin sensitivity.

  2. Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Is there a Risk for Accelerated Osteoporosis after Return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-to to-date suggests that the rapid rate of site-specific bone loss in space, due to the unbalanced stimulation of bone resorption, may predispose crew members to irreversible changes in bone structure and microarchitecture. No analyses conducted in the postflight period to assess microarchitectural changes. There is no complete analysis of skeletal recovery in the postflight period to evaluate the structural changes that accompany increases in DXA aBMD. Postflight analyses based upon QCT scans performed on limited crew members indicate reductions in hip bone strength and incomplete recovery at 1 year. No recovery of trabecular vBMD after 1 year return (HRP IWG). Time course of bone loss in space unknown.

  3. Premature loss of bone remodeling compartment canopies is associated with deficient bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Søe, Kent

    2011-01-01

    A remarkable property of bone remodeling is that osteoblasts form bone matrix exactly where and when osteoclasts have removed it. The bone remodeling compartment (BRC) canopies that cover bone surfaces undergoing remodeling, were proposed to be critical players in this mechanism. Here, we provide...... support to this hypothesis by analyzing the changes in prevalence of BRC canopies during the progress of the remodeling cycle in a cohort of healthy individuals and in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), and by relating these changes in prevalence with the extent of bone forming surfaces....... Both cohorts showed almost 100% canopy coverage above resorbing osteoclasts, and only about 76% above bone forming surfaces. This indicates that BRC canopies are invariably associated with the early stage of the remodeling cycle, but may disappear later. Interestingly, in control and two thirds...

  4. Measurement of conductive hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhaobing; Wood, Melissa; Rosowski, John J

    2010-05-01

    In order to discriminate conductive hearing loss from sensorineural impairment, quantitative measurements were used to evaluate the effect of artificial conductive pathology on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) in mice. The conductive manipulations were created by perforating the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane, filling or partially filling the middle-ear cavity with saline, fixing the ossicular chain, and interrupting the incudo-stapedial joint. In the saline-filled and ossicular-fixation groups, averaged DPOAE thresholds increased relative to the control state by 20-36 and 25-39 dB, respectively with the largest threshold shifts occurring at frequencies less than 20kHz, while averaged ABR thresholds increased 12-19 and 12-25 dB, respectively without the predominant low-frequency effect. Both DPOAE and ABR thresholds were elevated by less than 10 dB in the half-filled saline condition; no significant change was observed after pars flaccida perforation. Conductive pathology generally produced a change in DPOAE threshold in dB that was 1.5-2.5 times larger than the ABR threshold change at frequencies less than 30 kHz; the changes in the two thresholds were nearly equal at the highest frequencies. While mild conductive pathology (ABR threshold shifts of conductive hearing losses (ABR threshold shifts >10 dB) were associated with significant deceases in DPOAE growth rate. Our LDV measurements are consistent with others and suggest that measurements of umbo velocity are not an accurate indicator of conductive hearing loss produced by ossicular lesions in mice. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In vivo comparison of Kodak E-speed film and direct digital imaging system for assessment of interproximal bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellekatte C Neetha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography as compared to a conventional radiographic film for the assessment of interproximal bone loss with intrasurgical measurements as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients, with untreated moderate-to-advanced periodontal disease, were included in the study. The presurgical radiographs were made using a Kodak E-speed film and a Dexis digital sensor simultaneously, for sites with interproximal bone loss. At the time of surgery, the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the bone defect (CEJ-BD was measured for 331 interproximal defects. The radiographs were randomized and then linear measurements were taken for the same sites in both conventional and digital radiographs. Stastistical Analysis: Comparison between the conventional, digital, and intrasurgical measurements was done statistically using the Student′s t-test. The agreement and correlation among the methods was assessed using the weighted Kappa measure of agreement and Pearson′s correlation, respectively. Results: The results showed that the conventional (5.15 ± 2.19 mm and digital analyzing techniques (5.13 ± 2.19 mm underestimated the interproximal bone loss, as compared to the intrasurgical measurements (6.07 ± 2.05 mm (p < 0.001. The difference between conventional and digital radiographic methods was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.92. Conclusion: Under normal clinical use, the alveolar bone levels revealed on intraoral direct digital radiographs and Kodak E speed film were almost same. Therefore, the digital radiographic system can be routinely used in clinical practice as an alternative to conventional film.

  6. Oral administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan aggravated periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianxian; Wu, Xiangnan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Hao, Zhichao; Chen, Shenyuan; Fu, Taozi; Chen, Helin; Wang, Hang

    2015-05-01

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the precursor of serotonin and 5-HTP has been widely used as a dietary supplement to raise serotonin level. Serotonin has recently been discovered to be a novel and important player in bone metabolism. As peripheral serotonin negatively regulates bone, the regular take of 5-HTP may affect the alveolar bone metabolism and therefore influence the alveolar bone loss induced by periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-HTP on alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: (1) the control group (without ligature); (2) the 5-HTP group (5-HTP at 25 mg/kg/day without ligature); (3) the L group (ligature+saline placebo); and (4) the L+5-HTP group (ligature+5-HTP at 25 mg/kg/day). Serum serotonin levels were determined by ELISA. The alveolar bones were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and histology. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was used to assess osteoclastogenesis. The receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in the periodontium as well as the interleukin-6 positive osteocytes were analysed immunohistochemically. 5-HTP significantly increased serum serotonin levels. In rats with experimental periodontitis, 5-HTP increased alveolar bone resorption and worsened the micro-structural destruction of the alveolar bone. 5-HTP also stimulated osteoclastogenesis and increased RANKL/OPG ratio and the number of IL-6 positive osteocytes. However, 5-HTP treatment alone did not cause alveolar bone loss in healthy rats. The present study showed that 5-HTP aggravated alveolar bone loss, deteriorated alveolar bone micro-structure in the presence of periodontitis, which suggests 5-HTP administration may increase the severity of periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the most evolutionary advanced hibernators, avoid significant bone loss during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Alanda R; Goodship, Allen E

    2008-02-01

    Some hibernating animals are known to reduce muscle and bone loss associated with mechanical unloading during prolonged immobilisation,compared to humans. However, here we show that wild pregnant polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are the first known animals to avoid significant bone loss altogether, despite six months of continuous hibernation. Using serum biochemical markers of bone turnover, we showed that concentrations for bone resorption are not significantly increased as a consequence of hibernation in wild polar bears. This is in sharp contrast to previous studies on other hibernating species, where for example, black bears (Ursus americanus), show a 3-4 fold increase in serum bone resorption concentrations posthibernation,and must compensate for this loss through rapid bone recovery on remobilisation, to avoid the risk of fracture. In further contrast to black bears, serum concentrations of bone formation markers were highly significantly increased in pregnant female polar bears compared to non-pregnant,thus non-hibernating females both prior to and after hibernation. However, bone formation concentrations in new mothers were significantly reduced compared to pre-hibernation concentrations. The de-coupling of bone turnover in favour of bone formation prior to hibernation, suggests that wild polar bears may posses a unique physiological mechanism for building bone in protective preparation against expected osteopenia associated with disuse,starvation, and hormonal drives to mobilise calcium for reproduction, during hibernation. Understanding this physiological mechanism could have profound implications for a natural solution for the prevention of osteoporosis in animals subjected to captivity with inadequate space for exercise,humans subjected to prolonged bed rest while recovering from illness, or astronauts exposed to antigravity during spaceflight.© 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bisphosphonates inhibit pain, bone loss, and inflammation in a rat tibia fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-wu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that anti-resorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain. Previously we observed that the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines or adaptive immune responses attenuated the development of pain behavior in a rat fracture model of CRPS and we hypothesized that bisphosphonates could prevent pain behavior, trabecular bone loss, post-fracture cutaneous cytokine up-regulation, and adaptive immune responses in this CRPS model. METHODS Rats underwent tibia fracture and cast immobilization for 4 weeks and were chronically administered either subcutaneously perfused alendronate or oral zoledronate. Behavioral measurements included hindpaw von Frey allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema. Bone microarchitecture was measured by uCT and bone cellular activity was evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Spinal cord Fos immunostaining was performed and skin cytokine (TNF, IL-1, IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined by EIA. Skin and sciatic nerve immunoglobulin levels were determined by EIA. RESULTS Tibia fracture rats developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema, increased spinal Fos expression, trabecular bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and bilateral distal femurs as measured by uCT, increased trabecular bone resorption and osteoclast surface with decreased bone formation rates, increased cutaneous inflammatory cytokine and NGF expression and elevated immunocomplex deposition in skin and nerve. Alendronate (60 μg/kg/day s.c.) or zoledronate (3 mg/kg/day p.o.) treatment for 28 days, started

  9. Bisphosphonates Inhibit Pain, Bone Loss, and Inflammation in a Rat Tibia Fracture Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Hou, Saiyun; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2016-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenesis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that antiresorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain. Previously, we observed that the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines or adaptive immune responses attenuated the development of pain behavior in a rat fracture model of CRPS, and we hypothesized that bisphosphonates could prevent pain behavior, trabecular bone loss, postfracture cutaneous cytokine upregulation, and adaptive immune responses in this CRPS model. Rats underwent tibia fracture and cast immobilization for 4 weeks and were chronically administered either subcutaneously perfused alendronate or oral zoledronate. Behavioral measurements included hindpaw von Frey allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema. Bone microarchitecture was measured by microcomputed tomography, and bone cellular activity was evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Spinal cord Fos immunostaining was performed, and skin cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Skin and sciatic nerve immunoglobulin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Rats with tibia fractures developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema, increased spinal Fos expression and trabecular bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and bilateral distal femurs as measured by microcomputed tomography, increased trabecular bone resorption and osteoclast surface with decreased bone formation rates, increased cutaneous inflammatory cytokine and NGF expression, and elevated immunocomplex deposition in skin and nerve

  10. Diabetes mellitus may increase bone loss after occlusal trauma and experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Diniz, Claudia K; Corrêa, Mônica G; Casati, Marcio Z; Nociti, Francisco H; Ruiz, Karina G; Bovi Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria; Sallum, Enilson A

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can negatively influence periodontal tissues, resulting in more prevalent and severe periodontitis and impaired bone formation. Occlusal trauma (OT) is an injury of the supportive periodontium that results in bone loss. It can be hypothesized that DM would increase bone loss after OT, mainly when associated with periodontitis. Thus, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of DM on bone response in the furcation area of teeth subjected to OT in the presence, or absence, of experimental periodontitis (EP) in the rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: 1) group 1 (G1): DM+OT+EP (n = 8); 2) group 2 (G2): DM+OT (n = 8); 3) group 3 (G3): OT+EP (n = 8); and 4) group 4 (G4): OT (n = 8). G1 and G2 received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After 10 days, G1 and G3 were subjected to EP by ligature placement. Fifteen days after the start of EP, OT was induced by the creation of a premature contact. The animals were euthanized 35 days after DM induction. DM enhanced bone loss in the presence of OT combined with EP, but did not increase bone loss in teeth subjected to OT alone. EP caused greater bone loss when associated with OT. Within the limits of this animal study, it can be concluded that DM enhances bone loss in the presence of occlusal trauma associated with EP.

  11. Peri-implant bone loss of dental implants with platform-switching design after 5 years of loading: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Michelaki, Ioanna; Heydecke, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate bone loss of implants with platform-switching design and analyze possible risk indicators after 5 years of loading in a multi-centered private practice network. Peri-implant bone loss was measured radiographically as the distance from the implant shoulder to the mesial and distal alveolar crest, respectively. Risk factor analysis for marginal bone loss included type of implant prosthetic treatment concept and dental status of the opposite arch. A total of 316 implants in 98 study patients after 5 years of loading were examined. The overall mean value for radiographic bone loss was 1.02 mm (SD ± 1.25 mm, 95% CI 0.90- 1.14). Correlation analyses indicated a strong association of peri-implant bone loss > 2 mm for removable implant-retained prostheses with an odds ratio of 53.8. The 5-year-results of the study show clinically acceptable values of mean bone loss after 5 years of loading. Implant-supported removable prostheses seem to be a strong co-factor for extensive bone level changes compared to fixed reconstructions. However, these results have to be considered for evaluation of the included special cohort under private dental office conditions.

  12. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

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    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  13. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  14. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

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    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  15. Effects of Weight Loss on Lean Mass, Strength, Bone, and Aerobic Capacity

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    Weiss, Edward P.; Jordan, Richard C.; Frese, Ethel M.; Albert, Stewart G.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the hypothesis that exercise attenuates the reductions in lean mass, muscle strength, BMD, and VO2max that accompany modest weight loss induced by calorie restriction. Methods Overweight, sedentary women and men (n=52, 45–65y) were randomized to 6–8% weight loss by using calorie restriction (CR), endurance exercise (EX), or both (CREX). The CR and CREX groups underwent counseling to reduce energy intake by 20% and 10%, respectively. The EX and CREX groups exercised 7.4±0.5 and 4.4±0.5 hr/wk, respectively. Before and after 16.8±1.1 weeks of weight loss, lean mass and BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, strength was measured with dynamometry, and aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured with indirect calorimetry during maximal-intensity treadmill exercise. Results Weight loss was ~7% in all groups. Decreases in whole body (~2%, p=0.003) and lower extremity (~4%, p<0.0001) lean mass occurred in the CR group (both p<0.05). Despite similar weight loss, these reductions were attenuated in the CREX group (~1%, p=0.44 and ~2%, p=0.05, respectively) and absent in the EX group. Absolute aerobic capacity decreased ~6% in the CR group (p=0.04), was unchanged in the CREX group (p=0.28) and increased ~15% in the EX group (p<0.0001). No changes in muscle strength or bone were observed. Conclusions Modest weight loss (~7%) induced by 20% calorie restriction in overweight women and men decreases lean mass and reduces absolute VO2max. Exercise protects against these effects. While the CR-induced changes might be considered physiologically appropriate for a reduced body weight, exercise preserves and/or improves these parameters during weight loss, which likely improves physical function. These findings support the notion of using exercise as an important component of weight loss programs. PMID:27580151

  16. Mechanical characterization and optoelectronic measurement of parietal bone thickness before and after monocortical bone graft harvest: design and validation of a test protocol.

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    Laure, Boris; Geais, Laurent; Tranquart, François; Goga, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Parietal bone grafts are commonly used in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, bone removal may weaken the parietal bone and lead to deleterious complications. The aim of our study was to design a test protocol for characterization of the impact resistance of parietal bone before and after monocortical bone graft harvest and to validate an optoelectronic measurement of parietal bone thickness. Twelve fresh human cadaver heads were used for the validation study. To evaluate impact resistance, we developed a pendulum Charpy impact testing machine. The impact force was gradually increased until failure (fracture) of the defined parietal bone area. According to the protocol, we measured the maximum absorbable energy or impact force to failure. With our test setup, measurement of the impact resistance of parietal bone was accurate to within 0.025 J. We defined a range of values and particularly a threshold value. The initial maximal impact must not to exceed 4 J. For more accuracy, we compared 5 nondestructive measurement methods using a surgical navigation system with optoelectronic tracking. We achieved an algorithm based on 2 methods that ensured a measurement resolution of 0.1 mm. Validation of this protocol will allow us to evaluate the loss of strength resulting from bone removal and the correlation between strength and thickness of the parietal bone.

  17. Hepatic Osteodystrophy: The Mechanism of Bone Loss in Hepatocellular Disease and the Effects of Pamidronate Treatment.

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    Spirlandeli, Adriano L; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Zamarioli, Ariane; Jorgetti, Vanda; Ramalho, Leandra N Z; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Volpon, Jose B; Jordão, Alceu A; Cunha, Fernando Q; Fukada, Sandra Y; de Paula, Francisco J A

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the bone phenotypes and mechanisms involved in bone disorders associated with hepatic osteodystrophy. Hepatocellular disease was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In addition, the effects of disodium pamidronate on bone tissue were evaluated. The study included 4 groups of 15 mice: a) C = mice subjected to vehicle injections; b) C+P = mice subjected to vehicle and pamidronate injections; c) CCl4+V = mice subjected to CCl4 and vehicle injections; and d) CCl4+P = mice subjected to CCl4 and pamidronate injections. CCl4 or vehicle was administered for 8 weeks, while pamidronate or vehicle was injected at the end of the fourth week. Bone histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed in tibiae, while femora were used for micro-computed tomography and gene expression. CCl4 mice exhibited decreased bone volume/trabecular volume and trabecular numbers, as well as increased trabecular separation, as determined by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography, but these changes were not detected in the group treated with pamidronate. CCl4 mice showed increased numbers of osteoclasts and resorption surface. High serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and the increased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in the bones of CCl4 mice supported the enhancement of bone resorption in these mice. Taken together, these results suggest that bone resorption is the main mechanism of bone loss in chronic hepatocellular disease in mice.

  18. Systemic Administration of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Does Not Halt Osteoporotic Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

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    Shuo Huang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have innate ability to self-renew and immunosuppressive functions, and differentiate into various cell types. They have become a promising cell source for treating many diseases, particular for bone regeneration. Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder with elevated systemic inflammation which in turn triggers enhanced bone loss. We hypothesize that systemic infusion of MSCs may suppress the elevated inflammation in the osteoporotic subjects and slow down bone loss. The current project was to address the following two questions: (1 Will a single dose systemic administration of allogenic MSCs have any effect on osteoporotic bone loss? (2 Will multiple administration of allogenic MSCs from single or multiple donors have similar effect on osteoporotic bone loss? 18 ovariectomized (OVX rats were assigned into 3 groups: the PBS control group, MSCs group 1 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs at Day 10, 46, 91 from the same donor following OVX and MSCs group 2 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs from three different donors at Day 10, 46, 91. Examinations included Micro-CT, serum analysis, mechanical testing, immunofluorescence staining and bone histomorphometry analysis. Results showed that BV/TV at Day 90, 135, BMD of TV and trabecular number at Day 135 in the PBS group were significantly higher than those in the MSCs group 2, whereas trabecular spacing at Day 90, 135 was significantly smaller than that in MSCs group 2. Mechanical testing data didn't show significant difference among the three groups. In addition, the ELISA assay showed that level of Rantes in serum in MSCs group 2 was significantly higher than that of the PBS group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. Bone histomorphometry analysis showed that Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS in the PBS group were significant lower than those in MSCs group 2; Ob.S/BS and Ob.N/BS did not show significant difference among the three groups. The current study

  19. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  20. Role of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ in inflammatory bone loss.

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    Nianlan Yang

    Full Text Available TNF-α plays a key role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and inflammatory bone loss. Unfortunately, treatment of RA with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids (GCs also causes bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Our previous studies showed that overexpression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ, a mediator of GC's anti-inflammatory effect, can enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone acquisition in vivo. To investigate whether GILZ could antagonize TNF-α-induced arthritic inflammation and protect bone in mice, we generated a TNF-α-GILZ double transgenic mouse line (TNF-GILZ Tg by crossbreeding a TNF-α Tg mouse, which ubiquitously expresses human TNF-α, with a GILZ Tg mouse, which expresses mouse GILZ under the control of a 3.6kb rat type I collagen promoter fragment. Results showed that overexpression of GILZ in bone marrow mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells protected mice from TNF-α-induced inflammatory bone loss and improved bone integrity (TNF-GILZ double Tg vs. TNF-αTg, n = 12-15. However, mesenchymal cell lineage restricted GILZ expression had limited effects on TNF-α-induced arthritic inflammation as indicated by clinical scores and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  1. Local vibration enhanced the efficacy of passive exercise on mitigating bone loss in hindlimb unloading rats

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    Huang, Yunfei; Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lianwen; Bi, Jingfang; Wang, Ying; Fan, Yubo

    2017-08-01

    Spaceflight induced bone loss is seriously affecting astronauts. Mechanical stimulation from exercise has been shown to restrain bone resorption as well as improve bone formation. Current exercise countermeasures in space cannot prevent it completely. Active exercise may convert to passive exercise in some ways because of the loss of gravity stimulus and inertia of exercise equipment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive exercise or/and local vibration on counteracting the deterioration of the musculoskeletal system, including bone, muscle and tendons in tail-suspended rats. We hypothesized that local vibration could enhance the efficacy of passive exercise on countering bone loss. 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS+35 Hz vibration (TSV), TS + passive exercise (TSP), TS + passive exercise coupled with 35 Hz vibration (TSPV) and control (CON). Passive exercise or/and local vibration was performed for 21 days. On day 0 and 21, bone mineral density (BMD) was observed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trabecular microstructure was evaluated by microcomputer tomography (μCT) analysis in vivo. Mechanical properties of tibia and tendon were determined by a mechanical testing system. Soleus and bone ash weight was tested by an electronic balance. Results showed that the passive exercise could not prevent the decrease of trabecular BMD, microstructure and bone ash weight induced by TS, whereas vibration and passive exercise coupled with local vibration (PV) could. Biomechanical properties of the tibia and tendon in TSPV group significantly increased compared with TS group. In summary, PV in this study was the best method in preventing weightlessness-induced bone loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, local vibration partly enhanced the effect of passive exercise. Furthermore, this study will be useful in improving countermeasure for astronauts, but also for the

  2. Targeting cellular senescence prevents age-related bone loss in mice.

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    Farr, Joshua N; Xu, Ming; Weivoda, Megan M; Monroe, David G; Fraser, Daniel G; Onken, Jennifer L; Negley, Brittany A; Sfeir, Jad G; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj B; Hachfeld, Christine M; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Drake, Matthew T; Pignolo, Robert J; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Tchkonia, Tamara; Oursler, Merry Jo; Kirkland, James L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-09-01

    Aging is associated with increased cellular senescence, which is hypothesized to drive the eventual development of multiple comorbidities. Here we investigate a role for senescent cells in age-related bone loss through multiple approaches. In particular, we used either genetic (i.e., the INK-ATTAC 'suicide' transgene encoding an inducible caspase 8 expressed specifically in senescent cells) or pharmacological (i.e., 'senolytic' compounds) means to eliminate senescent cells. We also inhibited the production of the proinflammatory secretome of senescent cells using a JAK inhibitor (JAKi). In aged (20- to 22-month-old) mice with established bone loss, activation of the INK-ATTAC caspase 8 in senescent cells or treatment with senolytics or the JAKi for 2-4 months resulted in higher bone mass and strength and better bone microarchitecture than in vehicle-treated mice. The beneficial effects of targeting senescent cells were due to lower bone resorption with either maintained (trabecular) or higher (cortical) bone formation as compared to vehicle-treated mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that senescent-cell conditioned medium impaired osteoblast mineralization and enhanced osteoclast-progenitor survival, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these data establish a causal role for senescent cells in bone loss with aging, and demonstrate that targeting these cells has both anti-resorptive and anabolic effects on bone. Given that eliminating senescent cells and/or inhibiting their proinflammatory secretome also improves cardiovascular function, enhances insulin sensitivity, and reduces frailty, targeting this fundamental mechanism to prevent age-related bone loss suggests a novel treatment strategy not only for osteoporosis, but also for multiple age-related comorbidities.

  3. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss - an in vivo and in vitro study.

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    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1-orchiectomy (OCX); 2-OCX sham surgery; or 3-OCX sham surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Reverse total shoulder glenoid baseplate stability with superior glenoid bone loss.

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    Martin, Elise J; Duquin, Thomas R; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2017-10-01

    Superior wear of the glenoid bone is common in patients with rotator cuff arthropathy. This can become a treatment challenge for patients who require shoulder arthroplasty. In reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), glenoid bone loss may affect the stability of baseplate fixation. The primary purpose of this biomechanical laboratory study was to assess the initial fixation stability of RSA glenosphere baseplates in the presence of variable amounts of superior glenoid bone loss. High-density solid rigid polyurethane foam (30 pounds/cubic foot) was machined to model the glenoid with variable superior defects that provided different levels of support (100%, 90%, 75%, and 50%) for the glenosphere baseplate. The samples were cyclically loaded (0-750 N at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles) at a 60° glenohumeral angle. The micromotion and migration of the baseplate were calculated from displacement data captured during the loading tests with an array of 3 linear variable differential transformers mounted around the baseplate. Micromotion was significantly greater in samples with 50% defects compared with those with smaller defects. Migration was significantly greater after testing for all defect sizes. Initial fixation of RSA glenosphere baseplates was significantly reduced in models with 50% bone loss on the superior edge compared with models with less bone loss in this high-density bone foam model. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

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    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  6. Running exercise alleviates trabecular bone loss and osteopenia in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

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    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-06-15

    A marked decrease in β-globin production led to β-thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disease associated with bone marrow expansion, bone erosion, and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice and to determine whether endurance running (60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 12 wk in running wheels) could effectively alleviate bone loss in BKO mice. Both male and female BKO mice (1-2 mo old) showed growth retardation as indicated by smaller body weight and femoral length than their wild-type littermates. A decrease in BMD was more severe in female than in male BKO mice. Bone histomorphometry revealed that BKO mice had decreases in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness, presumably due to suppression of osteoblast-mediated bone formation and activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, the latter of which was consistent with elevated serum levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-1α and -1β. As determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, running increased cortical density and thickness in the femoral and tibial diaphyses of BKO mice compared with those of sedentary BKO mice. Several histomorphometric parameters suggested an enhancement of bone formation (e.g., increased mineral apposition rate) and suppression of bone resorption (e.g., decreased osteoclast surface), which led to increases in trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness in running BKO mice. In conclusion, BKO mice exhibited pervasive osteopenia and impaired bone microstructure, whereas running exercise appeared to be an effective intervention in alleviating bone microstructural defect in β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Characterization of the bone matrix and its contribution to tooth loss in human cadaveric mandibles.

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    Matsuura, Takashi; Sasaki, Michiko; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Tokutomi, Kentaro; Mizumachi, Emiri; Makino, Michiko; Naito, Toru; Sato, Hironobu

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain as to what extent the major bone matrix constituents, mineral and collagen, show inter-individual variation and dependence on age and sex in jawbones. The purpose of this study was to clarify this uncertainty using cadaveric mandibles and investigate the association of bone matrix with the number of existing teeth. Cortical bone samples (1 × 1 cm) collected from the mental of 48 cadaveric mandibles (27 men and 21 women; age range = 56-93 years and 63-103 years, respectively) were used to quantify three bone matrix indices: mineral content, collagen content and extent of lysine hydroxylation of collagen. Associations with age and comparisons by sex were evaluated based on bone matrix indices and the numbers of existing teeth. The numbers of existing teeth were compared between the groups showing low and high bone matrix index values. A great amount of inter-individual variation was seen in all bone matrix indices. No bone matrix indices were associated with age, while the number of existing teeth was negatively associated with age. The bone matrix indices and number of existing teeth did not differ by sex. The number of existing teeth was nearly twice as high in the group showing high collagen content as in the low collagen group; however, an analysis of covariance showed a significant inter-group difference not from bone matrix indices, but rather from age. Interestingly, in comparison to femoral collagen, mandibular collagen showed lower lysine hydroxylation, which can represent an aspect of bone quality. Mandibular bone matrix shows great inter-individual variation and is independent of age and sex, but did not show as strong a relationship with tooth loss as age. Even so, mandibular collagen may represent a unique characteristic of bone matrix and deserves to be further investigated.

  8. Marginal bone loss around tilted implants in comparison to straight implants: a meta-analysis.

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    Monje, Alberto; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to compare the amount of marginal bone loss around tilted and straight implants. As the secondary aim, the incidence of biomechanic complications was compared. An electronic literature search from five databases, for the years 2000 to 2011, and a hand search in implant-related journals were conducted. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported marginal bone loss in tilted and straight implants at 12-months follow-up or longer were included. Mean marginal bone loss and the number of implants that were available for analysis were extracted from original articles for meta-analyses. Eight (six prospective and two retrospective) studies were included. One-year data were available in seven articles, which included 1,015 (451 tilted) implants. Three articles provided 3- to 5-year data from 302 (164 tilted) implants. No significant difference in weighted mean marginal bone loss was found between the tilted and straight implants in the short and medium terms. Three articles reported the incidence of biomechanic complications. There was not enough information to make a comparison. This meta-analysis failed to support the hypothesis that tilted implants that were splinted for the support of fixed prostheses had more marginal bone loss. Additionally, there was not enough evidence to claim a higher incidence of biomechanic complications in tilted implants. However, due to the nature of the study design of the included articles, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of this review.

  9. The current state of bone loss research: data from spaceflight and microgravity simulators.

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    Nagaraja, Mamta Patel; Risin, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Bone loss is a well documented phenomenon occurring in humans both in short- and in long-term spaceflights. This phenomenon can be also reproduced on the ground in human and animals and also modeled in cell-based analogs. Since space flights are infrequent and expensive to study the biomedical effects of microgravity on the human body, much of the known pathology of bone loss comes from experimental studies. The most commonly used in vitro simulators of microgravity are clinostats while in vivo simulators include the bed rest studies in humans and hindlimb unloading experiments in animals. Despite the numerous reports that have documented bone loss in wide ranges in multiple crew members, the pathology remains a key concern and development of effective countermeasures is still a major task. Thus far, the offered modalities have not shown much success in preventing or alleviating bone loss in astronauts and cosmonauts. The objective of this review is to capture the most recent research on bone loss from spaceflights, bed rest and hindlimb unloading, and in vitro studies utilizing cellular models in clinostats. Additionally, this review offers projections on where the research has to focus to ensure the most rapid development of effective countermeasures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with changes in the composition of oral microbiota.

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    Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Saraiva, Adriana Machado; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Madeira, Mila Fernandes Moreira; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Souza, Danielle Glória; da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are chronic inflammatory disorders that cause bone loss. PD tends to be more prevalent and severe in RA patients. Previous experimental studies demonstrated that RA triggers alveolar bone loss similarly to PD. The aim of this study was to investigate if arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with modification in the oral microbiota. Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was employed to analyze forty oral bacterial species in 3 groups of C57BL/6 mice: control (n = 12; without any challenge); Y4 (n = 8; received oral inoculation of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans strain FDC Y4) and AIA group (n = 12; chronic antigen-induced arthritis). The results showed that AIA and Y4 group exhibited similar patterns of bone loss. The AIA group exhibited higher counts of most bacterial species analyzed with predominance of Gram-negative species similarly to infection-induced PD. Prevotella nigrescens and Treponema denticola were detected only in the Y4 group whereas Campylobacter showae, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis were only found in the AIA group. Counts of Parvimonas micra, Selenomonas Noxia and Veillonella parvula were greater in the AIA group whereas Actinomyces viscosus and Neisseira mucosa were in large proportion in Y4 group. In conclusion, AIA is associated with changes in the composition of the oral microbiota, which might account for the alveolar bone loss observed in AIA mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  12. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana dos Reis Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP. For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL. Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  13. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P.; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Carneiro, Virgínia C.; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway. PMID:28701962

  14. The Effect ofCalendula officinalison Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana Dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A C; Carneiro, Virgínia C; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  15. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia Induce Synergistic Alveolar Bone Loss in a Mouse Periodontitis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settem, Rajendra P.; El-Hassan, Ahmed Taher; Honma, Kiyonobu; Stafford, Graham P.

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to tooth loss. Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic pathogen, is thought to promote dental plaque formation by serving as a bridge bacterium between early- and late-colonizing species of the oral cavity. Previous studies have shown that F. nucleatum species synergize with T. forsythia during biofilm formation and pathogenesis. In the present study, we showed that coinfection of F. nucleatum and T. forsythia is more potent than infection with either species alone in inducing NF-κB activity and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in monocytic cells and primary murine macrophages. Moreover, in a murine model of periodontitis, mixed infection with the two species induces synergistic alveolar bone loss, characterized by bone loss which is greater than the additive alveolar bone losses induced by each species alone. Further, in comparison to the single-species infection, mixed infection caused significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingivae and osteoclastic activity in the jaw bones. These data show that F. nucleatum subspecies and T. forsythia synergistically stimulate the host immune response and induce alveolar bone loss in a murine experimental periodontitis model. PMID:22547549

  16. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (palveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  17. Structural joint damage and hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Midtbøll Ørnbjerg

    2018-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pain, swelling and progressive destruction of the joints leading to loss of function and invalidity. The bone destruction in RA is characterised by two distinct features: structural joint damage and hand bone loss, and their prevention is an important treatment goal. Inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-inhibitors) have markedly improved the treatment options in RA patients who fail treatment with conventional synthetic Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatic Drugs (sDMARDS), but their effectiveness with regards to structural joint damage and hand bone loss, predictors thereof and the association with disease activity during treatment have mainly been investigated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with limited generalizability due to strict in- and exclusion criteria.
 The main aim of the PhD thesis was to assess and predict structural joint damage and hand bone loss in patients with early and established RA treated with sDMARDs and TNF-inhibitors. This was investigated in two cohorts: A) The "DANBIO X-ray study": an observational, nationwide, longitudinal cohort study of established RA patients treated in clinical practice who initiated TNF-inhibitor treatment after failure of sDMARDs and B) The "OPERA study": a randomized controlled trial of sDMARD-naïve patients with early RA treated with methotrexate (MTX) and intraarticular glucocorticoid injections in combination with adalimumab or placebo-adalimumab. Structural joint damage progression was assessed with the Sharp/van der Heijde radiographic method and hand bone loss was assessed with Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry. 
From the studies presented in the PhD thesis the following was concluded:
 Structural joint damage progression and hand bone loss were significantly lower during two years of TNF-inhibitor treatment compared to the previous two years of sDMARD-treatment in the DANBIO X-ray Study. The majority of patients had

  18. Self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, H; Reader, R; Murphy, S; Khaw, K T

    1995-05-01

    It has been reported that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have a higher than expected number of dentures and fewer teeth than women without osteoporosis. The relationship between self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine in 608 men and 874 women, aged 65-76 years, was examined in a cross-sectional study. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-four per cent of men and 27% of women had no natural teeth. There was a consistent decrease in BMD with increasing numbers of teeth lost in men. This relationship was independent of age, body mass index and smoking habit (trochanter r = -0.14, p < 0.0005; Ward's triangle r = -0.1, p < 0.005; and lumbar spine r = -0.07, p < 0.05) with between 5% and 9% difference in mean BMD at various sites between men who had all their teeth and men who had no teeth. There was no significant association between self-reported tooth loss and BMD in women. Tooth loss is associated with lower BMD in men; this relationship is less consistent in women.

  19. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-11-04

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  20. Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

  1. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  2. Suppression Effect of Astaxanthin on Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and Bone Loss In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction of the bone mineral density (BMD and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone, which lead to bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Astaxanthin (AST has a variety of biological activities, such as a protective effect against asthma or neuroinflammation, antioxidant effect, and decrease of the osteoclast number in the right mandibles in the periodontitis model. Although treatment with AST is known to have an effect on inflammation, no studies on the effect of AST exposure on bone loss have been performed. Thus, in the present study, we examined the antiosteoporotic effect of AST on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX mice and its possible mechanism of action. The administration of AST (5, 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks suppressed the enhancement of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. The bone mineral density (BMD and bone microarchitecture of the trabecular bone in the tibia and femur were recovered by AST exposure. Moreover, in the in vitro experiment, we demonstrated that AST inhibits osteoclast formation through the expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT c1, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, TRAP, and cathepsin K without any cytotoxic effects on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs. Therefore, we suggest that AST may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  3. Sappanone A inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in BMMs and prevents inflammation-mediated bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Young-Yeon; Tran, Phuong Thao; Min, Byung-Sun; Kim, Okwha; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2017-11-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Suppressing osteoclastogenesis is considered an effective therapeutic approach for bone-destructive diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Sappanone A (SPNA), a homoisoflavanone compound isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects; however, the effects of SPNA on osteoclastogenesis have not been investigated. In the present study, we describe for the first time that SPNA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. SPNA inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from BMMs, osteoclast actin-ring formation, and bone resorption in a concentration-dependent manner. At the molecular level, SPNA significantly inhibited RANKL-induced activation of the AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway without affecting its activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) JNK, p38, and ERK. In addition, SPNA suppressed the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a crucial transcription factor in osteoclast differentiation. As a result, SPNA decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including CtsK, TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), MMP-9 and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). In a mouse inflammatory bone loss model, SPNA significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss by suppressing the number of osteoclasts. Taken together, these findings suggest that SPNA inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by inhibiting the AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway and may be a potential candidate compound for the prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory bone loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  5. Non-invasive clinical measurements of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are now available for measurement of both compact and trabecular bone on both the appendicular and axial skeleton. Radiogrammetry and photodensitometry both are subject to large errors in areas of heavy tissue cover but precise measurements can be made on the hand bones. Single-photon absorptiometry with 125 I provides a more accurate and precise measure of appendicular compact bone, which is particularly useful for screening of metabolic bone disease and for monitoring renal osteodystrophy. Dual-photon absorptiometry with 153 Gd provides a measurement of the femoral neck and of the lumbar spine and hence is the most diagnostically sensitive measurement method. It is also the most sensitive for monitoring bone changes

  6. Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability With Combined Bone Loss: Treatment and Results With the Modified Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin S; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Cote, Mark P; Edgar, Cory M; Arciero, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent anterior glenohumeral dislocation in the setting of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion is high. The Latarjet procedure has been well described for restoring glenohumeral stability in patients with >25% glenoid bone loss. However, the treatment for patients with combined humeral head and mild (Latarjet for patients with combined humeral and glenoid defects and compares the results for patients with ≤25% glenoid bone loss versus patients with >25% glenoid bone loss. The hypothesis was that the 2 groups would have equivalent subjective outcomes and recurrence rates. Cohort Study; Level of evidence, 3. Modified Latarjet was performed in 40 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability, engaging Hill-Sachs by examination confirmed with arthroscopy, and ≤25% anterior glenoid bone loss (group A). A second group of 12 patients were identified to have >25% glenoid bone loss with an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (group B). The mean follow-up time was 3.5 years. All patients were assessed for their risk of recurrence using the Instability Severity Index score and Beighton score and had preoperative 3-dimensional imaging to assess humeral and glenoid bone loss. Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), recurrence rate, radiographs, range of motion, and dynamometer strength were used to assess outcomes. A multivariate analysis was performed. Glenoid bone loss averaged 15% in group A compared with 34% in group B. Both groups had comparable WOSI scores (356 vs 475; P = .311). In multivariate analysis, the number of previous surgeries and Beighton score were directly correlated with WOSI score in Latarjet patients. The SANE score was better in group A (86 vs 77; P = .02). Group B experienced more loss of external rotation (9.2° vs 15.8°; P = .0001) and weaker thumbs-down abduction and external rotation strength (P .999) were similar for both groups. The complication rate was 25% for both groups. The modified

  7. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  8. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... (r = -0.12 to -0.15, p mass parameters and response to alendronate treatment, which...... indicated that risk of low bone mass and increased bone loss caused by thinness could be compensated by alendronate treatment. In conclusion, thinness is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in postmenopausal women. Because the response to alendronate treatment is independent...

  9. Association of Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels with Bone Loss in Chronic Kidney Disease: Insights from the KNOW-CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Han, Seung Hyeok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Lee, Joongyub; Chae, Dong Wan; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin, a potent osteoclast activation inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and positively affects bone mineral density. This study examined the association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, a condition associated with increased risk of mineral and bone disorders. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteoprotegerin levels were measured at baseline for 1,423 patients enrolled in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Patients aged ≥50 years and with a T-score ≤ -2.5 were diagnosed as having osteoporosis. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated independent association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (B: -0.489, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.883 to -0.095, P = 0.015), and total hip (B: -0.349, 95% CI: -0.672 to -0.027, P = 0.027). However, bone mineral density of the femur neck was not associated with serum osteoprotegerin levels in women. After adjustments, no independent association was found between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone mineral density in men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, serum osteoprotegerin levels were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR]: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.35 to 16.52, P = 0.015), but not in men (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.31, P = 0.095). To summarize, in female patients with chronic kidney disease, increased serum osteoprotegerin levels were independently associated with decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and total hip, and with increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the measurement of serum osteoprotegerin concentration might be useful as a surrogate marker for determining bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially for women, although not so much for men.

  10. Andrographolide prevents human breast cancer-induced osteoclastic bone loss via attenuated RANKL signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zanjing; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Wei; Li, Haowei; Liu, Guangwang; Liu, Xuqiang; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-02-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and serious complication in advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. Agents that prevent bone loss could be used to develop an alternative therapy for bone metastasis. RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has been shown to play a significant role in cancer-associated bone loss. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the natural compound andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, in reducing breast cancer-induced osteolysis. AP prevented human breast cancer-induced bone loss by suppressing RANKL-mediated and human breast cancer cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. Molecular analysis revealed that AP prevented osteoclast function by inhibiting RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway in lower dose (20 μM), as well as inducing apoptosis at higher dose (40 μM). Thus, AP is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis.

  11. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and their Implications for Bone Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Effective countermeasures to prevent loss of bone mineral during long duration space flight remain elusive. Despite an exercise program on MIR flights, the data from LeBlanc et al. (1996) indicated that there was still a mean rate of loss of bone mineral density in the proximal femur of 1.58% per month (n=18, flight duration 4 - 14.4 months). The specific mechanisms regulating bone mass are not known, but most investigators agree that bone maintenance is largely dependent upon mechanical demand and the resultant local bone strains. A plausible hypothesis is that bone loss during space flight, such as that reported by LeBlanc et al. (1996), may result from failure to effectively load the skeleton in order to generate localized bone strains of sufficient magnitude to prevent disuse osteoporosis. A variety of methods have been proposed to simulate locomotor exercise in reduced gravity. In such simulations, and in an actual microgravity environment, a gravity replacement load (GRL) must always be added to return the exercising subject to the support surface and the resulting skeletal load is critically dependent upon the magnitude of the GRL. To our knowledge, GRLs during orbital flight have only been measured once (on STS 81) and it is likely that most or all prior treadmill exercise in space has used GRLs that were less than one body weight. McCrory (1997) has shown that subjects walking and running in simulated zero-G can tolerate GRLs of 1 if an appropriate harness is used. Several investigators have attempted to measure in vivo strains and forces in the bones of humans, but have faced ethical and technical limitations. The anteromedial aspect of the tibial midshaft has been a common site for the placement of strain gauges; one reason to measure strains in the anterior tibia is that this region is surgically accessible. Aamodt et al. (1997) were able to measure strains on the lateral surface of the proximal femur only because their experimental subjects were

  12. Effect of Cistanches Herba Aqueous Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiguo Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of traditional Chinese medicine Cistanches Herba extract (CHE to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX rat, Cistanches Herba extract (CHE was administered intragastrically to the rats. Female rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg kg−1, i.p., and their ovaries were removed bilaterally. The rats in the sham-operated group were anesthetized, laparotomized, and sutured without removing their ovaries. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, the OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups and orally treated with H2O (OVX group or CHE (100 or 200 mg kg−1 daily for 3 months. The sham-operated group (n = 8 was orally treated with H2O. After 3 months, the total body bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, Bone biomechanical index, blood mineral levels and blood antioxidant enzymes activities were examined in sham-operated, ovariectomized and Cistanches Herba extract treated rats. Results showed that Cistanches Herba extract treatment significantly dose-dependently enhanced bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, maximum load, displacement at maximum load, stress at maximum load, load at auto break, displacement at auto break, and stress at auto break, and blood antioxidant enzymes activities, decreased blood Ca, Zn and Cu levels compared to the OVX group. This experiment demonstrates that the administration of Cistanches Herba extract to ovariectomized rats reverses bone loss and prevents osteoporosis.

  13. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Mandibular ridge augmentation by combined sandwich-visor osteotomy and resorption related to metabolic bone state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, J.; van Ooij, C. P.; van den Akker, H. P.

    1985-01-01

    22 edentulous women, 11 with and 11 without signs of metabolic bone loss were treated by a combined sandwich-visor osteotomy. Longitudinal studies showed a higher rate of resorption in women with radiographic signs of metabolic bone loss. The analysis was based upon lateral cephalometry

  14. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Mandibular ridge augmentation by combined sandwich-visor osteotomy and resorption related to metabolic bone state. A 5-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; van den Akker, H. P.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.; van Ooij, C. P.

    1987-01-01

    92 patients, 31 with and 61 without signs of metabolic bone loss, were treated with a combined sandwich-visor osteotomy. A 5-year follow-up showed a significantly higher rate of resorption in patients with radiographic signs of metabolic bone loss. The analysis was based upon lateral cephalometry

  15. Mucosal inflammation and incidence of crestal bone loss among implant patients: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Denis; Parpaiola, Andrea; Lindhe, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of marginal bone loss and, in addition, peri-implantitis in subjects and implant sites after 10 years in function. One hundred and thirty-three subjects with a total of 407 implants that had been in function for about 5 years attended a follow-up visit in 2007 (visit 2; V2). 100 of the 133 subjects returned for a new clinical and radiographic examination in 2012 (visit 3; V3). The clinical examination included assessment of "bleeding on probing" (BoP+) and "probing pocket depth." Subjects with implant sites that in the radiograph exhibited crater-shaped marginal bone loss of >0.5 mm were identified as losers. During the interval between V2 and V3 (about 5 years), 13 implants in 7 subjects exhibited progressive bone loss and were removed. The overall amount of crestal bone loss that had occurred at the remaining implants between visit 1 (V1; ≥1 year of loading) and V3 (10 years) was small (0.36 ± 1.4 mm). The bone-level reduction was twice as great between V2 and V3 as between V1 and V2. Forty subjects and 75 (26%) implant sites exhibited marginal bone loss of >0.5 mm between V1 and V3. In the interval between V2 and V3, 37 new implant sites lost significant amounts of bone. During the entire 10-year period (V1-V3), 12% of patients and 5% of implants displayed signs of peri-implantitis (bone loss >0.5 mm, BoP+, PPD ≥6 mm), while in the V2-V3 interval, the corresponding numbers were 10% (patients) and 4% (implant sites). Sites with marginal bone loss of ≥1 mm were not common among implant patients. Peri-implantitis occurred in about 10% of patients and 4% of implant sites. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sound Localization in Patients With Congenital Unilateral Conductive Hearing Loss With a Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocil, Erich; Liepins, Rudolfs; Kaider, Alexandra; Blineder, Michaela; Hamzavi, Sasan

    2017-03-01

    There is no consensus regarding the benefit of implantable hearing aids in congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL). This study aimed to measure sound source localization performance in patients with congenital UCHL and contralateral normal hearing who received a new bone conduction implant. Evaluation of within-subject performance differences for sound source localization in a horizontal plane. Tertiary referral center. Five patients with atresia of the external auditory canal and contralateral normal hearing implanted with transcutaneous bone conduction implant at the Medical University of Vienna were tested. Activated/deactivated implant. Sound source localization test; localization performance quantified using the root mean square (RMS) error. Sound source localization ability was highly variable among individual subjects, with RMS errors ranging from 21 to 40 degrees. Horizontal plane localization performance in aided conditions showed statistically significant improvement compared with the unaided conditions, with RMS errors ranging from 17 to 27 degrees. The mean RMS error decreased by a factor of 0.71 (p conduction implant. Some patients with congenital UCHL might be capable of developing improved horizontal plane localization abilities with the binaural cues provided by this device.

  17. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  18. Bone degradation machinery of osteoclasts: An HIV-1 target that contributes to bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud-Messina, Brigitte; Bracq, Lucie; Dupont, Maeva; Souriant, Shanti; Usmani, Shariq M; Proag, Amsha; Pingris, Karine; Soldan, Vanessa; Thibault, Christophe; Capilla, Florence; Al Saati, Talal; Gennero, Isabelle; Jurdic, Pierre; Jolicoeur, Paul; Davignon, Jean-Luc; Mempel, Thorsten R; Benichou, Serge; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Vérollet, Christel

    2018-03-13

    Bone deficits are frequent in HIV-1-infected patients. We report here that osteoclasts, the cells specialized in bone resorption, are infected by HIV-1 in vivo in humanized mice and ex vivo in human joint biopsies. In vitro, infection of human osteoclasts occurs at different stages of osteoclastogenesis via cell-free viruses and, more efficiently, by transfer from infected T cells. HIV-1 infection markedly enhances adhesion and osteolytic activity of human osteoclasts by modifying the structure and function of the sealing zone, the osteoclast-specific bone degradation machinery. Indeed, the sealing zone is broader due to F-actin enrichment of its basal units (i.e., the podosomes). The viral protein Nef is involved in all HIV-1-induced effects partly through the activation of Src, a regulator of podosomes and of their assembly as a sealing zone. Supporting these results, Nef-transgenic mice exhibit an increased osteoclast density and bone defects, and osteoclasts derived from these animals display high osteolytic activity. Altogether, our study evidences osteoclasts as host cells for HIV-1 and their pathological contribution to bone disorders induced by this virus, in part via Nef.

  19. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  20. The effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Yang Weiwen; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in healthy women, and to assess the pathogenesis of the postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Methods: One hundred and thirty one healthy women aged 31-72 including 64 sexual maturity women aged 31-52 were enrolled in four groups and 67 postmenopausal women, the years of menopause from 1 month to 23 years, were also enrolled in four groups. The bone mass of the lumbar-spine and femur were measured using dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry; the serum E 2 , FSH, BGP by radioimmunoassay (RIA); the serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 by ELISA; the serum AKP, calcium, phosphate by auto-biochemistry instrument. Results: The BMD of lumbar-spine and right femur decreased following increase of age and the duration of menopause. Significant positive correlation was observed between BMD and E 2 . The serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 level was low, and stable before menopause. The level of IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 increased with variation of age and the duration of menopause. Significant negative correlation was observed between IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 and E 2 , BMD. Serum AKP and BGP level was higher in postmenopausal women than that in sexual maturity women. The serum calcium level increased significantly soon after menopausal, then decreased to the normal level. The serum phosphate level had no difference in these groups. Conclusion: The main cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis is the unbalance of the bone formation and resorption

  1. Changes in bone marrow lesions in response to weight-loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    are related to the future degeneration of the knee joint as well as prevalent clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in BMLs after a 16-week weight-loss period in obese subjects with KOA and relate changes in BMLs to the effects of weight-loss on clinical symptoms.......Patients are susceptible for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with increasing age and obesity and KOA is expected to become a major disabling disease in the future. An important feature of KOA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is changes in the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which...

  2. Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14...duration of its effects and the value of using biomarkers to guide therapy. Data collection ( bone imaging and biomarkers) occurs at baseline and after 3...the durability of response to zoledronic acid and the utility of serum bone markers to guide therapeutic decision making. DXA imaging, CT imaging

  3. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  4. Marginal bone loss around platform-switched and non-platform switched implants after two years of placement: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, Ali; Novin, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. The present study was conducted to investigate the marginal bone loss around two different types of implant‒abutment junctions, called platform-switched (Implantium system) and non-platform switched (XiVE system) after two years of loading. Methods. Sixty-four implants in 49 patients were included in the study. The implants were placed in the posterior mandibular region according to the relevant protocols. The extent of bone loss around the implants was measured and compared after 24 months, using digital parallel periapical radiographs. Results. The means ± SE of bone loss values in the platform-switched and non-platform-switched groups were 0.47 ± 0.048 mm and 1.87 ± 0.124 mm, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P technique seems to reduce the periimplant crestal bone resorption, which supports the long-term predictability of implant therapy.

  5. 15-deoxy-δ12,14-prostaglandin j2 inhibits osteolytic breast cancer bone metastasis and estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rim Kim

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The most common site of metastasis is bone. Bone metastases obstruct the normal bone remodeling process and aberrantly enhance osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, which results in osteolytic lesions. 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 is an endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity at micromolar concentrations through PPARγ-dependent and/or PPARγ-independent pathways. We investigated the inhibitory activity of 15d-PGJ2 on the bone loss that is associated with breast cancer bone metastasis and estrogen deficiency caused by cancer treatment. 15d-PGJ2 dose-dependently inhibited viability, migration, invasion, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP production in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. 15d-PGJ2 suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL mRNA levels and normalized osteoprotegerin (OPG mRNA levels in hFOB1.19 osteoblastic cells treated with culture medium from MDA-MB-231 cells or PTHrP, which decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio. 15d-PGJ2 blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and inhibited the formation of resorption pits by decreasing the activities of cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinases, which are secreted by mature osteoclasts. 15d-PGJ2 exerted its effects on breast cancer and bone cells via PPARγ-independent pathways. In Balb/c nu/nu mice that received an intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 cells, subcutaneously injected 15d-PGJ2 substantially decreased metastatic progression, cancer cell-mediated bone destruction in femora, tibiae, and mandibles, and serum PTHrP levels. 15d-PGJ2 prevented the destruction of femoral trabecular structures in estrogen-deprived ICR mice as measured by bone morphometric parameters and serum biochemical data. Therefore, 15d-PGJ2 may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer

  6. Antibody-based inhibition of circulating DLK1 protects from estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figeac, Florence; Andersen, Ditte C.; Nipper Nielsen, Casper A.

    2018-01-01

    /TV) and inhibition of bone resorption. No significant changes were observed in total fat mass or in the number of bone marrow adipocytes. These results support the potential use of anti-DLK1 antibody therapy as a novel intervention to protect from E deficiency associated bone loss....... deficiency-associated bone loss in mice. Thus, we generated mouse monoclonal anti-mouse DLK1 antibodies (MAb DLK1) that enabled us to reduce and also quantitate the levels of bioavailable serum DLK1 in vivo. Ovariectomized (ovx) mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly with MAb DLK1 over a period...... of one month. DEXA-, microCT scanning, and bone histomorphometric analyses were performed. Compared to controls, MAb DLK1 treated ovx mice were protected against ovx-induced bone loss, as revealed by significantly increased total bone mass (BMD) due to increased trabecular bone volume fraction (BV...

  7. Endogenous opioids regulate alveolar bone loss in a periodontal disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Maltos, Kátia L M; Pacheco, Daniela F; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Albergaria, Juliano D S; Pacheco, Cinthia M F

    2013-10-06

    The anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous opioid compounds have been demonstrated in several conditions. Nevertheless, the function of endogenous opioid peptides released by the host during inflammatory processes deserves further characterization. The aim of this study was to verify whether endogenous opioids are involved in the progression of the inflammatory alveolar bone loss induced by ligature in rats. The experimental model of periodontal disease (PD) induced by ligature in rats was used throughout the study. A silk ligature was placed around the 2nd upper molar of male Holtzman rats, for 7 days. Rats received different doses of either the non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone or vehicle, locally into the afflicted gingival tissue, from the 3rd to the 5th day after ligature placement. In the 7th experimental day, rats were euthanized and their maxillae were collected for evaluation of alveolar bone and fiber attachment loss, presence of neutrophils (myeloperoxidase assay), osteoclast amount, and levels of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-10 in periodontal tissues. Naloxone increased alveolar bone loss significantly, in a dose-dependent manner, in relation to vehicle-treated rats. In contrast, the opioid antagonist did not affect the loss of fiber attachment. The treatment with naloxone also induced a significant increase in myeloperoxidase levels, osteoclast number and cytokines in periodontal tissues of rats with ligature-induced PD. Endogenous opioids protect the host from the progression of inflammatory alveolar bone loss that occurs in chronic periodontitis. © 2013.

  8. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Gene Therapy Ameliorates Bone Loss in Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul; Cao, Jay J; Lu, Yuanqing; Nardo, David; Chen, Mong-Jen; Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ahamed, Rubina; Brantly, Mark; Holliday, L Shannon; Song, Sihong

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at menopause. Therefore, anti-inflammatory strategies hold a great potential for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of gene therapy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT), a multifunctional protein that has anti-inflammatory property, on bone loss in an ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse model. Adult ovariectomized (OVX) mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with hAAT (protein therapy), rAAV8-CB-hAAT (gene therapy), or phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Age-matched and sham-operated animals were used as controls. Eight weeks after the treatment, animals were sacrificed and bone-related biomarkers and vertebral bone structure were evaluated. Results showed that hAAT gene therapy significantly decreased serum IL-6 level and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) gene expression in bone. Importantly, hAAT gene therapy increased bone volume/total volume and decreased structure model index (SMI) compared to PBS injection in OVX mice. These results demonstrate that hAAT gene therapy by rAAV vector efficiently mitigates bone loss possibly through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and RANK gene expression. Considering the safety profile of hAAT and rAAV vector in humans, our results provide a new alternative for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis on inflammatory bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Joanna Trycia M; Sousa, Luzia Hermínia Teixeira; Lisboa, Mario Roberto Pontes; Furlaneto, Flávia A C; do Val, Danielle Rocha; Marques, Mirna; Vasconcelos, Hellíada C; de Melo, Iracema Matos; Leitão, Renata; Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Goes, Paula

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis (CLO) on alveolar bone loss (ABL) in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ABL by ligature with nylon thread around the second upper left molar. The contralateral hemimaxillae were used as control. Rats received saline solution (SAL) or CLO (10, 30, or 90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. The maxillae were removed and prepared for macroscopic, radiographic, micro-tomographic, histopathologic, histometric analysis, and immunohistochemical localization of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The gingival tissues were used to quantify the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations by ELISA. Blood samples were collected for leukogram and to evaluate the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity and serum levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST/ALT). The bone loss induced by 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, reduced levels of BALP, leukocyte infiltration, increased MPO activity, gingival concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β, and RANKL while reduced OPG immunoexpressions in the periodontal tissue and leukocytosis. Of the CLO, 90 mg/kg reduced bone loss, neutrophilia, the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and RANKL expression, while it increased OPG immunopositive cells and BALP serum levels, when compared to SAL. CLO did not affect either kidney or liver function, indicated by serum AST/ALT levels. The present data suggests that CLO reduced inflammatory bone resorption in experimental periodontitis, which may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory properties and its effects on bone metabolism. CLO can be a potential therapeutical adjuvant in the treatment of periodontitis.

  11. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thyroid disease and severe arthritis. Current use of oestrogen ... These 2 subgroups were compared in respect of all BMD measurements taken at the vertebrae and left hip. They were not age-matched, but the age range. (18 - 59 years) was ..... Clearly, quality of bone is likely to be as important as quantity of bone in the ...

  12. Measurement of bone mineral mass in clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N.R. van Berkum (Frank)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIt has now became possible to measure the bone mineral content in the axial as well as the peripheral skeleton. Moreover, with the use of computed tomography a selective assessment can be made of cancellous (trabecular) versus cortical bone mineral density. These technical

  13. Measurement of absolute bone blood flow by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmias, C.; Cockshott, W.P.; Garnett, E.S.; Belbeck, L.W.

    1986-03-01

    A method of measuring bone blood flow has been developed using /sup 18/F sodium fluoride and positron emission tomography. The blood flow levels are in line with those obtained experimentally from microsphere embolisation. This investigative method could be applied to elucidate a number of clinical questions involving bone perfusion.

  14. Estimation of Penetrated Bone Layers During Craniotomy via Bioimpedance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; Rohe, Lucas; Niesche, Annegret; Mueller, Meiko; Radermacher, Klaus; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Craniotomy is the removal of a bone flap from the skull and is a first step in many neurosurgical interventions. During craniotomy, an efficient cut of the bone without injuring adjoining soft tissues is very critical. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of estimating the currently penetrated cranial bone layer by means of bioimpedance measurement. A finite-element model was developed and a simulation study conducted. Simulations were performed at different positions along an elliptical cutting path and at three different operation areas. Finally, the validity of the simulation was demonstrated by an ex vivo experiment based on use of a bovine shoulder blade bone and a commercially available impedance meter. The curve of the absolute impedance and phase exhibits characteristic changes at the transition from one bone layer to the next, which can be used to determine the bone layer last penetrated by the cutting tool. The bipolar electrode configuration is superior to the monopolar measurement. A horizontal electrode arrangement at the tip of the cutting tool produces the best results. This study successfully demonstrates the feasibility to detect the transition between cranial bone layers during craniotomy by bioimpedance measurements using electrodes located on the cutting tool. Based on the results of this study, bioimpedance measurement seems to be a promising option for intra operative ad hoc information about the bone layer currently penetrated and could contribute to patient safety during neurosurgery.

  15. Usefulness of bone mineral content measurement. Value of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fery-Lemonnier, E.; Viens-Bitker, C.; Roux, C.; Hazebroucq, V.; Legmann, P.

    1993-01-01

    The current interest in bone mineral density measurements is related to the frequency, the morbidity and the cost of osteoporosis, which is considered to be a public health problem in developed countries. The main risk factor of osteoporotic fractures is the reduction of bone mineral density. This risk factor can be prevented by hormonal therapy in post-menopausal women. So it is of interest to develop the bone mineral density measurement methods, in osteoporotic bone areas or the entire skeleton (absorptiometry). But the interpretation of the result in term of individual fracture risk, the choice of the bone site to be examined, and the indication of the measurement are still being discussed. A new method of bone status evaluation is currently available: the broad band ultrasonic attenuation, which measures the attenuation of ultrasounds through the calcaneus bone. The device is portable, inexpensive and radiation free, and may give quantitative and qualitative assessment of bone. However, the normal values, the relation with the absorptiometry results and the contribution of this method in fracture risk evaluation are currently studied. Osteoporosis risk evaluation is an important point of health management in post-menopausal women and elderly people. Large prospective studies with the different methods are in progress

  16. [Effects of Chinese Bushen Zhuanggu medicine on bone loss in female rats after simulated weightlessness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Huang, Zhen; Cai, De-Hong; He, Lei

    2007-02-01

    To study the effect of Bushen Zhuanggu, the traditional Chinese medicine for reinforcing kidney and strengthening bone, on bone loss in female rats after simulated weightlessness. Thirty-six female SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely normal control group (group A) and two groups of weightlessness simulated by tail suspension (groups B and C). Group C were treated with the Chinese medicine, while groups A and B were given the same dose of normal saline. The experiment lasted 28 days, and all rats were allowed to drink water freely. In the rats of group B, serum bone Gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), estradiol (E(2)) and P content and femur bone mineral content (BMD) were significantly lower than those in group A (P<0.01, P<0.05), whereas serum calcium concentration was markedly higher than that in group A (P<0.01). In rats of group C, serum BGP, ALP, E2 and P content and femur BMD were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.01, P<0.05), but serum calcium concentration was markedly lower (P<0.01). This Chinese prescription can stimulate bone formation and reduce bone loss in female rats subjected to simulated weightlessness.

  17. Dietary phosphorus exacerbates bone loss induced by cadmium in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalian, Neema; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Soung, Do Y; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-12-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss can be exacerbated by environmental contaminants, including the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). We hypothesized that incorporating phosphorus (P) into the diet would lead to the chelation of Cd into P, preventing its absorption and subsequent bone loss. To test this hypothesis, we used ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis to examine the deleterious effects of Cd on bone with and without added P. Fifty 3-month-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five treatment groups (n = 10 per group) for 3 months as follows: (1) control; (2) 50 ppm Cd; (3) 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P; (4) 200 ppm Cd; and (5) 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P. Cd plus P caused a significant loss of whole body (P = 0.0001 and P properties, 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused an increase in trabecular separation, whereas 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused a decrease in bone volume-to-total volume ratio, a decrease in trabecular number, and an increase in trabecular separation and structural model index. Our findings indicate that Cd exposure, along with high intake of P, may be a public health hazard with respect to bone health.

  18. Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dehao; Lin, Zilin; Meng, Qingyi; Wang, Kun; Wu, Jiajia; Yan, Hongda

    2017-08-15

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo severe loss of bone mineral below the level of lesion, and data on available treatment options after SCI is scarce. The aim of this work was to investigate the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabis, on sublesional bone loss in a rat model of SCI. The adult male rats were exposed to surgical transection of the cord and treated with CBD for consecutive 14 days. It was found that CBD treatment elevated the serum levels of osteocalcin, reduced the serum levels of collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and enhanced bone mineral density of tibiae and femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with CBD enhanced bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, and reduced trabecular separation in proximal tibiae, and increased ultimate compressive load, stiffness, and energy to max force of femoral diaphysis. Treatment of SCI rats with CBD upregulated mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin and downregulated mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in femurs. Furthermore, treatment of SCI rats with CBD enhanced mRNA expression of wnt3a, Lrp5 and ctnnb1 in femurs. In conclusion, CBD administration attenuated SCI-induced sublesional cancellous bone loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus on speech recognition over air and bone conduction military communications headsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Candice; Mermagen, Timothy; Scharine, Angelique

    2017-06-01

    Military personnel are at risk for hearing loss due to noise exposure during deployment (USACHPPM, 2008). Despite mandated use of hearing protection, hearing loss and tinnitus are prevalent due to reluctance to use hearing protection. Bone conduction headsets can offer good speech intelligibility for normal hearing (NH) listeners while allowing the ears to remain open in quiet environments and the use of hearing protection when needed. Those who suffer from tinnitus, the experience of perceiving a sound not produced by an external source, often show degraded speech recognition; however, it is unclear whether this is a result of decreased hearing sensitivity or increased distractibility (Moon et al., 2015). It has been suggested that the vibratory stimulation of a bone conduction headset might ameliorate the effects of tinnitus on speech perception; however, there is currently no research to support or refute this claim (Hoare et al., 2014). Speech recognition of words presented over air conduction and bone conduction headsets was measured for three groups of listeners: NH, sensorineural hearing impaired, and/or tinnitus sufferers. Three levels of speech-to-noise (SNR = 0, -6, -12 dB) were created by embedding speech items in pink noise. Better speech recognition performance was observed with the bone conduction headset regardless of hearing profile, and speech intelligibility was a function of SNR. Discussion will include study limitations and the implications of these findings for those serving in the military. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  1. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-01-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41 Ca and measuring urinary 41 Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41 Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3 H-tetracycline ( 3 H-TC) as a proxy for 41 Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3 H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  2. Comparison of Audiological Results Between a Transcutaneous and a Percutaneous Bone Conduction Instrument in Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Timo; Salcher, Rolf Benedikt; Schwab, Burkard; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-07-01

    In conductive, mixed hearing losses and single-sided-deafness bone-anchored hearing aids are a well-established treatment. The transcutaneous transmission across the intact skin avoids the percutaneous abutment of a bone-anchored device with the usual risk of infections and requires less care.In this study, the audiological results of the Bonebridge transcutaneous bone conduction implant (MED-EL) are compared to the generally used percutaneous device BP100 (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney, Australia). Ten patients implanted with the transcutaneous hearing implant were compared to 10 matched patients implanted with a percutaneous device. Tests included pure-tone AC and BC thresholds and unaided and aided sound field thresholds. Speech intelligibility was determined in quiet using the Freiburg monosyllable test and in noise with the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in sound field with speech from the front (S0). The subjective benefit was assessed with the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. In comparison with the unaided condition there was a significant improvement in aided thresholds, word recognition scores (WRS), and speech reception thresholds (SRT) in noise, measured in sound field, for both devices. The comparison of the two devices revealed a minor but not significant difference in functional gain (Bonebridge: PTA = 27.5 dB [mean]; BAHA: PTA = 26.3 dB [mean]). No significant difference between the two devices was found when comparing the improvement in WRSs and SRTs (Bonebridge: improvement WRS = 80% [median], improvement SRT = 6.5 dB SNR [median]; BAHA: improvement WRS = 77.5% [median], BAHA: improvement SRT = 6.9 dB SNR [median]). Our data show that the transcutaneous bone conduction hearing implant is an audiologically equivalent alternative to percutaneous bone-anchored devices in conductive hearing loss with a minor sensorineural hearing loss component.

  3. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the

  5. Stemmed femoral knee prostheses: effects of prosthetic design and fixation on bone loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenthe, G.H. van; Willems, P.C.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Huiskes, R.

    2002-01-01

    Although the revision rates for modern knee prostheses have decreased drastically, the total number of revisions a year is increasing because many more primary knee replacements are being done. At the time of revision, bone loss is common, which compromises prosthetic stability. To improve

  6. Suppression of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the molecular mechanisms through which chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces osteopenia and osteoporosis are largely unknown, potential treatments for prevention of alcohol-induced bone loss remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, chronic ethanol (EtOH) treatment leads to...

  7. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Delanghe, J.R.; Loos, B.G.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. Material & Methods The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental

  8. Mandibular fracture caused by peri-implant bone loss : Report of a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Visser, Anita

    Background: A major complication related to excessive bone loss around implants is fracture of the mandible. This complication is most likely to occur in a very atrophic mandible. A 57-year-old woman presented with progressive pain and swelling that had been present for 5 days in the right frontal

  9. Hindfoot arthrodesis for management of bone loss following calcaneus fractures and nonunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Andy P; Lipscombe, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    Massive bone loss following calcaneal fractures is a challenging condition to treat, especially if nonunion is present. Meticulous preoperative examination and imaging are crucial for accurate preoperative planning. If performed, successful outcomes can be achieved with the strategies outlined in this article. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dental Implant Thread Design and the Consequences on Long-Term Marginal Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormianer, Zeev; Matalon, Shlomo; Block, Jonathan; Kohen, Jerry

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the implant macrostructure effect on marginal bone loss using 3 dental implant thread designs with differences in thread pitch, lead, and helix angle. All implants used were sourced from the same company and had the same microstructured surface. This is a nonrandomized, retrospective, double-blind study. Data were collected by an independent Tel Aviv University group from a general practitioner's private practice patient records. In total, 1361 implants met the inclusion criteria representing the 3 types of implants macrostructure. Overall survival rate was 96.3% with 50 implants failing (3.7%) out of a total of 1361 implants. Survival rates for the 3 groups were: group A 96.6%, group B 95.9%, and in group C 100%. Average bone loss for groups A, B, and C were 2.02 (±1.70) mm, 2.10 (±1.73) mm, and 1.90 (±1.40) mm, respectively. Pairwise comparisons revealed that less bone loss occurred in group A compared with group B (P = 0.036). Favorable long-term bone loss results were found in implants with a larger pitch, deeper apical threads, and a narrower implant core. One-piece V-thread design implants demonstrated 100% survival rate.

  11. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  12. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa; Soroushian, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  13. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up to 3 years of treatment with alendronate, 5 mg/d, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the effect of alendronate is sustained at 4 years of treatment and persists after treatment is discontinued. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: United St...

  14. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2018; 17 (1): 91-96 .... B. M. D. (g/cm. 2. ) group. **. *. Figure 3: Soy isoflavone supplementation suppresses the reduction of BMD (g/cm2) in OVX rats. 1, intact rats; 2, untreated OVX rats; 3–5, OVX rats treated .... Estrogen deficiency associated bone loss in the maxilla: ...

  15. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment......-length polymorphisms of the ER gene with BMD in Danish postmenopausal women, two studies were undertaken: 1) a cross-sectional study of 499 postmenopausal women, where the ER genotypes and alleles were related to BMD of the hip, spine, and lower forearm; and 2) a longitudinal study of 101 postmenopausal women followed...... up for 18 years. In the latter study, late postmenopausal bone loss in the hip and spine was determined over a period of 6 years in women (mean age of 63 to 69 years), and long-term postmenopausal bone loss in the lower forearm was determined over a period of 18 years in women (mean age of 51 to 69...

  16. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuyoshi; Enoki, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Yokota, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Hayashi, Naoki; Usui, Michihiko; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Mimura, Toshihide; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Araki, Nobuo; Fukuda, Toru; Okazaki, Yasushi; Suda, Tatsuo; Takeda, Shu; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) targeting the brain, is a common medication for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, a recent clinical study found that administration of this agent is associated with lower risk of hip fracture independently of falling, suggesting its direct effect on bone tissues as well. AChE has been reported to be involved in osteoblast function, but the role of AChE on osteoclastogenesis still remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of AChE and donepezil on osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Cell-based assays were conducted using osteoclasts generated in cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). The effect of donepezil was also determined in vivo using a mouse model of RANKL-induced bone loss. Recombinant AChE in BMMs cultured with RANKL further promoted RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast differentiation. RANKL also upregulated AChE expression in BMMs. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AChE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed gene expression specific for osteoclasts. AChE upregulated expression of RANK, the receptor of RANKL, in BMMs. Donepezil decreased cathepsin K expression in BMMs and the resorptive function of osteoclasts on dentine slices. Donepezil decreased RANK expression in BMMs, resulting in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation with downregulation of c-Fos and upregulation of Id2. Moreover, administration of donepezil prevented RANKL-induced bone loss in vivo, which was associated with the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts. AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhi, Xin; Pan, Panpan; Cui, Jin; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhou, Qirong; Wang, Lin; Zhai, Xiao; Zhao, Qingiie; Hu, Honggang; Huang, Biaotong; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone density and strength due to excessive loss of bone protein and mineral content. The imbalance between osteogenesis by osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis by osteoclasts contributes to the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen withdrawal leads to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Overactivated osteoclasts by inflammation play a vital role in the imbalance. Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora genus with various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here we demonstrate that matrine significantly prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in vivo with decreased serum levels of TRAcp5b, TNF-α, and IL-6. In vitro matrine significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF in bone marrow monocytes and RAW264.7 cells as demonstrated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and actin-ring formation as well as bone resorption through pit formation assays. For molecular mechanisms, matrine abrogated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, AKT, and MAPK pathways and suppressed osteoclastogenesis-related marker expression, including matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, TRAP, C-Src, and cathepsin K. Our study demonstrates that matrine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through modulation of multiple pathways and that matrine is a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis.—Chen, X., Zhi, X., Pan, P., Cui, J., Cao, L., Weng, W., Zhou, Q., Wang, L., Zhai, X. Zhao, Q., Hu, H., Huang, B., Su, J. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28739641

  18. Effect of incision design on interproximal bone loss of teeth adjacent to single implants. A randomized controlled clinical trial comparing intrasulcular vs paramarginal incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbés-Ballester, Paula; Viña-Almunia, Jose; Balaguer-Martí, Jose C; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2018-02-16

    To evaluate the effect of incision design in implant surgery on interproximal bone loss of posterior teeth adjacent to interdental single implants, comparing intrasulcular and paramarginal incision. A further aim was to assess the influence of the incision technique on peri-implant bone remodeling. A controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out in a University Clinic. All the patients received an interdental posterior single implant. The incision type was randomly divided into two groups: (a) intrasulcular or (b) paramarginal. Standardized periapical digital radiographs were made with the parallel technique and a silicone index individualized in each patient. Radiographs were made immediately after implant placement, at abutment connection, 6 and 12 months post-loading. Two radiographic reference points were detected at the interproximal aspect of the adjacent teeth: (A) the cementoenamel junction and (B) the most coronal aspect of the bone crest. The interproximal bone loss of the adjacent teeth was calculated as the difference from A to B between the different follow-up periods and baseline. Two different examiners evaluated the radiographic measurements twice. Sixty patients, each with one implant, were included, 30 in each group. A mean interproximal bone loss in teeth of 0.09 mm in the intrasulcular and 0.10 mm in the paramarginal group was found at 12 months post-loading. Mean peri-implant bone remodeling was 0.17 mm in the intrasulcular group and 0.15 mm in the paramarginal group. Differences between incision types were not statistically significant (p > .05). Both incision designs used to place interdental single implants resulted in minimum bone loss at the interproximal aspect of adjacent teeth. The incision design did not significantly influence the radiographically assessed interproximal bone loss nor peri-implant bone remodeling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss using a new method to quantify stria vascularis volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of stria vascularis atrophy in individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss. Individuals with presbycusis have historically been categorized by the shape of their audiograms, and flat audiometric thresholds have been reported to be associated with atrophy of the stria vascularis. Stria vascularis volume was not measured in these studies. Retrospective case review. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for flat audiometric thresholds. Six temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones in individuals with normal hearing. A unique quantitative method was developed to measure the stria vascularis volume in these temporal bones. The hair cell and spiral ganglion cell populations also were quantitatively evaluated. Only one of the six individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric thresholds had significant atrophy of the stria vascularis. This individual with stria vascularis atrophy also had reduced inner hair cell, outer hair cell, and ganglion cell populations. Three of the individuals with presbycusis had spiral ganglion cell loss, three individuals had inner hair cell loss, and all six individuals had outer hair cell loss. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss infrequently have stria vascularis atrophy. Outer hair cell loss alone or in combination with inner hair cell or ganglion cell loss may be the cause of flat audiometric thresholds in individuals with presbycusis.

  20. Feeding blueberry diets during early development is sufficient to prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  1. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  2. Site-specific variability in trabecular bone dosimetry: Considerations of energy loss to cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, P.W.; Rajon, D.A.; Shah, A.P.; Jokisch, D.W.; Inglis, B.A.; Bolch, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    With continual advances in radionuclide therapies, increasing emphasis is being placed on improving the patient specificity of dose estimates to marrow tissues. While much work has been focused on determining patient-specific assessments of radionuclide uptake in the skeleton, few studies have been initiated to explore the individual variability of absorbed fraction data for electron and beta-particle sources in various skeletal sites. The most recent values of radionuclide S values used in clinical medicine continue to utilize a formalism in which electrons are transported under a trabecular bone geometry of infinite extent. No provisions are thus made for the fraction of energy lost to the cortical bone cortex of the skeletal site and its surrounding tissues. In the present study, NMR microscopy was performed on trabecular bone samples taken from the femoral head and humeral proximal epiphysis of three subjects: a 51-year male, an 82-year female, and an 86-year female. Following image segmentation and coupling to EGS4, electrons were transported within macrostructural models of the various skeletal sites that explicitly include the spatial extent of the spongiosa, as well as the thickness of the surrounding cortical bone. These energy-dependent profiles of absorbed fractions to marrow tissues were then compared to transport simulations made within an infinite region of spongiosa. Ratios of mean absorbed fraction, as weighted by the beta energy spectra, under both transport methodologies were then assembled for the radionuclides 32 P and 90 Y. These ratios indicate that corrections to existing radionuclide S values for 32 P can vary by as much as 5% for the male, 6% for the 82-year female, and 8% for the 86-year female. For the higher-energy beta spectrum of 90 Y, these same corrections can reach 8%, 10%, and 11%, respectively

  3. Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

    Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: pnutrition or both (pnutrition in ambulatory and HDBR phases. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

  4. Dietary flavonoid kaempferol inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss by promoting osteoblast survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Sulekha; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Ahmad, Naseer; Karvande, Anirudha; Kumar, Avinash; Banala, Venkatesh Teja; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan; Trivedi, Ritu

    2018-02-13

    Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to reverse osteopenic condition in ovariectomized rats. Because kaempferol is endowed with osteogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine whether it has a beneficial effect on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss. Adult female rats were divided into four groups as control (vehicle; distilled water), methylprednisolone (MP; 5 mg•kg•d, subcutaneously), MP + kaempferol (5 mg•kg•d, oral), and MP + human parathyroid 1-34 (30 µg/kg, 5 times/wk, subcutaneously) and treated for 4 wk. To study the antagonizing effect of kaempferol on GC-induced inhibition of fracture healing, drill-hole injury was performed on control and GC-treated rats. An oral dose of kaempferol was given for 14 d to observe the effect on callus formation at the site of injury. After treatment, bones were collected for further analysis. GC was associated with a decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone microarchitecture parameters. Consumption of kaempferol induced bone-sparing effects in GC-induced osteopenic condition. Additionally, improved callus formation at site of drill injury in femur diaphysis was observed with kaempferol consumption in animals on GC. Consistent with the in vivo data, kaempferol elicited a higher expression of osteogenic markers in vitro and antagonized the apoptotic effect of dexamethasone on calvarial osteoblasts. These results suggested that kaempferol reduced GC-induced bone loss and enhanced bone regeneration at fractured site, thus emphasizing the positive role of flavonoids on bone health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of induced diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone loss after 30 days of ligature-induced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Débora Aline Silva; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Pepato, Maria Teresa; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Gonçalves, Andréa; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Pires, Juliana Rico

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have shown that diabetics are more susceptible to the development of severe periodontal disease. Currently, the use of animal models can be considered a feasible alternative in radiographic assessments of these two pathologies. The purpose of this radiographic study was to evaluate the effect of induced diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone loss after 30 days of ligature-induced periodontal disease. Sixty-four Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four experimental groups. Diabetes was induced in Groups II and IV, while periodontal disease was induced in Groups III and IV; Group I was used as control. In order to perform the radiographic assessment of the specimens, the rats were killed on the 3rd and 30th days of the study. Radiographic measurements were assessed with ANOVA and Tukey's test to determine statistically significant differences (p diabetic group with periodontal disease (Group IV) featured statistically significant greater bone loss when compared to the other groups. These results suggested that the alveolar bone loss resulting from the periodontal disease installation is greater when associated to the diabetes mellitus.

  6. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of the Prevalence of Maxillary Sinus Mucosal Thickening in the Patients with Periodontal Bone Loss: A Digital Panoramic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mirbeigi

    2015-07-01

    Results: Mucosal thickening was significantly correlated with the bone loss and pattern type of the bone loss. Moreover, the prevalence of sinus mucosal thickening was 12.10% in patients with mild bone loss, 27.45% in patients with moderate bone loss, 63.15% in patients with severe bone loss. No statistically significant relationship was detected between Maxillary sinus mucositis with patients’ age and sex (p =0.05. Conclusion: In patients suffering from the bone loss, increased severity of the bone loss can lead to an increase in the prevalence of sinus mucosal thickening. The maxillary sinus mucositis was reported to be more prevalent in the bone loss with a vertical pattern rather than the bone loss with a horizontal pattern. Moreover, based on the results of the present study, the periodontal disease may increase the risk of sinus mucosal thickening.

  8. Elevated serum soluble CD200 and CD200R as surrogate markers of bone loss under bed rest conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, O; Hughson, R L; Hart, D A; Clément, G; Frings-Meuthen, P; Linnarsson, D; Paloski, W H; Rittweger, J; Wuyts, F; Zange, J; Gorczynski, R M

    2014-03-01

    CD200 is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin family of proteins and is ubiquitously expressed on a variety of cell types. Upon interaction with its receptors (CD200Rs) expressed on myeloid-derived cells and T lymphocytes, an immunoregulatory signal is delivered to receptor-expressing cells. Previous studies have implicated a role for CD200:CD200R in the regulation of the expression of mRNA markers of osteoclastogenesis/osteoblastogenesis, following interaction of CD200 (on osteoblast precursors) with CD200R1 (on osteoclast precursors). Signaling of CD200R1 is hypothesized to attenuate osteoclastogenesis. We have investigated whether levels of soluble forms of CD200 and/or CD200R1 (sCD200, sCD200R1) are altered in volunteers undergoing 6° head down tilt bed rest to mimic conditions of microgravity known to be associated with preferential osteoclastogenesis and whether countermeasures, reported to be beneficial in attenuation of bone loss under microgravity conditions, would lead to altered sCD200 and sCD200R1 levels. Our data suggest that, as predicted, sCD200 levels fall under bed rest conditions while sCD200R1 levels rise. In subjects undergoing 30-minute per day continuous centrifugation protocols, as a countermeasure to attenuate changes which may lead to bone loss, these alterations in sCD200 and sCD200R1 levels seen under conditions of bed rest were abolished or attenuated. Our results suggest that measurement of sCD200 and/or sCD200R1 may prove a useful and rapid means of monitoring subjects at risk of bone loss and/or accessing the efficacy of treatment regimes designed to counter bone loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Severe loss of clinical attachment level: an independent association with low hip bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Valéria; Aun, Juliana; Fukuda, Cassia Tiemi; Takayama, Liliam; Latorre, Maria do Rosário; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Rodrigues Pereira, Rosa Maria; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is a feature of both periodontitis and osteoporosis, and several studies have analyzed whether the periodontal destruction could have been influenced by systemic bone loss. The aim of this study is to assess the association between clinical attachment level (CAL) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and hip, lifestyle, smoking, sociodemographic factors, and dental clinical variables in postmenopausal women. One hundred forty-eight women were interviewed using a structured written questionnaire and clinically examined. The periodontal examination, which was performed by calibrated investigators, included CAL, probing depth, gingival recession, bleeding on probing (BOP), visible plaque, supragingival calculus, and mean tooth loss. The sample was stratified into two groups: moderate and severe CAL. The moderate group had all sites with CAL ≤5 mm. The severe group had ≥1 site with CAL >5 mm. BMD, measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was assessed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur (grams per square centimeters). Severe CAL was identified in 86 women (58.1%). The multiple linear regression analysis using CAL (dependent variable), adjusted by menopause, education, and family income, demonstrated an inverse relationship of severe CAL with the BMD of the femoral neck (P = 0.015), as well as a positive association of severe CAL with tooth loss (P = 0.000), BOP (P = 0.004), and heavy smokers (P = 0.001). Our study demonstrated that severe CAL was associated with low BMD of the femoral neck and deleterious clinical dental parameters and smoking. Our findings suggest that, in addition to appropriate oral care, individuals with severe CAL may also require additional attention to their systemic bone health.

  10. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita; Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki; Mariliani Chicarelli Da Silva; Renata Hernandes Tonin

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional...

  11. Progressive glenoid bone loss caused by erosion in humeral head resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B S; Stehle, J; Abdelkawi, A; Plumhoff, P; Hudek, R; Gohlke, F

    2017-12-01

    Cementless surface replacement of the shoulder represents an alternative to conventional stemmed anatomic prostheses. Glenoid erosion is a well-known complication in hemiarthroplasty. However, there is limited data concerning radiographic evaluation and prognostic factors for this phenomenon. The aim of our study was to determine the development of glenoid erosion following shoulder resurfacing using a new measurement technique and detect potential prognostic factors. We performed a retrospective analysis on 38 shoulders undergoing humeral head resurfacing with a mean follow-up of 65.4 ± 43 months. Clinical and radiographic evaluation followed a standardized protocol including pre- and postoperative Constant score, active range of motion, and X‑rays in true anteroposterior view. Three independent observers performed measurements of glenoid erosion. We found good interobserver reliability for glenoid erosion measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.74-0.78). Progressive glenoid erosion was present in all cases, averaging 5.5 ± 3.9 mm at more than 5 years' follow-up. Male patients demonstrated increased glenoid bone loss within the first 5 years (p erosion was 37%. Glenoid erosion can be routinely expected in patients undergoing humeral head resurfacing. Painful glenoid erosion leads to deterioration in functional outcome and necessitates revision surgery in a high percentage of cases.

  12. Loss of bone strength in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is characterized by a high bone turnover and is mainly osteoclast-driven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Martina; Thiele, Sylvia; Fert, Ingrid; Araujo, Luiza M; Layh-Schmitt, Gerlinde; Colbert, Robert A; Hofbauer, Christine; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Bürki, Alexander; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Pietschmann, Peter; Taurog, Joel D; Breban, Maxime; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2015-06-01

    Although osteopenia is frequent in spondyloarthritis (SpA), the underlying cellular mechanisms and association with other symptoms are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize bone loss during disease progression, determine cellular alterations, and assess the contribution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to bone loss in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Bones of 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old non-transgenic, disease-free HLA-B7 and disease-associated HLA-B27 transgenic rats were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, μCT, and nanoindentation. Cellular characteristics were determined by histomorphometry and ex vivo cultures. The impact of IBD was determined using [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats, which develop arthritis and spondylitis, but not IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats continuously lost bone mass with increasing age and had impaired bone material properties, leading to a 3-fold decrease in bone strength at 12 months of age. Bone turnover was increased in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, as evidenced by a 3-fold increase in bone formation and a 6-fold increase in bone resorption parameters. Enhanced osteoclastic markers were associated with a larger number of precursors in the bone marrow and a stronger osteoclastogenic response to RANKL or TNFα. Further, IBD-free [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats also displayed decreased total and trabecular bone density. HLA-B27 transgenic rats lose an increasing amount of bone density and strength with progressing age, which is primarily mediated via increased bone remodeling in favor of bone resorption. Moreover, IBD and bone loss seem to be independent features of SpA in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-03-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in diffraction studies are discussed.

  14. AIP Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in di ff raction studies are discussed.

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway Mediates Inhalant Organic Dust-Induced Bone Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Staab

    Full Text Available Agriculture workers have increased rates of airway and skeletal disease. Inhalant exposure to agricultural organic dust extract (ODE induces bone deterioration in mice; yet, mechanisms underlying lung-bone crosstalk remain unclear. Because Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and TLR4 are important in mediating the airway consequences of ODE, this study investigated their role in regulating bone responses. First, swine facility ODE stimulated wild-type (WT bone marrow macrophages to form osteoclasts, and this finding was inhibited in TLR4 knock-out (KO, but not TLR2 KO cells. Next, using an established intranasal inhalation exposure model, WT, TLR2 KO and TLR4 KO mice were treated daily with ODE or saline for 3 weeks. ODE-induced airway neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine release were similarly reduced in TLR2 and TLR4 KO animals as compared to WT mice. Utilizing micro-computed tomography (CT, analysis of tibia showed loss of bone mineral density, volume and deterioration of bone micro-architecture and mechanical strength induced by ODE in WT mice were significantly reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO animals. Bone marrow osteoclast precursor cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry from exposed animals. In WT animals, exposure to inhalant ODE increased osteoclast precursor cell populations as compared to saline, an effect that was reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO mice. These results show that TLR2 and TLR4 pathways mediate ODE-induced airway inflammation, but bone deterioration consequences following inhalant ODE treatment is strongly dependent upon TLR4. Thus, the TLR4 signaling pathway appears critical in regulating the lung-bone inflammatory axis to microbial component-enriched organic dust exposures.

  16. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  17. Loss of the PGE2 receptor EP1 enhances bone acquisition, which protects against age and ovariectomy-induced impairments in bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minjie; Feigenson, Marina; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M; Jonason, Jennifer H; Loiselle, Alayna E; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2015-03-01

    PGE2 exerts anabolic and catabolic effects on bone through the discrete actions of four prostanoid receptors (EP1-4). We have previously demonstrated that loss EP1 accelerates fracture repair by enhancing bone formation. In the present study we defined the role of EP1 in bone maintenance and homeostasis during aging and in response to ovariectomy. The femur and L4 vertebrae of wild type (WT) and EP1(-/-) mice were examined at 2-months, 6-months, and 1-year of age, and in WT and EP1(-/-) mice following ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. Bone volume fraction, trabecular architecture and mechanical properties were maintained during aging in EP1(-/-) mice to a greater degree than age-matched WT mice. Moreover, significant increases in bone formation rate (BFR) (+60%) and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (+50%) were observed in EP1(-/-), relative to WT, while no change in osteoclast number and osteoclast surface were observed. Following OVX, loss of EP1 was protective against bone loss in both femur and L4 vertebrae, with increased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (+32% in femur) and max load at failure (+10% in femur) relative to WT OVX, likely resulting from the increased bone formation rate that was observed in these mice. Taken together these studies identify inhibition of EP1 as a potential therapeutic approach to suppress bone loss in aged or post-menopausal patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Stress Induced in Tooth, Periodontal Ligament & Alveolar Bone with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss During Various Types of Orthodontic Tooth Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anupam; Mahajan, Shalu; Verma, Santosh; Bhardwaj, Preeti; Sharma, Geeta

    2016-02-01

    The force applied on to a tooth with periodontal bone loss may generate different magnitude and pattern of stresses in the periodontium when compared to a tooth with no bone loss & under the same force system. The intensity of the forces and moment to force ratios needed to be applied during an Orthodontic treatment must be adapted to obtain the same movement as in a tooth with a healthy periodontal support. Evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss; & determination of the most ideal force system producing the Optimum Stress (i.e., stress within optimum range), uniformly (conducive to bodily movement of maxillary canine with varying degrees of bone loss). A human maxillary canine tooth of right side was simulated by means of Finite Element Method (FEM). Five different models were constructed with bone loss ranging from 0mm in model 1, to 8mm in model 5 (progressing at 2mm per model). Ten different loading conditions were applied on these models and the stress generated was charted at various occluso-gingival levels and surfaces around the tooth. The evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss was done. The results showed that there was a high positive correlation between the increase in bone loss & the stress generated, suggesting an elevation in the stress with advancing bone loss. Additionally, the type of tooth movement was found to be changed with bone loss. During the determination of ideal force system it was found that the centre of resistance of the canine migrated apically with bone loss and an increase in the moment to force ratio (Mc:F) was required to control the root position in these cases. A high positive correlation exists between the increase in bone loss and the stress

  19. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  20. Marginal bone loss and dental implant failure may be increased in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-03-01

    An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to February 2015. References of included studies were also searched. No language restrictions were applied. Study selection: Prospective, retrospective and randomised clinical trials that compared marginal bone loss and failure rates between smokers and non-smokers. Implant failure was considered as total loss of the implant. Studies with patients who had periodontal disease prior to treatment or who had metabolic diseases were excluded. Two reviewers were involved in the research and screening process and disagreements were resolved by discussion. The quality of the studies was analysed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomised clinical trials. Data extracted from the studies included, when available: follow up period, number of subjects, smoking status, number of implants placed, implant system, implant length and diameter, healing period, antibiotics and mouth-rinse use, marginal bone loss, failure rate and drop-outs. For binary outcomes (implant failure) the estimate of the intervention effect was expressed in the form of an odds ratio (OR) with the confidence interval (CI) of 95%. For continuous outcomes (marginal bone loss) the average and standard deviation (SD) were used to calculate the standardised mean difference with a 95% CI. Meta-analysis was performed for studies with similar outcomes, I(2) a statistical test was used to express the heterogeneity among the studies. Publication bias was explored as well. A total of 15 observational studies were included in the review. The number of participants ranged from 60 to 1727 and the average age was 52.5 years. The follow-up period ranged from eight to 240 months. The total number of implants placed was 5840 in smokers and 14,683 in non-smokers. The Branemak system, (Noble Biocare AB, Goteborg, Sweden), was the most commonly used implant system. There was a statistically significant

  1. Loss functions for structural flood mitigation measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... for spillways, levees, tramlines, public roads, drains and bridges. Introduction. The aim of this paper is to discuss the ... In the third section the steps that were followed to determine loss functions for ... Wilson's Cannal-, 31/2-, Low Level- and Monzi Bridge, are also maintained by the co-operative. A tramline ...

  2. Measuring Information Loss in Managerial Decision

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 26-32 ISSN 2414-6498 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization * Gini index * newsvendor problem * information loss Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/volf-0456860.pdf

  3. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strause, L; Saltman, P; Smith, K T; Bracker, M; Andon, M B

    1994-07-01

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

  4. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (plead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional benefit of the bone-anchored hearing aid with different auditory profiles: objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, A; De Voecht, K; Bosman, A J; Wouters, J

    2011-04-01

    To examine sentence recognition and self-report outcomes in hearing-impaired persons with different auditory profiles and who were fitted unilaterally with a bone-anchored hearing aid. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral unit. Data were collected of six patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), seven with a mild to severe hearing loss at the bone-anchored hearing aid side and (near-)normal hearing at the other side and six with a severe bilateral hearing loss. Sound field thresholds, and sentence recognition in noise (presented from different angles) with bone-anchored hearing aid, without bone-anchored hearing aid and with bone-anchored hearing aid and other ear occluded. In addition, the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire were administered as self-report measures. Patients with single-sided deafness listened mainly with their non-bone-anchored hearing aid ear, although the bone-anchored hearing aid lifted the head shadow effect. Patients with mild to severe hearing loss at the bone-anchored hearing aid side and (near-)normal hearing at the other side performed significantly differently in aided and unaided conditions and even regained limited binaural sensitivity with the device. The latter was also true for the patients with severe bilateral hearing loss. However, their hearing loss at the non-bone-anchored hearing aid side was too great to contribute to hearing and they listened predominantly with their bone-anchored hearing aid. Self-report outcomes provided useful information on hearing disability, although this information was not significantly differently for the 3 groups of patients. The bone-anchored hearing aid enhanced performance in different hearing configurations, albeit to different extents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Protective effect of low-dose risedronate against osteocyte apoptosis and bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjun Ye

    Full Text Available Osteocyte apoptosis is the first reaction to estrogen depletion, thereby stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption resulting in bone loss. We investigated the effects of two different risedronate (RIS doses (high and low on osteocyte apoptosis, osteoclast activity and bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Forty rats with ovariectomy (OVX and sham ovariectomy (SHAM were divided into 4 groups: 1 SHAM rats treated with saline (SHAM; 2 OVX rats treated with saline (OVX; 3 OVX rats treated with low-dose RIS (OVX-LR, 0.08 μg/kg/day; 4 OVX rats treated with high-dose RIS (OVX-HR, 0.8 μg/kg/day. All animals were sacrificed 90 days after surgery for the examinations of osteocyte apoptosis by caspase-3 staining, osteoclast activity by TRAP staining and bone volume by micro-CT scanning in lumbar vertebral cancellous bone. Both low and high dose RIS significantly reduced caspase-3 positive osteocytes, empty lacunae and TRAP positive osteoclasts in OVX rats. Although the difference in caspase-3 positive osteocytes was not significant between the OVX-LR and OVX-HR groups, numerically these cells were significantly more prevalent in OVX-HR (not OVX-LR group than in SHAM group. TRAP positive osteoclasts were significantly higher in OVX-LR group than in SHAM or OVX-HR group. There was no significant difference in bone volume among the OVX-LR, OVX-HR and SHAM groups, but lower in OVX group alone. However, significant increase in trabecular thickness only occurred in OVX-LR group. We conclude that both low and high dose RIS significantly inhibit osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast activity in OVX rats, but the low-dose RIS has weaker effect on osteoclast activity. However, low-dose RIS preserves cancellous bone mass and microarchitecture as well as high-dose RIS after estrogen depletion.

  7. Biomechanical Evaluation of Glenoid Reconstruction With an Implant-Free J-Bone Graft for Anterior Glenoid Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzenberger, Leo; Dyrna, Felix; Obopilwe, Elifho; Heuberer, Philipp R; Arciero, Robert A; Anderl, Werner; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2017-10-01

    The anatomic restoration of glenoid morphology with an implant-free J-shaped iliac crest bone graft offers an alternative to currently widely used glenoid reconstruction techniques. No biomechanical data on the J-bone grafting technique are currently available. To evaluate (1) glenohumeral contact patterns, (2) graft fixation under cyclic loading, and (3) the initial stabilizing effect of anatomic glenoid reconstruction with the implant-free J-bone grafting technique. Controlled laboratory study. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders and J-shaped iliac crest bone grafts were used for this study. J-bone grafts were harvested, prepared, and implanted according to a previously described, clinically used technique. Glenohumeral contact patterns were measured using dynamic pressure-sensitive sensors under a compressive load of 440 N with the humerus in (a) 30° of abduction, (b) 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation, (c) 60° of abduction, and (d) 60° of abduction and 60° of external rotation. Using a custom shoulder-testing system allowing positioning with 6 degrees of freedom, a compressive load of 50 N was applied, and the peak force needed to translate the humeral head 10 mm anteriorly at a rate of 2.0 mm/s was recorded. All tests were performed (1) for the intact glenoid, (2) after the creation of a 30% anterior osseous glenoid defect parallel to the longitudinal axis of the glenoid, and (3) after anatomic glenoid reconstruction with an implant-free J-bone graft. Furthermore, after glenoid reconstruction, each specimen was translated anteriorly for 5 mm at a rate of 4.0 mm/s for a total of 3000 cycles while logging graft protrusion and mediolateral bending motions. Graft micromovements were recorded using 2 high-resolution, linear differential variable reluctance transducer strain gauges placed in line with the long leg of the graft and the mediolateral direction, respectively. The creation of a 30% glenoid defect significantly decreased glenohumeral

  8. Vertical fracture and marginal bone loss of internal-connection implants: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Ryo; Halldin, Anders; Janda, Martin; Wennerberg, Ann; Vandeweghe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Marginal bone loss around implants is of great concern, and its cause may be multifactorial. Recently, clinical cases presenting marginal bone loss, in most cases accompanied by vertical fracture of internal-connection implants in the buccolingual direction, have been reported, in which unfavorable stress distribution is one possible cause of marginal bone resorption. The purpose of the current study was to characterize this type of marginal bone loss and implant fracture by conducting a finite element analysis (FEA). Clinical and radiographic evaluations showed that the prostheses of all reported cases had implant-level setups and were directly screwed to the internal implants. Intriguingly, all vertical fractures reported were in the buccolingual direction. Therefore, to characterize the specific implant fractures, FEA was conducted with misfit models created for two different setups, abutment-level and implant-level, both with screw-retained prostheses. The models were subjected to initial misfits of 0 μm (representing perfect fit), 50 μm, 100 μm, 150 μm, or 200 μm, and vertical loading was then applied. FEA revealed that, for the implant-level setup, excessive stress at the neck of the implant gradually increased in the buccolingual direction as the misfit increased. This result was not seen for the abutment-level setup. A broad maximum stress distribution was evident for the implant-level setup but not for the abutment-level setup. Broad distribution of excessive stress in the FEA correlated to the clinical cases, and marginal bone loss in these cases may be associated with mechanical alterations. To avoid unnecessary complications, selection of an abutment-level setup is strongly suggested.

  9. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  10. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, Sandra; Man, Stella A. de; Boot, Annemieke M.; Heus, Karen G.C.B.B.; Huijbers, Wim A.R.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  11. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss...... in the mononuclear reversal cells colonising the surfaces. In conclusion, glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep induced a significant bone loss, caused by an arrest of the reversal phase, resulting in an uncoupling of the bone formation and resorption during the reversal phase, as recently demonstrated....... Twenty female sheep were assigned for two groups; an untreated control group and an ovariectomised group treated with glucocorticoids (0.6mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7months. At 7months the glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomised sheep showed a significant change in the bone microstructure revealed...

  12. A Single-dose Zoledronic Acid Infusion Prevents Antiretroviral Therapy–induced Bone Loss in Treatment-naive HIV-infected Patients: A Phase IIb Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Lahiri, Cecile D.; Vunnava, Aswani; Foster, Antonina; Sanford, Sara E.; Sheth, Anandi N.; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Knezevic, Andrea; Ward, Laura; Easley, Kirk A.; Powers, Philip; Weitzmann, M. Neale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with bone loss leading to increased fracture rate among HIV-infected individuals. ART-induced bone loss is most intense within the first 48 weeks of therapy, providing a window for prophylaxis with long-acting antiresorptives. Methods. In a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 63 nonosteoporotic, ART-naive adults with HIV initiating ART with atazanavir/ritonavir + tenofovir/emtricitabine to a single zoledronic acid (ZOL) infusion (5 mg) vs placebo to determine the efficacy of ZOL in mitigating ART-induced bone loss. Plasma bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome was change in C-terminal telopeptide of collagen at 24 weeks. Repeated-measures analyses using mixed linear models were used to estimate and compare study endpoints. Results. The ZOL arm had a 65% reduction in bone resorption relative to the placebo arm at 24 weeks (0.117 ng/mL vs 0.338 ng/mL; P < .001). This effect of ZOL occurred as early as 12 weeks (73% reduction; P < .001) and persisted through week 48 (57% reduction; P < .001). The ZOL arm had an 8% higher lumbar spine BMD at 12 weeks relative to the placebo arm (P = .003), and remained 11% higher at 24 and 48 weeks. Similar trends were observed in the hip and femoral neck. Conclusions. A single dose of ZOL administered at ART initiation prevented ART-induced bone loss through the first 48 weeks of ART, the period when ART-induced bone loss is most pronounced. Validation of these results in larger multicenter randomized clinical trials is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01228318. PMID:27193748

  13. Inadequate Loading Stimulus on ISS Results in Bone and Muscle Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exercise has been the primary countermeasure to combat musculoskeletal changes during International Space Station (ISS) missions. However, these countermeasures have not been successful in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD) or muscle volume in crew members. METHODS We examined lower extremity loading during typical days on-orbit and on Earth for four ISS crew members. In-shoe forces were monitored using force-measuring insoles placed inside the shoes. BMD (by DXA), muscle volumes (by MRI), and strength were measured before and after long-duration spaceflight (181 +/- 15 days). RESULTS The peak forces measured during ISS activity were significantly less than those measured in 1g for the same activities. Typical single-leg loads on-orbit during walking and running were 0.89 +/- 0.17 body weights (BW) and 1.28 +/- 0.18 BW compared to 1.18 +/- 0.11 BW and 2.36 +/- .22 BW in 1g, respectively [2]. Crew members were only loaded for an average of 43.17 +/- 14.96 min a day while performing exercise on-orbit even though 146.8 min were assigned for exercise each day. Areal BMD decreased in the femoral neck and total hip by 0.71 +/- 0.34% and 0.81 +/- 0.21% per month, respectively. Changes in muscle volume were observed in the lower extremity (-10 to -16% calf; -4 to -7% thigh) but there were no changes in the upper extremity (+0.4 to -0.8%). Decrements in isometric and isokinetic strength at the knee (range: -10.4 to -24.1%), ankle (range: -4 to -22.3%), and elbow (range: -7.5 to - 16.7%) were also observed. Knee extension endurance tests showed an overall decline in total work (-14%) but an increased resistance to fatigue post-flight. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the conclusion that the measured exercise durations and/or loading stimuli were insufficient to protect bone and muscle health.

  14. An analysis of the vertical bone loss in edentulous mandibles by using the mental foramen as a reference: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofat, Anjali; Galhotra, Virat; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Garg, Shushant K

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the amount of vertical bone loss in edentulous mandibles by using the mental foramen as a reference. Ninety subjects who consisted of thirty dentulous (males I MD and females II FD) and sixty edentulous (males I ME and females II FE) subjects were selected and they were subjected to digital panoramic radiography. Among the dentulous subjects, in both the groups, the ratio between the height of the mandible and the distance from the mental foramen and the lower border of the mandible (A/B) were calculated by using inbuilt software. This ratio A/B was applied in the edentulous subjects to measure the original height of the mandible before resorption. The amount of vertical bone loss was then calculated. In the dentulous subjects, the A/B ratio in males was 2.94 and in females, it was 3.09. In the edentulous subjects, the vertical bone loss in males was 3.55mm and in females, it was 6.59mm. The ratio of the distance from the inferior border of the mandible to the superior border of the mandible(A) and the distance from the inferior border of the mandible to the inferior margin of the mental foramen (B) were less in the dentulous males than in the dentulous females. The comparison of the ratios was nonsignificant. The mean bone loss in edentulous females was found to be greater than the mean bone loss in edentulous males on comparison.

  15. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  16. Retrospective analysis of survival rates and marginal bone loss on short implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Florian G; Sagheb, Keyvan; Baumgardt, Katharina; Kämmerer, Peer W

    2012-09-01

    Short implants have become an interesting alternative to bone augmentation in dental implantology. Design of shorter implants and longer surveillance times are a current research issue. The goal of this study was to show the survival rates of short implants below 9 mm in the partly edentulous mandibular premolar and molar regions with fixed prosthetics. Marginal vertical and 2D bone loss was evaluated additionally. Different implant designs are orientationally evaluated. A total of 247 dental implants with fixed prosthetics (crowns and bridges) in the premolar and molar region of the mandible were evaluated; 47 implants were 9 mm or shorter. Patient data were evaluated to acquire implant survival rates, implant diameter, gender and age. Panoramic X-rays were analysed for marginal bone loss. Average surveillance time was 1327 days. Cumulative survival rate (CSR) of short implants was 98% (1 implants lost) compared to 94% in the longer implants group without significance. Thirty-five of the short implants were Astratech (0 losses) and 12 were Camlog Screw Line Promote Plus (1 loss). Early vertical and two-dimensional marginal bone loss was not significantly different in short and regular length implant group with an average of 0.6 mm and 0.7 mm(2) in short implants over the observation period. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that short implants with a length of 9 mm or less have equal survival rates compared with longer implants over the observation period of 1-3 years. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Marginal bone loss evaluation around immediate non-occlusal microthreaded implants placed in fresh extraction sockets in the maxilla: a 3-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José L; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael A; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate marginal bone loss over 3 years around immediate microthreaded implants placed in the maxillary anterior/esthetic zone and immediately restored with single crowns. Seventy-one implants (with microthreads up to the platform--rough surface body and neck, internal connection and platform switching) were placed in fresh extraction sockets in the maxillary arches of 30 men and 23 women (mean age 37.85 ± 7.09 years, range 27-60). All subjects had at least 3 mm of soft tissue to allow the establishment of adequate biologic width and to reduce bone resorption. Each patient received a provisional restoration immediately after implant placement with slight occlusal contact. Mesial and distal bone height was evaluated using digital radiography on the day following implant placement (baseline) and after 1, 2, and 3 years. Primary stability was measured with resonance frequency analysis. No implants failed, resulting in a cumulative survival rate of 100% after 3 years. Marginal bone loss from implant collar to bone crest measured at baseline (peri-implant bone defect at the fresh extraction socket) and after 3 years was 0.86 mm ± 0.29 mm. Mesial and distal site crestal bone loss ranged from 3.42 mm ± 1.2 mm at baseline to 3.51 mm ± 1.5 mm after 3 years (P = 0.063) and from 3.38 mm ± 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.49 mm ± 0.9 mm after 3 years, respectively (P = 0.086). This prospective study found minimal marginal bone loss and a 100% implant survival rate over the 3-year follow-up for microthreaded immediate implants subjected to immediate non-occlusal loading. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made in...

  19. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...

  20. Monitoring of Bone Loss Biomarkers in Human Sweat: A Non-Invasive, Time Efficient Means of Monitoring Bone Resorption Markers under Micro and Partial Gravity Loading Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project was to validate the concept that the rate and extent of unloading-induced bone loss in humans can be assessed by monitoring the...

  1. The Role of Mechanical Stimulation in Recovery of Bone Loss-High versus Low Magnitude and Frequency of Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Mamta Patel; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-04-02

    Musculoskeletal pathologies associated with decreased bone mass, including osteoporosis and disuse-induced bone loss, affect millions of Americans annually. Microgravity-induced bone loss presents a similar concern for astronauts during space missions. Many pharmaceutical treatments have slowed osteoporosis, and recent data shows promise for countermeasures for bone loss observed in astronauts. Additionally, high magnitude and low frequency impact such as running has been recognized to increase bone and muscle mass under normal but not microgravity conditions. However, a low magnitude and high frequency (LMHF) mechanical load experienced in activities such as postural control, has also been shown to be anabolic to bone. While several clinical trials have demonstrated that LMHF mechanical loading normalizes bone loss in vivo, the target tissues and cells of the mechanical load and underlying mechanisms mediating the responses are unknown. In this review, we provide an overview of bone adaptation under a variety of loading profiles and the potential for a low magnitude loading as a way to counteract bone loss as experienced by astronauts.

  2. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  3. Severe Bone Loss as Part of the Life History Strategy of Bowhead Whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C George

    Full Text Available The evolution of baleen constituted a major evolutionary change that made it possible for baleen whales to reach enormous body sizes while filter feeding on tiny organisms and migrating over tremendous distances. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus live in the Arctic where the annual cycle of increasing and decreasing ice cover affects their habitat, prey, and migration. During the nursing period, bowheads grow rapidly; but between weaning and approximately year 5, bowhead whales display sustained baleen and head growth while limiting growth in the rest of their bodies. During this period, they withdraw resources from the skeleton, in particular the ribs, which may lose 40% of bone mass. Such dramatic changes in bones of immature mammals are rare, although fossil cetaceans between 40 and 50 million years ago show an array of rib specializations that include bone loss and are usually interpreted as related to buoyancy control.

  4. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind...... limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (a......BMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, P

  5. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose....... In addition to adequate calcium intake, more effective therapy appears to be required when the therapeutic goal is to increase or maintain BMD....

  6. Osteoprotegerin is an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Shane A; Morony, Sean E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Simske, Steven J; Stodieck, Louis S; Warmington, Kelly S; Livingston, Eric W; Lacey, David L; Kostenuik, Paul J; Bateman, Ted A

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss associated with microgravity exposure poses a significant barrier to long-duration spaceflight. Osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc) is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor that causes sustained inhibition of bone resorption after a single subcutaneous injection. We tested the ability of OPG-Fc to preserve bone mass during 12 days of spaceflight (SF). 64-day-old female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group) were injected subcutaneously with OPG-Fc (20mg/kg) or an inert vehicle (VEH), 24h prior to launch. Ground control (GC) mice (VEH or OPG-Fc) were maintained under environmental conditions that mimicked those in the space shuttle middeck. Age-matched baseline (BL) controls were sacrificed at launch. GC/VEH, but not SF/VEH mice, gained tibia BMD and trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) during the mission (P<0.05 vs. BL). SF/VEH mice had lower BV/TV vs. GC/VEH mice, while SF/OPG-Fc mice had greater BV/TV than SF/VEH or GC/VEH. SF reduced femur elastic and maximum strength in VEH mice, with OPG-Fc increasing elastic strength in SF mice. Serum TRAP5b was elevated in SF/VEH mice vs. GC/VEH mice. Conversely, SF/OPG-Fc mice had lower TRAP5b levels, suggesting that OPG-Fc preserved bone during spaceflight via inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Decreased bone formation also contributed to the observed osteopenia, based on the reduced femur periosteal bone formation rate and serum osteocalcin level. Overall, these observations suggest that the beneficial effects of OPG-Fc during SF are primarily due to dramatic and sustained suppression of bone resorption. In growing mice, this effect appears to compensate for the SF-related inhibition of bone formation, while preventing any SF-related increase in bone resorption. We have demonstrated that the young mouse is an appropriate new model for SF-induced osteopenia, and that a single pre-flight treatment with OPG-Fc can effectively prevent the deleterious effects of SF on mouse bone. Copyright

  7. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals with a novel 50-hour animal model of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimori, Yoshiya; Mori, Kaoru; Koide, Masanori; Nakamichi, Yuko; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hisataka

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis remains a major public health problem through its associated fragility fractures. Several animal models for the study of osteoporotic bone loss, such as ovariectomy (OVX) and denervation, require surgical skills and several weeks to establish. Osteoclast differentiation and activation is mediated by RANKL. Here we report the establishment of a novel and rapid bone loss model by the administration of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) to mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with sRANKL and used to evaluate existing anti-osteoporosis drugs. sRANKL decreased BMD within 50 h in a dose-dependent manner. The marked decrease in femoral trabecular BMD shown by pQCT and the 3D images obtained by microCT were indistinguishable from those observed in the OVX model. Histomorphometry showed that osteoclastic activity was significantly increased in the sRANKL-injected mice. In addition, serum biochemical markers of bone turnover such as Ca, C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), and TRACP5b were also significantly increased in the sRANKL-injected mice in a dose-dependent manner. Bisphosphonates (BPs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and PTH are commonly used for the treatment of osteoporosis. We successfully evaluated the effects of anti-bone-resorbing agents such as BPs, a SERM, and anti-RANKL-neutralizing antibody on bone resorption in a couple of weeks. We also evaluated the effects of PTH on bone formation in 2 wk. A combination of sRANKL injections and OVX made it possible to evaluate a SERM. The sRANKL model is the simplest, fastest, and easiest of all osteoporosis models and could be useful in the evaluation of drug candidates for osteoporosis.

  8. Piperine inhibit inflammation, alveolar bone loss and collagen fibers breakdown in a rat periodontitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Huihui, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Piperine exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, and has a long history of medicinal use. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of piperine on inflammation, alveolar bone and collagen fibers in experimental periodontitis. We evaluated the related expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-13 to enhance insight into these effects. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each: control group, periodontitis group, periodontitis plus 50 mg/kg piperine group and periodontitis plus 100 mg/kg piperine group. Histopathologic changes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alveolar bone loss and trabecula microstructures were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Changes in collagen fibers were assessed by picrosirius red staining. Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-8 and MMP-13. Piperine clearly inhibited alveolar bone loss and reformed trabecula microstructures in a dose-dependent manner. Histological staining showed that piperine significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammation in soft tissues. Both doses of piperine limited the fractions of degraded areas in collagen fibers. Piperine (100 mg/kg) significantly downregulated the expressions of IL-1β, MMP-8 and MMP-13 in periodontitis, but not that of TNF-α. Piperine displays significantly protective effects on inflammation, alveolar bone loss, bone microstructures and collagen fiber degradation in experimental periodontitis. The effects may be ascribed to its inhibitory activity on the expressions of IL-1β, MMP-8 and MMP-13. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. α₂-Antiplasmin is involved in bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Akihito; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Akagi, Masao; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis is not fully understood. α2-Antiplasmin (α2-AP) is the primary inhibitor of plasmin in the fibrinolytic system, but is known to have activities beyond fibrinolysis. However, its role in bone metabolism and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis remains unknown. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of α2-AP deficiency on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss by using wild-type and α2-AP-deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis revealed that α2-AP deficiency blunted OVX-induced trabecular bone loss in mice. Moreover, α2-AP deficiency significantly blunted serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and interleukin (IL)-1β elevated by OVX. α2-AP treatment elevated the levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA in RAW 264.7 cells, although it suppressed osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. α2-AP treatment activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways in RAW 264.7 cells, and these MAP kinase inhibitors antagonized the levels of IL-1β mRNA elevated by α2-AP. The data demonstrate that α2-AP is linked to bone loss due to OVX, through a mechanism that depends in part on the production of IL-1β and TNF-α in monocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crestal bone loss and periimplant inflammatory parameters around zirconia implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Fahim; Al-Kheraif, Abdul Aziz; Ab Ghani, Siti Mariam; Abu Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim; Alnassar, Talal; Javed, Fawad

    2015-09-01

    Zirconia implants have been used for oral rehabilitation; however, evidence of their ability to maintain crestal bone and periimplant soft tissue health is not clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate crestal bone loss (CBL) around zirconia dental implants and clinical periimplant inflammatory parameters. The focus question addressed was, "Do zirconia implants maintain crestal bone levels and periimplant soft tissue health?" Databases were searched for articles from 1977 through September 2014 with different combinations of the following MeSH terms: "dental implants," "zirconium," "alveolar bone loss," "periodontal attachment loss," "periodontal pocket," "periodontal index." Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, review articles, and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Thirteen clinical studies were included. In 8 of the studies, the CBL around zirconia implants was comparable between baseline and follow-up. In the other 5 studies, the CBL around zirconia implants was significantly higher at follow-up. Among the studies that used titanium implants as controls, 2 studies showed significantly higher CBL around zirconia implants, and in 1 study, the CBL around zirconia and titanium implants was comparable. The reported implant survival rates for zirconia implants ranged between 67.6% and 100%. Eleven studies selectively reported the periimplant inflammatory parameters. Because of the variations in study design and methodology, it was difficult to reach a consensus regarding the efficacy of zirconia implants in maintaining crestal bone levels and periimplant soft tissue health. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring beam losses in the THI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Duneau, P.; Lecorche, E.; Lermine, P.; Lemaitre, E.; Ulrich, M.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the THI project (High Intensity Transport) is to upgrade the GANIL facilities by increasing the beam by a factor of 15, at least for light ions. This higher intensity is required by the radioactive beam facility SPIRAL starting in September 1997, to generate the new nuclear species in the solid target-source (ISOL method). For the control system, the most important issues are now to tune the accelerators while minimizing the beam losses at each stage of acceleration and when not possible, to have a fast beam loss detection signal. This system is composed of probes which deliver a signal to stop the beam when there's too much intensity lost and when not, a logarithmic value of the beam intensity. These probes are linked to a front end VME crate on the network, and in the control room, on the workstations, a graphical user interface program displays the beam variations using logarithmic scales. This program is also used to center the beam while injecting in or ejecting from the main cyclotrons by tuning the steerers, the magnetic elements inside, and the electrostatic deflector to be able to separate and extract the last beam turn. (author)

  12. Pyogenic granuloma associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhrugesh J Panseriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A diverse group of the pathologic process can produce the enlargement of soft tissues in the oral cavity and often present a diagnostic challenge. This soft tissue enlargement may represent a variation of the normal anatomic structure, inflammatory reaction, cyst, neoplasm, and developmental anomalies. A group of reactive hyperplasias, which develop in response to chronic recurring tissue injury that stimulates an excessive tissue repair response. The pyogenic granuloma (PG is a reactive enlargement that is an inflammatory response to local irritation such as calculus, a fractured tooth, rough dental restoration, and foreign materials or hormonal (pregnancy tumor and rarely associated with bone loss. This paper presents a rare case of PG associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss in a 30-year-old male.

  13. Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE on osteoclast differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclast differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  14. Epidemiologic Analyses of Risk Factors for Bone Loss and Recovery Related to Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean; Amin, Shreyasee

    2010-01-01

    AIM 1: To investigate the risk of microgravity exposure on long-term changes in bone health and fracture risk. compare data from crew members ("observed") with what would be "expected" from Rochester Bone Health Study. AIM 2: To provide a summary of current evidence available on potential risk factors for bone loss, recovery & fracture following long-duration space flight. integrative review of all data pre, in-, and post-flight across disciplines (cardiovascular, nutrition, muscle, etc.) and their relation to bone loss and recovery

  15. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Attenuating Age-Related Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT : Bone loss that results from age- related and post- menopausal osteoporosis , and...5 References……………………………………………………………………………. 10 4 Introduction Osteoporosis , both age- related and post- menopausal ...a novel and highly innovative therapeutic approach to age- related osteoporosis . Body On July 27, 2012 we requested a 6 month extension without

  16. Evaluation of the Survival Rate and Bone Loss of Implants with Various Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The replacement of missing teeth with implant-associated restorations has become a widely used treatment modality in recent years. The length of dental implants may be a critical factor in achieving and maintaining osseointegration.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and bone loss of dental implants with different lengthsMaterials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 60 ITI-system implants, evenly distributed into three groups including 8, 10 and 12 mm high implants in the posterior segments of both jaws. Demographic information, oral hygiene,cigarette smoking, implant length, duration of implant placement (at least 24 months,bleeding on probing index and pocket probing depth were recorded for all participants.Bone loss was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic radiographs.Results: The mean rate of bone loss was different among the three groups and were found to be 0.21 (0.45, 0.3 (0.41 and 0.43 (0.55 mm in the 8, 10, and 12 mm high implants, respectively. Neither mean bone loss nor bleeding on probing index showed significant differences with implant length. A significant correlation was found between implant length and pocket probing depth (P<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both short (8 mm high and long (10 or 12 mm high implants may be used with nearly equal success rates in the posterior segments of the jaws.

  17. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  18. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  19. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of Dietary Acid Load as a Potential Countermeasure for Bone Loss Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Watts, S. M.; Sams, C. F.; Whitson, P. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    In several studies we tested the concepts that diet can alter acid-base balance and that reducing the dietary acid load has a positive effect on maintenance of bone. In study 1, (n = 11, 60-90 d bed rest), the renal acid load of the diet was estimated from its chemical composition, and was positively correlated with urinary markers of bone resorption (P less than 0.05); that is, the greater the acid load, the greater the excretion of bone resorption markers. In study 2, in males (n = 8, 30 d bed rest), an estimate of the ratio of nonvolatile acid precursors to base precursors in the diet was positively correlated (P less than 0.05) with markers of bone resorption. In study 3, for 28 d subjects received either a placebo (n = 6) or an essential amino acid supplement (n = 7) that included methionine, a known acid precursor. During bed rest (28 d), urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels in the supplemented group but not the control group (P less than 0.05), and in the supplemented group, urinary pH decreased (P less than 0.05). In study 4, less bone resorption occurred in space crew members who received potassium citrate (n = 6) during spaceflight of 4-6 months than in crew members who received placebo or were not in the study (n = 8) (P less than 0.05). Reducing acid load has the potential to mitigate increased bone resorption during spaceflight, and may serve as a bone loss countermeasure.

  1. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Licata, Angelo A.; Rice, Andrea J.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  2. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Extract Prevents Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone resorbing disorders such as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, discovery of agents capable of suppressing osteoclast differentiation may aid the development of a therapeutic access for the treatment of pathological bone loss. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata has been used as herbal folk medicine to treat liver diseases and inflammation in Asia. However, its effects on osteoclast differentiation are unknown. We were aimed to investigate the anti-osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of Ampelopsis brevipedunculata extract (ABE. In this study, ABE inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, the formation of filamentous actin rings and the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. ABE inhibited RANKL-induced p38 and IκB phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Also, ABE suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos, and the mRNA expression of genes required for cell fusion and bone resorption, such as osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, β3-integrin and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP. Furthermore, results of micro-CT and histologic analysis indicated that ABE remarkably prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone erosion. These results demonstrate that ABE prevents LPS-induced bone erosion through inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of ABE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  3. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  4. A new digital tool for radiographic bone level measurements in longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus, Hans R; Torgersen, Gerald Ruiner; Koldsland, Odd Carsten; Hansen, Bjørn Frode; Aass, Anne Merete; Larheim, Tore Arne; Sandvik, Leiv

    2015-09-08

    The reproducibility of measurements on radiographs is influenced by the techniques by which the images as well as the measurements are obtained. Thus, bias resulting from errors in the image and/or image examinations at two points in time may result in wrongful registrations of true biological or pathological changes. The aim of the present study was to propose and evaluate an indirect radiological examination technique, by which bias, when measuring radiographic bone level, could be substantially reduced as compared to the technique using direct mm measurements. A plugin to ImageJ was designed to reduce bias when measuring bone loss on radiographic images. In human dry mandibles, radiographic images of 20 teeth were obtained parallel with the tooth axis (alpha = 0) and at an angle of 30° deviation. The direct technique of measuring radiographic bone level (RBL) and the indirect, length-adjusted RBL were registered by four researchers in a double blinded fashion. When mean RBL measured at 0° angle was 7.0 mm, the corresponding mean RBL measured at 30° angle was 7.8 mm, signifying an 11.4% increase (p = 0.032), whereas the mean length-adjusted RBL increased by 0.6% (p = 0.9). This study showed that the use of the original, direct technique (ImageJ) resulted in markedly biased radiographic bone level at 30° angle, while the proposed indirect length-adjusted technique (ImageJ plugin) did not.

  5. Bone loss at implants and teeth in the same segment of the dentition in partially dentate subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Denis; Marino, Massimiliano; Lindhe, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Some studies have indicated that marginal bone loss at implants and at teeth are similar, while results from other studies showed that implants lost more bone than teeth in the same dentition. To determine the amount of progressive marginal bone loss that had occurred at implants and teeth in the same segment of the dentition following implant placement in partially dentate subjects. A total of 217 patients with a total of 573 implants and 318 teeth present in the same segments of the dentition were included. Radiographs were available from 1 year (baseline) and ≥3 years after loading. The mean bone loss that occurred between the two examinations was at implants 0.42 ± 0.68 mm and at teeth 0.44 ± 0.52 mm. Thirty-eight subjects (18%) had ≥1 implant exhibiting >1 mm bone loss. Bone loss at the 148 implants in this category of patients was 1.30 ± 1.04 mm with a corresponding loss at the 69 teeth of 0.53 ± 0.62 mm. Eighteen subjects (8%) had ≥1 tooth that exhibited >1 mm bone loss. The mean amount of bone loss in this sample was 1.37 ± 0.87 mm (38 teeth) and 0.29 ± 0.31 mm (56 implants). This study showed that marginal bone loss at implants and teeth in many partially dentate subjects might be independent phenomena. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Management of severe periacetabular bone loss combined with pelvic discontinuity in revision hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Max J; Schmolders, Jan; Michel, Robert D; Randau, Thomas M; Wimmer, Matthias D; Kohlhof, Hendrik; Wirtz, Dieter C; Gravius, Sascha

    2014-12-01

    Revision of failed total hip arthroplasty with massive acetabular bone loss resulting in pelvic discontinuity represents a rare but challenging problem. The objective of this study was to present short to mid-term results of revision total hip arthroplasty with a custom-made acetabular implant in a consecutive series of patients with pelvic discontinuity. We retrospectively reviewed 18 consecutive patients with massive acetabular bone loss (Paprosky Type 3B) resulting in pelvic discontinuity reconstructed with revision total hip arthroplasty using a custom-made acetabular component. The prosthesis was created on the basis of a thin-cut 1-mm computed tomography (CT) scan of the pelvis. Initial stability of the implant was obtained by screw fixation. Harris hip score and sequential radiographs were used to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results. At an average follow up of 30 months (range 17-62 months) 16 of 18 (88.9%) custom-made implants were considered radiographically stable without signs of acetabular migration of more than 2 mm in the horizontal or vertical direction, implant rotation or screw breakage. Complications included two periprosthetic joint infections treated with explantation of the implant. Three patients had recurrent dislocations postoperatively. The mean Harris hip score improved from 28 ± 12 points preoperatively to 69 ± 13 points at the time of last follow up. Treatment of acetabular bone loss and pelvic discontinuity with a custom-made acetabular component can provide a durable solution with good clinical and radiographic results.

  7. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Wei, E-mail: weiming@xiyi.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Lu, Gan, E-mail: leonming99@163.com [Department of Gynecology of Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an, 710068 (China); Xin, Sha, E-mail: 248967979@qq.com [Institute of Orthopedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Huanyu, Lu, E-mail: 2366927258@qq.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Yinghao, Jiang, E-mail: jiangyh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Xiaoying, Lei, E-mail: leixiaoy@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Chengming, Xu, E-mail: chengmingxu@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Banjun, Ruan, E-mail: running@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wang, E-mail: wanglifw@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); and others

    2016-08-05

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  8. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  9. Animal Models of Bone Loss in Inflammatory Arthritis: from Cytokines in the Bench to Novel Treatments for Bone Loss in the Bedside—a Comprehensive Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Alves (Celso Henrique); E. Farrell (Eric); M. Vis (M.); E.M. Colin (Edgar); E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThroughout life, bone is continuously remodelled. Bone is formed by osteoblasts, from mesenchymal origin, while osteoclasts induce bone resorption. This process is tightly regulated. During inflammation, several growth factors and cytokines are increased inducing osteoclast

  10. Crestal Bone Loss under Delayed Loading of Full Thickness Versus Flapless Surgically Placed Dental Implants in Controlled Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Parallel Group Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rohit; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor; Rao, Jitendra; Anwar, Mohd; Alvi, Habib Ahmed; Singh, Kalpana; Himanshu, D

    2016-10-12

    To compare crestal bone loss around dental implants using a delayed loading protocol. Bone loss was compared in patients following conventional full thickness flap and flapless surgery in controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty-eight type 2 diabetic patients satisfying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for this single center, parallel group study after obtaining institutional review board approval and informed consent. These patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group I consisted of patients undergoing full thickness flap surgery for implant placement, and group II consisted of patients undergoing flapless surgery for implant placement. The mean age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and male-to-female ratio in both groups were matched and compared statistically. Dental implants were placed followed by delayed loading (4 months) in both groups. Crestal bone loss was assessed with intraoral periapical radiographs with the help of computer software (DBSWIN viewer). Actual implant length acted as the radiographic index, and implant-abutment junctions were used as a reference point for all measurements. Mesial and distal bone levels at baseline, 6, and 12 months post implant placement of the two groups were determined. Mesial and distal crestal bone loss from baseline to 6 and 12 months were calculated and compared with Tukey test using SPSS v15.0 statistical analysis software. Tukey test revealed similar (not statistically different) mean mesial crestal bone loss between the two groups after 6 months (0.47 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.36 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.576) and after 12 months (1.56 ± 0.25 mm vs. 1.50 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.891). The mean distal bone loss resulting between the two groups was not statistically different at 6 months (0.44 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.35 ± 0.12 mm, p = 0.687) and at 12 months (1.57 ± 0.23 mm vs. 1.61 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.947). The results of this clinical randomized control trial indicated that in

  11. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (pdiet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (pdiet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (pdiet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of fission fragments energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Benetti, P; Calligarich, E; Cesana, A; Dolfini, R; Ioppolo, T; Raselli, G L; Terrani, M

    2002-01-01

    The mean energy of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragments emerging from an absorber and the determination of the capture rate in the absorber itself have been measured using two independent and complementary nuclear techniques. The results can be applied to the measurement of the energy self-absorption in a non-zero thickness source and can be used to validate simulation programs.

  13. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  14. Influence of surgical and prosthetic techniques on marginal bone loss around titanium implants. Part I: immediate loading in fresh extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N; Tehini, Georges E; Noujeim, Ziad F; Khairallah, Alexandre A; Abousehlib, Moustafa N; Salameh, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Delayed placement of implant abutments has been associated with peri-implant marginal bone loss; however, long-term results obtained by modifying surgical and prosthetic techniques after implant placement are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the marginal bone loss around titanium implants placed in fresh extraction sockets using two loading protocols after a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 36 patients received 40 titanium implants (Astra Tech) intended for single-tooth replacement. Implants were immediately placed into fresh extraction sockets using either a one-stage (immediate loading by placing an interim prosthesis into functional occlusion) or a two-stage prosthetic loading protocol (insertion of abutments after 8 weeks of healing time). Marginal bone levels relative to the implant reference point were evaluated at four time intervals using intraoral radiographs: at time of implant placement, and 1, 3, and 5 years after implant placement. Measurements were obtained from mesial and distal surfaces of each implant (α = 0.05). One-stage immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets resulted in a significant reduction in marginal bone loss (p implants after cementation of interim prostheses (p immediate loading of implants placed into fresh extraction sockets reduced marginal bone loss and did not compromise the success rate of the restorations. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Frequent complications and severe bone loss associated with the repiphysis expandable distal femoral prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Cara A; Gruzinova, Irina S; Frank, Rachel M; Gitelis, Steven; Virkus, Walter W

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of choice for distal femur malignancies in skeletally immature patients remains controversial. An expandable endoprosthesis device (Repiphysis Limb Salvage System; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) allows for limb preservation and noninvasive lengthening but has been associated with significant complications; however, the extent and implications of bone loss associated with this implant have not been reported. Our goals were to report (1) the 2-year minimum clinical outcomes after placement of the Repiphysis expandable prosthesis for pediatric distal femur malignancies; (2) the complications associated with this prosthesis; (3) the failure rate of this prosthesis; and (4) the revision alternatives available for salvage procedures. Between 2002 and 2010, one surgeon (SG) treated all skeletally immature patients (mean age, 10.1 years; range, 4.7-13.6 years) with distal femoral osteosarcoma using a Repiphysis expandable prosthesis. Of the 12 patients who met these criteria, two were excluded for death from disease before 2 years, and mean followup for the remaining 10 was 72 months (range, 26-119 months). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for complications and clinical outcomes, as assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system. Radiographs at final followup were reviewed for bone loss and analyzed by the two senior authors (SG, WWV) to determine reconstruction options available for future revisions. MSTS scores averaged 67%, and we observed 37 implant-related complications requiring a total of 15 reoperations. Six patients underwent implant revisions with aseptic loosening being the predominant mode of failure; ultimately, four of these were converted to adult modular oncology prostheses, and two underwent total femoral replacements. Bone loss in this series was severe in terms of femoral length, cortical thinning, and metadiaphyseal compromise, and most patients will not have sufficient bone stock to permit

  16. CCL3 and MMP-9 are induced by TL1A during death receptor 3 (TNFRSF25)-dependent osteoclast function and systemic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Fraser L; Williams, Jessica O; Bloom, Anja C; Singh, Ravinder K; Jordan, Lauren; Stone, Michael D; McCabe, Laura R; Wang, Eddie C Y; Williams, Anwen S

    2017-04-01

    Reduced bone density and secondary osteoporosis, resulting in increased risk of fracture, is a significant complicating factor in the inflammatory arthritides. While the exact etiology of systemic bone loss is not fully elucidated, recent insights into the tumor necrosis factor super family (TNFSF) revealed a potential role for death receptor 3 (DR3/TNFRSF25) and one of its ligands, TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A/TNFSF15). The mechanisms by which DR3/TL1A signalling modulates bone loss are unclear. We investigated the effect of DR3/TL1A signalling upon osteoclast-dependent chemokine and MMP production to unravel novel mechanisms whereby this pathway regulates OC formation and OC-dependent bone resorption. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) was established in DR3 wt and DR3 ko mice, joints were sectioned and analysed histologically for bone damage while systemic trabecular bone loss distal to the affected joints was compared by micro-CT. Ablation of DR3 protected DBA/1 mice against the development and progression of CIA. In DR3 ko , joints of the ankle and mid-foot were almost free of bone erosions and long bones of mice with CIA were protected against systemic trabecular bone loss. In vitro, expression of DR3 was confirmed on primary human CD14 + osteoclast precursors by flow cytometry. These cells were treated with TL1A in osteoclast differentiation medium and TRAP + osteoclasts, bone resorption, levels of osteoclast-associated chemokines (CCL3, CCL2 and CXCL8) and MMP-9 measured. TL1A intensified human osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption and increased osteoclast-associated production of CCL3 and MMP-9. Our data reveals the DR3 pathway as an attractive therapeutic target to combat adverse bone pathology associated with inflammatory arthritis. We demonstrate that DR3 is critical in the pathogenesis of murine CIA and associated secondary osteoporosis. Furthermore, we identify a novel mechanism by which the DR3/TL1A pathway directly enhances human OC formation

  17. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss in the tibia following transient muscle paralysis are spatiotemporally distinct resorption events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausk, Brandon J; Huber, Philippe; Srinivasan, Sundar; Bain, Steven D; Kwon, Ronald Y; McNamara, Erin A; Poliachik, Sandra L; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Gross, Ted S

    2013-12-01

    When the skeleton is catabolically challenged, there is great variability in the timing and extent of bone resorption observed at cancellous and cortical bone sites. It remains unclear whether this resorptive heterogeneity, which is often evident within a single bone, arises from increased permissiveness of specific sites to bone resorption or localized resorptive events of varied robustness. To explore this question, we used the mouse model of calf paralysis induced bone loss, which results in metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption of different timing and magnitude. Given this phenotypic pattern of resorption, we hypothesized that bone loss in the proximal tibia metaphysis and diaphysis occurs through resorption events that are spatially and temporally distinct. To test this hypothesis, we undertook three complimentary in vivo/μCT imaging studies. Specifically, we defined spatiotemporal variations in endocortical bone resorption during the 3weeks following calf paralysis, applied a novel image registration approach to determine the location where bone resorption initiates within the proximal tibia metaphysis, and explored the role of varied basal osteoclast activity on the magnitude of bone loss initiation in the metaphysis using μCT based bone resorption parameters. A differential response of metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption was observed throughout each study. Acute endocortical bone loss following muscle paralysis occurred almost exclusively within the metaphyseal compartment (96.5% of total endocortical bone loss within 6days). Using our trabecular image registration approach, we further resolved the initiation of metaphyseal bone loss to a focused region of significant basal osteoclast function (0.03mm(3)) adjacent to the growth plate. This correlative observation of paralysis induced bone loss mediated by basal growth plate cell dynamics was supported by the acute metaphyseal osteoclastic response of 5-week vs. 13-month-old mice. Specifically

  18. Validation of a laboratory method of measuring postpartum blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S; Ho, L M; Vanaja, K; Nordstrom, L; Roy, A C; Arulkumaran, S

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory methods give more accurate measurement of blood loss in the postpartum period than visual estimation. In order to evaluate a laboratory method used to quantify blood loss postpartum, blood lost at gynecological operations was collected in a measuring bottle. The measured amount of blood (50-1,000 ml) was then poured onto absorbent paper towels and sanitary pads, in order to mimic conditions when measuring blood loss in clinical trials in the postpartum period. The amount of blood absorbed onto the absorbent paper and sanitary pads was measured by a rapid method of automatic extraction and photometric measurement of alkaline hematin. The study shows that the method provides a reliable and accurate means of measuring blood loss. The error in each case was less than 10% with an intraclass correlation coefficient of almost 1.

  19. Parallel Low-Loss Measurement of Multiple Atomic Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minho; Ebert, Matthew F; Walker, Thad G; Saffman, M

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate low-loss measurement of the hyperfine ground state of rubidium atoms by state dependent fluorescence detection in a dipole trap array of five sites. The presence of atoms and their internal states are minimally altered by utilizing circularly polarized probe light and a strictly controlled quantization axis. We achieve mean state detection fidelity of 97% without correcting for imperfect state preparation or background losses, and 98.7% when corrected. After state detection and correction for background losses, the probability of atom loss due to the state measurement is state is preserved with >98% probability.

  20. Vitamin K deficiency evaluated by serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in patients with anorexia nervosa with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Ayako; Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Araki, Mariko

    2015-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a chief complication in patients with anorexia nervosa. Serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin reflect serum and bone vitamin K deficiency. We investigated vitamin K status in patients with anorexia nervosa to help establish prevention and treatment recommendations for osteoporosis. Fifty-four female amenorrheic patients with anorexia nervosa (29 restricting-type and 25 binge eating/purging type) (age, 28.0 (26.7-31.1) (mean (95% CI)) years; body mass index, 14.8 (14.1-15.5) kg/m(2), duration of illness; 107.3 (88.5-126.0) months) and 15 age-matched healthy females were included in this study. We measured serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin, biochemical and nutritional markers, and bone metabolic markers. Dietary vitamin K intake was evaluated by a questionnaire. Lumbar bone mineral density and T-scores in patients with anorexia nervosa were 0.756 (0.721-0.790) g/cm(2) and -2.4 (-2.1 to -2.7), respectively, indicating bone loss. Serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in patients with anorexia nervosa were significantly higher than those of controls. The 17% of restricting type and 40% of binge eating/purging type anorexia nervosa patients, serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were higher than 4.5 ng/ml and were diagnosed with vitamin K deficiency. Serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin correlated significantly and negatively with vitamin K intake in patients with anorexia nervosa. Patients with anorexia nervosa had vitamin K deficiency. Since a supplement of vitamin K might be effective for maintaining bone quality, we provide recommendations regarding vitamin K intake for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of the reliability and validity of bone stock loss classification systems used for revision hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzard, Charles; Blom, Ashley; Taylor, A; Smith, Evert; Learmonth, Ian

    2003-08-01

    Three femoral (Paprosky, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [AAOS], and Endo-Klinik) and 2 acetabular (Paprosky, AAOS) bone stock loss classification systems were evaluated for reliability. Four observers (2 consultants, 2 registrars) graded the bone loss in 25 patients using preoperative radiographs. Grading was repeated after a minimum of 2 weeks. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was investigated. The kappa statistic was used to assess levels of agreement. Intraobserver agreement ranged from poor to good. Interobserver agreement ranged from fair to moderate. The validity of the Paprosky classification system was evaluated, comparing preoperative bone stock loss assessment with intraoperative findings. Agreement levels of moderate (femoral classification system) to good (acetabular classification system) were achieved. Bone stock loss classification systems are shown to be inconsistent and unreliable.

  2. Progression of aortic calcification is associated with metacarpal bone loss during menopause: a population-based longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.M. van Hemert (Bert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractofferosclerosis and osteoporosis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women and have been suggested to be associated. No study has examined whether progression of atherosclerotic calcification is associated with bone loss. In the

  3. Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

  4. Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary: Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation in the drinking water plus alphacalcidol administration resulted in increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation sugges...

  5. Retaining Residual Ovarian Tissue following Ovarian Failure Has Limited Influence on Bone Loss in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelieann R. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9–12 months C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle, VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d, or OVX (ovariectomized. Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P<.05 than baseline, starting 1 month after ovarian failure in VCD and OVX mice. Following μCT analysis there were no differences between CON and VCD, but OVX mice had lower bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and a trend for decreased connectivity density. These findings provide evidence that retention of residual ovarian tissue may protect aged follicle-depleted mice from accelerated bone loss to a lesser extent than that observed in young mice.

  6. Bone-anchored hearing aids in conductive and mixed hearing losses: why do patients reject them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Richard T K; Dhillon, Baljeet; Siau, Derrick; Green, Kevin M J

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to report the bone-anchored hearing aid uptake rate and the reasons for their rejection by patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. A retrospective review was performed of 113 consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss referred to the Greater Manchester bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) programme between September 2008 and August 2011. 98 (86.7 %) patients were deemed audiologically suitable for BAHA implantation. Of these, 38 (38.8 %) had BAHA implanted; 60 (61.2 %) patients declined. Of those who declined, 27 (45 %) cited anxiety over surgery, 18 (30 %) cited cosmetic reasons, 16 (26.7 %) perceived limited benefit from the device and six (10 %) preferred conventional hearing aids. Our study highlights a 38.8 % BAHA uptake rate in audiologically suitable patients. The main reasons cited for rejection of BAHA were anxiety over surgery and cosmetic concerns. It is important that clinicians address these early during consultation with prospective BAHA recipients and avoid rushing to implant these patients with a bone-anchored hearing aid.

  7. Bone loss during long term space flight is prevented by the application of a short term impulsive mechanical stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodship, A. E.; Cunningham, J. L.; Oganov, V.; Darling, J.; Miles, A. W.; Owen, G. W.

    In long term space flight, the mechanical forces applied to the skeleton are substantially reduced and are altered in character. This reduced skeletal loading results in a reduction in bone mass. Exercise techmques currently used in space can maintain muscle mass but the mechanical stimulus provided by this exercise does not prevent bone loss. By applying an external impulsive load for a short period each day, which is intended to mimic the heel strike transient, to the lower limb of an astronaut during a long term space flight (5 months), this study tests the hypothesis that the bone cells can be activated by an appropriate external mechanical stimulus to maintain bone mass throughout prolonged periods of weightlessness. A mechanical loading device was developed to produce a loading of the os-calcis similar to that observed during the heel strike transient. The device is activated by the astronaut to provide a transient load to the heel of one leg whilst providing an equivalent exercising load to the other leg. During the EUROMIR95 mission on the MIR space station, an astronaut used this device for a short period daily throughout the duration of the mission. Pre- and post-flight measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) of the os-calcis and femoral neck of the astronaut were made to determine the efficacy of the device in preventing loss of bone mineral during the mission. On the os-calcis which received the mechanical stimulus, BMD was maintained throughout the period of the flight, while it was reduced by up to 7% on the os-calcis which received no stimulus. Post-flight, BMD in both the stimulated and non-stimulated os-calcis reduces, the extent of this reduction however is less in the stimulated os-calcis. For the femoral neck, the mechanical Stimulation does not produce a positive effect. On the os-calcis which received the mechanical stimulus, BMD was maintained throughout the period of the flight, while it was reduced by up to 7% on the os-calcis which

  8. Bone-anchored hearing aids and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss: why do patients reject them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, D; Dhillon, B; Andrews, R; Green, K M J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to report the bone-anchored hearing aid uptake and the reasons for their rejection by unilateral sensorineural deafness patients. A retrospective review of 90 consecutive unilateral sensorineural deafness patients referred to the Greater Manchester Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Programme between September 2008 and August 2011 was performed. In all, 79 (87.8 per cent) were deemed audiologically suitable: 24 (30.3 per cent) eventually had a bone-anchored hearing aid implanted and 55 (69.6 per cent) patients declined. Of those who declined, 26 (47.3 per cent) cited perceived limited benefits, 18 (32.7 per cent) cited reservations regarding surgery, 13 (23.6 per cent) preferred a wireless contralateral routing of sound device and 12 (21.8 per cent) cited cosmetic reasons. In all, 32 (40.5 per cent) suitable patients eventually chose the wireless contralateral routing of sound device. The uptake rate was 30 per cent for audiologically suitable patients. Almost half of suitable patients did not perceive a sufficient benefit to proceed to device implantation and a significant proportion rejected it. It is therefore important that clinicians do not to rush to implant all unilateral sensorineural hearing loss patients with a bone-anchored hearing aid.

  9. [Treatment of open femur fracture with critical bone loss of femoral shaft in politrauma patient--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Paweł; Dutka, Julian; Skowronek, Michał; Dutka, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 21 year old patient who suffered an politrauma injury in a traffic accident (motorcyclist). Presentation of possiblities of treatment femur bone fracture with critical bone loss using intramedullary nail. Patients's Injury included: fractures of the femur, temporal bone, and ulna. The patient's Severity Score (ISS) was 24. The dominant trauma fracture was open, comminuted fracture of femur shaft (AO 32-C2, Anderson-Gustilo IIIa) with bone loss stated as critical (loss of femoral shaft over 10 cm, including the loss of more than 50% of the circumference was about 8 cm length, and the loss of the full circumference of more than two branches of the missing bone). Osteosynthesisnad bone length reconstruction of the femur was with use of intramedullary locking nail. Full reconstruction was regenerated after 12 months. Although there was extensive injury no local and general complications appeared. Early definitive fracture stabilization and secondary dynamisation possible to obtain the bone regeneration at the defect site.

  10. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWeight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.MethodsTwenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI. Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.ResultsWeight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.ConclusionThese findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.

  11. Measurements of inter-cochlear level and phase differences of bone-conducted sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Robert W. J.; Culling, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a widely used method of treating conductive hearing loss, but the benefit of bilateral implantation is limited due to interaural cross-talk. The present study measured the phase and level of pure tones reaching each cochlea from a single, mastoid placed bone transducer on normal hearing participants. In principle, the technique could be used to implement a cross-talk cancellation system in those with bilateral bone conductors. The phase and level of probe tones over two insert earphones was adjusted until they canceled sound from a bone transducer (i.e., resulting in perceived silence). Testing was performed in 50-Hz steps between 0.25 and 8 kHz. Probe phase and level results were used to calculate inter-cochlear level and phase differences. The inter-cochlear phase differences of the bone-conducted sound were similar for all three participants showing a relatively linear increase between 4 and 8 kHz. The attenuation characteristics were highly variable over the frequency range as well as between participants. This variability was thought to be related to differences in skull dynamics across the ears. Repeated measurements of cancellation phase and level of the same frequency produced good consistency across sessions from the same participant. PMID:28599562

  12. Measurement of AC losses in different former materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Træholt, Chresten; Kühle, Anders Van Der Aa

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting cable may be based on a centrally located cylindrical support, a so-called former. If electrically conductive, the former can contribute to the AC losses through eddy current losses caused by unbalanced axial and tangential magnetic fields. With these measurements...... we aim at investigating the eddy current losses of commonly used former materials. A one layer cable conductor was wound on a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRFP) former. By inserting a variety of materials into this, it was possible to measure the eddy current losses of each of the former...... candidates separately; for example copper tubes, stainless steel braid, copper braid, corrugated stainless steel tubes, etc. The measured data are compared with the predictions of a theoretical model. Our results show that in most cases, the losses induced by eddy currents in the former are negligible...

  13. Inactivation of Vhl in Osteochondral Progenitor Cells Causes High Bone Mass Phenotype and Protects Against Age-Related Bone Loss in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tujun; Xie, Yangli; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Yi, Lingxian; He, Qifen; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of von Hippel–Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with activation of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone cells and plays an important role in bone development, homeostasis, and regeneration. It is known that activation of HIF1α signaling in mature osteoblasts is central to the coupling between angiogenesis and bone formation. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the coupling between skeletal angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone remodeling are only partially elucidated. To evaluate the role of Vhl in bone homeostasis and the coupling between vascular physiology and bone, we generated mice lacking Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells (referred to as Vhl cKO mice) at postnatal and adult stages in a tamoxifen-inducible manner and changes in skeletal morphology were assessed by micro–computed tomography (µCT), histology, and bone histomorphometry. We found that mice with inactivation of Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells at the postnatal stage largely phenocopied that of mice lacking Vhl in mature osteoblasts, developing striking and progressive accumulation of cancellous bone with increased microvascular density and bone formation. These were accompanied with a significant increase in osteoblast proliferation, upregulation of differentiation marker Runx2 and osteocalcin, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In addition, we found that Vhl deletion in osteochondral progenitor cells in adult bone protects mice from aging-induced bone loss. Our data suggest that the VHL-mediated signaling in osteochondral progenitor cells plays a critical role in bone remodeling at postnatal/adult stages through coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23999831

  14. Measuring, calculating and estimating PEP's parasitic mode loss parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This note discusses various ways the parasitic mode losses from a bunched beam to a vacuum chamber can be measured, calculated or estimated. A listing of the parameter, k, for the various PEP ring components is included. A number of formulas for calculating multiple and single pass losses are discussed and evaluated for several cases. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  16. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident...

  17. Progressive femoral cortical and cancellous bone density loss after uncemented tapered-design stem fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tobias E; Haeberle, Lothar; Mueller, Lars P; Kress, Alexander; Voelk, Michael; Pfander, David; Forst, Raimund; Schmidt, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background Aseptic implant loosening and periprosthetic bone loss are major problems after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We present an in vivo method of computed tomography (CT) assisted osteodensitometry after THA that differentiates between cortical and cancellous bone density (BD) and area around the femoral component. Method Cortical and cancellous periprosthetic femoral BD (mg CaHA/mL), area (mm2) and contact area between the prothesis and cortical bone were determined prospectively in 31 patients 10 days, 1 year, and 6 years after uncemented THA (mean age at implantation: 55 years) using CT-osteodensitometry. Results 6 years postoperatively, cancellous BD had decreased by as much as 41% and cortical BD by up to 27% at the metaphyseal portion of the femur; this decrease was progressive between the 1-year and 6-year examinations. Mild cortical hypertrophy was observed along the entire length of the diaphysis. No statistically significant changes in cortical BD were observed along the diaphysis of the stem. Interpretation Periprosthetic CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the technical ability to discriminate between cortical and cancellous bone structures with respect to strain-adapted remodeling. Continuous loss of cortical and cancellous BD at the femoral metaphysis, a homeostatic cortical strain configuration, and mild cortical hypertrophy along the diaphysis suggest a diaphyseal fixation of the implanted stem. CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the potential to become an effective instrument for quality control in THA by means of in vivo determination of periprosthetic BD, which may be a causal factor in implant loosening after THA. PMID:20180716

  18. Identification of induced and naturally occurring conductive hearing loss in mice using bone conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhan, David; McKinnon, Melissa L; Rosowski, John J

    2017-03-01

    While many mouse models of hearing loss have been described, a significant fraction of the genetic defects in these models affect both the inner ear and middle ears. A common method used to separate inner-ear (sensory-neural) from middle-ear (conductive) pathologies in the hearing clinic is the combination of air-conduction and bone-conduction audiometry. In this report, we investigate the use of air- and bone-conducted evoked auditory brainstem responses to perform a similar separation in mice. We describe a technique by which we stimulate the mouse ear both acoustically and via whole-head vibration. We investigate the sensitivity of this technique to conductive hearing loss by introducing middle-ear lesions in normal hearing mice. We also use the technique to investigate the presence of an age-related conductive hearing loss in a common mouse model of presbycusis, the BALB/c mouse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  20. Combined Effects of Phytoestrogen Genistein and Silicon on Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shanshan; Zheng, Hongxing

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of concomitant supplementation of genistein and silicon on bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers in ovariectomized rat. Three-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then the OVX rats were randomly divided into four groups: OVX-GEN, OVX-Si, OVX-GEN-Si, and OVX. Genistein and silicon supplementation was started immediately after OVX and continued for 10 weeks. In the OVX-GEN group, 5 mg genistein per gram body weight was injected subcutaneously. The OVX-Si group was given soluble silicon daily in demineralized water (Si 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The OVX-GEN-Si group was given subcutaneous injections of 5 mg genistein per gram body weight, at the same time, given soluble silicon daily (Si 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The results showed that the genistein supplementation in the OVX rats significantly prevented the loss of uterus weight; however, the silicon supplementation showed no effect on the uterus weight loss. The lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density was significantly decreased after OVX surgery; however, this decrease was inhibited by the genistein and/or silicon, and the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur was the highest in the OVX-GEN-Si-treated group. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the supplementation of genistein and/or silicon restored bone volume and trabecular thickness of femoral trabecular bone in the OVX group. Besides, the treatment with genistein and silicon for 10 weeks increased the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus in the OVX rats; serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the OVX-GEN-Si group were higher than those in the OVX-GEN and OVX-Si group (P silicon decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin, which were increased by ovariectomy; serum ALP and osteocalcin in the OVX-GEN-Si group were lower than those in the OVX-GEN and OVX-Si groups (P silicon have synergistic effects on

  1. Puerarin decreases bone loss and collagen destruction in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin, the most abundant isoflavonoid in kudzu root, shows various bioactivities, including bone-sparing, anti-inflammatory and antiproteinase properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of puerarin in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Rat models of periodontitis were developed by bilaterally placing ligatures around the first mandibular molars. Puerarin was administrated daily by gavage at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, starting a day before the placement of ligatures. Rats were humanely killed 7 d after the induction of periodontitis. Micro-computed tomography and sirius red staining were used to evaluate alveolar bone loss and collagen destruction, respectively. Histomorphometrical analysis was used to assess the inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were used to detect receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin expressions, and osteoclast activity in the gingiva and alveolar bone. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the gingiva were assessed by Western blot. Puerarin at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss compared with the vehicle group. Collagen destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly less in the puerarin-treated group (200 mg/kg) compared with that of the vehicle group. Puerarin (200 mg/kg) also reduced the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin and osteoclast activity. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin (200 mg/kg) inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65, which is associated with lower IL-1β and TNF-α production, and reduced the glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, which is associated with lower

  2. The relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss and decreased skeletal bone mineral density in ageing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić Pavičin, Ivana; Dumančić, Jelena; Jukić, Tomislav; Badel, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both chronic diseases characterised by bone loss. Potential association is of great clinical importance because of multifactorial aetiology and common risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between bone mineral density (BMD), tooth loss and periodontal status taking into account age, number of years since onset of menopause and educational level. With increasing age, number of years since onset of menopause and lower educational level, decreased BMD, deteriorating periodontal status and greater tooth loss are expected. Cross-sectional study included 112 women aged 45-80 years (mean 58.3 years). BMD was determined for lumbar spine region and proximal femur by DEXA technology. Dental status and periodontal status were evaluated clinically and on panoramic radiographs. For the analysis of tooth loss frequency, participants were divided into four age groups. Significant inverse correlation was found between number of lost teeth and BMD at hip region (r = -.227; P = .028) but not at the lumbar spine (r = -.05; P = .669). Several indicators of the periodontal condition were significantly correlated with BMD, but not with postmenopausal period length. Important result is that participants missing one or more incisors or canines had significantly lower mean value of BMD comparing to those who had all the incisors and canines remained. Although osteoporosis is not the main cause of periodontitis, it may be a factor that leads to enhanced periodontal pocket depth and greater risk of tooth loss in ageing women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucia S; Parhami, Farhad; Tintut, Yin; Kitchen, Christina M R; Demer, Linda L; Effros, Rita B

    2009-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Whereas osteoclasts and osteoblasts are the main regulators of bone homeostasis, recent studies underscore a key role for the immune system, particularly via activation-induced T lymphocyte production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL). Well-documented as a mediator of T lymphocyte/dendritic cell interactions, RANKL also stimulates the maturation and activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Given that lipid oxidation products mediate inflammatory and metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, and since oxidized lipids affect several T lymphocyte functions, we hypothesized that RANKL production might also be subject to modulation by oxidized lipids. Here, we show that short term exposure of both unstimulated and activated human T lymphocytes to minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), but not native LDL, significantly enhances RANKL production and promotes expression of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). The effect, which is also observed with 8-iso-Prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory isoprostane produced by lipid peroxidation, is mediated via the NFkappaB pathway, and involves increased RANKL mRNA expression. The link between oxidized lipids and T lymphocytes is further reinforced by analysis of hyperlipidemic mice, in which bone loss is associated with increased RANKL mRNA in T lymphocytes and elevated RANKL serum levels. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which T lymphocytes contribute to bone changes, namely, via oxidized lipid enhancement of RANKL production. These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis.

  4. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... and outcome measures that could be improved. Five studies on weight-bearing early post-injury are conflicting, but standing or walking may help retain bone mineral. In the chronic phase, there was no effect of weight bearing (12 studies). One study found that an early commencement of sports after SCI improved...... bone mineral, and the longer the period of athletic career, the higher the (leg) bone mineral. Early after SCI, there may be some effects of electrical stimulation (ES) (five studies). Chronic-phase ES studies vary (14 studies, including mixed periods after injury), but improvement is seen with longer...

  5. Calibration free method for measurement of the AC magnetization loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souc, Jan [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 39 Bratislava (Slovakia); Goemoery, Fedor [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 39 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vojenciak, Michal [Department of Power Electrical Systems, University of Zilina, Vel' ky diel, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2005-05-01

    A calibration free measurement method for determination of the magnetization loss of superconducting samples exposed to the external AC magnetic field is presented. The idea is based on the measurement of the part of the power which is supplied by the AC source to the AC magnet generating the magnetic field, in which the sample is located. It uses a coil wound in parallel to the AC field magnet as the measurement coil. To achieve the necessary sensitivity, two identical systems are used, each consisting of an AC magnet and a measurement coil, one of them containing the sample and the other left empty. No measurement and/or calculation of the calibration constant is required. To confirm the suitability of this method, the loss of a Cu sample with known dissipation was measured. The applicability to the AC magnetization loss measurements of superconducting tapes is presented.

  6. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis and prognosis of tibial cartilage loss by quantification of tibia trabecular bone from MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene; Genant, Harry K.; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to investigate the quantification of osteoarthritis and prediction of tibial cartilage loss by analysis of the tibia trabecular bone from magnetic resonance images of knees. The Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grades were determined by radiologists and the levels of cartilage...... loss were assessed by a segmentation process. Aiming to quantify and potentially capture the structure of the trabecular bone anatomy, a machine learning approach used a set of texture features for training a classifier to recognize the trabecular bone of a knee with radiographic osteoarthritis. Using...

  7. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  8. Four years survival and marginal bone loss of implants in patients with Down syndrome and cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera-Flores, José Ramón; López-Giménez, Julián; López-Jiménez, Julián; López-Giménez, Ana; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate implant survival rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) after 4 years in patients with Down syndrome and cerebral palsy, compared with a healthy control group. The case group comprises 102 implants in 19 patients (71 cerebral palsy, 21 Down syndrome), and the control group comprises 70 implants in 22 healthy patients. One implant per patient was selected (n = 41 implants) to take clustering effects into account. MBL was measured using two panoramic radiographs (after surgery and 4 years later). Lagervall-Jansson's Index was used. Statistics used are chi-squared test and Haberman's post hoc test. p Value is significant at Down syndrome had a higher MBL than cerebral palsy (entire sample p Down syndrome saw some damage to bone support (entire sample p Down syndrome (p Down syndrome has a higher risk of MBL and implant loss; therefore, special precautions should be taken when deciding on treatment for these patients. As a consequence of this pilot study, professionals should be very cautious in placing implants in patients with Down syndrome.

  9. β2-Adrenergic signal transduction plays a detrimental role in subchondral bone loss of temporomandibular joint in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Li, Qi-hong; Ren, Gao-tong; Zhao, Chang-ming; Liu, Yun-dong; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-qing

    2015-07-29

    The present study tested whether activation of the sympathetic tone by aberrant joint loading elicits abnormal subchondral bone remodeling in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Abnormal dental occlusion was created in experimental rats, which were then intraperitoneally injected by saline, propranolol or isoproterenol. The norepinephrine contents, distribution of sympathetic nerve fibers, expression of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and remodeling parameters in the condylar subchondral bone were investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from condylar subchondral bones were harvested for comparison of their β-ARs, pro-osteoclastic gene expressions and pro-osteoclastic function. Increases in norepinephrine level, sympathetic nerve fiber distribution and β2-AR expression were observed in the condylar subchondral bone of experimental rats, together with subchondral bone loss and increased osteoclast activity. β-antagonist (propranolol) suppressed subchondral bone loss and osteoclast hyperfunction while β-agonist (isoproterenol) exacerbated those responses. MSCs from experimental condylar subchondral bone expressed higher levels of β2-AR and RANKL; norepinephrine stimulation further increased their RANKL expression and pro-osteoclastic function. These effects were blocked by inhibition of β2-AR or the PKA pathway. RANKL expression by MSCs decreased after propranolol administration and increased after isoproterenol administration. It is concluded that β2-AR signal-mediated subchondral bone loss in TMJ osteoarthritisis associated with increased RANKL secretion by MSCs.

  10. Crestal bone loss of standard implant versus platform switch implant design using minimal invasive technique

    OpenAIRE

    Karim M. Ahmed; Salah Abd Elfatah; Mohamed Abd El-Mageed Katamish

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the type of abutment/implant connection on the marginal bone loss around dental implant. The present study was conducted on eleven patients, six males and five females with age range from 26 to 45 years. Twenty consecutive dental implants were inserted for implant – supported restoration in the maxillary premolar area. The diameter and length of dental implants of all subjects were the same in groups, 3.7 mm diameter and 11.5 mm leng...

  11. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  12. Telomerase-Deficient Mice Exhibit Bone Loss Owing to Defects in Osteoblasts and Increased Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, H.; Abdallah, B. M.; Ditzel, N.

    2011-01-01

    studied the phenotype of telomerase-deficient mice (Terc(-/-)).Terc(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated age-related bone loss starting at 3 months of age and during 12 months of follow-up revealed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanning and by micro-computed tomography (mu CT). Bone...... histomorphometry revealed decreased mineralized surface and bone-formation rate as well as increased osteoclast number and size in Terc(-/-) mice. Also, serum total deoxypyridinoline (tDPD) was increased in Terc(-/-) mice. MSCs and osteoprogenitors isolated from Terc(-l-) mice exhibited intrinsic defects...... osteoblastic defects and creation of a proinflammatory osteoclast-activating microenvironment. Thus telonnerization of MSCs may provide a novel approach for abolishing age-related bone loss. (C) 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  13. Clinical Parameters and Crestal Bone Loss in Internal Versus External Hex Implants at One Year after Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidReza Arab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of an implant system is affected by the choice of antirotational design, which can include an external or internal hex. Implant success also is affected by the maintenance of the crestal bone around implants. The aim of present study was to evaluate the crestal bone loss and clinical parameters related to bone loss in patients loaded with an external or internal hex 3i implant (3i Implant Innovation, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA. The evaluations were performed one year after loading. Materials and Methods: A total of 39 implants (23 external hex, 16 internal hex were placed randomly in 23 patients (10 male, 13 female by a submerged approach. None of patients had compromised conditions or parafunctional habits. At placement and at one year after loading, periapical radiographs were taken via the parallel method from the implant sites. Results: Crestal bone loss was -0.712±0.831 mm in implants with an internal hex connection and -0.139±0.505 mm in implants with an external hex connection (P≤0.05. No correlation was found between crestal bone loss and parameters such as age, gender, jaw, implant location (anterior, premolar, or molar, implant diameter, or implant length. Conclusions: Crestal bone loss was greater in patients with internal hex 3i implants than in those with external implants. Similar results in other clinical factors were found between the groups.

  14. Regulatory Effect of Catalpol on Th1/Th2 cells in Mice with Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nannan; Zhang, Jianhai; Ma, Xingyan; Wang, Bin; Miao, Xiuming; Wang, Zhaoxia; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Li; Yao, Chengfang; Li, Xia; Jiang, Guosheng

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2 ) deficiency can cause bone loss and the skew of Th1/Th2 cells. However, the correlation between the Th1/Th2 cells and the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of Th1/Th2 in bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and elucidated the therapeutical effect of catalpol in this condition. Young, sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (Ovx), and naturally aged mice, treated with catalpol at different doses or control vehicle, were used in this study as indicated in each experiment. ELISA assay, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and flow cytometry were used to analyze E2 , C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx-I), bone mineral density (BMD), and Th1/Th2 subsets, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of specific transcription factors for Th1/Th2 cells (T-bet and GATA-3) were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Bone mineral density and E2 levels positively correlated with the proportion of Th2 subset while negatively correlated with that of Th1 subset and the ratio of Th1/Th2. Catalpol alleviated bone loss effectively by regulating Th1/Th2 polarization. Catalpol promoted the expression of Th2-specific transcription factors while inhibited that associated with Th1. Th1/Th2 skew is involved in bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Catalpol alleviates bone loss effectively by regulating Th1/Th2 paradigm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Digital panoramic radiography as a useful tool for detection of bone loss: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher; Hesami, Samaneh; Hosseini, Pouran

    2013-03-16

    This study was aimed to investigate the use of panoramic radiography in patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) in order to diagnose and prevent osteoporotic fractures. Panoramic radiographs of 60 patients  (20 men and 40 women) aged from 40 to 70 years with cortical thicknesses of less than 3 mm in the mandibular angle were selected from patients referred to a dentomaxillofacial radiology clinic and were then examined for mandibular cortical angles. These were measured using Computed Radiography (CR) software. The bone densitometry was carried out using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Cortical thicknesses at the lower border of the mandibles were also measured by panoramic radiographs. Statistics analyses were then undertaken using Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In most cases, no significant difference in mandibular angle cortical thickness was found between those patients with a normal BMD and those patients with a lowered BMD (P=0.621). There was a relationship between the cortical thicknesses of the mandibular lower border, and vertebral and femoral BMD (P<0.0001), and there was a significant difference between the thickness of the mandibular lower border and BMD. The results of this study also revealed a new marker of osteoporosis on the mandibular lower border under the third molar. A thickness of 2.80 mm of the mandibular lower border was detected as a threshold for the measurement of bone densitometry in the chosen Iranian population. Panoramic radiography is effective for screening patients who are at risk of having decreased bone mineral density. Patients with a threshold of 2.80 mm thickness of the mandibular lower border should be considered as individuals likely to have osteoporosis associated low bone density.

  16. The look AHEAD trial: bone loss at four-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This randomized controlled...

  17. Evaluation of bone loss in antibacterial coated dental implants: An experimental study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina; Sevilla, Pablo; Nart, José; Manzanares, Norberto; Manero, José M.; Gil, Francisco Javier; Boyd, Steven K.; Rodríguez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of antibacterial modified dental implants in the first stages of peri-implantitis. Thirty dental implants were inserted in the mandibular premolar sites of 5 beagle dogs. Sites were randomly assigned to Ti (untreated implants, 10 units), Ti-Ag (silver electrodeposition treatment, 10 units), and Ti-TSP (silanization treatment, 10 units). Coated implants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two months after implant insertion, experimental peri-implantitis was initiated by ligature placement. Ligatures were removed 2 months later, and plaque formation was allowed for 2 additional months. Clinical and radiographic analyses were performed during the study. Implant-tissue samples were prepared for micro computed tomography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometric and histological analyses and ion release measurements. X-ray, SEM and histology images showed that vertical bone resorption in treated implants was lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). This effect is likely due to the capacity of the treatments to reduce bacteria colonization on the implant surface. Histological analysis suggested an increase of peri-implant bone formation on silanized implants. However, the short post-ligature period was not enough to detect differences in clinical parameters among implant groups. Within the limits of this study, antibacterial surface treatments have a positive effect against bone resorption induced by peri-implantitis. - Highlights: • Dental implants were modified with two antibacterial treatments, silver and TESPSA silanization. • Performance of the modified dental implants was studied in vivo. • Treated implants showed less peri-implant bone resorption. • Decrease in bone resorption was attributed to the antibacterial surface treatments. • Silane treatment enhanced bone regeneration around dental implants.

  18. The effect of maximum bite force, implant number, and attachment type on marginal bone loss around implants supporting mandibular overdentures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckili, Onur; Mumcu, Emre; Bilhan, Hakan

    2012-05-01

    There remains controversy regarding the clinical reasons for late-implant bone loss, which is a critical factor in the long-term success of implant-supported overdentures. Assessment of the effect of such factors as attachment type, number of implants, gender, age, and maximum bite force (MBF) on marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants supporting mandibular overdentures. Sixty-two edentulous patients rehabilitated with two-, three-, or four-implant-supported mandibular overdentures at a university clinic between January 2006 and January 2007 and having a digital panoramic radiograph at the time of loading, were included in this study. All patients received digital panoramic radiographs, and MBL was measured by subtracting bone levels from the first radiograph. MBF was measured using a bite force transducer. The amount of bone loss 48 months after loading was found to be unrelated to gender, age, implant number, attachment type, and splinting (p = .741, p = .953, p = .640, p = .763, p = .370, respectively). A significant correlation was observed between the MBF and the MBL of distal implants on the right side (p implants on the left side (p = .011, 34.6%). MBL around implants supporting mandibular overdentures seems not to be affected by number of implants, attachment type, age, or gender; however, MBL is affected by MBF. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Hip revision arthroplasty in massive bone loss of acetabulum with the use of reinforcement ring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Tomasz; Kmieć, Krzysztof; Pogonowicz, Ewa; Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Kozłowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of results after acetabular revision arthtoplasty with the use of reinforcement ring ReconShell (BBrown - Aesculap) and homogenous bone grafts. There were 49 patients in the study (42 women and 7 men) in the age from 30 to 88 years. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 48 months. Before operation the mean Harris hip score was 31.14 and at last follow-up 71.64 points. Aseptic loosening of reconstruction ring was found in 3 patients. During next revision good integration of bone grafts, that were implanted into acetabulum at previous operation was found. In one hip revision of loose polietylen cup was performed. Three patient had early dislocation of hip endoprothesis, that were treated successfully in abduction casts. Next 2 patients had re-revision performed for recurrent dislocations. One patient had implants removal for septic loosening. Prolonged wound healing was noticed in 5 patients. Two patients had temporary and one permanent common peroneal nerve palsy. Two patients had temporary femoral nerve palsy. The use of reconstruction rings in massive bone loss of the acetabulum after cup loosening gives satisfactory clinical results. After the procedure patients have stabile joint that allows for weight bearing. Despite relatively high number of complications (most of which are temporary) this procedure is worth recommending.

  20. [Bone loss treatment, pseudoarthrosis, arthrodesis and benign tumors using xenoimplant: clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Del Castillo, José Fernando; Valdés-Gutiérrez, Gustavo Adolfo; Elizondo-Vázquez, Francisco; Pérez-Ortiz, Omar; Piña Barba, María Cristina; León-Mancilla, Benjamín Herminio

    2009-01-01

    Bone loss as a result of arthrodesis, pseudarthrosis, benign tumors and bone defects was treated using a xenoimplant (Nukbone). The effectiveness of the material was evaluated through a longitudinal and observational study at the Hospital Regional "General Ignacio Zaragoza" (HRGIZ) ISSSTE. The Mexican xenoimplant is a patent of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Fifty two patients were considered regardless of age or gender. Of these patients, 28 were male and 24 female. Average age of the patients was 47.7 years (9-84 years). Twenty eight patients had arthrodesis, 16 were treated with pseudarthrosis, three patients had benign tumors and five patients presented bone defects, which were implanted with Nukbone at the site and was the correct treatment for the problem. The xenoimplant is fully integrated during a period of 3-18 months, depending on the size of the pathology and the region where it was placed. Fracture healing was evaluated radiographically according to the classification of Montoya. No patient had clinical signs of rejection. In Mexico, bony xenoimplants (osseous) have been used, all of foreign origin due to the high degree of technological dependence in this country. In this study we describe the use, for the first time, of a Mexican xenoimplant with a patent from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The Mexican xenoimplant is biocompatible and can be adapted to treat pathologies where bony (osseous) material is needed.

  1. Does increasing the number of short implants reduce marginal bone loss in the posterior mandible? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Aliabadi, Ehsan; Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh

    2016-09-01

    Marginal bone loss is a concern in the long-term prognosis of short dental implants. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the loss when variable numbers of short implants were used in the posterior mandible. The subjects were allocated into three groups according to the number of short implants. The first group was given two, the second three, and the third four. Each patient had radiographs taken immediately after loading and repeated 36 months later. Twenty- three subjects with 65 implants were entered in the three groups. The mean (SD) marginal bone loss was 0.49 (0.04) mm in the two implant group, 0.41 (0.25) mm in the three implant group, and 0.35 (0.25) mm in the four implant group. There were significant differences in marginal bone loss among the three groups (p=0.001), in that the fewer the number of short implant-supported fixed prostheses in the posterior mandible, the greater the marginal bone loss. When we used more short implants the amount of marginal bone loss decreased. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  3. Low doses of estradiol in combination with gestodene to prevent early postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, N H; Byrjalsen, I; Hassager, C; Haarbo, J; Christiansen, C

    2000-09-01

    Our purpose was to study combinations of estradiol and gestodene for prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women. We randomly assigned 278 healthy, early postmenopausal women to receive either 2 mg 17beta-estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 2/25s), 2 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 50 microg gestodene (group 2/50s), 1 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 1/25s), 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 25 mg gestodene (group 1/25c), or placebo. After 3 years the changes in bone mineral density of the spine were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, 7. 41% +/- 0.72%; group 2/50s, 8.53% +/- 0.90%; group 1.25s, 6.67% +/- 0.88%; group 1/25c, 4.44% +/- 0.59%; and placebo group, -2.03% +/- 0. 64%. The changes in bone mineral density were mirrored in the biochemical bone markers. The average responses for the urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen corrected for creatinine excretion were as follows (mean of baseline +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -68.8% +/- 0.03%; group 2/50s, -72.8% +/- 0.02%; group 1/25s, -60.7% +/- 0.03%; group 1/25c, -52.28% +/- 0.04%; and placebo group, 6.5% +/- 0.09%. Beneficial lipid effects were found in all active groups. The decreases in low-density lipoprotein were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -13.7% +/- 3.0%; group 2/50s, -14.6% +/- 3.2%; group 1/25s, -9.28% +/- 2.2%; group 1/25c, -9.92% +/- 2.4%; and placebo group, 1.53% +/- 1.9%. These results demonstrate that estradiol therapy with 1 mg estradiol is fully protective against early postmenopausal bone loss.

  4. Severe Bone Loss induced by Orthodontic Elastic Separator: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Vishwanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A displaced orthodontic elastic separator was proposed as being the source of a gingival abscess that progressed to severe bone loss and exfoliation in a healthy adolescent patient with sound periodontal status prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment. After 1 year of undergoing orthodontic treatment, the patient presented with dull pain and mobility in the left upper permanent molar for which there was no apparent etiology. On clinical examination, the patient had gingival inflammation, associated with a deep pocket and severe mobility (grade III in relation to the same teeth. Radiographic examination of an orthopantomogram and intraoral periapical radiography (IOPAR revealed a chronic periodontal abscess with severe necrosis of the periodontal ligament and severe alveolar bone loss. A radiopaque mass on the distal surface below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ was also observed. The patient was referred to the department of periodontics for assessment and appropriate treatment. On curettage, it was found that there was orthodontic elastic separator which was displaced subgingivally.

  5. A systematic review on marginal bone loss around short dental implants (implant-supported fixed prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; García-Nogales, Agustín; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of implant length on peri-implant marginal bone loss (MBL) and its associated influencing factors. An electronic search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for relevant studies published in English from November 2006 to July 2012 was performed by one examiner (AM). Selected studies were randomized clinical trials, human experimental clinical trials or prospective studies (e.g., cohort as well as case series) with a clear aim of investigating marginal bone loss of short dental implants (implant length." Additionally, a subgroup analysis, by means of a random-effect one-way ANOVA model, comparing mean MBL values at different levels of each factor ("type of connection" and "type of prostheses") was also performed. The meta-regression of mean MBL on the moderator "implant length" was found to be insignificant (P = 0.633). Therefore, it could not be concluded that implant length had an effect on peri-implant MBL. In addition, standardized differences in mean MBL on the subgroups short (implants, as determined by the meta-analysis (random-effect model), were found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.222). Within limitations of the present systematic review, it could be concluded that short dental implants (implant MBL as standard implants (≥ 10 mm) for implant-supported fixed prostheses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) this effect seems to be independent of attachment system and 3) mandibular osteoporosis prior to implant treatment may be a risk factor for bone loss around implants. However, this treatment can be recommended also in osteoporotic persons.......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar...

  7. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on  Methotrexate Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice M C; Shandala, Tetyana; Soo, Pei Pei; Su, Yu-Wen; King, Tristan J; Chen, Ke-Ming; Howe, Peter R; Xian, Cory J

    2017-03-09

    Intensive cancer chemotherapy is known to cause bone defects, which currently lack treatments. This study investigated the effects of polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in preventing bone defects in rats caused by methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used antimetabolite in childhood oncology. Young rats received five daily MTX injections at 0.75 mg/kg/day. RES was orally gavaged daily for seven days prior to, and during, five-day MTX administration. MTX reduced growth plate thickness, primary spongiosa height, trabecular bone volume, increased marrow adipocyte density, and increased mRNA expression of the osteogenic, adipogenic, and osteoclastogenic factors in the tibial bone. RES at 10 mg/kg was found not to affect bone health in normal rats, but to aggravate the bone damage in MTX-treated rats. However, RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg preserved the growth plate, primary spongiosa, bone volume, and lowered the adipocyte density. It maintained expression of genes involved in osteogenesis and decreased expression of adipogenic and osteoclastogenic factors. RES suppressed osteoclast formation ex vivo of bone marrow cells from the treated rats. These data suggest that MTX can enhance osteoclast and adipocyte formation and cause bone loss, and that RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg may potentially prevent these bone defects.

  9. Sex Differences in the Effects of Weight Loss Diets on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition: POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; de Souza, Russell J; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes. A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST). The setting was the general community. Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females). Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention. At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P < .001). In men, only LM correlated with hip BMD (r = 0.298; P < .001). Mean weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P < .001), and -0.014 g/cm(2) (P < .001), at the spine, TH, and FN, respectively. These changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P < .001). In men, changes in LM (-0.323; P < .001) and FM (-0.213; P = .027) negatively correlated with changes in spine BMD. Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.

  10. Crestal bone loss around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Mohammad D

    2016-05-01

    To my knowledge, there is no systematic review of crestal bone loss (CBL) around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The addressed focused question was, "Does crestal and subcrestal placement of dental implants influence crestal bone levels?" Databases were searched from 1986 through October 2015 using different combinations of the following keywords: crestal, sub-crestal, bone loss, dental implant, submerged, and nonsubmerged. Reference lists of potentially relevant original and review articles were hand-searched to identify any further studies. Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, studies on platform-switched implants, and studies published in languages other than English were excluded. In total, 13 studies (6 human and 7 animal), which were performed at universities, were included. In the human studies, the number of participants ranged from 8 to 84 individuals. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 5 years. CBL at the test sites ranged from 0.17 mm to 0.9 mm and at control sites from 0.02 mm to 1.4 mm. Five human studies reported no significant difference in CBL around implants placed at the test and control sites. All animal studies were performed in dogs with a mean age ranging fro