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Sample records for bone lead content

  1. In vivo measurements of bone lead content in residents of southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamblin, C.; Gordon, C.L.; Webber, C.E.; Muir, D.C.F.; Chettle, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 111 subjects not occupationally exposed, bone lead content increased steadily with age in both men and women. Higher than expected bone lead levels were observed in two-thirds of 27 subjects working in occupations with potential for lead exposure. Five of 8 patients who displayed symptoms which might have been due to lead poisoning had increased bone lead levels. In vivo bone lead measurements reflect the cumulative extent of exposure to environmental and occupational sources of lead and allow the assessment of abnormal exposures. (Author)

  2. The study of the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of bones of Catla catla due to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, P L R M; Krishnakumar, N; Vadivelu, M; Vijayasundaram, V

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of lead-intoxicated bones of Catla catla at subchronic (15.5 ppm) exposure, and also to determine whether the effects of Pb intoxication can be reversed with the chelating agent meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the bones of freshwater fingerlings Catla catla by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to lead exposure. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the lead-exposed bones were less than those of the control group, and there was an increase in the mineral contents of the bones after DMSA treatment. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the subchronic lead exposure results in severe loss of bone minerals. The overall decrease in the FT-IR band intensity of Pb-exposed bones relative to the control indicates a decrease in the biochemical constituents like proteins and lipids. The increase in the band intensity after treatment with chelating agent DMSA indicates increased biochemical constituents, showing that the subchronic effects of lead can be reversed by DMSA. The amide I bands observed at 1654 cm(-1) in the present study suggest that the protein is dominated by alpha-helical structure.

  3. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy K.O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E.; Chettle, David R.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N = 38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m2) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using 109Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5 mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (−0.972 (−1.882, −0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (−3.05 (−6.05, −0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (−26.83 (−50.37, −3.29)) and trabecular number (−0.08 (−0.14, −0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but

  4. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  5. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  6. Release of lead from bone in pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, W.I.; Angle, C.R.; Stanek, K.L.; Kuntzelman, D.; Reese, Y.R.; Kuehnemann, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second time, as did a breast feeder, and each was followed semicontinuously for totals of 44 and 54 months, respectively. Bone resorption rather than dietary absorption controls changes in blood lead, but in pregnancy the resorption of trabecular and cortical bone are decoupled. In early pregnancy, only trabecular bone (presumably of low lead content) is resorbed, causing blood leads to fall more than expected from hemodilution alone. In late pregnancy, the sites of resorption move to cortical bone of higher lead content and blood leads rise. In bottle feeders, the cortical bone contribution ceases immediately after delivery, but any tendency for blood leads to fall may be compensated by the effect of hemoconcentration produced by the postpartum loss of plasma volume. In lactation, the whole skeleton undergoes resorption and the blood leads of nursing mothers continue to rise, reaching a maximum 6-8 months after delivery. Blood leads fall from pregnancy to pregnancy, implying that the greatest risk of lead toxicity lies with first pregnancies

  7. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  8. Lead concentrations in the bones of city and country doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, W.R.; Frost, P.G.H.; Redelinghuys, E.P.; van der Merwe, R.P.

    The lead content of bones of laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis was assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A significant difference in the mean lead content was found between two groups of wild doves. The one group was taken in the city of Cape Town, and the other group 50 km away in rural farmland near Stellenbosch. The bones of the urban doves contained on average seven times more lead per unit weight of tissue than those of their rural con-specifics. Concentrations of lead in the bones of rural and urban doves are approximately 70% and 80% below those recorded for corresponding pigeon Columba livia populations in Pennsylvania, USA. These differences between urban and rural populations are believed to reflect the relatively greater degree of lead in the atmosphere of the urban environment, presumably as a result of motor car exhaust emissions. 2 references, 1 table.

  9. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  10. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vernon G., E-mail: vthomas@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E. [Metals Toxicology Laboratory, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  11. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E.

    2009-01-01

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  12. Localized accumulation of lead within and among bones from lead-dosed goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretacci, Yan; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of where lead (Pb) accumulates and how it is distributed, within the bones of dosed goats. Adult goats were periodically dosed with Pb over a number of years for the primary purpose of producing blood pools containing endogenously bound Pb, for the New York State Blood Lead Proficiency Testing Program. Bone samples (e.g., primarily tibia, femur, humerus, and radius) were collected post-mortem from 11 animals and were analyzed for Pb content by acid digestion and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS or GFAAS). Average tibia Pb levels were found to correlate strongly with the cumulative Pb dose (r 2 =0.81). However, the concentration of Pb in different bones and even within a small area of the same bone varied tremendously. Blood-rich trabecular (spongy) bone, such as the patella and calcaneus, were much more enriched in Pb than was cortical (compact) bone. In some dosed animals, the Pb concentration in the tibia was markedly higher at the proximal and distal ends of the bone compared to the mid-shaft. The implications of these findings with regard to the noninvasive measurement of lead in bone by XRF methods are discussed.

  13. Localized accumulation of lead within and among bones from lead-dosed goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretacci, Yan [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Parsons, Patrick J., E-mail: pparsons@wadsworth.org [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The principal aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of where lead (Pb) accumulates and how it is distributed, within the bones of dosed goats. Adult goats were periodically dosed with Pb over a number of years for the primary purpose of producing blood pools containing endogenously bound Pb, for the New York State Blood Lead Proficiency Testing Program. Bone samples (e.g., primarily tibia, femur, humerus, and radius) were collected post-mortem from 11 animals and were analyzed for Pb content by acid digestion and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS or GFAAS). Average tibia Pb levels were found to correlate strongly with the cumulative Pb dose (r{sup 2}=0.81). However, the concentration of Pb in different bones and even within a small area of the same bone varied tremendously. Blood-rich trabecular (spongy) bone, such as the patella and calcaneus, were much more enriched in Pb than was cortical (compact) bone. In some dosed animals, the Pb concentration in the tibia was markedly higher at the proximal and distal ends of the bone compared to the mid-shaft. The implications of these findings with regard to the noninvasive measurement of lead in bone by XRF methods are discussed.

  14. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  15. Cortical bone mineral content in primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautalen, C.; Reyes, H.R.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Fromm, G.

    1986-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) of 35 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) was measured at the mid radius (95% cortical bone) by photon absorptiometry of a 241 Am source. The majority of the patients had an overt disease of moderate to severe degree. Average serum calcium of the group was 12.3 mg/100 ml (range 10.6 to 18.0 mg/100 ml). The percentage of normality of the BMC was (Av +- 1 SD) 75.1 +- 13.0% for the whole group. The average increment of BMC in 14 patients 9 to 26 months after parathyroidectomy was 9.9%, with a wide dispersion. However, a highly significant negative correlation (r: 0.83; P < 0.01) was found between the initial bone mass and the percentage increment per month after surgery. No furhter gain was observed 2 years after parathyroidectomy except in one patient with an extremely severe bone loss. In spite of the gain obtained after surgery the bone mass remained markedly diminished in most patients showing that the cortical bone loss caused by PHPT is mainly irreversible. (author)

  16. Bone mineral content measurement by bone mineral analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Torizuka, Kanji; Kosaka, Tadako.

    1976-01-01

    With a bone mineral analyzer (Studsvik Bone Scanner 7102), bone mineral content (BMC) was validated using various concentrations of standard CaCO 3 . Seventy-five normal subjects, nineteen patients with rheumathoid arthritis (RA) and twenty-two patients with abnormal thyroid function were investigated by this method. Some inherent problems concerning the present measurements were also discussed. Reproducibility of BMC in sixteen normal subjects during a four months interval was +-4% on the mid-shaft of the radius and +-5% on the distal head of the radius, respectively. Although correlation of the single energy method and the dual energy method with the bone scanner was high (r=0.970), the single energy method was probably underestimated due to the fat layer. BMC in normal subjects was highest in 30th and 40th decades for both males and females, and gradually decreased with aging. Males had higher BMC and BMC/bone width than did females. All of the stage 1 group of RA patients, according to roentgenographic staging, revealed normal BMC, but most of stage 2 and 3 groups had abnormally low BMC, suggesting that progression of the disease may be an important factor in BMC values. The BMC of hyperthyroid patients was low, whereas that of euthyroid patients was normal. Serial measurements of BMC in a hyperparathyroid patient and a hyperthyroid patient revealed distinct recurrence of BMC after treatment. (Evans, J.)

  17. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  18. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  19. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  20. Quantitative image of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa

    1990-01-01

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm 2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)

  1. Bone mineral content of the forearm in healthy Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barentsen, R.; Raymakers, J.A.; Landman, J.O.; Duursma, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Single energy photon absorptiometry is a reliable technique for assessing the bone mineral content (BMC) of cortical bone in the forearm. It can also be used for BMC measurement in the ultradistal part of the forearm, where there is a considerable proportion of trabecular bone. The results of a BMC

  2. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  3. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  5. Assessment of bone mineral content in the internal bone volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)

  6. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n = 12) to 1000 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90 days while control group (n = 8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant.

  7. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-02-15

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Lead, Bone Turnover, and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Peters, Tracy L; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Keller, Jean; Mariosa, Daniela; Allen, Kelli D; Ye, Weimin; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead and bone turnover may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess whether these factors were also associated with time from ALS diagnosis to death through a survival analysis of 145 ALS patients enrolled during 2007 in the National Registry of Veterans with ALS. Associations of survival time with blood lead and plasma biomarkers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, diagnostic delay, site of onset, and score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale. Hazard ratios were calculated for each doubling of biomarker concentration. Blood lead, plasma CTX, and plasma PINP were mutually adjusted for one another. Increased lead (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.84) and CTX (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.89) were both associated with shorter survival, whereas higher PINP was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83), after ALS diagnosis. No interactions were observed between lead or bone turnover and other prognostic indicators. Lead toxicity and bone metabolism may be involved in ALS pathophysiology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Coherent scattering and matrix correction in bone-lead measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of K-shell x-ray fluorescence of lead in bone has been used in many studies of the health effects of lead. This paper addresses one aspect of the technique, namely the coherent conversion factor (CCF) which converts between the matrix of the calibration standards and those of human bone. The CCF is conventionally considered a constant but is a function of scattering angle, energy and the elemental composition of the matrices. The aims of this study were to quantify the effect on the CCF of several assumptions which may not have been tested adequately and to compare the CCFs for plaster of Paris (the present matrix of calibration standards) and a synthetic apatite matrix. The CCF was calculated, using relativistic form factors, for published compositions of bone, both assumed and assessed compositions of plaster, and the synthetic apatite. The main findings of the study were, first, that impurities in plaster, lead in the plaster or bone matrices, coherent scatter from non-bone tissues and the individual subject's measurement geometry are all minor or negligible effects; and, second, that the synthetic apatite matrix is more representative of bone mineral than is plaster of Paris. (author)

  10. Lead and osteoporosis: Mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Environmental Defense Fund, WA (USA)); Schwartz, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Mahaffey, K. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentrations after menopause. The results indicate that bone lead is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.

  11. Examination of lead content in school children's teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, M; Omori, K; Tozawa, T; Abe, K

    1972-11-01

    The results of examination on the relationship between air pollution by lead in auto exhaust and lead content of teeth of schoolchildren living in highly polluted, moderately polluted, and nonpolluted areas in Kanagawa Prefecture in 1968 are reported. The specimens were milk teeth which have fallen out and teeth in caries which were pulled out. The 177 specimens were brushed well, washed with distilled water and dried to be wet-calcined. Because of no difference of lead content between boys and girls teeth, the examination was carried on combined specimens. The findings were: (1) lead content was significantly higher in teeth of children in heavily and moderately polluted areas than in those in nonpolluted areas; (2) the lead content by area and by age showed lower values in older children in highly and nonpolluted areas. In general, the lead content of teeth was higher in children living in more polluted areas suggesting the effect of environmental pollution.

  12. Toxicity of uranium and lead on osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, S.; Thiebault, C.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B.; Malaval, L.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is one of the main retention organs affected by uranium (U) and lead (Pb). Intoxications have been documented to inhibit bone formation and impair bone modeling and remodeling. However, only few studies dealt with cellular and molecular mechanisms of their toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute cytotoxicity of U and Pb and their phenotypic effects on ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. The most likely forms of the toxics in contact with cells after blood contamination were selected for cell exposure. Results show that whatever their speciation, bone cells are always more sensitive to Pb than to U. Moreover, Pb is toxic when it is left free in the exposure medium or when it is complexed with bicarbonate, cysteine or citrate, but not with albumin or phosphate. U is more cytotoxic when it is complexed with transferrin than with bicarbonate. A direct correlation between toxicity and cellular accumulation could be observed. Beside, exposure of U or Pb to bone cells induces a speciation-dependant variation of RNA expression of two markers of bone formation and mineralization: osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). OCN and BSP-expression could be activated in sub-toxic condition, respectively, by Pb-albumin (1.6-fold) and U-bicarbonate (2.3-fold). In the meantime, U-transferrin and Pb-citrate lead to an inhibition of the two markers. This study shows a complex mechanism of toxicity of two heavy metals with a significant phenotypic impact on osteoblastic cells highly dependant on metal speciation which controls cell accumulation. (authors)

  13. Interaction betwen Lead and Bone Protein to Affect Bone Calcium Level Using UV-Vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Z.; Azharuddin, A.; Aflanie, I.; Kania, N.; Suhartono, E.

    2018-05-01

    This present study aim to evaluate the interactions between lead (Pb) and with bone protein by UV-Vis approach. In addition, this prsent study also aim to investigate the effect of Pb on bone calcium (Ca) level. The present study was a true experimental study design to examine the impact of Pb exposure in bone of male rats (Rattus novergicus). The study involved 5 groups, P1 was the control group, while the other (P2-P5) were the case group with exposure of Pb in different concentration within 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, the interaction between Pb and protein was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometric method, and the Ca level was determined using permanganometric method. The results shows that that there is an interaction between Pb and bone protein. The result also shows that the value of the binding constant of Protein-Pb is 32.71. It means Pb have an high affinity to bind with bone protein, which promote a further reaction to induced the release of bone Ca from the bone protein. In conclusion, this present study found an obvious relationship between Pb and bone protein which promote a further reaction to increase the releasing of bone calcium.

  14. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. Methods This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. Results This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0. ConclusionS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0.

  15. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. METHODS This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/ kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. RESULTS This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0. CONCLUSIONS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0.

  16. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R.A.; Cohen, D.D

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  17. Strontium-90 content of human bone collected in 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.

    1969-01-01

    This report follows report CEA-R-3381 and presents the strontium 90 content of human bones collected in 1967 in the Paris area. The main trend is much the same as during 1966; contamination levels are falling down in infants up to 5 year old. Beyond this age, the values are the same or experience a slight increase. (authors) [fr

  18. Lead and cadmium content of some canned fruit and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B; Roughan, J A; Watters, E D

    1973-01-01

    The levels of lead and cadmium have been determined in samples of canned tomatoes, blackcurrants, grapefruit, pineapples, apricots, oranges, peaches, rhubarb, apples, prunes, damsons, plums, spinach and baked beans. The lead content of the 76 samples was in the range 0.10 to 3.90 parts/million, the mean being 0.56 parts/million; the range and mean of the cadmium content were 0.01 to 0.18 and 0.02 parts/million, respectively.

  19. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  1. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-06-02

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments.

  2. L-line x-ray fluorescence of cortical bone lead compared with the CaNa2EDTA test in lead-toxic children: public health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T.; Wielopolski, L.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    Mild to moderate lead toxicity (blood lead, 25-55 micrograms/dl) is a preventable pediatric illness affecting several million preschool children (lead-toxic children) in the United States. In-hospital lead-chelation treatment is predicated upon a positive CaNa 2 EDTA test, which is difficult to perform and impractical in large populations. After the development of an L-line x-ray fluorescence technique (LXRF) that measures cortical bone lead content safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, this study was initiated in lead-toxic children to compare LXRF with the CaNa 2 EDTA test. Moreover, LXRF provided the opportunity to quantify bone lead content. From blood lead and LXRF alone, 90% of lead-toxic children were correctly classified as being CaNa 2 EDTA-positive or -negative. In 76% of 59 lead-toxic children, bone lead values measured by LXRF were equal to or greater than those measured in normal and industrially exposed adults. These results indicate that LXRF may be capable of replacing the CaNa 2 EDTA test. When considered with the known neurotoxic effects on children of low levels of exposure to lead, these results also suggest that either an excessively narrow margin of safety or insufficient safety is provided by present U.S. guidelines, which classify an elevated blood lead concentration as 25 micrograms/dl or greater

  3. Computed-tomographic determination of mineral content of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delov, I.; Tabakov, S.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of precise computed-tomographic densitometry of the mineral content of bones is pointed out. A method is proposed including the use of standard density and observance of definite radiation, scanning and image estimation parameters. A good correlation of the results obtained for the mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae with literature data are reported. A method is also described for determining the mineral content of tubular bones based on densiprofile check-up of the computed-tomographic density. The procedure takes 10-15 minutes and includes 1 or 2 scans. It might therefore gain wide acceptance for the diagnosis and tracing of osteoporosis and other osteopathies associated with distrorted calcium metabolism

  4. Influence of bone marrow fat on the determination of bone mineral content by QCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kiyoko

    1994-01-01

    Single-energy quantitative CT (SEQCT) is thought to be suitable for long-term observation of changes in bone mineral content in individual patients. However, in patients with osteoporosis, an increase in bone marrow fat cannot be ignored. The relationship between bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) at different tube voltages of 80 kV and 120 kV was investigated using a set of solution phantoms that we devised, and was also studied in healthy volunteers. On the basis of the results obtained using the solution phantoms, the influence of bone marrow fat accounted for a decrease of 8.9 mg/cm 3 in BMD value at 80 kV and of 10.8 mg/cm 3 at 120 kV in the presence of 10 vol% fat. These findings suggested that the influence of fat was less at a lower tube voltage. The formulas used to estimate the true bone mineral and fat contents from the BMD values at low and high tube voltages were derived by eliminating the influence of beam hardening. Using these formulas, we studied healthy volunteers, and found that the difference between the true BMD value and the BMD value calibrated for beam hardening averaged 17.8 mg/cm 3 at 80 kV and 22.6 mg/cm 3 at 120 kV. Moreover, the estimated concentration of bone marrow fat in the volunteers averaged 25.0 vol%. In conclusion, because SEQCT performed at a low tube voltage is less influenced by bone marrow fat, it should be selected for assessment of the clinical response to therapy and for studying sequential changes. However, in patients with a low bone mineral content indicated by SEQCT, it would be worthwhile trying to estimate both true mineral and fat contents in bone using the formulas obtained in this study in order to differentiate decrease in bone mineral from interference by bone marrow fat. (author)

  5. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.)

  6. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  7. Nuclear medical methods for determination of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Kempers, B.; Tschepke, H.D.; Spitz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Osteoporosis is becoming recognized as a major social and economical health problem. Bone mineral content (BMC) depends on many hormonal and metabolic factors. The pathophysiological mechanism of the loss of bone mass is still unclear. For preventive diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, quantitative technology is required that will measure BMC with high precision and reproducibility. Nuclear medical methods permit the BMC of the appendicular skeleton to be measured by single photon absorptiometry. Whole-body BMC, as well as spine and femur BMC, can be measured by dual photon absorptiometry. The results from both procedures are reasonably precise and correlate well with the ash weight of isolated bone. The radiation exposure level in both SPA and DPA is low. SPA and DPA may be used for cost-effective screening of high-risk patients to predict the likelihood of future fractures and control osteoporosis therapy. (orig.) [de

  8. L-shell x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone: accuracy and precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Andrew C.; Carroll, Spencer; Khan, Fuad A.; Moshier, Erin L.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Tang, Shida; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the accuracy and precision of a method for in vivo measurements of lead in bone using L-shell x-ray fluorescence (LXRF), the former via comparison with independent measurements of lead in bone obtained using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) following acid digestion. Using LXRF, the lead content of adult human cadaver tibiae was measured, both as intact legs and as dissected tibiae with overlying tissue removed, the latter at several proximal-distal locations. After LXRF, each tibia was divided into nine cross-sectional segments, which were further separated into tibia core and surface samples for AAS measurement. The proximal-distal variability of AAS-measured core and surface tibia lead concentrations has been described elsewhere (the lead concentration was found to decrease towards both ends of the tibia). The subjects of this paper are the proximal-distal variability of the LXRF-measured lead concentrations, the measurement uncertainty and the statistical agreement between LXRF and AAS. There was no clear proximal-distal variability in the LXRF-measured concentrations; the degree of variability in actual tibia lead concentrations is far less than the LXRF measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty was dominated by counting statistics and exceeded the estimate of lead concentration in most cases. The agreement between LXRF and AAS was reasonably good for bare bone measurements but poor for intact leg measurements. The variability of the LXRF measurements was large enough, for both bare bone and intact leg measurements, to yield grave concerns about the analytical use of the technique in vivo. (author)

  9. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E; Durio, P

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  10. The effect of chronic alcohol administration on bone mineral content and bone strength in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulík, P D; Vondrová, J; Růzicka, P; Sedlácek, R; Zíma, T

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Eight male Wistar rats at two months of age were alcoho-fed (7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. per day) to evaluate the effects of long-term administration (three months) of alcohol in drinking water. We have used a dose which is considered to be comparable to a dose of 1 liter of wine or 2.5 liters of 12(°) beer used in male adults daily. The bones were tested mechanically by a three-point bending test in a Mini Bionix (MTS) testing system. The bones from alcohol-fed rats were characterized by a reduction in bone density as well as in ash, calcium and phosphate content. In alcohol-fed rats the reduction in bone mineral density (10 %) was reflected by about 12 % reduction of mechanical strength of femur (158+/-5.5 vs. 178+/-3.2 N/mm(2)). Alcohol significantly altered femoral cortical thickness. In our experiment alcohol itself did not exert any antiandrogenic effect and it did not produce changes in the weight of seminal vesicles. Liver function test (GGT, ALP, AST) did not differ between alcohol-fed rats and control rats. Alcohol-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These results document the efficacy of alcohol at the dose of 7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. to cause bone loss and loss of bone mechanical strength in intact rats. The results of the present study may be interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of alcohol as a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  11. 76 FR 70975 - Petition Requesting Exception From Lead Content Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... information provided, to http://www.regulations.gov . Do not submit confidential business information, trade... of divisions: Scale Models and Dyersville Die Cast (``petitioner''), submitted a petition requesting an exception from the lead content limit of 100 ppm under section 101(b) of the CPSIA for its die...

  12. Content-based image retrieval applied to bone age assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Brosig, André; Welter, Petra; Grouls, Christoph; Günther, Rolf W.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-03-01

    Radiological bone age assessment is based on local image regions of interest (ROI), such as the epiphysis or the area of carpal bones. These are compared to a standardized reference and scores determining the skeletal maturity are calculated. For computer-aided diagnosis, automatic ROI extraction and analysis is done so far mainly by heuristic approaches. Due to high variations in the imaged biological material and differences in age, gender and ethnic origin, automatic analysis is difficult and frequently requires manual interactions. On the contrary, epiphyseal regions (eROIs) can be compared to previous cases with known age by content-based image retrieval (CBIR). This requires a sufficient number of cases with reliable positioning of the eROI centers. In this first approach to bone age assessment by CBIR, we conduct leaving-oneout experiments on 1,102 left hand radiographs and 15,428 metacarpal and phalangeal eROIs from the USC hand atlas. The similarity of the eROIs is assessed by cross-correlation of 16x16 scaled eROIs. The effects of the number of eROIs, two age computation methods as well as the number of considered CBIR references are analyzed. The best results yield an error rate of 1.16 years and a standard deviation of 0.85 years. As the appearance of the hand varies naturally by up to two years, these results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the CBIR approach for bone age estimation.

  13. Decrease in Content of Lead in Danish Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Per Bent; Aarkrog, Asker; Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard

    1978-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL pollution by lead, resulting in part from the use of petrol additives, is well established, and lead is known to be transferred through food chains1. However, there has apparently been no previous long term study of the lead content of food. We have been able to make such a study...... by using samples of Danish food substances, which have been collected annually at the Health Physics Department of Risø National Laboratory. The samples are always dry ashed at 500 °C for 24 h and then stored in polyethylene boxes with close fitting lids. Tests show that this causes no loss of lead...... or contamination by lead. So far we have examined three cereals (spring and winter wheat (Triticum vulgare) and barley (Hordeurn sativum), and total diet2, which is the average daily diet of an adult in Denmark. (The composition of total diet is given in ref. 2.) We report here that there has been an overall...

  14. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC 2011-0081] Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing on pages 22518-22520 in the issue...

  15. Lead sorption characteristics of various chicken bone part-derived chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Cho, Ju-Sik; Delaune, Ronald D; Ok, Yong Sik; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-01-18

    Recycling food waste for beneficial use is becoming increasingly important in resource-limited economy. In this study, waste chicken bones of different parts from restaurant industry were pyrolyzed at 600 °C and evaluated for char physicochemical properties and Pb sorption characteristics. Lead adsorption isotherms by different chicken bone chars were carried out with initial Pb concentration range of 1-1000 mg L -1 at pH 5. The Pb adsorption data were better described by the Langmuir model (R 2  = 0.9289-0.9937; ARE = 22.7-29.3%) than the Freundlich model (R 2  = 0.8684-0.9544; ARE = 35.4-72.0%). Among the chars derived from different chicken bone parts, the tibia bone char exhibited the highest maximum Pb adsorption capacity of 263 mg g -1 followed by the pelvis (222 mg g -1 ), ribs (208 mg g -1 ), clavicle (179 mg g -1 ), vertebrae (159 mg g -1 ), and humerus (135 mg g -1 ). The Pb adsorption capacities were significantly and positively correlated with the surface area, phosphate release amount, and total phosphorus content of chicken bone chars (r ≥ 0.9711). On the other hand, approximately 75-88% of the adsorbed Pb on the chicken bone chars was desorbable with 0.1 M HCl, indicating their recyclability for reuse. Results demonstrated that chicken bone char could be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb removal in wastewater.

  16. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don

    2014-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. Similar findings were found for PF and FN. Female models for all sites were similar with age, height and weight all independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  17. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (Paccrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (Paccounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenberg, D.; Kalender, W.A.; Banzer, D.; Schmilinsky, G.; Heyse, M.; Fischer, E.; Schneider, U.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for measuring bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae is increasingly used internationally. The effect of using conventional CT (single energy CT, SE-CT) and dual energy CT (DE-CT) on reproducibility has been examined. We defined a standard measurement protocol, which automatically evaluates a calibration phantom. This should ensure an in vivo reproducibility of 1 to 2%. Reference data, which has been obtained with this protocol from 113 normal subjects, using SE-CT ad DE-CT, are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  20. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels

  1. Cellular lead toxicity and metabolism in primary and clonal osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.J.; Rosen, J.F.; Pounds, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    A knowledge of bone lead metabolism is critical for understanding the toxicological importance of bone lead, as a toxicant both to bone cells and to soft tissues of the body, as lead is mobilized from large reservoirs in hard tissues. To further understand the processes that mediate metabolism of lead in bone, it is necessary to determine lead metabolism at the cellular level. Experiments were conducted to determine the intracellular steady-state 210 Pb kinetics in cultures of primary and clonal osteoblastic bone cells. Osteoblastic bone cells obtained by sequential collagenase digestion of mouse calvaria or rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were labeled with 210 Pb as 5 microM lead acetate for 20 hr, and kinetic parameters were determined by measuring the efflux of 210 Pb from the cells over a 210 -min period. The intracellular metabolism of 210 Pb was characterized by three kinetic pools of 210 Pb in both cell types. Although the values of these parameters differed between the primary osteoblastic cells and ROS cells, the profile of 210 Pb was remarkably similar in both cell types. Both types exhibited one large, slowly exchanging pool (S3), indicative of mitochondrial lead. These data show that primary osteoblastic bone cells and ROS cells exhibit similar steady-state lead kinetics, and intracellular lead distribution. These data also establish a working model of lead kinetics in osteoblastic bone cells and now permit an integrated view of lead kinetics in bone

  2. The cadmium and lead content of the grain produced by leading Chinese rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L H; Tang, S Q; Wei, X J; Shao, G N; Jiao, G A; Sheng, Z H; Luo, J; Hu, P S

    2017-02-15

    The cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content in both white and wholemeal flour milled from 110 leading rice cultivars was assessed. The white flour Cd content ranged from <0.0025 to 0.2530mg/kg (geometric mean (GM)=0.0150mg/kg), while its Pb content ranged from <0.0250 to 0.3830mg/kg (GM=0.0210mg/kg). The indica types took up higher amounts of Cd and Pb than did the japonica types. Although the heavy metal content of wholemeal flour tended to higher than that of white flour, nevertheless 84.5% (Cd) and 95.4% (Pb) of the entries were compliant with the national maximum allowable concentration of 0.2000mg/kg of each contaminant. An analysis of the Cd content in the white flour of three indica type cultivars grown in two consecutive years at two locations indicated that Cd content may be significantly affected by the conditions prevailing in the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: 1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC TB /LBM), 2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, 3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and 4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC TB /LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  4. Effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, S.H.; Claunch, B.C.; Brown, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism may develop osteopenia associated with fractures; however, there has been no general agreement on the incidence of osteopenia in hyperthyroidism or the recovery of the mineral loss after treatment of hyperthyroidism. The authors conducted a longitudinal prospective study on the effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on bone mineral content (BMC) using photon absorptiometry. They observed that both young and older hyperthyroid patients showed a significantly decreased baseline BMC compared with age- and sex-matched controls. They also observed a slight recovery of BMC in hyperthyroid patients at the two-year interval after a euthyroid state had been achieved. However, the BMC was still much lower than that of controls, and they did not find any significant restoration of BMC following ''cure'' of hyperthyroidism

  5. Application of a novel bone osteotomy plate leads to reduction in heat-induced bone tissue necrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekić, Marijo; Davila, Slavko; Hrskanović, Mato; Bekić, Marijana; Seiwerth, Sven; Erdeljić, Viktorija; Capak, Darko; Butković, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown substantial effect thermal damage can have on new bone formation following osteotomy. In this study we evaluated the extent of thermal damage which occurs in four different methods of osteotomy and the effects it can have on bone healing. We further wanted to test whether a special osteotomy plate we constructed can lead to diminished heat generation during osteotomy and enhanced bone healing. The four methods evaluated included osteotomy performed by chisel, a newly constructed osteotomy plate, Gigly and oscillating saw. Twelve adult sheep underwent osteotomy performed on both tibiae. Bone fragments were stabilized using a fixation plate. Callus size was assessed using standard radiographs. Densitometry and histological evaluation were performed at 8 weeks following osteotomy. Temperature measurements were performed both in vivo during the operation, and ex vivo on explanted tibiae. The defects healed without complications and showed typical course of secondary fracture healing with callus ingrowth into the osteotomy gap. Radiographic examination of bone healing showed a tendency towards more callus formation in bones osteotomized using Gigly and oscillating saw, but this difference lacked significance. Use of Gigly and oscillating saw elicited much higher temperatures at the bone cortex surface, which subsequently lead to slightly impaired bone healing according to histological analysis. BMD was equal among all bones. In conclusion, the time required for complete healing of the defect differed depended greatly on the instruments used. The newly constructed osteotomy plate showed best results based on histological findings of capillary and osteoblast density.

  6. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    OpenAIRE

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic bla...

  7. Calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues of rats under condition of subchronic lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Tatjana; Vujanovic, Dragana; Dozic, Ivan; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra

    2008-03-01

    Lead manifests toxic effects in almost all organs and tissues, especially in: the nervous system, hematopoietic system, kidney and liver. This metal has a special affinity for deposition in hard tissue, i.e., bones and teeth. It is generally believed that the main mechanism of its toxicity relies on its interaction with bioelements, especially with Ca and Mg. This article analyses the influence of Pb poisoning on Ca and Mg content in hard tissues, (mandible, femur, teeth and skull) of female and young rats. Experiments were carried out on 60 female rats, AO breed, and on 80 of their young rats (offspring). Female rats were divided into three groups: the first one was a control group, the second one received 100 mg/kg Pb2+ kg b.wt. per day in drinking water, the third one received 30 mg/kg Pb(2+) kg b.wt. per day in drinking water. Young rats (offspring) were divided into the same respective three groups. Lead, calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues (mandible, femur, teeth-incisors and skull) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry in mineralized samples. There was a statistically significant Pb deposition in all analyzed female and young rat hard tissues. Ca and Mg contents were significantly reduced in all female and young rat hard tissues. These results show that Pb poisoning causes a significant reduction in Ca and Mg content in animal hard tissues, which is probably the consequence of competitive antagonism between Pb and Ca and Mg.

  8. Dual-photon absorptiometry: A new method of determining bone mineral content. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Hennig, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular (L 2-4) bone mass has been determined repeatedly with DPA using 153 Gd (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 females and 112 males with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal' (age- and sex-related average) values for bone mineral content (BMC) differed significantly (p [de

  9. A negative bone scan leads to an unusual diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A bone scan looking for osteomyelitis or a more sinister pathology was performed on a 7-year-old boy with Von Willebrand''s disease. He presented with symptoms of pain in the left groin and a lump, although there had been no history of direct trauma, and an X-ray report stating that there was an irregular ill-defined area of bony destruction seen in the lower aspect of the left ischium. Blood pool images of the pelvis were acquired soon after an injection of MDP and three hours later a whole body bone scan was done. Results of the bone scan showed that the radiolucent lesion in the left ilium seen on the plain radiographs was not metabolically active on the technetium MDP study. Features compatible with a response to an intraosseous or sub-periosteal haematoma were seen when reviewing the original X-rays and, as there was a spontaneous resolution of the patient''s symptoms, this was considered to be the diagnosis. This study shows that a negative bone scan, which rules out an active bone lesion, is of value in making a diagnosis when used in conjunction with X-rays and a knowledge of the patient''s history

  10. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-04-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition.

  11. In vivo x-ray fluorescence estimation of bone lead concentrations in Queensland adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.; Baddeley, H.; Kenardy, J.A.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    A group of 200 Queensland adults without known health problems had in-vivo estimation of finger bone lead concentrations using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Forty of these subjects had elevated levels of bone lead of 25 ppm or more, consistent with exposure to the metal. Although the correlation between Queensland residence during childhood and raised bone lead levels was not significant, there were significant correlations between childhood residence in a painted wooden house and raised levels, and between occupational exposure and raised levels. Of the 40 subjects with elevated lead levels only two had neither a history of occupational exposure or childhood residence in a wooden house, whereas 11 of the 25 who had a history of both occupational and residential exposure were positive. The data are consistent with lead in housepaint, or absorbed during occupational exposure, being the two major sources of raised bone lead concentrations. (author)

  12. Bone fragility induced by X-ray irradiation in relation to cortical bone-mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaruba, M.M.; Yamamoto, I.; Morita, R.; Kimura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fractional irradiation on the biomechanical properties of bone in the rat in relation to the cortical bone-mineral content (BMC), and to compare these effects with those brought about by single-dose irradiation. Seventy-five veteran female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was the control group. The left tibiae of the remaining rats were exposed to irradiation. Group 2 received one single dose of X-rays at 10-60 Gy. Groups 3 and 4 received fractional irradiation up to different cumulative doses (10-60 Gy): group 3 received 2.5 Gy once a day; group 4 received 1.25 Gy twice a day. Twenty-four weeks after irradiation, the rats were killed and the BMC in each tibial diaphysis was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The bones were then loaded to failure in a three-point bending test. The control group showed no difference (p>0.05) between left and right tibiae, neither in BMC nor in the maximum load at fracture. Single-dose irradiation caused a 16% (p=0.0366) decrease in the maximum load at 40 Gy, and a 19% (p=0.008) decrease at 60 Gy. The once-daily fractional dose of irradiation caused a 10% (p=0.0022) decrease in the maximum load of the irradiated tibiae at 60 Gy when compared to the intact contralateral tibiae. The twice-daily fractional dose of irradiation had no observable effect on the maximum load of the irradiated tibiae. Neither fractional irradiation modality had an effect on BMC. (orig./MG)

  13. Development of bone-lead reference materials for validating in vivo XRF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.J.; Zong, Y.Y.; Matthews, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of biological reference materials (RM) have been prepared in our laboratory specifically for validating analytical methods for the determination of Pb in biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, liver, and bone). The RM's were developed using animal (goats and cows) that are routinely dosed with lead acetate to produce proficiency test samples for blood lead (and erythrocyte protoporphyrin). In cases where an animal becomes injured or infirm, the veterinarian in charge may recommend that the animal be euthanized. In such cases, samples of bone, brain, liver, and other tissues containing lead are removed at autopsy. Currently, we have collected bone samples from nine goats and one cow that were dosed with lead over periods ranging from 1 to 10 years. During the autopsy, the epiphyses (bone joints) are separated from each long bone. Skin, muscle, and other adhering tissues are dissected or scraped from each bone. Bone marrow is also removed. All bare bones are currently stored at -70 degrees C until analyses for Pb are conducted

  14. Soft plastic bread packaging: lead content and reuse by families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, C; Demak, M; Marcus, S; Goldstein, B D

    1991-06-01

    The presence of lead in labels painted on soft plastic bread packaging was evaluated. Lead was detected on the outside of 17 of 18 soft plastic bread bags that were analyzed, with an average of 26 +/- 6 mg per bag with lead. Of 106 families questioned, 16 percent of respondents reported turning the bags inside out before reusing for food storage, thus putting food in contact with the lead paint. We estimate that a weak acid, such as vinegar, could readily leach 100 micrograms of lead from a painted plastic bag within 10 minutes. Further, lead and other metals painted on food packaging of any type becomes part of the municipal waste stream subject to incineration and to land-filling. The use of lead in packaging presents an unnecessary risk to public health.

  15. CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENTS IN FISHES – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish meat is a perfect foodstuff which is up to standard of rational nourishment. It is source of healthy and good digestible material rich on proteins, minerals and vitamins. Fish muscles especially back and lateral muscles are the most important parts of fish organism consumed for escellent chemical composition. Proteins in fish meat are rich on high aminoacids content. The content of fish fat is usually low with the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Also minerals and B, A and D vitamins are very important components of this foodstuff. According to rational nourishment the fish meat should be consumed minimal 2 times weekly. Our research was focused on analysis of bottomn sediments in water reservoir Kolinany from the aspect of Cd, Hg and Pb contents, the determination of observed heavy metal contents in different parts of carp body and the evaluation of hygienic status and suitability of fish meat for the human consumption. Our results have confirmed the hygienic wholesomeness of bottom sediments in water reservoir Kolinany. The Cd, Pb and Hg contents in sediments represent no risk of their input into the fish organisms. The Cd content in fish meat was lower than maximal available amount given by legislative norms, but in selected parts of fish organism such as skin, gills and fins the Cd hygienic limit is 2.9 – 6.6 times exceeded. The Pb content in fish meat was under the hygienic limit, however in skin, gills and fins the content of this heavy metal was 1.31- 2.64 higher than maximal legislative given value. Fish skin, gills and fins belong to the non cosumed parts of fish body by people. The Hg content in fish meat was also lower than hygienc limit. The highest Hg content was observed in fish muscles (0.0544 mg.kg-1 and the lowest one in fish gonads (0.0058 mg.kg-1. The results of Cd, Pb and Hg content determination in carp body confirmed that fish muscles belong to suitable foodstuffs for the human consumption.

  16. A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relative influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content (BMC) among 1600 early postmenopausal women aged 45-59 y from four geographical locations (Nottingham, United Kingdom; Portland, OR; Honolulu; and Copenhagen). Bone sites investigated included the major fracture sites...

  17. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS...

  18. The relationship between blood lead levels and periodontal bone loss in the United States, 1988-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Bruce A; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Brody, Debra J

    2002-01-01

    An association between bone disease and bone lead has been reported. Studies have suggested that lead stored in bone may adversely affect bone mineral metabolism and blood lead (PbB) levels. However, the relationship between PbB levels and bone loss attributed to periodontal disease has never been reported. In this study we examined the relationship between clinical parameters that characterize bone loss due to periodontal disease and PbB levels in the U.S. population. We used data from the T...

  19. Studies of coherent/Compton scattering method for bone mineral content measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Imamura, Keiko.

    1980-01-01

    A measurement of bone mineral content by a coherent/Compton scattering method was described. A bone sample was irradiated by a collimated narrow beam of 59.6 keV gamma-rays emitted from a 300 mCi 241 Am source, and the scattered radiations were detected using a collimated pure germanium detector placed at 90 0 to the incident beam. The ratio of coherent to Compton peaks in a spectrum of the scattered radiations depends on the bone mineral content of the bone sample. The advantage of this method is that bone mineral content of a small region in a bone can be accurately measured. Assuming that bone consists of two components, protein and bone mineral, and that the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering is independent of material, the coherent to Compton scattering ratio is linearly related to the percentage in weight of bone mineral. A calibration curve was obtained by measuring standard samples which were mixed with Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and H 2 O. The error due to the assumption about the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering and to the difference between true bone and standard samples was estimated to be less than 3% within the range from 10 to 60% in weight of bone mineral. The fat in bone affects an estimated value by only 1.5% when it is 20% in weight. For the clinical application of this method, the location to be analyzed should be selected before the measurement with two X-ray images viewed from the source and the detector. These views would be also used to correct the difference in absorption between coherent and Compton scattered radiations whose energies are slightly different from each other. The absorbed dose to the analyzed region was approximately 150 mrad. The time required for one measurement in this study was about 10 minutes. (author)

  20. Computed tomographic analysis of tibiotarsal bone mineral density and content in turkeys as influenced by age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuta, A.; Cooper, R.G.; Pierzchala, M.; Horbanczuk, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibiotarsal bones of growing turkeys as affected by birds' age, sex, and within-the-bone location, respectively, were determined by computed tomography. The research was performed on 165 heavy-type BIG 6 turkeys reared between weeks (wk) 3-16 of age. The computed tomography measurement, conducted at 18 and 50% of the bone length, comprised a bone fragment which was 0.07 mm thick for the compact and the spongious substance collectively. It should be noted that the diaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones in turkeys (580 mg/cubic cm) had significantly greater vBMD than the proximal metaphyses (300 mg/cubic cm). BMC was higher in metaphyses for both sexes. Significant differences between the BMC of the metaphyses and the diaphyses were observed in males and females at wk 3, 6 and 9, and at wk 3 and 12, respectively. vBMD in the diaphyses gradually attenuated with age for both sexes, from 688 mg/cubic cm (wk 3) to 532 mg/cubic cm (wk 16). vBMD of the metaphyses was constant in females, but in males it achieved maximum values of 350 mg/cubic cm at wk 6 and 12 and minimum of 260 mg/cubic cm at wk 9 and 16. Correlations between body weight and vBMD of the diaphyses were observed in males (r = -0.85, P less than 0.001) and females (r = -0.52, P less than 0.01). It can be concluded that vBMD loss in diaphyses diminished bone-breaking strength leading in investigated turkeys to deformities and bone fractures

  1. Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Oikawa, M.; Wada, R.; Hasegawa, M.; Kaneko, M.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the bone fractures in racehorses occur in the fore limb, especially in the metacarpal joint during the racing and training. The longitudinal fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc III) often occurs in the osteosclerotic and/or necrotic lesions in the distal part of the bone. To elucidate the endogenous factors of its fracture, soft radiograms of 4 fractured and 4 non-fractured control cases have been investigated morphometrically by a image analyzer. In addition, to analyze the quality of these bones, 20 elements of mineral contents in the crashed bones have been measured using a fluorescent X-ray analyzer. As the results, the osteosclerotic change was observed in both groups in the plantar side of the distal part of Mc III, however, no significant differences were found in the bone morphometry. No significant differences in the 19 elements of bone mineral were found except Fe. From these findings, the mechanism of the occurrence of the longitudinal fracture in the Mc III remains to be elucidated. In future, further work needs to be done with regard to the mechanical intensity and collagen disposition of the distal part of the Mc III

  2. Lead contamination of environment in Meza Valley, Yugoslavia: some considerations on lead content in soil and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, D; Kerin, Z

    1970-01-01

    As part of a broad ecological study of lead contamination, soil samples and underground parts of some vegetables were analyzed for lead by the dithizone method. Vegetables fell into three groups: those with a relatively high Pb content (over 30 mg/kg); those with a medium Pb content (over 10 mg/kg); and those with a low Pb content (under 5 mg/kg). Variations in Pb content in the same kind of vegetables represented variations in soil Pb content and absorption. Variations between different kinds of vegetables were due to differences in plant physiology and capacity of absorption, shape and size of root, and depth of root in soil. Lead content was higher in vegetables grown in summer and fall than for the same vegetables grown in spring. Lead absorption coefficients were calculated for underground parts of vegetables according to the relation between the Pb content of the plant and total Pb content of soil and according to the relation between the Pb content of the plant and the AL-soluble Pb in soil (AL is the ammonium lactate acetic acid mixture). The latter method gave much less dispersed coefficients, indicating that AL-soluble Pb represents much more authoritative data for determining absorption coefficients than total soil Pb.

  3. Lead, arsenic, and copper content of crops grown on lead arsenate-treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, D

    1972-01-01

    Increased lead and arsenic concentrations in the surface soil (0-15 cm), resulting from applications of lead arsenate (PbHAs0/sub 1/), increased both lead and arsenic levels in crops grown on treated plots. The lead levels in some crops approached or exceeded the Canadian residue tolerance of 2.0 ppM. Lead arsenate soil treatments did not affect copper absorption by crops. On areas such as old orchard land contaminated with lead arsenate residues it may be advisable to ascertain crops, and also to determine the lead affinity and arsenic sensitivity of the plants to be grown.

  4. Evaluation of photon-absorptiometry for determination of bone mineral content in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, I.; Szathmary, M.; Horvath, Cs.; Hollo, G.; Fabu, G.

    1994-01-01

    Instruments commonly used for determination of bone mineral content in human were evaluated for their use in small laboratory animals. By measuring bone phantoms and rat femurs in vitro, authors found 0.015 and 0.034 g/cm sensitivity for (SPA) and (DEXA) methods, respectively. High reproducibility was obtained, with values of relative standard deviations being <2 and approximately 4% for SPA and DEXA, respectively. Both techniques were found suitable for determination of bone mineral content of laboratory animals, but DEXA is suggested as the preferred method for evaluations under in vivo circumstances. (N.T.)

  5. Lithium attenuates lead induced toxicity on mouse non-adherent bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Mahsan; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a poisonous heavy metal that occurs in all parts of environment and causes serious health problems in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of lithium against lead nitrate induced toxicity in non-adherent bone marrow stem cells. Trypan blue and MTT assays represented that exposure of the cells to different concentrations of lead nitrate decreased viability in a dose dependent manner, whereas, pretreatment of the cells with lithium protected the cells against lead toxicity. Lead reduced the number and differentiation status of bone marrow-derived precursors when cultured in the presence of colony stimulating factor (CSF), while the effect was attenuated by lithium. The cells treated with lead nitrate exhibited cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, anion superoxide production, but lithium prevented lead action. Moreover, apoptotic indexes such as PARP cleavage and release of HMGB1 induced by lead, were protected by lithium, suggesting anti-apoptotic effect of lithium. Immunoblot analysis of histone H3K9 acetylation indicated that lithium overcame lead effect on acetylation. In conclusion, lithium efficiently reduces lead toxicity suggesting new insight into lithium action which may contribute to increased cell survival. It also provides a potentially new therapeutic strategy for lithium and a cost-effective approach to minimize destructive effects of lead on bone marrow stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Melatonin reduces lead levels in blood, brain and bone and increases lead excretion in rats subjected to subacute lead treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo; Quiroz-Compeán, Fátima; Ramírez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Barrientos, Eunice Yáñez; Rodríguez-Morales, Nadia M; Flores, Alberto; Wrobel, Katarzina; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Méndez, Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Robles, Juvencio; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva

    2015-03-04

    Melatonin, a hormone known for its effects on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects of melatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatonin had lower lead levels in blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increases lead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we first assessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMR analysis showed no evidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effects of MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonin directly affects lead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 478 - Petition Requesting Exception From the Lead Content Limits; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... the Lead Content Limits; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: U.S. Consumer Product Safety... content limit under section 101(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA''), as... contain lead content in excess of 100 ppm manufactured after August 12, 2011, are considered to be banned...

  8. Comparative analysis of bone mineral contents with dual-energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T. J.; Yoon, S. M.; Kim, O. B.; Lee, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The Dual-Energy Quantitative Computed Tomography(DEQCT) was compared with bone equivalent K 2 HPO 4 standard solution and ash weight of animal cadaveric trabecular bone in the measurement of bone mineral contents(BMC). The attenuation coefficient of tissues highly depends on the radiation energy, density and effective atomic number of composition. The bone mineral content of DEQCT in this experiments was determined from empirical constants and mass attenuation coefficients of bone, fat and soft tissue equivalent solution in two photon spectra. In this experiments, the BMC of DEQCT with 80 and 120kV p X rays was compared to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. We obtained the mass attenuation coefficient of 0.2409, 0.5608 and 0.2206 in 80kV p , and 0.2046, 0.3273 and 0.1971 cm 2 /g in 120kV p X-ray spectra for water, bone and fat equivalent materials, respectively. The BMC with DEQCT was accomplished with empirical constants K 1 =0.3232, K 2 =0.2450 and mass attenuation coefficients has very closed to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. The BMC of empirical DEQCT and that of manufacturing DEQCT were correlated with ash weight as a correlation r=0.998 and r=0.996, respectively. The BMC of empirical DEQCT using the experimental mass attenuation coefficients and that of manufacture have showed very close to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. (author)

  9. Decreased trabecular bone biomechanical competence, apparent density, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueland, Thor; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2002-01-01

    of these growth factors in relation to biomechanical properties in acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trabecular bone biomechanical competence (compression test), apparent density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pQCT), and bone matrix contents of calcium (HCl hydrolysis) and IGFs (guanidinium......-HCl extraction) were measured in iliac crest biopsies from 13 patients with active acromegaly (two women and 11 men, aged 21-61 years) and 21 age- and sex-matched controls (four women and 17 men, aged 23-64 years). RESULTS: Trabecular bone pQCT was reduced in acromegalic patients compared with controls (P = 0...... bone content of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or osteocalcin. However, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content was decreased (P acromegaly, supporting previous observations...

  10. Bone lead levels in an environmentally exposed elderly population in shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Weisskopf, Marc; Nie, Linda H

    2018-06-01

    This study looked at measurements of lead (Pb) in a pilot population of environmentally exposed elderly residents of Shanghai, China and presented the first set of bone Pb data on an elderly Chinese population. We found that with environmental exposures in this population using K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) bone Pb measurements 40% of the individuals had bone Pb levels above the nominal detection limit with an average bone lead level of 4.9 ± 3.6 μg/g. This bone lead level is lower than comparable values from previous studies of community dwelling adults in US cities. This population had a slightly higher geometric mean blood Pb of 2.6 μg/dL than the adult US population. The main conclusion of this data is that in Shanghai there is environmental exposure to Pb, measured through blood and bone, which should be further investigated to assess the health impact of this exposure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45 Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45 Ca content and 45 Ca/dry and 45 Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  12. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  13. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshinobu; Takamori, Hitoshi; Yosue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  14. Influence of Lead on the Interpretation of Bone Samples with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamed Shahedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to tracing and identifying the elements available in bone sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS. The bone samples were prepared from the thigh of laboratory rats, which consumed 325.29 g/mol lead acetate having 4 mM concentration in specified time duration. About 76 atomic lines have been analyzed and we found that the dominant elements are Ca I, Ca II, Mg I, Mg II, Fe I, and Fe II. Temperature curve and bar graph were drawn to compare bone elements of group B which consumed lead with normal group, group A, in the same laboratory conditions. Plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density were determined by considering Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE condition in the plasma. An inverse relationship has been detected between lead absorption and elements like Calcium and Magnesium absorption comparing elemental values for both the groups.

  15. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): use of a geological tool in assessing bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrássy, László; Gomez, Izabella; Horváth, Ágnes; Gulyás, Katalin; Pethö, Zsófia; Juhász, Balázs; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Szekanecz, Zoltan

    2018-02-17

    statistical methods, we could confirm if bone samples were homogeneous or not with respect to CaO concentration distribution. LIPS, a technique previously used in geology, may be included in bone research. Assessment of element oxide concentrations in the inorganic part of bone, as well as mathematical calculations may be useful to determine the content of CaO and other element oxides in bone, further analyze bone structure and homogeneity and possibly apply this research to normal, as well as diseased bones.

  16. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

  17. Quantitative mapping of matrix content and distribution across the ligament-to-bone insertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Spalazzi

    Full Text Available The interface between bone and connective tissues such as the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL constitutes a complex transition traversing multiple tissue regions, including non-calcified and calcified fibrocartilage, which integrates and enables load transfer between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. The objective of this study was to investigate region-dependent changes in collagen, proteoglycan and mineral distribution, as well as collagen orientation, across the ligament-to-bone insertion site using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIR-I. Insertion site-related differences in matrix content were also evaluated by comparing tibial and femoral entheses. Both region- and site-related changes were observed. Collagen content was higher in the ligament and bone regions, while decreasing across the fibrocartilage interface. Moreover, interfacial collagen fibrils were aligned parallel to the ligament-bone interface near the ligament region, assuming a more random orientation through the bulk of the interface. Proteoglycan content was uniform on average across the insertion, while its distribution was relatively less variable at the tibial compared to the femoral insertion. Mineral was only detected in the calcified interface region, and its content increased exponentially across the mineralized fibrocartilage region toward bone. In addition to new insights into matrix composition and organization across the complex multi-tissue junction, findings from this study provide critical benchmarks for the regeneration of soft tissue-to-bone interfaces and integrative soft tissue repair.

  18. Quantitative Mapping of Matrix Content and Distribution across the Ligament-to-Bone Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalazzi, Jeffrey P.; Boskey, Adele L.; Pleshko, Nancy; Lu, Helen H.

    2013-01-01

    The interface between bone and connective tissues such as the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) constitutes a complex transition traversing multiple tissue regions, including non-calcified and calcified fibrocartilage, which integrates and enables load transfer between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. The objective of this study was to investigate region-dependent changes in collagen, proteoglycan and mineral distribution, as well as collagen orientation, across the ligament-to-bone insertion site using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIR-I). Insertion site-related differences in matrix content were also evaluated by comparing tibial and femoral entheses. Both region- and site-related changes were observed. Collagen content was higher in the ligament and bone regions, while decreasing across the fibrocartilage interface. Moreover, interfacial collagen fibrils were aligned parallel to the ligament-bone interface near the ligament region, assuming a more random orientation through the bulk of the interface. Proteoglycan content was uniform on average across the insertion, while its distribution was relatively less variable at the tibial compared to the femoral insertion. Mineral was only detected in the calcified interface region, and its content increased exponentially across the mineralized fibrocartilage region toward bone. In addition to new insights into matrix composition and organization across the complex multi-tissue junction, findings from this study provide critical benchmarks for the regeneration of soft tissue-to-bone interfaces and integrative soft tissue repair. PMID:24019964

  19. Chronic effects of lead (Pb) on bone properties in red deer and wild boar: Relationship with vitamins A and D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Here we study the occurrence of abnormalities on bone tissue composition and turnover mechanisms through the Pb-mediated disruption of vitamins A and D in wild ungulates living in a lead (Pb)-polluted mining area. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the mining area had significantly higher liver and bone Pb levels than controls, which were associated with the depletion of liver retinyl esters and the corresponding increase of free retinol levels both in deer and boar from the mining area. Pb-exposed adult deer had lower carbonate content in bone mineral than controls, which was associated with the increased free retinol percentage. In wild boar, the degree of bone mineralization was also positively associated with higher burdens of retinyl esters. These results suggest that Pb-associated changes in bone composition and mineralization is likely influenced by the depletion of vitamin A in wildlife exposed to environmental Pb pollution. Highlights: ► We studied the effects of Pb pollution on bone and vitamins in wild ungulates from a mining area. ► Pb decreased the carbonate content in bone mineral in adult red deer. ► Pb increased the ratio of free retinol:retinyl esters in red deer and wild boar. ► Changes in vitamin A status were associated with changes in the carbonate content in bone mineral. ► Adverse effect of Pb on vitamin A status may be involved with toxic effects of Pb in bone tissue. -- The effect of Pb on vitamin A status could be involved in disturbances on bone biomeralization in red deer and wild boar living in Pb-polluted mining areas

  20. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  1. Bone mineral content in hyperthyroid patients after combined medical and surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.E.; Mosekilde, L.; Charles, P.

    1979-01-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral concentration (BMC') of the forearm were determined by photon absorptiometry in 20 untreated hyperthyroid patients and in 33 patients previously treated for hyperthyroidism. In untreated hyperthyroidism a significant decrease was found in both BMC and BMC'. In treated hyperthyroidism BMC and BMC' were normalized. The findings suggest that a previous hyperthyroid state is not a risk factor for development of spontaneous fractures providing the hyperthyroid state is effectively treated. (Auth.)

  2. Uranium content and U-Th dating of fossil bones and dental tissues from Lazaret cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, V.; Falgueres, Ch.; Yokoyama, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Fossil bone and dental tissues from Lazaret cave and modern ones are here the subject of a comparative microscopical study. Porous tissues such as dentine and bone have retained their Haversian and Tomes canals respectively. However, cracked areas with calcite were detected, indicating a water percolation within porous tissues and an alteration of tissue in places. In addition, compact fossil enamel is particularly well preserved. These results are essential for U-Tb and ESR dating application. Uranium contents, U-Tb ages of two fossil mandibular tissues, two tibias and of six burnt fossil bones are presented and discussed. (authors)

  3. A retrospective analysis of longitudinal changes in bone mineral content in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Shepherd, Sheila; Kyriakou, Andreas; McNeilly, Jane D; Dryden, Carol; Corrigan, Donna; Devenny, Anne; Ahmed, Syed Faisal

    2017-08-28

    We aimed to describe the longitudinal changes in bone mineral content and influencing factors, in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). One hundred children (50 females) had dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed. Of these, 48 and 24 children had two to three scans, respectively over 10 years of follow-up. DXA data were expressed as lumbar spine bone mineral content standard deviation score (LSBMCSDS) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and bone area. Markers of disease, anthropometry and bone biochemistry were collected retrospectively. Baseline LSBMCSDS was >0.5 SDS in 13% children, between -0.5; 0.5 SDS, in 50% and ≤-0.5 in the remainder. Seventy-eight percent of the children who had baseline LSBMCSDS >-0.5, and 35% of the children with poor baseline (LSBMCSDS0.5), showed decreasing values in subsequent assessments. However, mean LS BMC SDS did not show a significant decline in subsequent assessments (-0.51; -0.64; -0.56; p=0.178). Lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent (FEV1%) low body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) and vitamin D were associated with reduction in BMC. Bone mineral content as assessed by DXA is sub-optimal and decreases with time in most children with CF and this study has highlighted parameters that can be addressed to improve bone health.

  4. Lead Content of Well Water in Enugu South-East Nigeria | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the lead content of well water in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Method: Wells (101) were located using the multistage sampling procedure and samples were collected into clean plastic containers. Analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Result: The means lead content of well water ...

  5. Impact of lead tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth, physiology, antioxidant activities, yield and lead content in sunflower in lead contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (LTPGPR) on growth, physiology, yield, antioxidant activities and lead uptake in sunflower in soil contaminated with lead under pot conditions. Three pre-characterized LTPGP strains (S2 (Pseudomonas gessardii strain BLP141), S5 (Pseudomonas fluorescens A506) and S10 (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 2189)) were used to inoculate sunflower growing in soil contaminated with different levels (300, 600 and 900 mg kg -1 ) of lead by using lead nitrate salt as source of lead. Treatments were arranged according to completely randomized design with factorial arrangements. At harvesting, data regarding growth attributes (root shoot length, root shoot fresh and dry weights), yield per plant, physiological attributes (Chlorophyll 'a', 'b' and carotenoids content), antioxidant activities (Ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase), proline and malanodialdehyde content, and lead content in root, shoot and achenes of sunflower were recorded. Data were analysed by standard statistical procedures. Results showed that lead contamination reduced the plants growth, physiology and yield at all levels of lead stress. But application of LTPGPR in soil contaminated with lead improved plant growth, physiology, yield, and antioxidant activities, proline, and reduced the malanodialdehyde content (that is reduced by the application of different strains in lead contamination) of sunflower as compared to plants grown in soil without inoculation. Inoculation also promoted the uptake of lead in root, shoots and reduced the uptake of lead in achenes of plants as compared to plants in lead contamination without inoculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo

    1996-01-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  7. Bone mineral content in the senescent rat femur: an assessment using single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebzak, G.M.; Smith, R.; Howe, J.C.; Sacktor, B.

    1988-01-01

    The single photon absorptiometry technique was evaluated for measuring bone mineral content (BMC) of the excised femurs of the rat, and the system was used to examine the changes in cortical and trabecular bone from young adult (6 mo), mature adult (12 mo), and senescent (24 mo) male and female animals. BMC of the femur midshaft, representing cortical bone, apparently increased progressively with advancing age. The width of the femur at the scan site also increased with age. Normalizing the midshaft BMC by width partially compensated for the age-associated increase. However, when bone mineral values were normalized by the cortical area at the scan site, to take into account the geometric differences in the femurs of different aged animals, maximum bone densities were found in the mature adult and these values decreased slightly in the femurs from senescent rats. In contrast, the BMC of the femur distal metaphysis, representing trabecular bone, decreased markedly in the aged rat. The loss of trabecular bone was also evident from morphological examination of the distal metaphysis. These findings indicated that bone mineral loss with age was site specific in the rat femur. These studies provided additional evidence that the rat might serve as a useful animal model for specific experiments related to the pathogenesis of age-associated osteopenia

  8. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author).

  9. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  10. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  11. Quantitative determination of bone mineral content (QCT) - intercomparison of computer tomographs of the same construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, R.; Banzer, D.; Felsenberg, D.; Wolf, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An intercomparison of 4 CT scanners of the same manufacturer was performed. The bone mineral content of 11 lumbar vertebral columns removed directly post mortem was determined in a specially constructed lucite-water phantom. Even devices of the same construction were shown to yield a variation in the quantitative evaluation markedly exceeding the annual physiological mineral loss. As long as scanner adjustment by physical calibration phantoms has not yet been established, a course assessment and therapy control of bone mineral content should always be carried out on the same QCT scanner. (orig.) [de

  12. Reduced Bone and Body Mass in Young Male Rats Exposed to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see whether there would be differences in whole blood versus tibia lead concentrations over time in growing rats prenatally. Lead was given in the drinking water at 30 mg/L from the time the dams were pregnant until offspring was 28- or 60-day-old. Concentrations of lead were measured in whole blood and in tibia after 28 (28D and 60 days (60D in control (C and in lead-exposed animals (Pb. Lead measurements were made by GF-AAS. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the concentration of whole blood lead between Pb-28D (8.0±1.1 μg/dL and Pb-60D (7.2±0.89 μg/dL, while both significantly varied (P<0.01 from controls (0.2 μg/dL. Bone lead concentrations significantly varied between the Pb-28D (8.02±1.12 μg/g and the Pb-60D (43.3±13.26 μg/g lead-exposed groups (P<0.01, while those exposed groups were also significantly higher (P<0.0001 than the 28D and 60D control groups (Pb < 1 μg/g. The Pb-60D group showed a 25% decrease in tibia mass as compared to the respective control. The five times higher amount of lead found in the bone of older animals (Pb-60D versus Pb-28D, which reinforces the importance of using bone lead as an exposure biomarker.

  13. Blood lead levels and bone turnover with weight reduction in women

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDT, CLAUDIA S.; BUCKLEY, BRIAN T.; BROLIN, ROBERT E.; AMBIA-SOBHAN, HASINA; RHOADS, GEORGE G.; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2008-01-01

    High bone turnover states are known to raise blood lead levels (BPb). Caloric restriction will increase bone turnover, yet it remains unknown if weight reduction increases BPb due to mobilization of skeletal stores. We measured whole blood Pb levels (206Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 73 women (age 24–75 years; BMI 23– 61 kg/m2) before and after 6 months of severe weight loss (S-WL), moderate weight loss (M-WL), or weight maintenance (WM). Baseline BPb levels were relat...

  14. Addition of blood to a phycogenic bone substitute leads to increased in vivo vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbeck, Mike; Sader, Robert; Ghanaati, Shahram; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja; Živković, Jelena M; Mitić, Žarko; Choukroun, Joseph; Kovačević, Predrag; James Kirkpatrick, C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effects of the addition of blood to the phycogenic bone substitute Algipore ® on the severity of in vivo tissue reaction. Initially, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the bone substitute was conducted to analyze its chemical composition. The subcutaneous implantation model in Balb/c mice was then applied for up to 30 d to analyze the tissue reactions on the basis of specialized histochemical, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometrical methods. The data of the FTIR analysis showed that the phycogenic bone substitute material is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite with some carbonate content. The in vivo analyses revealed that the addition of blood to Algipore ® had a major impact on both angiogenesis and vessel maturation. The higher vascularization seemed to be based on significantly higher numbers of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells. However, mostly macrophages and a relatively low number of multinucleated giant cells were involved in the tissue reaction to Algipore ® . The presented data show that the addition of blood to a bone substitute impacts the tissue reaction to it. In particular, the immune response and the vascularization were influenced, and these are believed to have a major impact on the regenerative potential of the process of bone tissue regeneration. (paper)

  15. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p  .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Quantitative measurement of bone mineral contents in patients with senile osteoporosis and chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography using X-ray (XCT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using sup(99m)Tc-MDP of the skull were performed in patients with ''senile osteoporosis'' and with chronic renal failure, in order to quantitatively determine bone mineral contents. XCT: In females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (6th decade), the EMI number of frontal bone was significantly low compared with that of control group, of the same age. The EMI number in ''senile osteoporosis'' correlated with the value of serum 25 (OH) D and 1 α - 25 (OH) 2 D. The EMI number in hemodialyzed patients was significantly low compared with that in the control group. On the other hand, the EMI number in non-hemodialyzed chronic renal failure patients showed no significant difference compared with findings in the control group. The EMI number of the frontal bone in patients with partial parathyroidectomy showed a slight rise compared with findings before surgery. Bone scintigram, Bone scan SPECT: Positive scan was seen in patients with long term hemodialysis and increased values of serum Alk-Pase and PTH were often apparent. Scintigraphic improvement in patients with renal osteodystrophy treated with vitamin D 3 showed a good correlation with improvement in serum Alk-Pase values. On SPECT, frontal bone activity in patients with renal osteodystrophy was significantly high compared with that in the control group. In case of renal osteodystrophy treated with partial parathyroidectomy, the frontal bone activity was markedly decreased compared with findings before surgery. (J.P.N.)

  17. [The characteristics of chemical composition of content of unicameral bone cysts depending on their growth stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Mitrofanov, A I; Tkachuk, E A

    2012-11-01

    The article deals with the results of study of chemical composition of solitary cysts and blood serum of 27 patients. The results demonstrated that qualitative composition of f content of unicameral bone cysts is identical to chemical composition of blood serum. The results of analysis of total proteolysis activity and acid phosphatase activity in content of cysts can be used as criteria to determine the stage of cyst growth and to evaluate the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  18. [Effects of nandrolone decanoate on bone mineral content and intestinal absorption of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Righi, G A; Turchetti, V; Vattimo, A

    1984-01-28

    To evaluate the effects of a long-term treatment with nandrolone decanoate on metabolism of the skeleton, a double-blind randomized study was carried out in women with joint diseases without metabolic bone derangement. Ten patients were treated with 50 mg of nandrolone decanoate every three weeks for two years; in six subjects a treatment with placebo was performed. As it concerns plasma calcium and phosphate, serum alkaline phosphatase, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, hydroxyproline and cAMP, as parathyroid index, it was not observed significant differences in the two examined groups. While in placebo group at the end of the study the intestinal radiocalcium remained unchanged and bone mineral content showed a slight decrease, on the contrary nandrolone decanoate treatment promoted a significant improvement in intestinal calcium absorption and an increase in bone mineral content.

  19. 78 FR 22518 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...'' refers to composite wood products that are wood-based materials, such as particle board, medium density fiber board, and plywood, consisting largely of natural, untreated wood and glues, adhesives, waxes... ppm; Synthetic food dyes and the presence, if any, or at what levels, of lead. Accessible synthetic...

  20. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  1. A measurement instrument for bone mineral content of adult and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaofang

    1996-01-01

    The γ radiation source was used in bone mineral content measurement analysis of adult and children and a new instrument is developed successfully. It's precision is +2%. The advantage of this instrument is light, cheap and reliable. It can be used widely in medical science and clinic for diagnosis on certain diseases and research work

  2. Effect of changes of serum IGF-II and CT contents on bone metabolism in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Rongxing; Chen Wenhan; Chen Shaozhu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of changes of serum insulin like growth factor II (IGF-II) and calcitonin (CT) on bone metabolism in both male and female healthy subjects of different age groups. Methods: Serum IGF-II and CT contents were determined with RIA in 180 healthy subjects of both sexes in 5 age groups (27-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and over 70). Results: The serum contents of IGF-II and CT decreased gradually as the age increased. The IGF-II contents in subjects above 70 were significantly lower than those in all other subjects (P<0.01); the values in subjects of the age group 27-39 were also significantly higher than those in the 60-69 group (P<0.05). Again, the serum CT contents in subjects over 50 were significantly lower than those in subjects below 50 (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were little differences among the levels in both sexes, with the exception of a slight but not significant lower value in the females above 50. Conclusion: In older subjects, the decreased contents of serum IGF-II would exert less modulation on osteoblastic activity while the decreased contents of CT would exert less inhibition on osteolytic activity. The contents in older females were even lower due to the decreased estrogen level. Combination of these two factors would lead to the initiation and development of osteoporosis. (authors)

  3. Content Validity of Temporal Bone Models Printed Via Inexpensive Methods and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, T Michael; Mowry, Sarah E

    2016-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the 3-D printed temporal bone models will be within 15% accuracy of the CT scans of the cadaveric temporal bones. Previous studies have evaluated the face validity of 3-D-printed temporal bone models designed to train otolaryngology residents. The purpose of the study was to determine the content validity of temporal bone models printed using inexpensive printers and materials. Four cadaveric temporal bones were randomly selected and clinical temporal bone CT scans were obtained. Models were generated using previously described methods in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic using the Makerbot Replicator 2× and Hyrel printers. Models were radiographically scanned using the same protocol as the cadaveric bones. Four images from each cadaveric CT series and four corresponding images from the model CT series were selected, and voxel values were normalized to black or white. Scan slices were compared using PixelDiff software. Gross anatomic structures were evaluated in the model scans by four board certified otolaryngologists on a 4-point scale. Mean pixel difference between the cadaver and model scans was 14.25 ± 2.30% at the four selected CT slices. Mean cortical bone width difference and mean external auditory canal width difference were 0.58 ± 0.66 mm and 0.55 ± 0.46 mm, respectively. Expert raters felt the mastoid air cells were well represented (2.5 ± 0.5), while middle ear and otic capsule structures were not accurately rendered (all averaged bones for training residents in cortical mastoidectomies, but less effective for middle ear procedures.

  4. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Romanek, Christopher S.; Ferrandis, Pablo; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure

  5. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  6. Vitamin D Content and the State of Bone Metabolism in Patients with Syndrome of Hyperthyroidism (Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Pankiv

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents data of researches on the content of vitamin D and the state of bone metabolism in patients with syndrome of hyperthyroidism. Overt hyperthyroidism is associated with accelerated bone remodeling, reduced bone density, osteoporosis, and an increase in fracture rate. Summarizing the results of the studies conducted by different authors, there should be noted the value of normal balance of thyroid hormones for a skeletogeny and providing bone mineral density.

  7. Lead levels in tissues and stomach contents of poisoned cattle: a fifteen-year survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, R C; Funnell, H S

    1969-10-01

    During the period 1954 to 1969, samples of ingesta, liver, or kidney from 175 cattle which died of lead poisoning were analyzed for lead content. The average lead levels, and the extremes, were: ingesta, 3427 ppm (zero to 146,200 ppm); liver, 43 ppm (zero to 1300 ppm); and kidney, 137 ppm (two to 2355 ppm). There were no relationships between ingesta levels of lead and levels in the tissues tested. Taken with published results of natural and experimental lead poisoning in other cattle, the data indicate that the mere presence of lead in kidney (or liver) and ingesta should lead to a presumptive diagnosis of lead poisoning in cattle which die with signs, lesions, and histories characteristic of lead poisoning. Diagnosis may be confirmed by proof of access to, or ingestion of, a source of lead.

  8. Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayslip, C.C.; Klein, T.A.; Wray, H.L.; Duncan, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius

  9. Measurement of bone mineral contents in Pakistan by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, R.

    1990-01-01

    Vertebral bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual photon absorptiometry in 144 normal males and 219 females (ages 11-85 years), 118 patients of hyperthyroidism, 7 of chronic renal failure and 5 each of postmenopausal osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism. Generally males had higher BMC than females. Pattern of age related bone gain and diminution was same in both sexes but the rate of bone loss differed significantly, females having higher rate of bone loss. When compared to Western population lower BMC values in our normals were seen. However, rate of bone loss in our population was lower than that reported in the west. BMC values in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure were not significantly different that of age matched normals. The small numbers of cases of post menopausal osteoporosis and hyperpara- thyroidism, tough precluding any generalization, did show lower BMC values. Lower BMC values in our normal population could possibly be explained on racial ground. But in spite of less than ideal dietary status in our normal population in general, the lower rate of bone loss and a lower incidence of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid and chronic renal failure cases can raise the possibility of active vitamin D metabolism component, triggered by utraviolet radiation, having an overall beneficiary effect on the calcium cycle. This calls for a more comprehensive workup. (author)

  10. [The morphofunctional state of the bone marrow in lead and zinc intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimtseva, T M; Pashkevich, I A; Salmina, A B

    2006-01-01

    The nucleolus is a compulsory nuclear structure of all cells of eukaryotes. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nuclei show the functional activity of a cell, the rate of its synthesis of RNA and portents, and its metabolic state. Heavy metals (zinc chloride and lead acetate) were comparatively investigated for their effects on the nucleolar apparatus of bone marrow cells in in vivo experiments. Zinc chloride and lead acetate were ascertained to damage the nucleolar apparatus of cells, thus decreasing their transcriptional activity or irreversibly damaging them.

  11. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  12. Bone mineral content (bmc and bone mineral density (bmd in postmenopausal women formerly practising kayaking and fencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raczyńska

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was aimed at answering the following questions: 1 Can a prolonged career in sports associated with considerable training loads, in conjunction with other osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present, affect the bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of the former female athletes in their postmenopausal period of life?, and 2 How does the present lifestyle of the tested women, including physical activity and diet (calcium intake, influence the preservation of the optimal bone mass in these subjects? The postmenopausal subjects recruited to the present study included 15 former athletes (ten kayakers and five fencers and 11 women who never actively engaged in sports (control group. BMC (g and BMD (g/cm2 were densitometrically determined in the lumbar segment (L2-L4 of the spine, and the bone stiffness coefficient was ultrasonically determined in calcaneus. The effects of the osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present were estimated from individual replies to the questionnaire inquiries about the past career in sports, present physical activity, gonadal dysfunctions (dysmenorrhoea during the career and the present need for hormonal supplementary treatment, and the current dietary patterns. The results indicate that mean BMC and BMD values detected in the former athletes did not differ significant from those obtained in the non-athlete, control women: the BMC values equalled to 54.5±10.5, 52.6±14.6, and 46.5±3.2 g in the kayakers, the fencers, and the control women, respectively, while the respective BMD values were 1.05±0.45, 0.96±0.66, and 1.08±0.58 g/cm2. The questionnaire-based studies showed that neither the former female athletes nor the non-athlete controls exhibited in the past longer (i.e., lasting more than three months periods of hormonal disorders (amenorrhoea. As assessed from the dietary intake, only in the former fencers the diet covered the demand for calcium in 100%. In conclusion

  13. Lead content of neuromuscular tissue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: case report and other considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkau, A; Sawatzky, A; Hillier, C R; Hoogstraten, J

    1974-10-01

    In a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in which occupational history and laboratory evidence indicated that exposure to lead had occurred, it was found at necropsy that in nerve, spinal cord, and cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues the lead content was abnormally high. Significantly elevated levels of lead were also found however, in nerve, spinal cord and muscle tissue in other cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that had not been exposed to lead during life. A reassessment of the role of lead in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is indicated. (CIS Abstract Vol. 2)

  14. Lead Levels in the Bones of Small Rodents from Alpine and Subalpine Habitats in the Tian-Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Ballová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High mountain areas are an appropriate indicator of anthropogenic lead (Pb, which can reach remote mountain ranges through long distance atmospheric transport. We compared the content of Pb in ecologically equivalent rodent species from Tian-Shan with European mountain ranges including the Tatra, Vitosha and Rila mountains. We used bone tissues from terminal tail vertebrae of small rodents for detection of Pb levels through electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The tailbones of Tian-Shan rodents had significantly lower Pb levels than snow voles from the Tatra Mountains, but there was no significant difference in comparison with the Vitosha and Rila mountains. We can conclude that Tian-Shan shows lower pollution by Pb than the Tatras, which may be a result of prolonged industrialization of north-western Europe and strongly prevailing west winds in this region.

  15. New phosphorus biofertilizers from renewable raw materials in the aspect of cadmium and lead contents in soil and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recycling phosphorus from waste for fertilization purposes appears to be an alternative for non-renewable sources and a solution for managing harmful products of civilisation. Fertilizers from secondary raw materials are considered to be safe to the environment. This study presents an assessment of the effects of five new biofertilizers made from sewage sludge ash and/or animal bones on the content of cadmium and lead in the soil, in wheat grains and straw (test plant, in the mass of the the accompanying weeds and in the post-harvest residues. Biofertilizers were produced in the form of suspension or granules and activated using Bacillus megaterium or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. They were tested in four field experiments. The Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plant material were determined using the ICP-MS technique. Similar to superphosphate, new biofertilizers showed no change in the Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plants biomass when applied at amounts up to 80 kg; P2O5 ha−1. Both Cd and Pb in the soil and plants occurred naturally, and the amounts were within the acceptable standards. Biofertilizers from renewable raw materials, with low toxic element contents, are not thought to pose a hazard to the soil and plants when applied in reasonable amounts. They can be a substitute for conventional phosphorus fertilizers.

  16. Increased Leg Bone Mineral Density and Content During the Initial Years of College Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, John J; Buehring, Bjoern; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2018-04-01

    Scerpella, JJ, Buehring, B, Hetzel, SJ, and Heiderscheit, BC. Increased leg bone mineral density and content during the initial years of college sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1123-1130, 2018-Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) data are useful parameters for evaluating how training practices promote bone health. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to longitudinally assess sport-specific growth in leg and total body BMD/BMC over the initial 2 years of collegiate training. Eighty-five Division 1 collegiate basketball, hockey, and soccer athletes (50 males and 35 females; age 19.0 [0.8] years) underwent annual DXA scans. Leg and total body BMD/BMC were compared within and across two 1-year intervals (periods 1 and 2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance, adjusting for age, sex, race, and sport. Leg BMD, leg BMC, and total body BMC all increased over period 1 (0.05 g·cm [p = 0.001], 0.07 kg [p = 0.002], and 0.19 kg [p BMC (p BMC (p = 0.005). Leg lean mass increased more during period 2 than period 1 (p = 0.018). Sports participation was the only significant predictor of change in leg BMD. Significant increases in both leg BMD and BMC were demonstrated over both 2-year periods, with greater gains during period 1. These gains highlight the importance of attentive training procedures, capitalizing on attendant physical benefits of increased BMD/BMC. Additional research in young adults, evaluating bone mass acquisition, will optimize performance and decrease risk of bone stress injury among collegiate athletes.

  17. Measurement of hand bone mineral content using single-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoll, J.J.; Smith, M.A.; Law, E.; Tothill, P.; Reid, D.; Brown, N.; Nuki, G.

    1987-01-01

    A single photon absorption imaging technique has been developed to assess the bone mass of the hand, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or bronchial asthma. A modified rectilinear scanner images the hand by transmission scanning in a water bath with a 7.4 GBq 125 I source. A microcomputer is used to calculate the bone mineral distribution, and the total bone mineral content (BMC) of the hand is determined from that distribution. The precision (coefficient of variation) of the measurement is 1.9%. A control population of 20 men and 58 women has been studied to determine normal variations in hand bone mineral content with age, sex, body size, hand volume and years since menopause. The normal men are found to have an average hand BMC of 25.1 g with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22%, which is reduced to 12% by normalising for body size using span. The normal women had an average hand BMC of 18.0 g +- 15%. The CV is reduced to 13% by normalising for span and years post-menopause. (author)

  18. An objective algorithm for the determination of bone mineral content using dichromatic absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Witt, R.M.; Wellman, H.N.; Johnston, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of vertebral column bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometric methods is a problem of continued clinical interest. The more successful methods suffer from the frequent need of operator interaction in order to maintain good precision results. The authors have introduced a new objective algorithm that eliminates the subjectiveness of operator interaction without sacrificing reproducibility. The authors' system consists of a modified rectilinear scanner interfaced to a CAMAC acquisition device coupled to a PDP-11V03 minicomputer. The subject is scanned in the supine position with legs elevated to minimize lordosis. The source (Gd-153) and detector are collimated defining an area of 10mm x 10mm at the level of the spine. The transverse scan width is usually 120 mm. Scanning from the iliac crests toward the head, 50 transverses at 3mm y-increments are acquired at approximately 1mm increments. The data analysis begins with the calculation of R-value for each pixel in the scan. The calculations for bone mineral content are performed and various quantities are accumulated. In a reproducibility study of 116 patient studies, the authors achieved a bone mineral/bone area ratio precision (std dev/mean) of 1.37% without operator interaction nor vertebral body selection

  19. Pure hydroxyapatite phantoms for the calibration of in vivo X-ray fluorescence systems of bone lead and strontium quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Eric; Kirkham, Brian; Heyd, Darrick V; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Plaster of Paris [poP, CaSO4·(1)/(2) H2O] is the standard phantom material used for the calibration of in vivo X-ray fluorescence (IVXRF)-based systems of bone metal quantification (i.e bone strontium and lead). Calibration of IVXRF systems of bone metal quantification employs the use of a coherent normalization procedure which requires the application of a coherent correction factor (CCF) to the data, calculated as the ratio of the relativistic form factors of the phantom material and bone mineral. Various issues have been raised as to the suitability of poP for the calibration of IVXRF systems of bone metal quantification which include its chemical purity and its chemical difference from bone mineral (a calcium phosphate). This work describes the preparation of a chemically pure hydroxyapatite phantom material, of known composition and stoichiometry, proposed for the purpose of calibrating IVXRF systems of bone strontium and lead quantification as a replacement for poP. The issue with contamination by the analyte was resolved by preparing pure Ca(OH)2 by hydroxide precipitation, which was found to bring strontium and lead levels to bone mineral component of NIST SRM 1486 (bone meal), as determined by powder X-ray diffraction spectrometry.

  20. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity

  1. Development of the in vivo measurement system of bone mineral content using monoenergetic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardocci, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    A system, developed for in vivo measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) using monoenergetic gamma-rays of 241 Am, is described. It presents a discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of the technique, with details of acquisition and data processing and also discusses the calibration procedure used. The results obtained with in vivo measurements are presented and BMC values of clinically normal subjects and chronic renal patients are compared. (author)

  2. The effect of motor vehicle emission towards lead (Pb content of rice field soil with different clay content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.Wati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle gas emission contains lead (Pb which is a hazardous and toxic substance. Agricultural land, especially rice field, which is located nearby roads passed by many motor vehicle, are susceptible to the accumulation of Pb. If Pb is permeated by plants cultivated in the rice field, it will be very hazardous for humans as they are the final consumers. Hence, it is essential to identify Pb content of rice-field soil initiated by motor vehicle gas emission. This study was aimed to identify the effects of motor vehicle density, the distance between rice-field and road, and the clay content of soil towards Pb content of soils in Blitar and Ngawi Regencies of East Java. The method used for the study was survey method managed by using three-factor nested design with three replicates. The results of this study showed that motor vehicle density and the distance of rice field to road provide significant affected the total of Pb content of soil. However, the dissemination pattern of Pb in the soil was irregular due to the factors of climate and environment. Before Pb reached soil surface, Pb was spread out in the air due to the effect of temperature, wind velocity, vehicle velocity, size of vehicle, and road density. Consequently, the location with low motor vehicle density and positioned faraway to the road had higher total rate of Pb than the location with high motor vehicle density and positioned nearby the road. Clay content affected the total rate of Pb content as much as 37%, every 1% increase of clay content increased the total rate of Pb as much as 0.08 mg/kg.

  3. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  4. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  5. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMI30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  6. Lead and arsenic in bones of birds of prey from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, R.; Taggart, M.; Meharg, A.A

    2003-11-01

    Raptors feeding on species targeted by hunters in upland habitats suffer from lead poisoning. - The bones (humerus and/or femur) of 229 birds of prey from 11 species were analyzed for Pb and As to evaluate their exposure to Pb shot. The species with the highest mean Pb levels were red kite (Milvus milvus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), and the species with the lowest levels were Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Red kite also had the highest mean As level, an element present in small amounts in Pb shot. Elevated bone Pb concentrations (>10 {mu}g/g dry weight) were found in 10 birds from six species. Clinical signs compatible with lethal Pb poisoning and/or excessive bone Pb concentrations (>20 {mu}g/g) were observed in one Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), one red kite, and one Eurasian griffon. Pb poisoning has been diagnosed in eight upland raptor species in Spain to date.

  7. Lead and arsenic in bones of birds of prey from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, R.; Taggart, M.; Meharg, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Raptors feeding on species targeted by hunters in upland habitats suffer from lead poisoning. - The bones (humerus and/or femur) of 229 birds of prey from 11 species were analyzed for Pb and As to evaluate their exposure to Pb shot. The species with the highest mean Pb levels were red kite (Milvus milvus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), and the species with the lowest levels were Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Red kite also had the highest mean As level, an element present in small amounts in Pb shot. Elevated bone Pb concentrations (>10 μg/g dry weight) were found in 10 birds from six species. Clinical signs compatible with lethal Pb poisoning and/or excessive bone Pb concentrations (>20 μg/g) were observed in one Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), one red kite, and one Eurasian griffon. Pb poisoning has been diagnosed in eight upland raptor species in Spain to date

  8. A Survey on Lead and Cadmium Content in Bread Produced in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to such complications of absorbing lead and cadmium heavy metals as kidney and liver dysfunction, vascular and heart diseases, anemia, digestive complications, nervous and skeletal problems and due to importance of bread as one of the most important food diets in Iran, especially in Yazd, the amount of lead and cadmium was evaluated in a variety of breads in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013. Out of 69 bakeries, random probability proportionate sampling was applied in order to measure the heavy metals (lead and cadmium content in samples by ash and atomic absorption equipped with grafiti furnace(ETAAS with correction of background time. The study data were analyzed using SPSS (v.17 considering p-value of less than 0.05 as significant. Results: The average amounts of lead and cadmium were 99.05 and 7.49 mg/kg respectively. The amount of lead in Sangak bread was higher than that of other types of breads, whereas lead amounts of fantasy bread was reported less than those of other breads. Cadmium content demonstrated no significant differences among breads. Lead amount was higher in direct heat breads. Whereas, cadmium amount showed no significant differences between direct and indirect heat breads. It is worth mentioning that lead and cadmium content were reported lower than allowable levels in all samples. Conclusions: As the study results revealed and considering per capita consumption of bread in Iran (about 160 kg, it seems that weekly intake of lead and cadmium in Yazd is at an acceptable level, though possible risk of heavy metals(lead and cadmium need to decrease in order to prevent the probable risks of lead and cadmium heavy metals.

  9. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  10. Waste utilization of red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) fish bone to improve phosphorus contents in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, S.; Iswanto, B.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to get the idea that bone waste will be the P content enhancer in compost so that the compost produced meets the standard P levels specified in SNI 19-7030-2004 which regulating compost quality standard. Nutrient levels were obtained in fish bone meal (FBM) are C (3.35%), N (0.48%), P (30.90%) and K (0.02%). Effects of fish bone meal to the rising levels of P in the compost has been known. P levels of compost B, C, D, and E increased at 428.57; 542.85; 657.14 and 914.28% against the compost A (blank). FBM ideal addition indicated in compost B, as much as 15 gr, with a P content of 0.37% and has been passed according standards (0.10% for P). C/N ratio decreased over the 21 days period of composting, with the greatest decline was compost E with a ratio of 16:1. Highest nitrogen (N) levels recorded respectively in compost B and C with value of 1.09% and the lowest of recorded N content was compost A, D and E (1.08%). N content in all samples of compost were eligible minimum N of 0.40%. Carbon (C) is the highest recorded in compost B; 20.20% and the lowest in the compost E; 17.34%. Highest and lowest C levels on the compost has met the minimum C of 9.80%. Composting is done in a bucket as an aerobic composter (with air holes), compost pile turnover for each sample is controlled as much as once/2 days. Mesophilic period (23-450C) occurs during the 21-day period of composting. Compost B has P content of 0.37%, so it has fulfilled the provisions of SNI 19-7030-2004 about the recommended compost standard.

  11. Uranium bone content as an indicator of chronic environmental exposure from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Kochermin, Vera; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous radioelement found in drinking water and food. As a consequence of its prevalence, most humans ingest a few micrograms (μg) of this element daily. It is incorporated in various organs and tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that ingested U is deposited mainly in bones. Therefore, U skeletal content could be considered as a prime indicator for low-level chronic intake. In this study, 71 archived vertebrae bone samples collected in seven Canadian cities were subjected to digestion and U analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These results were correlated with U concentrations in municipal drinking water supplies, with the data originating from historical studies performed by Health Canada. A strong relationship (r(2) = 0.97) was observed between the averaged U total skeletal content and averaged drinking water concentration, supporting the hypothesis that bones are indeed a good indicator of U intake. Using a PowerBASIC compiler to process an ICRP systemic model for U (ICRP, 1995a), U total skeletal content was estimated using two gastrointestinal tract absorption factors (ƒ1 = 0.009 and 0.03). Comparisons between observed and modelled skeletal contents as a function of U intake from drinking water tend to demonstrate that neither of the ƒ1 values can adequately estimate observed values. An ƒ1value of 0.009 provides a realistic estimate for intake resulting from food consumption only (6.72 μg) compared to experimental data (7.4 ± 0.8 μg), whereas an ƒ1value of 0.03 tends to better estimate U skeletal content at higher levels of U (1-10 μg L(-1)) in drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lead content of deciduous tooth enamel from high-radon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, A.

    1987-01-01

    Lead concentrations in the enamel of deciduous incisors of 49 6- to 7-year children living in Askola, a rural area in which the radon level is one og the highest in Finland, were determined by the proton-induced X-ray emission method. The absolute concentrations were obtained by calibration with the animal bone standard of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The mean lead concentration of 8.8±6.6 ppm of the whole enamel agreed well with the earlier corresponding lead data from other regions of Finland, indicating that no significant increase in the lead level of the teeth would have occurred because of radon decay. However, the lead concentration level measured on the tooth surface was somewhat higher in Askola, 232±141 ppm, than in the low-radon area Oulu (167±139 ppm; ρ<0.10). The lead concentration of the whole enamel of the upper incisors, 12.2 ± 8.0 ppm, was twice as high as that of the lower incisors, 6.8 ± 4.6 ppm (ρ<0.005), emphasizing the importance of classifying lead concentration data by tooth type

  13. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andr?s; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tom?s

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of c...

  14. Protein malnutrition induces bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells commitment to adipogenic differentiation leading to hematopoietic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mayara Caldas Ramos; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Hastreiter, Araceli; Curi, Rui; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2013-01-01

    Protein malnutrition (PM) results in pathological changes that are associated with peripheral leukopenia, bone marrow (BM) hypoplasia and alterations in the BM microenvironment leading to hematopoietic failure; however, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this context, the BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells intimately related to the formation of the BM microenvironment, and their differentiation into adipocytes is important because adipocytes are cells that have the capability to negatively modulate hematopoiesis. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were subjected to protein-energy malnutrition with a low-protein diet containing 2% protein, whereas control animals were fed a diet containing 12% protein. The hematopoietic parameters and the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells in the BM were evaluated. MSCs were isolated from BM, and their capability to produce SCF, IL-3, G-CSF and GM-CSF were analyzed. The expression of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α as well as the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP mRNAs were evaluated in MSCs together with their capability to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. The malnourished animals had anemia and leukopenia as well as spleen and bone marrow hypoplasia and a reduction in the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells from BM. The MSCs of the malnourished mice presented an increased capability to produce SCF and reduced production of G-CSF and GM-CSF. The MSCs from the malnourished animals showed increased expression of PPAR-γ protein and PPAR-γ mRNA associated with an increased capability to differentiate into adipocytes. The alterations found in the malnourished animals allowed us to conclude that malnutrition committed MSC differentiation leading to adipocyte decision and compromised their capacity for cytokine production, contributing to an impaired hematopoietic microenvironment and inducing the bone marrow failure commonly observed in protein malnutrition states.

  15. Protein Malnutrition Induces Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Commitment to Adipogenic Differentiation Leading to Hematopoietic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mayara Caldas Ramos; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Hastreiter, Araceli; Curi, Rui; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2013-01-01

    Protein malnutrition (PM) results in pathological changes that are associated with peripheral leukopenia, bone marrow (BM) hypoplasia and alterations in the BM microenvironment leading to hematopoietic failure; however, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this context, the BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells intimately related to the formation of the BM microenvironment, and their differentiation into adipocytes is important because adipocytes are cells that have the capability to negatively modulate hematopoiesis. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were subjected to protein-energy malnutrition with a low-protein diet containing 2% protein, whereas control animals were fed a diet containing 12% protein. The hematopoietic parameters and the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells in the BM were evaluated. MSCs were isolated from BM, and their capability to produce SCF, IL-3, G-CSF and GM-CSF were analyzed. The expression of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α as well as the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP mRNAs were evaluated in MSCs together with their capability to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. The malnourished animals had anemia and leukopenia as well as spleen and bone marrow hypoplasia and a reduction in the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells from BM. The MSCs of the malnourished mice presented an increased capability to produce SCF and reduced production of G-CSF and GM-CSF. The MSCs from the malnourished animals showed increased expression of PPAR-γ protein and PPAR-γ mRNA associated with an increased capability to differentiate into adipocytes. The alterations found in the malnourished animals allowed us to conclude that malnutrition committed MSC differentiation leading to adipocyte decision and compromised their capacity for cytokine production, contributing to an impaired hematopoietic microenvironment and inducing the bone marrow failure commonly observed in protein malnutrition states. PMID:23516566

  16. Mapping the Pairwise Choices Leading from Pluripotency to Human Bone, Heart, and Other Mesoderm Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kyle M; Chen, Angela; Koh, Pang Wei; Deng, Tianda Z; Sinha, Rahul; Tsai, Jonathan M; Barkal, Amira A; Shen, Kimberle Y; Jain, Rajan; Morganti, Rachel M; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B; George, Benson M; Wernig, Gerlinde; Salomon, Rachel E A; Chen, Zhenghao; Vogel, Hannes; Epstein, Jonathan A; Kundaje, Anshul; Talbot, William S; Beachy, Philip A; Ang, Lay Teng; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-07-14

    Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints. This strategy enabled the generation of human bone and heart progenitors that could engraft in respective in vivo models. Mapping stepwise chromatin and single-cell gene expression changes in mesoderm development uncovered somite segmentation, a previously unobservable human embryonic event transiently marked by HOPX expression. Collectively, this roadmap enables navigation of mesodermal development to produce transplantable human tissue progenitors and uncover developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elastic properties of woven bone: effect of mineral content and collagen fibrils orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, J; Martínez-Reina, J

    2017-02-01

    Woven bone is a type of tissue that forms mainly during fracture healing or fetal bone development. Its microstructure can be modeled as a composite with a matrix of mineral (hydroxyapatite) and inclusions of collagen fibrils with a more or less random orientation. In the present study, its elastic properties were estimated as a function of composition (degree of mineralization) and fibril orientation. A self-consistent homogenization scheme considering randomness of inclusions' orientation was used for this purpose. Lacuno-canalicular porosity in the form of periodically distributed void inclusions was also considered. Assuming collagen fibrils to be uniformly oriented in all directions led to an isotropic tissue with a Young's modulus [Formula: see text] GPa, which is of the same order of magnitude as that of woven bone in fracture calluses. By contrast, assuming fibrils to have a preferential orientation resulted in a Young's modulus in the preferential direction of 9-16 GPa depending on the mineral content of the tissue. These results are consistent with experimental evidence for woven bone in foetuses, where collagen fibrils are aligned to a certain extent.

  18. Bone marrow fat content in 70 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa: Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Mulkern, Robert V; Feldman, Henry A; O'Donnell, Jennifer M; DiVasta, Amy D; Gordon, Catherine M

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE. Metaphyses were scored visually on the T1-W images for red marrow. Visual T1 score, T1 relaxometry values, MRS lipid indices and fat fractions were analyzed by regression on age, body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) as disease severity markers. MRS measures included unsaturated fat index, T2 water, unsaturated and saturated fat fractions. All red marrow measures declined significantly with age. T1-R values were associated negatively with BMI and BMD for girls ≤16 years (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively) and positively for those≥17 years (P=0.05 and P=0.003, respectively). MRS identified a strong inverse association between T2 water and saturated fat fraction from 60 ms TE data (r=-0.85, Panorexia nervosa. In contrast, the physiological association between marrow fat content and age remained dominant in younger patients. The strong association between T2 water and saturated fat may relate to the restricted mobility of water with increasing marrow fat.

  19. Bone marrow fat content in 70 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa: Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Mulkern, Robert V.; Feldman, Henry A.; O'Donnell, Jennifer M.; DiVasta, Amy D.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE. Metaphyses were scored visually on the T1-W images for red marrow. Visual T1 score, T1 relaxometry values, MRS lipid indices and fat fractions were analyzed by regression on age, body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) as disease severity markers. MRS measures included unsaturated fat index, T2 water, unsaturated and saturated fat fractions. All red marrow measures declined significantly with age. T1-R values were associated negatively with BMI and BMD for girls ≤16 years (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively) and positively for those≥17 years (P=0.05 and P=0.003, respectively). MRS identified a strong inverse association between T2 water and saturated fat fraction from 60 ms TE data (r=-0.85, P<0.0001). There was no association between unsaturated fat index and BMI or BMD. The association between T1 and BMI and BMD among older girls suggests more marrow fat in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In contrast, the physiological association between marrow fat content and age remained dominant in younger patients. The strong association between T2 water and saturated fat may relate to the restricted mobility of water with increasing marrow fat. (orig.)

  20. Bone marrow fat content in 70 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa: Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Mulkern, Robert V. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Feldman, Henry A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Clinical Research Center, Boston, MA (United States); O' Donnell, Jennifer M. [Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); DiVasta, Amy D. [Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Catherine M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Adolescent and Transition Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE. Metaphyses were scored visually on the T1-W images for red marrow. Visual T1 score, T1 relaxometry values, MRS lipid indices and fat fractions were analyzed by regression on age, body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) as disease severity markers. MRS measures included unsaturated fat index, T2 water, unsaturated and saturated fat fractions. All red marrow measures declined significantly with age. T1-R values were associated negatively with BMI and BMD for girls ≤16 years (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively) and positively for those≥17 years (P=0.05 and P=0.003, respectively). MRS identified a strong inverse association between T2 water and saturated fat fraction from 60 ms TE data (r=-0.85, P<0.0001). There was no association between unsaturated fat index and BMI or BMD. The association between T1 and BMI and BMD among older girls suggests more marrow fat in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In contrast, the physiological association between marrow fat content and age remained dominant in younger patients. The strong association between T2 water and saturated fat may relate to the restricted mobility of water with increasing marrow fat. (orig.)

  1. Dietary investigation by trace element content in bones of ancient inhabitants of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busetto, M.; Giordani, L.; Brandone, A.; Cattaneo, C.; Mazzucchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism. The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B) Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.; (C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of the three investigated groups. (author)

  2. 78 FR 25256 - Petition Requesting Exception From Lead Content Limits: BIC USA Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Pen) to address the needs of young children who are in the early stages of learning to write. BIC... intended primarily for children 12 years old and younger that contain lead content in excess of 100 ppm are... limits established for children's products under the CPSIA if, after notice and a hearing, the Commission...

  3. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  4. Strontium 90 content in bone samples of deer and domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, K.; Pozhinarova, M.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative radioecological determination of 90 Sr content in leg bone samples of wild deer from Bulgaria (Veliko Tyrnovo), rain deer from Finland (Lapland) and domestic cows and pigs from Bulgaria have been carried out. The study includes four Finish rain deer, three of them 1-5 Y old, shut in 1991, and one - 13.5 Y old, shut in 1974, two Bulgarian deer, 5-6 Y old, shut in 1991, two cows and a pig killed in 1991. The samples have been prepared by a standard procedure. The fumic nitric acid method has been used for chemical separation of 90 Sr, and a low background beta plastic scintillation device - for counting, The results show that the contamination effect is better expressed in the wild animals due to their specific open air manner of life. The 90 Sr activities vary from 41,5 to 136.9 Bq/kg bone in the Bulgarian deer, from 219.5 to 386.1 Bq/kg bone in the three younger Finish deer, and from 1921.0 to 1967.9 Bq/kg bone in the oldest rain deer. The higher 90 Sr values in the samples of the Finish deer can be connected with the specific trophic chain of these animals and the important role in it of lichen. The quantity of 90 Sr in the investigated pig is 10-20 times lower than its content in the deer (2.1 - 4.4 Bq/kg bone). It is explained with the pig's age (10 months old) and the diet based on food grown about 5 years after Chernobyl. There is no significant difference in 90 Sr content of the cows' and deer's samples. This is due to their very similar zoological systems of eating and similar trophic chains (open pasture). The data obtained show a good reproducibility proved by the similar values of the radiochemical yields achieved (60-70%) in each of the analysis made. 1 tab., 1 refs

  5. Follow-up of bone mineral contents by single and dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, Istvan; Lakatos, Peter; Horvath, Csaba; Hollo, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Quality control, performance and long-range reproducibility of SPA and DPA techniques were tested in model experiments. The relative minimum detectable change in bone mineral content, determined with appropriately checked and calibrated instrument amounts to 2.5-3.0 percent by SPA and 4.0-6.0 percent by DPA. To achieve this potential at least two parallel measurements are needed but in case of long-range measurements following-up measurements have to be repeated at least quarterly. DPA requires the same person to evaluate. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  6. Lead determinations in human bone by particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibel, M A; Savage, J M; Robertson, J D; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Markesbery, W R [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) intoxication has been linked to Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Lead, like many heavy elements, tends to accumulate in bone. Pixe is a powerful analytical tool which permits the determination of Pb at the {mu}g/g level without requiring sample digestion. GFAAS is one of the most sensitive methods for the determination of Pb and is capable of determining ng/g levels is solution. For bone analyses by GFAAS, sample dissolution and a matrix modifier are required. Rib bone samples were analyzed for Pb by PIXE and GFAAS. IAEA Animal Bone (H-5) was used as a secondary standard for Pb with both methods to ensure accuracy. The range of Pb concentrations in human rib bone was 1.4-11.5 {mu}/g for the trabecular surface by PIXE, 1.3-45 {mu}g/g for the cortical surface by PIXE, and 1.54-11.75 {mu}g/g for whole bone by GFAAS. No significant difference p.<0.05 was found for AD versus control for either surface or for whole bone. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Lead determinations in human bone by particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deibel, M.A.; Savage, J.M.; Robertson, J.D.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) intoxication has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lead, like many heavy elements, tends to accumulate in bone. Pixe is a powerful analytical tool which permits the determination of Pb at the μg/g level without requiring sample digestion. GFAAS is one of the most sensitive methods for the determination of Pb and is capable of determining ng/g levels is solution. For bone analyses by GFAAS, sample dissolution and a matrix modifier are required. Rib bone samples were analyzed for Pb by PIXE and GFAAS. IAEA Animal Bone (H-5) was used as a secondary standard for Pb with both methods to ensure accuracy. The range of Pb concentrations in human rib bone was 1.4-11.5 μ/g for the trabecular surface by PIXE, 1.3-45 μg/g for the cortical surface by PIXE, and 1.54-11.75 μg/g for whole bone by GFAAS. No significant difference (p.<0.05 was found for AD versus control for either surface or for whole bone. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Quantitative in vivo elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence and scattering techniques. Applications to cadmium, lead and bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ulf.

    1994-05-01

    The X-ray fluorescence technique for in vivo determination of cadmium concentration in the human body has been considerably improved so that the minimum concentration now is 10 μg/g for a skin-organ distance of 50 mm and a measurement time of 30 minutes. The technique has been used for measurements of cadmium in the kidney cortex of 60 non-occupationally exposed persons, showing twice the concentration (26±9 μg/g) in a sub-group of frequent tobacco smokers compared with a group of non-smokers (10±11 μg/g). Concentrations of lead in the skeleton of 112 persons have been measured at three bone sites (finger bone, tibia, heel bone) using in vivo XRF techniques either based on Co-57 or Cd-109 sources. There was a good correlation between lead levels at the three bone sites as well as to cumulative exposure index. However, the association between the amount of chelatable lead and measured bone lead levels was poor. The retention of lead in the skeleton of 14 retired workers, now studied for up to 18 years after retirement, shows a half-time of 16 years. 43 refs

  9. In vivo quantification of lead in bone with a portable x-ray fluorescence system--methodology and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, L H; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, R O; Weisskopf, M G

    2011-02-07

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal settings of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC = 0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 µSv and should pose minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements.

  10. In Vivo Quantification of Lead in Bone with a Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) System – Methodology and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, LH; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, RO; Weisskopf, MG

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable XRF technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal setting of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC=0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 μSv and should pose a minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements. PMID:21242629

  11. In vivo quantification of lead in bone with a portable x-ray fluorescence system-methodology and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, L H; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Weisskopf, M G; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, R O

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal settings of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC = 0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 μSv and should pose minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements. (note)

  12. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, J M; Fleming, D E B

    2009-01-01

    In order to quantify the bone lead concentration from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement, typically two estimates of the lead concentration are determined by comparing the normalized x-ray peak amplitudes from the Kα 1 and Kβ 1 features to those of the calibration phantoms. In each case, the normalization consists of taking the ratio of the x-ray peak amplitude to the amplitude of the coherently scattered photon peak in the spectrum. These two Pb concentration estimates are then used to determine the weighted mean lead concentration of that sample. In calculating the uncertainties of these measurements, it is important to include any covariance terms where appropriate. When determining the uncertainty of the lead concentrations from each x-ray peak, the standard approach does not include covariance between the x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered feature. These spectral features originate from two distinct physical processes, and therefore no covariance between these features can exist. Through experimental and simulated data, we confirm that there is no observed covariance between the detected Pb x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered photon signal, as expected. This is in direct contrast to recent work published by Brito (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6125-39). There is, however, covariance introduced in the calculation of the weighted mean lead concentration due to the common coherent normalization. This must be accounted for in calculating the uncertainty of the weighted mean lead concentration, as is currently the case. We propose here an alternative approach to calculating the weighted mean lead concentration in such a way as to eliminate the covariance introduced by the common coherent normalization. It should be emphasized that this alternative approach will only apply in situations in which the calibration line intercept is not included in the calculation of the Pb concentration from the spectral data: when the source of the intercept is well

  13. The assessment of cortical and spongy bone mineral content with quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Aritomi, Hiroshi; Iwanami, Shigeru; Kusano, Shouichi; Marumo, Fumiaki.

    1991-01-01

    The CT numbers of cortex at the level of 20 cm (CT20) and spongiosa in the lateral condyle at the level of 2 cm (CT02) proximal from the distal end of the femur, and the bone mineral density of spongiosa in the L3 body (BMD), were obtained by QCT. The study included 43 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 female patients with primary osteoporosis (OP), 20 female nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF: nonHD), 37 hemodialyzed patients (CRF: HD),including 13 parathyroidectomized patients (CRF: HD, PTX), and 10 healthy volunteers. CT20 correlated closely with age in RA. CT02 and BMD correlated closely with age in RA and OP. CT20 and CT02 correlated closely with the duration of hemodialysis in CRF:HD, but not with the duration of disease in RA. The values of CT20 and CT02 in the CRF: HD. PTX group was significantly lower than those in the other CRF groups. BMD in the RA group was not different from that of healthy volunteers. The CT20 values of the one-third of RA patients older than 60 years were extremely low compared with those of the other two-thirds. The results indicated that BMD was useful in assessing bone mineral content in OP, but not in RA. CT02 and CT20 were useful in assessing bone mineral content in these three diseases, CT20 was especially useful for patients in the CRF: HD group and those with RA older than 60 years, but it was not useful in the CRF: nonHD group. (author)

  14. Face and content validation of a novel three-dimensional printed temporal bone for surgical skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, M J; Francis, H W

    2015-07-01

    To assess the face and content validity of a novel synthetic, three-dimensional printed temporal bone for surgical skills development and training. A synthetic temporal bone was printed using composite materials and three-dimensional printing technology. Surgical trainees were asked to complete three structured temporal bone dissection exercises. Attitudes and impressions were then assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Previous cadaver and real operating experiences were used as a reference. Trainees' experiences of the synthetic temporal bone were analysed in terms of four domains: anatomical realism, usefulness as a training tool, task-based usefulness and overall reactions. Responses across all domains indicated a high degree of acceptance, suggesting that the three-dimensional printed temporal bone was a useful tool in skills development. A sophisticated three-dimensional printed temporal bone that demonstrates face and content validity was developed. The efficiency in cost savings coupled with low associated biohazards make it likely that the printed temporal bone will be incorporated into traditional temporal bone skills development programmes in the near future.

  15. Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Slatkin, D.N.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a 125 I or a 109 Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays, used in the technique developed for this study, are compared with those of K-x-rays

  16. The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol on Bone Biomechanical Strength and Bone Calcium Content in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1 daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2 daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3 daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05 but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05. In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength.

  17. Application of proton-induced X-ray emission method to determination of lead content in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slominska, D.; Jarczyk, L.; Rokita, E.; Strzalkowski, A.; Losiowski, A.; Macheta, A.; Sych, M.; Moszkowicz, S.

    1979-01-01

    The proton induced X-ray emission method is applied for determination of lead content in the blood of the people exposed to contact with ethyline vapours and people working in lead-zinc works. (author)

  18. Biomechanical properties of the femoral neck relative to osteosynthesis methods and bone mineral content assessed by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husby, T.

    1990-01-01

    Bone mineral content as determined by computerized tomography (CT) and mechanical strength on axial loading were compared in 36 cadaveric femur specimens. Based on the CT measurements of density and area, the mass of a transverse slice of the femur was estimated. Highly significant correlations were demonstrated between strength and cancellous bone density. Even higher correlations were revealed when the bone masses of the proximal and distal femoral areas were calculated. Based on these findings, an equal distribution of the effective mass of the femur was postulated. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experimental rotational model. The CT attenuation values were also correlated to direct measurements of bone mineral content, i.e. calcium. Moreover, the strength of different metal implants, commonly used in femoral neck fractures, were assessed in cadaver specimens. 134 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...

  20. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor deletion leads to reduced bone strength and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2013-10-01

    Bone is permanently remodeled by a complex network of local, hormonal and neuronal factors that affect osteoclast and osteoblast biology. In this context, a role for gastro-intestinal hormones has been proposed based on evidence that bone resorption dramatically falls after a meal. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is one of the candidate hormones as its receptor, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR), is expressed in bone. In the present study we investigated bone strength and quality by three-point bending, quantitative x-ray microradiography, microCT, qBEI and FTIR in a GIPR knockout (GIPR KO) mouse model and compared with control wild-type (WT) animals. Animals with a deletion of the GIPR presented with a significant reduction in ultimate load (--11%), stiffness (-16%), total absorbed (-28%) and post-yield energies (-27%) as compared with WT animals. Furthermore, despite no change in bone outer diameter, the bone marrow diameter was significantly increased and as a result cortical thickness was significantly decreased by 20% in GIPR deficient animals. Bone resorption at the endosteal surface was significantly increased whilst bone formation was unchanged in GIPR deficient animals. Deficient animals also presented with a pronounced reduction in the degree of mineralization of bone matrix. Furthermore, the amount of mature cross-links of collagen matrix was significantly reduced in GIPR deficient animals and was associated with lowered intrinsic material properties. Taken together, these data support a positive effect of the GIPR on bone strength and quality. © 2013.

  1. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  2. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  3. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ∼ 25 and ∼ 40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: ► Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: ≤ 1, ≤ 10, 25 and 40 μg/dL ► Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH

  4. Lead post-mortem intake in human bones of ancient populations by (109)Cd-based X-ray fluorescence and EDXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebôcho, J; Carvalho, M L; Marques, A F; Ferreira, F R; Chettle, D R

    2006-12-15

    In this work we measured the lead concentration in human bones of Middle Age by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence system based on (109)Cd radioactive source. The detection system consists on a Ge hyperpure detector. This system, conceived for in vivo Pb analysis in bone, is portable, non-destructive and is based on lead K lines detection. The analysed bones are part of two collections of bones both from the end of Middle Age and submitted for some years to a lead polluted burial environment. The bones of one collection were buried initially on the soil in a convent, in Lisbon (Portugal) and further on, kept in a lead coffin for around 100 years. The second collection contains bones buried permanently on the soil around an old church on the south of Portugal. This place became a parking car for around 20 years. In this work we studied the distribution of Pb in cortical bone, and trabecular regions from the outside surface to the inner part of the bone and the results are compared with the obtained ones by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The obtained values present a strong contamination of Pb in spongy bones kept in the lead coffin with concentrations ranging from 250 to 350mugPb/g bone mineral, and 4 to 7mugPb/g bone mineral for bones buried in the soil. Good agreement was observed between the results obtained by the two techniques.

  5. Sequential bone mineral content in small preterm infants with and without fractures and rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.W.; Sherman, R.; Succop, P.; Oestreich, A.E.; Tsang, R.C.; Krug-Wispe, S.K.; Steichen, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-four infants with birth weights 1009 +/- 28 grams and gestational age 28.6 +/- 0.3 weeks (M +/- SEM) were studied prospectively to test the hypotheses that bone mineral content (BMC) measured by photon absorptiometry, would be: (1) lower in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with radiographic evidence of fractures and/or rickets (F/R), and (2) will continue to be lower over the first year when compared to VLBW infants without F/R. BMC and bone width (BW) of the distal one-third of left radius and ulna were measured at 5 weeks (n = 8), 14 weeks (n = 61), 26 weeks (n = 58), 40 weeks (n = 59), and 1 year (n = 52). Standardized radiographs of both forearms, and weight, length, and head circumference were also determined at each study age. Investigators and technicians involved in the photon absorptiometry measurements were unaware of the radiographic findings and vice versa. Twenty-three of 74 infants were found to have F/R. BMC of studied infants remained markedly below our previously determined range of intrauterine bone mineralization, even at 26 weeks after birth. There was no significant difference in BMC or BW between infants with and without F/R, either at the time of confirmation of F/R or during early follow-up; however, BMC was lower at greater than or equal to 6 months and BW was lower at greater than or equal to 9 months in infants with F/R. We suggest that the extremely low BMC measurements in early infancy predispose all VLBW infants to fractures and rickets

  6. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  7. The content of bone morphogenetic proteins in platelets varies greatly between different platelet donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, Anders; Wahlstroem, Ola; Linder, Cecilia Halling; Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Platelet derivates and platelet rich plasma have been used to stimulate bone formation and wound healing because of the rich content of potent growth factors. However, not all reports have been conclusive since some have not been able to demonstrate a positive effect. We investigated the interindividual variation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in platelets from healthy donors, and the pH-dependent effect on the release of BMPs in preparations of lysed platelets in buffer (LPB). Platelet concentrates from 31 healthy donors were prepared in pH 4.3 and pH 7.4 buffers and investigated with respect to BMP-2, -4, -6, and -7. BMP-2 and BMP-4 were significantly more common in acidic LPBs in comparison with neutral preparations. We also observed a considerable variation among platelet donors with respect to the release of BMPs at pH 4.3 and 7.4. In conclusion, a considerable variation was found among platelet donors, which may be of importance considering the ambiguous results previously reported on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

  8. Monitoring of the content of lead and cadmium in the waters of the river Tuis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Urbina, Maria Elena; Molina Salazar, Ofelia; Hidalgo Paniagua, David

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead and cadmium was monitored in the waters of the river Tuis for 11 months. The method of digestion most suitable was determined for this type of matrix. The chemical analyses were realized by means of the technique of anodic stripping voltammetry by differential pulse, for which some parameters of measurement were optimized and there decided the limits of detection and quantification. The veracity of the method was evaluated by means of the percentage of recovery for each of the analytes. The limit of detection of the lead is of 0,46 μgL-1 and limit of quantification is 1, 5 μgL-1, the cadmium has a limit of detection of 0,40 μgL-1 and 1,3 μgL-1 of quantification. (author) [es

  9. Dosimetry study for a new in vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) bone lead measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Huiling; Chettle, David; Luo Liqiang; O'Meara, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    A new 109 Cd γ-ray induced bone lead measurement system has been developed to reduce the minimum detectable limit (MDL) of the system. The system consists of four 16 mm diameter detectors. It requires a stronger source compared to the 'conventional' system. A dosimetry study has been performed to estimate the dose delivered by this system. The study was carried out by using human-equivalent phantoms. Three sets of phantoms were made to estimate the dose delivered to three age groups: 5-year old, 10-year old and adults. Three approaches have been applied to evaluate the dose: calculations, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and experiments. Experimental results and analytical calculations were used to validate MC simulation. The experiments were performed by placing Panasonic UD-803AS TLDs at different places in phantoms that representing different organs. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the organ dose and the whole body dose solely by experiments and traditional calculations, the equivalent dose and effective dose were calculated by MC simulations. The result showed that the doses delivered to the organs other than the targeted lower leg are negligibly small. The total effective doses to the three age groups are 8.45/9.37 μSv (female/male), 4.20 μSv, and 0.26 μSv for 5-year old, 10-year old and adult, respectively. An approval to conduct human measurements on this system has been received from the Research Ethics Board based on this research

  10. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  11. [Quantitative image of bone mineral content--dual energy subtraction in a single exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T

    1990-09-25

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiography system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within +/- 4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within +/- 11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of +/- 10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease.

  12. Effect of pelvic irradiation on the bone mineral content of lumbar spine in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, S. M.; Choi, T. J.; Koo, E. S.; Kim, O. B.; Lee, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the loss of bone mineral contents(BMC) in lumbar spine within the radiation field for cervical cancer treatment, BMC in the irradiated patient group was compared with that of a normal control group. Measurements of BMC in the trabecular bone in lumbar spines(L3-L5) were performed in the both patient and normal control groups. Investigators used dual-energy quantitative computerized tomography(DEQCD) using photon energy of 120 and 80kVp. The numbers of patient and control groups were 43 in each with age distribution of fifth to seventh decade of women. The numbers of control group were 22 in fifth, 10 in sixth, and 11 in seventh decade, those of patient group were 14 in fifth, 14 in sixth, and 15 in seventh decade of women. The radiation field was extended to L5 spine for pelvic irradiation with 45-54Gy of external radiation dose and 30Gy of high dose rate brachytherapy in cervical cancer. The BMC is decreased as increasing age in both control and patient groups. BMC in lumbar spine of patient group was decreased by about 13% to 40% maximally. The BMC of L3 and L4 a region that is out of a radiation field for the patient group demonstrated 119.5 ±30.6, 117.0 ±31.7 for fifth, 83.3 ± 37.8, 88.3 ± 46.8 for sixth and 61.5 ± 18.3, 56.2 ± 26.6 mg/cc for seventh. Contrasted by the normal control group has shown 148.0 ± 19.9, 153.2 ± 23.2 for fifth, 96.1 ± 30.2, 105.6 ± 26.5 for sixth and 73.9 ± 27.9, 77.2 ± 27.2 mg/cc for seventh decade, respectively. The BMC of patient group was decreased as near the radiation field, while the lower lumbar spine has shown more large amounts of BMC in the normal control group. In particular, the BMC of L5 within the radiation field was significantly decreased to 33%, 31%, 40% compared with the control group of the fifth, sixth and seventh decades, respectively. The pelvic irradiation in cervical cancer has much effected on the loss of bone mineral content of lumbar spine within the radiation field, as the lower

  13. Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) Cortex Extract Alleviates Lead Acetate-Induced Bone Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shanshan; Zheng, Hongxing; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Hai

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Du-Zhong cortex extract (DZCE) on lead acetate-induced bone loss in rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was provided with distilled water. Group II (PbAc) received 500 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 60 days. Group III (PbAc+DZCE) received 500 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, and given intragastric DZCE (100 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days. Group IV (DZCE) was given intragastric DZCE (100 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days. The bone mineral density, serum biochemical markers, bone histomorphology, and bone marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The results showed that the lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density was significantly decreased in PbAc group compared with the control (P  0.05, vs. control and DZCE group). Serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the PbAc+DZCE group were greater than that in the PbAc group (P control group (P control, and DZCE groups (P > 0.05). Serum OPG and OPG/RANKL ration were significantly higher in the PbAc+DZCE group than that in the PbAc group (P control group, but those were restored in the PbAc+DZCE groups. The bone marrow adipocyte number, percent adipocyte volume per tissue volume (AV/TV), and mean adipocyte diameter were significantly increased in the PbAc group compared to the control (P control group were not significant. The results above indicate that the Du-Zhong cortex extract has protective effects on both stimulation of bone formation and suppression of bone resorption in lead-exposed rats, therefore, Du-Zhong cortex extract has the potential to prevent or treat osteoporosis resulting from lead expose.

  14. Establishing quiescence in human bone marrow stem cells leads to enhanced osteoblast marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rumman, Mohammad; Kassem, Moustapha

    Human bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hBMSC) are cells that retain a multi-lineage differentiation potential and are thus increasingly being investigated for use in clinical applications. In vivo BMSC, which comprise approximately 0.1% of the bone marrow compartment, are thought to mai...

  15. 16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certain materials or products under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act. 1500.91... Safety Improvement Act. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act provides for specific lead limits..., flowers, bone, sea shell, coral, amber, feathers, fur, leather. (e) The following metals and alloys do not...

  16. Indian girls have higher bone mineral content per unit of lean body than boys through puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Sanwalka, Neha; Mughal, M Zulf; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2018-05-01

    Our aim is to describe changes in the muscle-bone unit assessed as a ratio of bone mineral content (BMC) to lean body mass (LBM) through puberty at total body and various skeletal sites in Indian boys and girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted (888 children, 480 boys, aged 5-17 years) in Pune, India. Pubertal staging was assessed. BMC, LBM and fat percentage at the arms, legs, android, gynoid and total body (less the head) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The amount of BMC per unit LBM (BMC/LBM) was computed. Changes in mean BMC/LBM at 5 Tanner (pubertal) stages after adjustment for age and fat percentage were calculated. In boys, adjusted BMC/LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages [legs (TS-II vs TS-I), android (TS-III vs TS-II, TS-IV vs TS-III) and gynoid region (TS-III vs TS-II and TS-II vs TS-I) (p LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages at total body, legs and gynoid (TS-III vs TS-II; TS-II vs TS-I; TS-V vs TS-IV), arms (TS-I to TS-V) and android regions (TS-V vs TS-IV) (p LBM than girls at earlier Tanner stages (TS-I to TS-III), whereas girls had significantly higher adjusted BMC/LBM than boys at later Tanner stages (TS-IV, TS-V) (p LBM with successive pubertal stages. Girls had higher BMC/LBM than boys which may possibly act as a reservoir for later demands of pregnancy and lactation.

  17. Accuracy of lumbar spine bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Podenphant, J.; Norgaard, H.; Nilas, L.; Nielsen, V.A.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm 2 ) of the lumbar spine by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was estimated by means of two different spine scanners (a Nuclear Data 2100 and a Lunar Radiation DP3). The lumbar spines of 13 cadavers were used. BMC and BMD were measured in situ and on the excised vertebrae in a solution of water/ethanol; and covered with ox muscle/porcine muscle/lard. The actual mineral weight and areal density were determined after chemical maceration, fat extraction, drying to a constant weight, ashing for 24 hr at 600 degrees C, and correction for the transverse processes. The true are was measured by parallax free X rays and planimetry. All measurements of BMC or BMD were highly interrelated (r = 0.94-0.99). The standard error of estimate (s.e.e.) of BMC in situ versus BMC in water/ethanol was 5.2%. The agreement between the BMD values of the two scanners was very good (s.e.e. = 2.9%). BMC in situ predicted the actual vertebral mineral mass with an s.e.e. of 8.1%. BMD in situ and BMD in water/ethanol predicted the actual area density with s.e.e.s of 10.3% and 5.0%, respectively. This study discloses the correlation and accuracy error of spinal DPA measurements in situ in whole cadavers versus the actual BMC and BMD. The error, which is underestimated in in vitro studies, amounts to 10%

  18. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L.

    2008-01-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p≤0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  19. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  20. Association between Bone Turnover, Micronutrient Intake, and Blood Lead Levels in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women, NHANES 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W.; Cromer, Barbara A.; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. Objectives We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20–85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Methods Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log-transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. Results In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%–45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%–43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%–19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%–22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Conclusions Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre-and postmenopausal women. PMID:20688594

  1. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  2. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donald A; Hamilton, W Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2011-11-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ~25 and ~40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Henry; Jenkins, Mark; Lodwick, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Full text. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape and radiological characteristics of the midshaft of the human leg and includes tissue substitutes for cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle which have been formulated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to provide the desired characteristics of density x-ray attenuation, and calcium content. The phantom includes a set of simulated tibia bones, each containing a precisely known concentration of stable lead, that can be easily inserted into the leg. Formerly, of a set of plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster of-paris, each containing a known lead content, was the consensus standard calibration phantom. Tissue substitute materials used in the new anthropometric calibration phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the plaster-of-paris phantoms and its realistic appearance provides a practical means of evaluating the variability in measurements results due to the changes in subject-detector positioning. Use of the new anthropometric calibration phantom results in a energy spectrum that closely resembles the spectrum observed when measuring a human subject. The energy spectrum produced by the plaster-of-paris phantom lacks the substantial Compton Scattering component produced by the leg muscle mass which leads to unrealistic estimates of in vivo measurement sensitivity. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for in vivo measurement of stable lead in bone, using an efficiency derived from the new anthropometric phantom, ranges from 18,6 parts per million (ppm) to 26,3 ppm using the K β1,3 /Elastic ratio or the K 1 /Elastic ratio, respectively. These values are significantly greater than the MDL cited in the literature obtained using a efficiency derived the conventional cylindrical plaster-of-paris phantom. Likewise, the realistic shape of the new

  4. Lead-210 and heavy metal contents in dated ombrotrophic peat hummocks from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.; Tolonen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two Sphagnum fuscum hummock cores, core 1, Kaerpaensuo bog and core F9, Kunonniemensuo bog. from Finland were used in this study. The peats are ombrotrophic and were dated using the moss-increment method. The mosses in both cores were carefully examined for their botanical composition, degree of humification, ash percentage and bulk density. The total accumulated dry peat-matter in the Kunonniemensuo core was almost double that in the Kaerpaensuo core. The total 210 Pb and the supported 210 Pb were measured by isotope dilution and the radon emanation technique. Materials in the same peat samples were analysed for their 210 Pb content at the Institute of Physics, Uppsala, Sweden and the Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland. The annual content of unsupported 210 Pb in the dated peat-layers shows that peat materials are effective traps which could yield information on atmospheric-fluxes both chronologically and regionally. Lead, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were also measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The total accumulated amounts over the past 150 y of the heavy metals investigated are almost identical for both cores apart from manganese which is considerably higher in the Kunonniemensuo core. However, the metal profiles studied exhibit discontinuity zones more pronounced in the Kunonniemensuo core. The 210 Pb data indicate that growth rate and bulk density variations in ombrotrophic peat bogs affects the accumulation of 210 Pb and similar trace metals. (orig.)

  5. Cadmium and lead content in several brands of rice grains (Oryza sativa) in central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, A; Rahimi, E; Ahmadi, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content of several commercially available brands of rice grains (Oryza sativa) in central Iran. A total of 67 samples of the most widely consumed brands of rice grains were purchased from local bazaar markets in Shahrekord, Iran. The first step, grains of raw rice were digested by acid digestion method and then were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that Cd concentration in rice grains ranged from 0.0378 to 0.1225 ppm dry weight and its average concentration was 0.062 ± 0.019 ppm and Pb content ranged from 0.0405 to 0.1281 ppm dry weight and its average concentration was 0.068 ± 0.0185 ppm. Cd and Pb concentrations in the sampled rice grains were lower in comparison with their upper limits (0.2 and 0.2 ppm for Cd and Pb, respectively) approved by food sanitary standard. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is no health problems due to the consumption of brands of rice grains, for these two elements. The results indicated that weekly intake of Cd and Pb from rice grains was below the provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by WHO/FAO.

  6. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  7. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  8. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  9. Determination of lead in bone tissues by axially viewed inductively coupled plasma multichannel-based emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Marco; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Dalla Riva, Simona; Soggia, Francesco; Frache, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    A new procedure for determining low levels of lead in bone tissues has been developed. After wet acid digestion in a pressurized microwave-heated system, the solution was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma multichannel-based emission spectrometry. Internal standardization using the Co 228.615 nm reference line was chosen as the optimal method to compensate for the matrix effects from the presence of calcium and nitric acid at high concentration levels. The detection limit of the procedure was 0.11 microg Pb g(-1) dry mass. Instrumental precision at the analytical concentration of approximately 10 microg l(-1) ranged from 6.1 to 9.4%. Precision of the sample preparation step was 5.4%. The concentration of lead in SRM 1486 (1.32+/-0.04 microg g(-1)) found using the new procedure was in excellent agreement with the certified level (1.335+/-0.014 microg g(-1)). Finally, the method was applied to determine the lead in various fish bone tissues, and the analytical results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The method is therefore suitable for the reliable determination of lead at concentration levels of below 1 microg g(-1) in bone samples. Moreover, the multi-element capability of the technique allows us to simultaneously determine other major or trace elements in order to investigate inter-element correlation and to compute enrichment factors, making the proposed procedure particularly useful for investigating lead occurrence and pathways in fish bone tissues in order to find suitable biomarkers for the Antarctic marine environment.

  10. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  11. Control and monitoring of oxygen content in molten metals. Application to lead and lead-bismuth melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetta, V.; Fouletier, J.; Henault, M.; Le Moulec, A.

    2002-01-01

    The sources of error in potentiometric measurements of the oxygen activity in molten metals and the methods proposed to reduce these measurements errors are described. Specific constraints related to low temperature measurements are emphasized. Two set-ups for control of the oxygen activity in molten lead and lead-bismuth were developed. They involve zirconia-based cells, i.e., an oxygen pump and an oxygen probe. The performance of the set-ups was characterized attempts to reduce the working temperature (T<450 deg C) are discussed. (authors)

  12. Historical review of European gasoline lead content regulations and their impact on German industrial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    Environmental protection policies in the automobile market were not implemented until the motorisation of the masses in the 1960s caused an increasing environmental burden. The rising air pollution was considered a latent danger for humans, animals and plants. In the years up to 1985 the EU passed several regulations to limit the mass pollutants CO, CxHy and NOx. Germany was the first EU-member nation to also be concerned with lead in gasoline, passing reduction regulations as early as in 1971. In 1986, several EU-member nations implemented the supply of unleaded gasoline. This decision was predominantly based on information about widespread forest damage. The reduction of lead emissions due to these regulations could be verified in different environmental systems. An example of this was the decline of atmospheric lead concentrations and human blood lead levels in Germany. The German mineral oil and automobile markets were also affected. The price trend of unleaded fuel was heavily influenced by tax incentives which benefited not only the gasoline traders but also the consumers. With regard to the distribution system, the market positions particularly of the medium-sized traders and the independent importers were weakened. In the automobile market, favourable terms of competition were experienced by producers who had already gained experience with catalyst systems in the U.S.-market. The gasoline lead content regulations had no effects on further economic indicators, except for competition. (orig.) [German] Infolge der Massenmotorisierung in den 60er Jahren stieg die Umweltbelastung durch den Automobilverkehr stark an. Luftverschmutzung durch Kraftfahrzeuge wurde erstmalig als latente Gefahr fuer die Gesundheit von Mensch, Tier und Pflanze wahrgenommen. Dies charakterisierte den Beginn der Umweltpolitik im Automobilsektor. Bis 1985 verabschiedete die Europaeische Union (EU) mehrere Rahmenrichtlinien zur Reduktion der Luftschadstoffe CO, CxHy und NOx. 1971 war

  13. Does Cu supplementation affect the mechanical and structural properties and mineral content of red deer antler bone tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambín, P; Serrano, M P; Gallego, L; García, A; Cappelli, J; Ceacero, F; Landete-Castillejos, T

    2017-08-01

    The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet. Deer (n=35) of different ages (21 yearlings and 14 adults) were studied. A total of 18 stags (11 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with Cu (0.83 mg Cu/kg BW) every 42 days, whereas the remaining 17 (10 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with physiological saline solution (control group). The Cu content of serum was analysed at the beginning of the trial and 84 days after the first injection to assess whether the injected Cu was mobilized in blood. Also, the mechanical and structural properties of antlers and the mineral content in their cortical walls were examined at three (yearlings) or four (adults) points along the antler beam. The effect of Cu supplementation was different in yearlings and adults. In yearlings, supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 28%, but did not affect antler properties. However, in adults, Cu supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 38% and tended to increase the cortical thickness of antlers (P=0.06). Therefore, we conclude that, even in animals receiving balanced diets, supplementation with Cu could increase antler cortical thickness in adult deer, although not in yearlings. This may improve the trophy value of antlers, as well as having potential implications for bones in elderly humans, should Cu supplementation have similar effects on bones as those observed in antlers.

  14. Lead contents in blood samples of a children population of Mexico City related to levels of airborne lead determined by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe-Hernandez, R.; Perez-Zapata, A.J.; Flores M., J.; Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne lead has been considered for many years one of the main pollutants adversely affecting the health of human beings. Moreover, this problem becomes remarkably important in large urban areas such as Mexico City. In order to assess the influence of atmospheric airborne lead in a children population, a biological blood sampling was carried out from September 1992 to June 1993 taking 698 samples in children with ages ranging from a few weeks to thirteen years old. Lead contents in whole blood were determined using anode stripping voltammetry as analytical technique. At the same time, aerosol lead contents were determined by PIXE from samples taken twice a week (two samples per day) in a neighbour area. In 58% of the samples, lead contents in blood was found over the maximum permissible level established by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) of the U.S.A. The biological sampling was correlated to levels of airborne lead as well as children age and date of sampling. General results of these comparisons are presented. (author)

  15. Clavicular bone tunnel malposition leads to early failures in coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jay B; Shaha, James S; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2013-01-01

    Modern techniques for the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations have largely centered on free tendon graft reconstructions. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an anatomic reconstruction with 2 clavicular bone tunnels more closely matches the properties of native coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments than more traditional techniques. No study has analyzed tunnel position in regard to risk of early failure. To evaluate the effect of clavicular tunnel position in CC ligament reconstruction as a risk of early failure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of CC ligament reconstructions performed with 2 clavicular bone tunnels and a free tendon graft. The population was largely a young, active-duty military group of patients. Radiographs were analyzed for the maintenance of reduction and location of clavicular bone tunnels using a picture archiving and communication system. The distance from the lateral border of the clavicle to the center of each bone tunnel was divided by the total clavicular length to establish a ratio. Medical records were reviewed for operative details and functional outcome. Failure was defined as loss of intraoperative reduction. The overall failure rate was 28.6% (8/28) at an average of 7.4 weeks postoperatively. Comparison of bone tunnel position showed that medialized bone tunnels were a significant predictor for early loss of reduction for the conoid (a ratio of 0.292 vs 0.248; P = .012) and trapezoid bone tunnels (a ratio of 0.171 vs 0.128; P = .004); this correlated to an average of 7 to 9 mm more medial in the reconstructions that failed. Reconstructions performed with a conoid ratio of ≥0.30 were significantly more likely to fail (5/5, 100%) than were those performed lateral to a ratio of 0.30 (3/23, 13.0%) (P < .01). There were no failures when the conoid ratio was <0.25 (0/10, 0%). Conoid tunnel placement was also statistically significant for

  16. A coherent/Compton scattering method employing an x-ray tube for measurement of trabecular bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puumalainen, P.; Uimarihuhta, A.; Olkkonen, H.

    1982-01-01

    Results showed that the x-ray generator could be used as a radiation source in the coherent/Compton scattering method of measuring trabecular bone mineral content. The quasimonoenergetic x-ray beam was produced from the continuous bremsstrahlung radiation with the aid of a spectral filter. Of the two measuring arrangements that were tested, the semiconductor detector geometry appeared to give distinctly more reproducible results than the two NaI detector system. However, to improve the counting efficiency of the coherent radiation, the 'coherent' NaI detector could be replaced by a bore-through scintillation probe (bore diameter about 10mm). By placing the x-ray fluorescence target inside the bore, the yield would be considerably higher. The present method is suitable for TBMC measurements of small animal and human peripheral bones. Errors are discussed in relation to increase of bone size. (U.K.)

  17. Lead biosorption of probiotic bacteria: effects of the intestinal content from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sicheng; Wang, Jie; Liang, Juan Boo; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Zhu, Cui; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liao, Xindi

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effects and the possible mechanisms of intestinal content (IC) from laying hens on in vitro lead (Pb 2+ ) biosorption of four probiotic bacterial strains (Bifidobacterium longum BB79, Lactobacillus paracasei Kgl6, Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23, and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44). The total Pb 2+ removal capacity of the four probiotic strains, with and without capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), increased in the presence of IC compared to the control (without IC). SEM imaging revealed certain unidentified particles from the IC adhered on the surface of bacterial cells sorted out using flow cytometry. Follow-up experiment showed an overall trend of increase in the Pb 2+ removal capacity of the sorted bacteria, but statistically significant for L. pentosus ITA23 and B. longum BB79 after incubation with IC, particularly with the suspended solid portion of the IC. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer data showed that functional groups such as C-H, O-H, C=O, and C-O-C which possibly associated with Pb 2+ binding were mainly presented in the suspended solid portion of IC. Putting the above together, we postulated that the enhanced Pb 2+ binding capacity the probiotic bacteria incubated in IC is due to the adherence of the yet to be identified particles which could much exist in suspended solid portion of IC containing negatively charged functional groups which bind with the positive Pb 2+ ions.

  18. Prediction of femoral neck and spine bone mineral content from the BMC of the radius or ulna and the relationship between bone strength and BMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) is extensively used to provide information about the status of an entire skeleton. Changes in BMC are employed to evaluate the effect of various drugs, disease states, weightlessness, exercise, renal dialysis and others on the skeleton. Clinical and functional information is discussed that may be derived from the BMC of a limited region of the skeleton. In particular there is a fairly high degree of correlation between the BMC of the radius or ulna and that of the femoral neck, r about 0.85 and a somewhat lower relationship between the BMC of the radius or ulna and the thoracic vertebrae, r about 0.65. Also the BMC is highly related to the strength of bone at that scan site.

  19. Citrate content of bone for time since death estimation: results from burials with different physical characteristics and known PMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, Fabian; Reiter, Christian; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-05-01

    A recently introduced method to determine the postmortem interval (PMI) based on quantification of the citrate content in bone was applied on the temporal bones and femora of 20 individuals buried in wooden coffins (WO) and body bags (BB), respectively. Concerning known vs. calculated PMI, a significant difference between the temporal and the femur bone samples of the same individuals was observed in the BB group (p = 0.012). In contrast, differences were insignificant for the WO group (p = 0.400). Moreover, similar levels of underestimation of PMIs resulted from the analysis of the femora for both burial groups (p = 0.247). Also, there was consistently less citrate preserved in the flat temporal bones as compared to the femora, indicating that the cortical layer of the long bones should be preferentially employed for citrate-based PMI estimations. The results call for additional research on subsurface-buried and surface-deposited remains to enhance the accuracy of the published PMI equation. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Modeling the effect of levothyroxine therapy on bone mass density in postmenopausal women: a different approach leads to new inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar Seyed

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis is a national health emergency. Osteoporosis quietly progresses without symptoms until late stage complications occur. Older patients are more commonly at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. The fracture risk increases when suppressive doses of levothyroxine are administered especially in postmenopausal women. The question is; "When should bone mass density be tested in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy?". Standard guidelines for the prevention of osteoporosis suggest that follow-up be done in 1 to 2 years. We were interested in predicting the level of bone mass density in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy with a novel approach. Methods The study used data from the literature on the influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on bone mass density. Four cubic polynomial equations were obtained by curve fitting for Ward's triangle, trochanter, spine and femoral neck. The behaviors of the models were investigated by statistical and mathematical analyses. Results There are four points of inflexion on the graphs of the first derivatives of the equations with respect to time at about 6, 5, 7 and 5 months. In other words, there is a maximum speed of bone loss around the 6th month after the start of suppressive L-thyroxine therapy in post-menopausal women. Conclusion It seems reasonable to check bone mass density at the 6th month of therapy. More research is needed to explain the cause and to confirm the clinical application of this phenomenon for osteoporosis, but such an approach can be used as a guide to future experimentation. The investigation of change over time may lead to more sophisticated decision making in a wide variety of clinical problems.

  1. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  2. Content of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in muscle, liver and kidney of Finnish cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabel-Taucher, R; Nurmi, E; Karppanen, E

    1975-01-01

    A total of 120 normal slaughter cows were analyzed with respect to Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg in muscle, liver and kidneys. The cows originated from 6 different slaughter-houses throughout the country. Imported cow livers, were also analyzed for comparison with the Finnish material. The Cu content in the Finnish animals turned out to be relatively low. The imported samples had even lower contents. There seemed to be no correlation between the Cu contents in muscle, liver and kidneys. Statistical tests established that the mean Cu content in livers from Oulu was significantly higher than most of the others at the 5% level. The Zn determinations revealed the highest amounts in the muscle. No correlation between the contents in muscle, liver and kidneys was shown. The animals from Seinaejoki had the highest Zn contents, significantly different from most of the others. The imported livers did not differ much from the domestic ones with regards to the Zn content. The same was true for the Pb content. The correlation coefficients of Pb in muscles, liver and kidneys were low. The animals from Kouvola contained the highest amounts of Pb, and the mean Pb content of these animals' kidneys was significantly different from all the others. The Cd content was highest in the animals from Turku. A good correlation was observed between the Cd contents in liver and kidneys. The Cd content of the imported livers was of the same order as that of the Finnish ones. No correlation was found between the Zn, Pb and Cd contents. The amounts of Hg in Finnish cattle were very low, especially so in animals from the North of Finland. The Hg content of the imported samples was of the same order as the figures recorded from the South of Finland. 24 references, 5 tables.

  3. Effect of lead content on phase evolution and microstructural development in Ag-clad Bi-2223 composite conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, N.N.; Maroni, V.A.; Fischer, A.K.; Dorris, S.E.; Zhong, W.; Ashcom, N.

    1997-02-01

    A two powder process was used to prepare silver-sheathed monofilamentary Bi 1.8 Pb x Sr 1.98 Ca 1.97 Cu 3.08 O y (Bi-2223) tapes with varying lead contents, x, from 0.2 to 0.5. The resulting tapes were subjected to thermomechanical processing and then characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). Layered phase texture was accessed using image analysis software on scanned SEM micrographs. Transport currents were measured at 77 K and zero field by the four-probe method. It was found that tapes with low lead content (X = 0.2 and 0.25) showed incomplete conversion to Bi-2223, had small grain size and poor c-axis texture. Tapes having higher lead content (x = 0.4 and 0.5) also showed incomplete conversion and the presence of lead-rich secondary phases. Tapes with lead content x = 0.3 and 0.35 showed complete conversion to Bi-2223, and had the least amount of secondary phases, the best c-axis texture, and the highest transport current (j c ). The carbon content of the precursor powder also had a strong influence on secondary-phase chemistry

  4. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  5. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  7. Divergent Significance of Bone Mineral Density Changes in Aging Depending on Sites and Sex Revealed through Separate Analyses of Bone Mineral Content and Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumoto Matsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (aBMD is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change.

  8. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  9. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  10. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the VA Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Jain, Nitin; Nie, Huiling; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood lead concentration has been associated with mortality from different causes in several studies. Many effects of lead exposure that might increase risk of death are likely to result from cumulative exposure, for which bone lead is a better biomarker than blood lead. The association between bone lead levels and mortality has not been explored. Methods and Results We prospectively assessed the association between both blood lead and bone lead—analyzed using K-x-ray fluorescence—and mortality among 868 men in the Normative Aging Study. We identified 241 deaths over an average of 8.9 (sd=3.9) years of follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards. Compared to the lowest tertile of patella bone lead, the fully adjusted HR in the highest tertile for all cause and cardiovascular mortality (n=137 deaths) were 2.52 (95% CI: 1.17–5.41) and 5.63 (95% CI: 1.73–18.3), respectively. The age, smoking, and race-adjusted HR for ischemic heart disease mortality (n=62 deaths) in the highest tertile was 8.37 (95% CI: 1.29–54.4). Results were similar for tibia lead. Bone lead was not associated with cancer, and blood lead was not associated with any mortality category. Conclusions We found bone lead to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an environmentally-exposed population with low blood lead levels. This study suggests that cumulative lead exposure from prior decades of high environmental exposures continues to significantly impact risk of death despite recent declines in environmental lead exposure. PMID:19738141

  11. Fusion events lead to truncation of FOS in epithelioid hemangioma of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van IJzendoorn, David G P; de Jong, Danielle; Romagosa, Cleofe

    2015-01-01

    in exon 4 of the FOS gene and the fusion event led to the introduction of a stop codon. In all instances, the truncation of the FOS gene would result in the loss of the transactivation domain (TAD). Using FISH probes we found a break in the FOS gene in two additional cases, in none of these cases...... differential diagnosis of vascular tumors of bone. Our data suggest that the translocation causes truncation of the FOS protein, with loss of the TAD, which is thereby a novel mechanism involved in tumorigenesis....

  12. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  13. Gender differences in D-aspartic acid content in skull bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikoshi-Hatano, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Arima, Yousuke; Toubou, Hirokazu; Ezaki, Jiro; Morikawa, Masami; Nagao, Masataka

    2012-12-01

    In forensic medicine, the personal identification of cadavers is one of the most important tasks. One method of estimating age at death relies on the high correlation between racemization rates in teeth and actual age, and this method has been applied successfully in forensic odontology for several years. In this study, we attempt to facilitate the analysis of racemized amino acids and examine the determination of age at death on the basis of the extent of aspartic acid (Asp) racemization in skull bones. The specimens were obtained from 61 human skull bones (19 females and 42 males) that underwent judicial autopsy from October 2010 to May 2012. The amount of D-Asp and L-Asp, total protein, osteocalcin, and collagen I in the skull bones was measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed for age, sex, and each measured protein. The amount of D-Asp in the female skull bones was significantly different from that in the male skull bones (p = 0.021), whereas the amount of L-Asp was similar. Thus, our study indicates that the amount of D-Asp in skull bones is different between the sexes.

  14. The associations of exposure to combined hormonal contraceptive use on bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density accrual from adolescence to young adulthood: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Jackowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of long term combined hormone based contraceptives (CHC use on bone mineral content (BMC and areal bone mineral density (aBMD development remains controversial, as it appears that the relationship may be age-dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term associations of CHC exposure on the accrual of bone parameters from adolescence into young-adulthood. Methods: 110 women (67 exposed to CHC were drawn from the Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS. Serial measures of total body (TB, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN BMC and aBMD were assessed by DXA (a total of 950 scans and aligned by biological age (BA, years from peak height velocity [PHV]. Multilevel random effects models were constructed to assess the time dependent associations between annual CHC exposure and the development of bone parameters. Results: After BA, height, lean tissue mass, fat mass, calcium and vitamin D intake, and physical activity were controlled, it was observed that those individuals exposed to CHC 6-years post PHV developed significantly less (−0.00986 ± 0.00422 g/cm2 TB aBMD than their non CHC exposed peers. Additionally, there were significant BA by CHC exposure interactions, where CHC exposure 6-years or more post PHV resulted in developing less TB BMC (−4.94 ± 2.41 g, LS BMC (−0.29 ± 0.11 g and LS aBMD (−0.00307 ± 0.00109 g/cm2. One year after the attainment of PHV, CHC users were predicted to have 1.2% more TB BMC, 3.8% more LS BMC and 1.7% more LS aBMD than non-users. At 9-years post PHV the predicted differences showed that CHC users had 0.9% less TB BMC and 2.7% less LS BMC and 1.6% less LS BMD than those not exposed to CHC. Conclusions: CHC may not hinder the development of BMC or aBMD during adolescence; however, exposure 6-years or more after PHV may be detrimental. Keywords: Oral contraceptives, Bone mass, Longitudinal, Multilevel models

  15. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely asso...

  16. Effects of lead arsenate sprays on the fruit growth and sugar and acid contents in Natsudaidai (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, K; Kuraoka, T; Matsumoto, K

    1965-01-01

    The juice of the fruit of Citrus natsudaidai is characterized by high acidity. The acidity of the juice was most effectively reduced by treatment with lead arsenate spray at an early fruit growth stage when the acids were being most actively formed. The water-soluble organic acid content of leaves was not affected. The sugar content of the juice was increased by the treatment. The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was lowered in the vesicles of fruit sprayed with lead arsenate. It was also much depressed in the extracts from normal fruit when arsenic trioxide was added. Arsenic was detected in the vesicles of treated fruit. 15 references, 9 figures.

  17. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated...

  18. The assessment of cortical and spongy bone mineral content with quantitative computed tomography; A comparison of measurement sites in relation to certain diseases with metabolic bone disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Aritomi, Hiroshi; Iwanami, Shigeru; Kusano, Shouichi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine); Marumo, Fumiaki

    1991-12-01

    The CT numbers of cortex at the level of 20 cm (CT20) and spongiosa in the lateral condyle at the level of 2 cm (CT02) proximal from the distal end of the femur, and the bone mineral density of spongiosa in the L3 body (BMD), were obtained by QCT. The study included 43 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 female patients with primary osteoporosis (OP), 20 female nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF: nonHD), 37 hemodialyzed patients (CRF: HD),including 13 parathyroidectomized patients (CRF: HD, PTX), and 10 healthy volunteers. CT20 correlated closely with age in RA. CT02 and BMD correlated closely with age in RA and OP. CT20 and CT02 correlated closely with the duration of hemodialysis in CRF:HD, but not with the duration of disease in RA. The values of CT20 and CT02 in the CRF: HD. PTX group was significantly lower than those in the other CRF groups. BMD in the RA group was not different from that of healthy volunteers. The CT20 values of the one-third of RA patients older than 60 years were extremely low compared with those of the other two-thirds. The results indicated that BMD was useful in assessing bone mineral content in OP, but not in RA. CT02 and CT20 were useful in assessing bone mineral content in these three diseases, CT20 was especially useful for patients in the CRF: HD group and those with RA older than 60 years, but it was not useful in the CRF: nonHD group. (author).

  19. Lead content of dried films of domestic paints currently sold in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebamowo, Eugenious O.; Scott Clark, C.; Roda, Sandy; Agbede, Oluwole A.; Sridhar, Mynepalli K.C.; Adebamowo, Clement A.

    2007-01-01

    Children are at higher risk from lead exposure because their developing neural system is susceptible to its neurotoxic effects. We studied lead levels of paints manufactured in Nigeria in 2006. Lead levels in 5 colors of paints, each from different manufacturers were measured using flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy. We found that 96% of the paints had higher than recommended levels of lead. The mean lead level of paints ranged from 84.8 to 50,000 ppm, with mean of 14,500 ppm and median of 15,800 ppm. The main determinant of lead levels was color of the paint. As lead levels in paint sold in the past years in Nigeria are likely to be at least as high as that currently sold, it is likely that many existing houses contain dangerously high levels of lead. Efforts need to be undertaken to assess the presence of high lead levels in existing housing and if detected, intervention programs for eliminating risk of exposure should be developed in addition to measures to increase awareness and enforce regulations leading to the elimination of lead based domestic paint

  20. Effect of lead content on nonstoichiometric Bi2-xPbySr2Ca2Cu3Oδ ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Valdes, E.; Pacheco-Malagon, G.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Mejia-Garcia, C.; Andrade-Garay, G.; Ortiz-Lopez, J.; Conde-Gallardo, A.; Falcony, C.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic superconducting samples of the type Bi 2-x Pb y Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O δ were processed with a nonstoichiometric content of Bi and Pb (x≠y) with respect to the 2223 phase in this system. The resistance vs. temperature characteristics and the presence of the 2223 and 2212 phases as a function of the sample preparation conditions and the lead content (Bi/Pb ratio) are reported. The growth of unwanted phases such as PbO was observed for those samples with a high content of Pb (y=0.9) and Bi (x=0.1). (orig.)

  1. Bone mineral content reduction in youth with surgical form of Schistosomiasis mansoni: factors involved in the pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two children and adolescents from 14 to 20 years of age, suffering from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varicose veins, were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD, before undergoing medical and surgical treatment. The surgical protocol was splenectomy, autoimplantation of spleen tissue into a pouch of the major omentum and ligature of the left gastric vein. Follow up of these patients? ranges from one to ten years with a mean of five years. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2 - L4 through the dual energy absorptionmetry X-ray (DEXA, using a LUNAR DPX-L densitometer. The degree of Symmers´ fibrosis was assessed by semiautomatic hystomorphometry. In eleven patients, the serum magnesium was measured before an intravenous overload of this ion and subsequently after eight and twenty four hours. Urine was collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after the magnesium overload. Deficiency of magnesium was considered when the uptake of this ion was greater than 40%. There was a significant trend of association between the status of bone mineral content and the Symmers´ fibrosis degree (c² = 6.606 R = 0.01017. There was also a moderate agreement between the greater fibrosis densities ( > the mean percentage and bone mineral deficits. Although the normal bone mineral content was more found among the patients with better hepatic functional reserve, the results did not reach statistical significance. There was a marked magnesium retention (>95% in one patient who had severe osteoporosis and a slight depletion (<5% in another patient, who presented no bone mineral deficit. It was concluded that the patients included in this series, showed an important BMD deficit, specially among the females which has had a significant improvement after medical and surgical treatment. Bone mineral deficit was associated with the degree of Symmers´ fibrosis. Magnesium depletion was present in two out of eleven patients. It is

  2. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  3. The effects of growth rate on leg morphology and tibia breaking strength, mineral density, mineral content, and bone ash in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Karnuah, A B; Mitchell, A D; Anthony, N B; Pesti, G M; Aggrey, S E

    2012-08-01

    Fast-growing broilers are especially susceptible to bone abnormalities, causing major problems for broiler producers. The cortical bones of fast-growing broilers are highly porous, which may lead to leg deformities. Leg problems were investigated in 6-wk-old Arkansas randombred broilers. Body weight was measured at hatch and at 6 wk. There were 8 different settings of approximately 450 eggs each. Two subpopulations, slow-growing (SG; bottom quarter, n=511) and fast-growing (FG; top quarter, n=545), were created from a randombred population based on their growth rate from hatch until 6 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, the broilers were processed and chilled at 4°C overnight before deboning. Shank (78.27±8.06 g), drum stick (190.92±16.91 g), and thigh weights (233.88±22.66 g) of FG broilers were higher than those of SG broilers (54.39±6.86, 135.39±15.45, and 168.50±21.13 g, respectivly; Ppercentage of ash content (39.76±2.81) of FG broilers was lower than that of SG broilers (39.99±2.67; P=0.173). Fast-growing broiler bones were longer, wider, heavier, stronger, more dense, and contained more ash than SG ones. After all parameters were calculated per unit of final BW at 6 wk, tibia density and bone ash percentage of FG broilers were lower than those of SG broilers.

  4. Lead-zinc interactions in the production of osteocalcin by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The serum level of osteocalcin, a bone specific protein produced by osteoblasts and used clinically as a marker of osteoblast acceptive, is decreased in lead intoxicated children. Previous studies suggest that the reduced osteocalcin production appears to be the result of impaired transcriptional regulation of this 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 gene product, and not translation. As part of a study to investigate the potential interaction of Pb 2+ with Zn 2+ , and with the zinc fingers of the vitamin D receptor, ROS cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 25 μM lead acetate for 24 hr, in the presence of 10, 30, or 50 μM Zn followed by an additional 24 hr treatment with lead with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (100 pg/ml media). At the end of this period a radioimmunoassay was conducted to determine the amount of osteocalcin in the cells and secreted in the media. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 caused an increase in osteocalcin secreted into the media in cultures containing 0 μM lead, but this increase was inhibited by lead in a concentration dependent manner, so that osteocalcin secretion in 10 or 25 μM lead treated groups was less than cultures without 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 treatment. This inhibitory effect of lead was blocked by increasing the medium zinc concentration of 50 μM. Increasing medium Pb 2+ concentrations decreased the amount of 65 Zn taken up by cells by ∼30%, which was nullified by increasing medium Zn. These results suggest that lead produces a localized and specific Zn deficiency in the vitamin D receptor zinc finger, and perhaps other zinc metalloproteins, and that these effects of lead are not mediated through general effects on RNA or protein synthesis

  5. Face and content validation of a virtual reality temporal bone simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Asit; Khemani, Sam; Tolley, Neil; Singh, Arvind; Budge, James; Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Francis, Howard W; Darzi, Ara; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2012-03-01

    To validate the VOXEL-MAN TempoSurg simulator for temporal bone dissection. Prospective international study. Otolaryngology departments of 2 academic health care institutions in the United Kingdom and United States. Eighty-five subjects were recruited consisting of an experienced and referent group. Participants performed a standardized familiarization session and temporal bone dissection task. Realism, training effectiveness, and global impressions were evaluated across 21 domains using a 5-point Likert-type scale. A score of 4 was the minimum threshold for acceptability. The experienced group comprised 25 otolaryngology trainers who had performed 150 mastoid operations. The referent group comprised 60 trainees (mean otolaryngology experience of 2.9 years). Familiarization took longer in the experienced group (P = .01). User-friendliness was positively rated (mean score 4.1). Seventy percent of participants rated anatomical appearance as acceptable. Trainers rated drill ergonomics worse than did trainees (P = .01). Simulation temporal bone training scored highly (mean score 4.3). Surgical anatomy, drill navigation, and hand-eye coordination accounted for this. Trainees were more likely to recommend temporal bone simulation to a colleague than were trainers (P = .01). Transferability of skills to the operating room was undecided (mean score 3.5). Realism of the VOXEL-MAN virtual reality temporal bone simulator is suboptimal in its current version. Nonetheless, it represents a useful adjunct to existing training methods and is particularly beneficial for novice surgeons before performing cadaveric temporal bone dissection. Improvements in realism, specifically drill ergonomics and visual-spatial perception during deeper temporal bone dissection, are warranted.

  6. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, Alessandro [National Scientific and Technological Development Council, Ministry of Science and Technology, SEPN 509, Bloco A, Sala 204, 70750-901 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil); Reichmann, Peter [Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Agricultural Science Centre/Londrina State University, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Gamba, Humberto Remigio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Post-Graduate Programme in Electrical Engineering and Applied Computer Science, Av. 7 de setembro 3165, 80230-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-12-07

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s{sup -1}, in steps of 1 mm s{sup -1}, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  8. 210Polonium and 210lead content of marine birds from Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, José Marcus; Siciliano, Salvatore; Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Tavares, Davi C.; Fulgencio de Moura, Jaílson

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations of bone, muscle and liver samples that were obtained from twelve different marine bird species stranded on beaches in the central–north region of Rio de Janeiro State. Both radionuclides were highly concentrated in the liver samples; however, the lowest mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio (1.3) was observed in bones compared with liver and muscle (16.8 and 13.8, respectively). Among the species that were studied, Fregata magnificens, with a diet based exclusively on fish, had the lowest 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations and the lowest 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio. The 210 Po concentrations in Puffinus spp. liver samples followed a log-normal distribution, with a geometric mean of 300 Bq kg -1 wet weight . Only two references pertaining to 210 Po in marine birds were found in a Web of Science search of the literature, and each study reported a different concentration value. The values determined in this experiment are consistent with those in one of the previous studies, which also included one of the species studied in this work. No values for 210 Pb in marine birds have been published previously. - Highlights: • 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in muscle, liver and bone samples of marine birds. • For both radionuclides, the highest concentrations were observed on liver samples. • Only three previous publications on 210 Po in marine birds were found in the literature. • The obtained results represent the first one related to 210 Pb in marine birds

  9. Lead contents in and on food. Bleigehalte in und auf Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. (ed.); Weigert, P. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The present situation of contamination of foods by lead in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. Statistical evaluation is based on the 1989 data stored in the ZEBS data base which are available as ADABAS files. The weekly lead intakes were calculated for an average adult female (58 kg body weight) and male person (70 kg body weight) in the age group from 36 to 50 years. For a health assessment of the total lead intake, the provisional tolerable weekly intake as proposed by FAO/WHO was taken as a basis. The edible offals (liver, kidney) of meat animals (cattle, pig), proved to be particularly contaminated with lead, also, owing to the particular nature of their surface, some leafy vegetables (green cabbage, herbs), as well as certain canned products. The extremely high lead levels found in some canned products may be avoided if the use of tinned cans with soldered side seam is discontinued. Most of the foods were found to have low lead levels, on an average. Drinking water and beer are particularly poor in lead. As compared to 1984, the total lead levels of foods have decreased slightly. This is mainly due to the fact that the recently measured lead levels of drinking water were included in the evaluations. The following median weekly intakes were found: Men 0.5801 mg/week, women 0.4111. The reduction of the weekly lead intake leads to a decrease of the percentage share of the WHO values by approx. 11% (in women) and 13% (in men), respectively, if the medians are taken as a basis for calculation of lead levels. (orig./MG)

  10. Accuracy and precision in the in vivo determination of bone minerals content using the attenuation of a continuous x-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonson, R.; Roos, B.; Hansson, T.; Mattsson, S.

    1986-01-01

    An x-ray technique using a highly stabilized generator and a germanium detector for the in vivo determination of bone mineral content in the lumbar vertebra has been described previously from the authors laboratory. This technique estimates the bone mineral content in presence of fat and lean soft tissue in the path of the x-ray beam. The present investigation was undertaken in vitro to determine the accuracy, precision and long term reproducibility of the technique. The ash density of 12 human bone specimens was determined on the basis of ash weight and total volume measurements of each specimen. The result was compared with the measured bone mineral content. The deviation between the result of the attenuation measurements and the weight/volume measurements was (4 +/- 0.9%). The precision of the method as measured in vitro has been determined to be between +/- 1.6% (high bone mineral content) and +/- 2.6% (low bone mineral content) by repeated measurements on a new type of bone mineral phantom. The results show that the technique described gives an accuracy and a precision which is of the same order of magnitude as the technique using dual photon energy absorptiometry

  11. Fourteen-year trends in sodium content of menu offerings at eight leading fast-food restaurants in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudelt, Amanda; French, Simone; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    To examine changes in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food restaurants in the USA between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Menu offerings and nutrient composition information for the menu items were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) Food and Nutrient Database. Nutrient composition information for lunch/dinner menu items sold by the fast-food restaurants included in the present study was updated in the database biannually. Menus were analysed for changes in mean Na content of all menu offerings (except beverages) and specific categories of menu items among all restaurants and for each individual restaurant. Lunch/dinner food menu of eight leading US fast-food restaurants. Between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010 the mean Na content of menu offerings across the eight restaurants increased by 23·4 %. Examining specific food categories, mean Na content of entrées by increased 17·2 % and that of condiments increased by 26·1 %. Only side dishes showed a decrease of 6·6 %. None of the restaurants examined had a decrease in Na across the lunch/dinner menu offerings over the 14 years examined. Results suggest that over the time period studied there has been no meaningful reduction in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at the leading fast-food restaurants examined in the present study.

  12. Chlorophyll content in pine (Pinus silvestris L. needles exposed to flue dust from lead and zinc works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a and b, sulphur, zinc and lead contents were determined in annual and biennial needles of Scotch pine (Pinus silevstris L. exposed to flue dust-polluted air. Intoxication indexes were calculated on the basis of the obtained results.

  13. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  14. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT

  15. Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

  16. Strontium-90 content of human bones collected from 1962 to 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.

    1967-01-01

    The aim of this report is essentially to present results of 90 Sr determination made on human bones collected in the Paris region from 1962 to 1966. The results are classified according to the year and the age-group in, two tables and one figure which show the general evolution of the contamination during this period. (author) [fr

  17. Busulphan/cyclophosphamide conditioning for bone marrow transplantation may lead to failure of hair regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B W; Wilson, C L; Davis, A L; Spearing, R L; Hart, D N; Heaton, D C; Beard, M E

    1991-01-01

    Following the introduction of bulsulphan and cyclophosphamide (BUCY) conditioning in our unit in 1987, a number of patients noted incomplete scalp hair regrowth following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Between August 1987 and May 1989, 22 patients had undergone allogeneic or autologous BMT in our unit and we recalled for detailed assessment the 14 who were alive and well at least 6 months post grafting. Six patients had experienced incomplete hair regrowth of varying severity 7-27 months following BMT. All those affected had received BUCY conditioning and the four most severely affected were allogeneic BMT recipients. No patient had received any post-BMT chemotherapy or radiation. None of the patients had evidence of graft-versus-host disease. No laboratory test abnormalities distinguished the affected from the unaffected patients. Despite the relatively small number of patients, our results suggest that BUCY has caused permanent damage to the hair follicles of the affected patients. Prolonged alopecia may markedly impair the quality of life for long-term survivors of BMT and this unexpected complication also has significant medicolegal implications.

  18. Lead Content of Round scad (Decapterus macrosoma)from Batangas Bay, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Reygan H. Sangalang; Erma B. Quinay

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the presence of lead in the head, flesh and internalorgans of roundscad (Decapterus macrosoma) collected from three sampling stations along Batangas Bay, Philippines. It is done to assess if the lead levels are still within the safety level set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Quantitative analysis following Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) official method confir...

  19. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-01-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions. (orig.) [de

  20. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  1. Correlation between fluorine content in tea and bone assessed using neutron activation analysis in a Canadian urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, F.E.; Chettle, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Brewed tea from Canadian brands was analyzed for fluorine content using neutron activation analysis. Black tea contained (mean ± SEM) 5.4 ± 0.2 μg F/ml, while green tea contained less, 3.7 ± 0.5 μg F/ml. Using the numbers from black tea, and our unique data from non-invasive measurements of fluoride in bone, we estimate that tea drinkers in Hamilton are consuming, on average, 25 μg F/kg bw per day, the equivalent of approximately 1.5 cups of tea per day. (author)

  2. Lead induces chondrogenesis and alters transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mesenchymal cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuscik, Michael J; Ma, Lin; Buckley, Taylor; Puzas, J Edward; Drissi, Hicham; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2007-09-01

    It has been established that skeletal growth is stunted in lead-exposed children. Because chondrogenesis is a seminal step during skeletal development, elucidating the impact of Pb on this process is the first step toward understanding the mechanism of Pb toxicity in the skeleton. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Pb alters chondrogenic commitment of mesenchymal cells and to assess the effects of Pb on various signaling pathways. We assessed the influence of Pb on chondrogenesis in murine limb bud mesenchymal cells (MSCs) using nodule formation assays and gene analyses. The effects of Pb on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was studied using luciferase-based reporters and Western analyses, and luciferase-based assays were used to study cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), beta-catenin, AP-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling. We also used an ectopic bone formation assay to determine how Pb affects chondrogenesis in vivo. Pb-exposed MSCs showed enhanced basal and TGF-beta/BMP induction of chondrogenesis, evidenced by enhanced nodule formation and up-regulation of Sox-9, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, all key markers of chondrogenesis. We observed enhanced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation in mice preexposed to Pb via drinking water. In MSCs, Pb enhanced TGF-beta but inhibited BMP-2 signaling, as measured by luciferase reporter assays and Western analyses of Smad phosphorylation. Although Pb had no effect on basal CREB or Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activity, it induced NFkappaB signaling and inhibited AP-1 signaling. The in vitro and in vivo induction of chondrogenesis by Pb likely involves modulation and integration of multiple signaling pathways including TGF-beta, BMP, AP-1, and NFkappaB.

  3. Kinetic and mechanism studies of the adsorption of lead onto waste cow bone powder (WCBP) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jihoon; Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and mechanisms of Pb²(+) sorption onto waste cow bone powder (WCBP) surfaces. The concentrations of Pb²(+) in the study range from 10 to 90 mg/L. Although the sorption data follow the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, a detailed examination reveals that surface sorption or complexation and co-precipitation are the most important mechanisms, along with possibly ion exchange and solid diffusion also contributing to the overall sorption process. The co-precipitation of Pb²(+) with the calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HAP) is implied by significant changes in Ca²(+) and PO₄³⁻ concentrations during the metal sorption processes. The Pb²(+) sorption onto the WCBP surface by metal complexation with surface functional groups such as ≡ POH. The major metal surface species are likely to be ≡ POPb(+). The sorption isotherm results indicated that Pb²(+) sorption onto the Langmuir and Freundlich constant q(max) and K( F ) is 9.52 and 8.18 mg g⁻¹, respectively. Sorption kinetics results indicated that Pb²(+) sorption onto WCBP was pseudo-second-order rate constants K₂ was 1.12 g mg⁻¹ h⁻¹. The main mechanism is adsorption or surface complexation (≡POPb(+): 61.6%), co-precipitation or ion exchange [Ca₃(.)₉₃ Pb₁(.)₀₇ (PO₄)₃ (OH): 21.4%] and other precipitation [Pb 50 mg L⁻¹ and natural pH: 17%). Sorption isotherms showed that WCBP has a much higher Pb²(+) removal rate in an aqueous solution; the greater capability of WCBP to remove aqueous Pb²(+) indicates its potential as another promising way to remediate Pb²(+)-contaminated media.

  4. INFLUENCE OF MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND LEAD CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE, HARDNESS AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paidpilli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, one batch of prealloyed 6061Al powder was processed by mixing and another one was ball milled with varying amount of lead content (0-15 vol. %. These powders were compacted at 300MPa and sintered at 590˚C under N2. The instrumented hardness and the young’s modulus of as-sintered 6061Al-Pb alloys were examined as a function of lead content and processing route. The wear test under dry sliding condition has been performed at varying loads (10-40 N using pin-on-disc tribometer. The microstructure and worn surfaces have been investigated using SEM to evaluate the change in topographical features due to mechanical alloying and lead content. The mechanically alloyed materials showed improved wear characteristics as compared to as-mixed counterpart alloys. Delamination of 6061Al-Pb alloys decreases up to an optimum lead composition in both as-mixed and ball-milled 6061Al-Pb alloys. The results indicated minimum wear rate for as-mixed and ball-milled 6061Al alloy at 5 and 10 vol. % Pb, respectively.

  5. Micro-EDXRF surface analyses of a bronze spear head: Lead content in metal and corrosion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Valerio, P.; Araujo, M.F.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    A bronze spear head from Central Portugal dated to Late Bronze Age has been analyzed by non-destructive micro-EDXRF in the metal surface and corrosion layers. The artifact had previously been analyzed using a conventional EDXRF spectrometer having a larger incident beam. The quantification of the micro-EDXRF analyses showed that lead content in corrosion layers can reach values up to four times higher than the content determined in the metal surface. Results obtained with the higher energy incident beam from the EDXRF equipment, although referring mainly to the corrosion layers, seem to suffer some influence from the surface composition of the metallic alloy

  6. Dual photon absorptiometry in patients with Paget disease (bone mineral contents of lumbar spine and femoral neck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Piketty, C.; Kiffel, T.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1988-01-01

    The bone mineral contents (BMC) of the lumbar spine (84 cases) and of one femoral neck (53 cases) were measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in patients suffering from Paget's disease of bone. The BMC of the patients and of 53 controls were compared, taking into account the occurrence of a scintigraphic hyperfixation, in each patient. A hyperfixation of the technetium labelled diphosphonate in the lumbar spine, more frequent in males, was associated with an elevated mean BMC value. The difference versus controls was significant in men but not in women. A hyperfixation of the femoral neck was associated with an elevated mean BMC value in both sexes. BMC values greater than the mean BMC of controls + 2 SD were observed in 83 per cent of these male patients and 50 per cent of the females. In contrast, BMC values lower than in controls were observed in non-pagetic areas. DPA allows the quantification of these abnormalities which cannot be evidenced by bone scintigraphy even if alkaline phosphatases levels are assayed [fr

  7. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Curve fitting using a genetic algorithm for the X-ray fluorescence measurement of lead in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L.; McMaster University, Hamilton; Chettle, D.R.; Nie, H.; McNeill, F.E.; Popovic, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potential application of the genetic algorithm in the analysis of X-ray fluorescence spectra from measurement of lead in bone. Candidate solutions are first designed based on the field knowledge and the whole operation, evaluation, selection, crossover and mutation, is then repeated until a given convergence criterion is met. An average-parameters based genetic algorithm is suggested to improve the fitting precision and accuracy. Relative standard deviation (RSD%) of fitting amplitude, peak position and width is 1.3-7.1, 0.009-0.14 and 1.4-3.3, separately. The genetic algorithm was shown to make a good resolution and fitting of K lines of Pb and γ elastic peaks. (author)

  9. Correlation of serum Dickkopf-1 content with bone destruction, inflammatory response and oxidation reaction in patients with gouty arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1 content with bone destruction, inflammatory response and oxidation reaction in patients with gouty arthritis. Methods: A total of 40 patients with acute gouty arthritis who were treated in our hospital between 2013 and 2016 were selected as the group A of the study, 56 patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia who were treated in our hospital during the same period were selected as the group B of the study, and 60 healthy volunteers who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group of the study. The serum was collected to detect the contents of DKK-1, bone destruction indexes, inflammatory response indexes and oxidation reaction indexes. Results: Serum DKK-1, TRACP5b, RANKL, β-CTX, PGE2, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD14, MDA, 8-OHdG and 3-NT levels of group A and group B were significantly higher than those of control group while SOD and GSH-Px levels were significantly lower than those of control group; serum DKK-1, TRACP5b, RANKL, β-CTX, PGE2, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD14, MDA, 8-OHdG and 3-NT levels of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while SOD and GSH-Px levels were significantly lower than those of group B; serum DKK-1 level was positively correlated with TRACP5b, RANKL, β-CTX, PGE2, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD14, MDA, 8-OHdG and 3-NT levels, and negatively correlated with SOD and GSH-Px levels. Conclusion: Abnormally elevated DKK-1 in patients with gouty arthritis can induce articular bone destruction as well as inflammatory response and oxidative stress response activation.

  10. Toxic Effect of Lead on Nitrogen Contents and Enzymes in Wheat Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Parveen; Mukherji, S.

    2005-01-01

    Application of lead nitrate solution to the foliar parts of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sonalika) caused inhibition of uptake of total as well as soluble nitrogen in pre- and post-flowering stages. Maximum inhibition was recorded under the highest dose (10 mM) in both the stages. Catalase also suffered gradual reduction in the activity with the increase of concentration and a maximum reduction of 56 and 41 per cent was recoreded in pre- and post flowering stage respectively, under 10 mM dose. Peroxidase and IAA oxidase showed progressive increase in their activity proportional to the concentration of lead. In peroxidase, a maximum of 108 and 85 per cent increased activity was noted at the highest dose at pre- and post-flowering stages respectively, while in IAA oxidase highest dose resulted in 46 and 84 per cent increment in the activity from the control at pre- and post-flowering stages respectively. (authors)

  11. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  12. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  13. Determination of contents of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate in solutions for alkaline leading of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, V.

    1988-01-01

    The new analytical method is based on the determination of the molar ratio carbonate - hydrogen carbonate using the measured concentration of hydrogen ions, the determination of the dissociation constant of carbonic acid for different values of ionic strength. The concentration of hydrogen ions was measured with a Metrohm 632 pH meter with the use of a combined glass electrode. The content of total carbonate carbon was determined coulometrically and the uranium content was determined by extraction with tributyl phosphate and by spectrometry of the complex of uranyl ions with Arsenazo III. Model solutions were used for the experiments which contained a high concentration of sulfate ions, thiosulfate ions, uranium and various proportions of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The composition of the individual samples of the extraction solutions are tabulated. The calibration was made of the glass combined electrode at different ionic strength, the values determined of dissociation constants of carbonic acid for different ionic strength. The mathematical procedure is described for the calculation of molar concentrations of carbonate and hudrogen carbonate and the results are presented of the analysis of model solutions. (E.S.). 5 tabs., 1 fig., 5 refs

  14. Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Contents of Fish Marketed in NW Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín G. Frías-Espericueta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23±5.83, Cu: 1.72±0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight. Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48±0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57±0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72±0.12; small shark: 0.87±0.19 µg/g dry weight indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg.

  15. Radiogenic lead with dominant content of {sup 208}Pb: New coolant and neutron moderator for innovative nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kryuchkov, E. F.; Apse, V. A.; Kulikov, E. G. [National Research Nuclear Univ. MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse, 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The advantages of radiogenic lead with dominant content of {sup 208}Pb as a reactor coolant with respect to natural lead are caused by unique nuclear properties of {sup 208}Pb which is a double-magic nucleus with closed proton and neutron shells. This results in significantly lower micro cross section and resonance integral of radiative neutron capture by {sup 208}Pb than those for numerous light neutron moderators. The extremely weak ability of {sup 208}Pb to absorb neutrons results in the following effects. Firstly, neutron moderating factor (ratio of scattering to capture cross sections) is larger than that for graphite and light water. Secondly, age and diffusion length of thermal neutrons are larger than those for graphite, light and heavy water. Thirdly, neutron lifetime in {sup 208}Pb is comparable with that for graphite, beryllium and heavy water what could be important for safe reactor operation. The paper presents some results obtained in neutronics and thermal-hydraulics evaluations of the benefits from the use of radiogenic lead with dominant content of {sup 208}Pb instead of natural lead as a coolant of fast breeder reactors. The paper demonstrates that substitution of radiogenic lead for natural lead can offer the following benefits for operation of fast breeder reactors. Firstly, improvement of the reactor safety thanks to the better values of coolant temperature reactivity coefficient and, secondly, improvement of some thermal-hydraulic reactor parameters. Radiogenic lead can be extracted from thorium sludge without isotope separation as {sup 208}Pb is a final isotope in the decay chain of {sup 232}Th. (authors)

  16. Radiogenic Lead with Dominant Content of 208Pb: New Coolant and Neutron Moderator for Innovative Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shmelev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a rule materials of small atomic weight (light and heavy water, graphite, and so on are used as neutron moderators and reflectors. A new very heavy atomic weight moderator is proposed—radiogenic lead consisting mainly of isotope 208Pb. It is characterized by extremely low neutron radiative capture cross-section (0.23 mbarn for thermal neutrons, i.e., less than that for graphite and deuterium and highest albedo of thermal neutrons. It is evaluated that the use of radiogenic lead makes it possible to slow down the chain fission reaction on prompt neutrons in a fast reactor. This can increase safety of the fast reactors and reduce as well requirements pertaining to the fuel fabrication technology. Radiogenic lead with high 208Pb content as a liquid-metal coolant of fast reactors helps to achieve a favorable (negative reactivity coefficient on coolant temperature. It is noteworthy that radiogenic lead with high 208Pb content may be extracted from thorium (as well as thorium-uranium ores without isotope separation. This has been confirmed experimentally by the investigations performed at San Paulo University, Brazil.

  17. Dual photon absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar bone mineral content. Methodology - Reproductibility - Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Duboeuf, F.; Delmas, P.D.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made with a DPA apparatus (Novo Lab 22a) on different phantoms and on volunteers in an attempt to evaluate the system precision. The reproductibility was found in the range of 0.98 to 4.10 % in the case of in vitro measurements, depending on the geometry of the phantoms used, and in the range of 1.6 to 2.94 % for volunteers after repositioning. Secondly, the BMD in the lumbar spine of normal women and normal men was estimated. In control females, the BMD is well fitted to the age by a cubic regression. The maximum value of the BMD is found in this case at the age of 31.5 and the maximum rate of bone loss takes place at 57. Total bone loss between 31.5 and the elderly is about 32 %. In control males, results are more scattered and are represented by a simple linear regression. The average mineral loss between 30 and 80 years is 11.5 % in this area of measurement [fr

  18. Preadipocyte Factor-1 Levels Are Higher in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea and Are Associated with Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density through a Mechanism Independent of Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Context: Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Design: Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. Setting and Patients: At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. Intervention: For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Results: Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = −0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = −0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Conclusions: Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1. PMID:21795455

  19. Preadipocyte factor-1 levels are higher in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and are associated with bone mineral content and bone mineral density through a mechanism independent of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-10-01

    Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = -0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = -0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1.

  20. The effect of different propolis harvest methods on its lead contents determined by ET AAS and UV-visS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy, National University of Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)]. E-mail: amsales@fbqf.unt.edu.ar; Alvarez, A. [National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Experimental Station Famailla, Ruta 301, Km 32, Famailla, Tucuman (Argentina); Areal, M. Rodriguez [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy, National University of Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina); Maldonado, L. [National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Experimental Station Famailla, Ruta 301, Km 32, Famailla, Tucuman (Argentina); Marchisio, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy, National University of Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina); Rodriguez, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy, National University of Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina); Bedascarrasbure, E. [National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Experimental Station Famailla, Ruta 301, Km 32, Famailla, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-10-11

    Argentinean propolis is exported to different countries, specially Japan. The market demands propolis quality control according to international standards. The analytical determination of some metals, as lead in food, is very important for their high toxicity even in low concentrations and because of their harmful effects on health. Flavonoids, the main bioactive compounds of propolis, tend to chelate metals as lead, which becomes one of the main polluting agents of propolis. The lead found in propolis may come from the atmosphere or it may be incorporated in the harvest, extraction and processing methods. The aim of this work is to evaluate lead level on Argentinean propolis determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and UV-vis spectrophotometry (UV-visS) methods, as well as the effect of harvest methods on those contents. A randomized test with three different treatments of collection was made to evaluate the effect of harvest methods. These procedures were: separating wedges (traditional), netting plastic meshes and stamping out plastic meshes. By means of the analysis of variance technique for multiple comparisons (ANOVA) it was possible to conclude that there are significant differences between scraped and mesh methods (stamped out and mosquito netting meshes). The results obtained in the present test would allow us to conclude that mesh methods are more advisable than scraped ones in order to obtain innocuous and safe propolis with minor lead contents. A statistical comparison of lead determination by both, ET AAS and UV-visS methods, demonstrated that there is not a significant difference in the results achieved with the two analytical techniques employed.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  2. Local differences in mineral content in vertebral trabecular bone measured by dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, J.; Mosekilde, L.; Aarhus Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve lumbar vertebral bodies from cadavers were examined with dual-energy CT, to measure the calcium content in a big central region of interest (ROI). In each of five vertebrae the calcium content was also measured in six small ROI. After completed scanning, six small cylinders were drilled out from each vertebra, and the ash-density of each cylinder was measured. The dual-energy CT measurements correlated well with the ash-density. Both ash-density and dual-energy CT showed a significantly higher mineral content in the posterior part of the vertebrae than in the anterior part, and this difference might be responsible for problems encountered with the reproducibility of dual-energy CT. (orig.)

  3. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  4. Determination of the calcium salt content on the trunk skeleton and on the peripheral bone applying the Compton backscattering method and the ashing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    The Compton backscattering method is applied to determine the bone decalcification. Post mortal excised calcanei and vertebral bodies of 50 people are taken as investigation objects which are examined for their calcium salt content and are then ashed for control measurement. The results show that the method would be better suited to early diagnosis of calcipenic osteopathy than the densitometric method used today on extremity bones. (ORU/LH) [de

  5. The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, Miloš; Petrov, Michal; Komárek, Josef

    2017-12-11

    Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer. Median total contents of Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.04, 0.47, and 1.6 mg/kg in whole lichens, respectively. The bottom-up distributions of these metals in the fruticose lichen thalli were investigated, and it was revealed that the accumulation patterns for mercury and lead were opposite to that for cadmium. The probable reason for this phenomenon may lie in the inner structure of thalli. The total contents of metals were comparable with those published for other unpolluted areas of maritime Antarctica. However, this finding was not expected for mercury, since the sampling locality was close to an area with some of the highest mercury contents published for Antarctic lichens. In short, lichens proved their usability as biological monitors, even in harsh conditions. However, the findings emphasize the need to take into account the distributions of elements both in the environment and in the lichen itself.

  6. Clinical application of determination of serum ICTP and PINP contents in cancer patients with bone metastasis for diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haizhong; Li Bin; Zhu Yaling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical usefulness of determination of serum carboxy terminal telepeptide type I collagen (ICTP) and aminoterminal prepeptide type I procollagen (PINP) in cancer patients with bone metastasis for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Serum ICTP and PINP contents were measured with RIA in 115 patients and 30 controls. These patients consisted of : 1) Group A, less than 6 metastatic foci, n=47 2) Group B, 6-20 foci, n=42 3) Group C, over 20 foci, n=26. A second measurement of these markers was done in 35 of the 115 patients after comprehensive treatment. Results: The Serum ICTP and PINP contents in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.01). The contents increased steadily from Group A to Group C, with significant differences between those in successive groups (p<0.01 or p<0.05). Levels of the two markers correlated well to the number of foci (r=0.68, p<0.01; r=0.52, p<0.01). In the 35 treated patients, the levels dropped significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Both ICTP and PINP level determinations could reflect the clinical status of metastatic size and treatment effect (ICTP more sensitive)

  7. Bias correction by use of errors-in-variables regression models in studies with K-X-ray fluorescence bone lead measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Angeles, Gustavo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard

    2011-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of bone lead by means of K-X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) is the preferred biological marker of chronic exposure to lead. Unfortunately, considerable measurement error associated with KXRF estimations can introduce bias in estimates of the effect of bone lead when this variable is included as the exposure in a regression model. Estimates of uncertainty reported by the KXRF instrument reflect the variance of the measurement error and, although they can be used to correct the measurement error bias, they are seldom used in epidemiological statistical analyzes. Errors-in-variables regression (EIV) allows for correction of bias caused by measurement error in predictor variables, based on the knowledge of the reliability of such variables. The authors propose a way to obtain reliability coefficients for bone lead measurements from uncertainty data reported by the KXRF instrument and compare, by the use of Monte Carlo simulations, results obtained using EIV regression models vs. those obtained by the standard procedures. Results of the simulations show that Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models provide severely biased estimates of effect, and that EIV provides nearly unbiased estimates. Although EIV effect estimates are more imprecise, their mean squared error is much smaller than that of OLS estimates. In conclusion, EIV is a better alternative than OLS to estimate the effect of bone lead when measured by KXRF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of the bone-mineral content of the peripheral skeleton (ulna and calcaneus) in chronic renal failure patients on maintenance dialysis using 125 I-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieber, U.

    1982-01-01

    The bone-mineral content (BMC) of the peripheral skeleton was measured in 53 chronic renal-failure patients on maintenance dialysis using the 125 I photon absorptiometry according to Cameron. 39.6% of the patients were found to have a clearly pathological calcium content in calcaneus and ulna (33%). In total BMC assessments 43.4% of the patients examined showed strongly reduced BMC values at two measurement sites at least. Average bone-mineral content was below the value of the corresponding normal groups in all age groups of the dialysis patients. In addition, a significant correlation was verified to exist between the calcium contents of calcaneus and ulna. A significant correlation was found as well between reduced BMC values and dialysis duration. The correlation between the increased serum level of alkaline phosphatase and the reduced mineral content of the skeleton was significant as well. A minor but not significant correlation existed between the increase of the parathormone (PTH) level in the serum and the decrease of calcium content in calcaneus and ulna. A good correlation was found when contrasting the results of visual roentgenography and the BMC values established by photodensitometry: the median BMC value of patients with clear pathological X-ray findings was significantly below the one of patients without pathological X-ray findings. However, photon absorptiometry is superior to the subjective evaluation of X-ray pictures in the early diagnosis of bone diseases involving bone-mineral loss. (orig.) [de

  9. Bone Tissue Collagen Maturity and Mineral Content Increase With Sustained Hyperglycemia in the KK-Ay Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather B; Pearl, Jared C; Diaz, David R; King, Karen B; Donnelly, Eve

    2018-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases fracture risk for a given bone mineral density (BMD), which suggests that T2DM changes bone tissue properties independently of bone mass. In this study, we assessed the effects of hyperglycemia on bone tissue compositional properties, enzymatic collagen crosslinks, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the KK-Ay murine model of T2DM using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to KK-aa littermate controls (n = 8), proximal femoral bone tissue of KK-Ay mice (n = 14) exhibited increased collagen maturity, increased mineral content, and less heterogeneous mineral properties. AGE accumulation assessed by the concentration of pentosidine, as well as the concentrations of the nonenzymatic crosslinks hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), did not differ in the proximal femurs of KK-Ay mice compared to controls. The observed differences in tissue-level compositional properties in the KK-Ay mice are consistent with bone that is older and echo observations of reduced remodeling in T2DM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Development of Au-Ge based candidate alloys as an alternative to high-lead content solders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The changes in microstructure and microhardness associated with the addition of low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au......-Ge-In and Au-Ge-Sn combinations was determined to be the classic solid solution strengthening. The Au-Ge-Sb combination was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The aging temperature had a significant influence on the microhardness in the case of the Au-Ge-Sn candidate alloy...

  11. Improved prediction of meat and bone meal metabolizable energy content for ducks through in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Phillips, J G; Adeola, O

    2012-08-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of meat and bone meal (MBM) for poultry is highly variable, but impractical to measure routinely. Previous efforts at developing an in vitro method for predicting AME have had limited success. The present study uses data from a previous publication on the AME of 12 MBM samples, determined using 288 White Pekin ducks, as well as composition data on these samples. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that 2 noncompositional attributes of MBM, particle size and protease resistance, will have utility in improving predictions of AME based on in vitro measurements. Using the same MBM samples as the previous study, 2 measurements of particle size were recorded and protease resistance was determined using a modified pepsin digestibility assay. Analysis of the results using a stepwise construction of multiple linear regression models revealed that the measurements of particle size were useful in building models for AME, but the measure of protease resistance was not. Relatively simple (4-term) and complex (7-term) models for both AME and nitrogen-corrected AME were constructed, with R-squared values ranging from 0.959 to 0.996. The rather minor analytical effort required to conduct the measurements involved is discussed. Although the generality of the results are limited by the number of samples involved and the species used, they suggest that AME for poultry can be accurately predicted through simple and inexpensive in vitro methods.

  12. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p accounting for the effects of age, sex, height, lean mass, and fat mass, the total activity diversity score remained independently associated with leg BMC in children with DCD, explaining 5.1% of the variance (p = 0.030). However, the physical activity diversity score was no longer associated with leg BMC (p = 0.090). Diversity of activity participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  13. Determining the arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillets from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Luciano; Vitali, Luciano; Ploêncio, Leandro As; Santos, Jacson N; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-07-01

    Pangasius is a fish produced on a large scale in Vietnam and exported to many countries. Since river contamination from human activities can affect the safety of this food, fish consumption can cause exposure to potentially toxic elements for humans. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillet produced in the provinces of Dong Thap and Can Tho (Vietnam) and exported to Brazil. The limits of detection were: arsenic 0.5443 µg kg(-1) , cadmium 0.0040 mg kg(-1) , chromium 0.0004 mg kg(-1) , copper 0.0037 mg kg(-1) and lead 0.0284 mg kg(-1) . Analysis of 20 samples showed results below the limit of detection for arsenic, chromium and lead, while copper average concentration was 0.0234 mg kg(-1) . Cadmium average concentration was 0.0547 mg kg(-1) , with no significant difference between the two regions studied. The samples of Pangasius had no detectable concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper and lead, and do not represent a hazard to public health. However, cadmium analysis revealed non-compliant samples, demonstrating the importance of monitoring the quality of imported Pangasius fish. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} (addition of CaCl{sub 2}) leads to increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights:

  15. The effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on the nitrogen and phosphorus content and pH of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in 2011 – 2013 in Poland. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM on the mineral nitrogen (Nmin and available phosphorus (P content of soil and the soil pH. Changes in the content of NH4+-N, NO3--N and available P in soil were affected by MBM dose, experiment duration, weather conditions and crop species. Soil amended with MBM was more abundant in mineral N and available P. The lowest concentration of NO3--N and the highest concentration of NH4+-N were noted in the first year of the study, because the nitrification process requires a longer time. MBM had no influence on the accumulation of Nmin in soil, whereas the concentration of available P increased significantly throughout the experiment. The soil pH decreased with increasing MBM doses. After the application of the highest MBM doses soil pH classification was changed from neutral to slightly acidic.

  16. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELL CONTENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY MARROW USED FOR COMBINED SOLID ORGAN AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Witold B.; Fontes, Paulo A.; Rao, Abdul S.; Winkelstein, Alan; Ricordi, Camillo; Ball, Edward D.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    While cadaveric vertebral bodies (VB) have long been proposed as a suitable source of bone marrow (BM) for transplantation (BMT), they have rarely been used for this purpose. We have infused VB BM immediately following whole organ (WO) transplantation to augment donor cell chimerism. We quantified the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) content of VB BM as well as BM obtained from the iliac crests (IC) of normal allogeneic donors (ALLO) and from patients with malignancy undergoing autologous marrow harvest (AUTO). Patients undergoing WOIBM transplantation also had AUTO BM harvested in the event that subsequent lymphohematopoietic reconstitution was required. Twenty-four VB BM, 24 IC BM-ALLO, 31 IC AUTO, and 24 IC WO-AUTO were harvested. VB BM was tested 12 to 72 hr after procurement and infused after completion ofWO grafting. IC BM was tested and then used or cryopreserved immediately. HPC were quantified by clonal assay measuring CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, and by flow cytometry for CD34+ progenitor cells. On an average, 9 VB were processed during each harvest, and despite an extended processing time the number of viable nucleated cells obtained was significantly higher than that from IC. Furthermore, by HPC content, VB BM was equivalent to IC BM, which is routinely used for BMT. We conclude that VB BM is a clinically valuable source of BM for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:7701582

  17. Fragility Fracture Incidence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients Associates With Nanoporosity, Mineral/Matrix Ratio, and Pyridinoline Content at Actively Bone-Forming Trabecular Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Dempster, David; Jorgetti, Vanda; Borba, Victoria; Boguszewski, Cesar L; Klaushofer, Klaus; Moreira, Carolina A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and altered microstructure by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography. Nevertheless, not all COPD patients sustain fragility fractures. In the present study, we used Raman microspectroscopic analysis to determine bone compositional properties at actively forming trabecular surfaces (based on double fluorescent labels) in iliac crest biopsies from 19 postmenopausal COPD patients (aged 62.1 ± 7.3 years). Additionally, we analyzed trabecular geometrical centers, representing tissue much older than the forming surfaces. Eight of the patients had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. None of the patients had taken oral glucocorticoids. The monitored parameters were mineral/matrix ratio (MM), nanoporosity, and relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG), lipid, and pyridinoline contents (PYD). There were no significant differences between the glucocorticoid-treated patients and those who did not receive any. On the other hand, COPD patients sustaining fragility fractures had significantly lower nanoporosity and higher MM and PYD values compared with COPD patients without fragility fractures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate between fracture and non-fracture COPD patients based on differences in the material properties of bone matrix. Given that these bone material compositional differences are evident close to the cement line (a major bone interface), they may contribute to the inferior bone toughness and coupled with the lower lumbar spine bone mineral density values result in the fragility fractures prevalent in these patients. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  19. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Pkd2 leads to low-turnover osteopenia and reduced bone marrow adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhousheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Polycystin-1 (Pkd1 interacts with polycystin-2 (Pkd2 to form an interdependent signaling complex. Selective deletion of Pkd1 in the osteoblast lineage reciprocally regulates osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. The role of Pkd2 in skeletal development has not been defined. To this end, we conditionally inactivated Pkd2 in mature osteoblasts by crossing Osteocalcin (Oc-Cre;Pkd2+/null mice with floxed Pkd2 (Pkd2flox/flox mice. Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null (Pkd2Oc-cKO mice exhibited decreased bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, cortical thickness, mineral apposition rate and impaired biomechanical properties of bone. Pkd2 deficiency resulted in diminished Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expressions in bone and impaired osteoblastic differentiation ex vivo. Expression of osteoblast-related genes, including, Osteocalcin, Osteopontin, Bone sialoprotein (Bsp, Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (Phex, Dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1, Sclerostin (Sost, and Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 were reduced proportionate to the reduction of Pkd2 gene dose in bone of Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/+ and Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null mice. Loss of Pkd2 also resulted in diminished peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ expression and reduced bone marrow fat in vivo and reduced adipogenesis in osteoblast culture ex vivo. Transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ and Yes-associated protein (YAP, reciprocally acting as co-activators and co-repressors of Runx2 and PPARγ, were decreased in bone of Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null mice. Thus, Pkd1 and Pkd2 have coordinate effects on osteoblast differentiation and opposite effects on adipogenesis, suggesting that Pkd1 and Pkd2 signaling pathways can have independent effects on mesenchymal lineage commitment in bone.

  20. Problems in Determination of Skeletal Lead Burden in Archaeological Samples: An Example From the First African Baptist Church Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittmers, L.E. Jr.; Aufderheide, A.C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Jones, Keith; Angel, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Human bone lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental correlates. Skeletal tissue samples from 135 individuals from an early nineteenth century Philadelphia cemetery (First African Baptist Church) were studied by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence for lead content. High bone lead levels led to investigation of possible diagenetic effects. These were investigated by several different approaches including distribution of lead within bone by x-ray fluorescence, histological preservation, soil lead concentration and acidity as well as location and depth of burial. Bone lead levels were very high in children, exceeding those of the adult population that were buried in the cemetery, and also those of present day adults. The antemortem age-related increase in bone lead, reported in other studies, was not evidenced in this population. Lead was even deposited in areas of taphonomic bone destruction. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence studies revealed no consistent pattern of lead microdistribution within the bone. Our conclusions are that postmortem diagenesis of lead ion has penetrated these archaeological bones to a degree that makes their original bone lead content irretrievable by any known method. Increased bone porosity is most likely responsible for the very high levels of lead found in bones of newborns and children

  1. What's the state of energy studies research?: A content analysis of three leading journals from 1999 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, Anthony Louis; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Trott, Kirsten; Ramos, Catherine Regalado; Saleem, Saleena; Ong, Yanchun

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a content analysis conducted on 2502 papers written by 5318 authors published between 1999 and 2008 in three leading energy studies journals: Energy Policy, The Energy Journal, and The Electricity Journal. Our study finds that authors were most likely to be male, based in North America, possess a background in science or engineering, and affiliated with a university or research institute. Articles were likely to be written by authors working within disciplinary boundaries and using research methods from an economics/engineering background. The US was the most written about country among papers that adopted a country focus and electricity was the most frequently discussed energy source. Energy markets and public policy instruments were the most popular focus areas. According to these findings, we identify five thematic areas whose further investigation could enhance the energy studies field and increase the policy-relevance of contemporary research.

  2. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  3. Bone mineral content in the spongiosa of the lumbar spine of healthy perimenopausal women measured by QCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, M.; Meyer-Galander, H.M.; Peters, P.E.; Doeren, M.; Montag, T.

    1988-01-01

    Healthy perimenopausal women (152) were examined by QCT to quantify the mineral content of the axial skeleton. The density was measured in the spongiosa of the L 2-4, using single energy technique and the Cann-Genant calibration phantom. The women, aged 37 to 64, had no history of pathological fractures, ovariectomy, metabolic disease, or hormone therapy. The age-related mean values were 25 mg K2HP04/cm 3 lower than the normal values reported by Genant et al. for 203 healthy American women. The 95% confidence interval was distinctly narrower (±40 mg/cm 3 ) than the American confidence interval (±60 mg/cm 3 ). To evaluate the relationship of the BMC to mechanical stress, the BMC was compared with body weight, body mass index (weight/height 2 ), and the lumbar muscle mass was estimated from cross sections of the paravertebral muscles in the CT images. The assumption that higher mechanical stress results in higher bone mineralization could not be confirmed. (orig.) [de

  4. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  5. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  6. Lead effects on development and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells promote Th2 immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Donghong; Mondal, Tapan K.; Lawrence, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Although lead (Pb) has significant effects on the development and function of macrophages, B cells, and T cells and has been suggested to promote allergic asthma in mice and humans, Pb modulation of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and the resultant DC effects on Th1 and Th2 development have not been examined. Accordingly, we cultured BM cells with murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) ± PbCl 2 . At day 10, culture supernatant (SN) and non-adherent cells were harvested for analysis. Additionally, day 10 non-adherent BM-DCs were harvested and recultured with mGM-CSF + LPS ± Pb for 2 days. The day 10 Pb exposure significantly inhibited BM-DC generation, based on CD11c expression. Although fewer DCs were generated with Pb, the existing Pb-exposed DCs had significantly greater MHC-II expression than did the non-Pb-exposed DCs. However, these differences diminished upon LPS stimulation. After LPS stimulation, CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54, and MHC-II were all up-regulated on both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs expressed significantly less CD80 than did DCs. The CD86:CD80 ratio suggests a Pb-DC potential for Th2 cell development. After LPS stimulation, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), and TNF-α levels significantly increased with both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs produced significantly less cytokines than did DCs, except for IL-10, which further supports Pb-DC preferential skewing toward type-2 immunity. In vitro studies confirm that Pb-DCs have the ability to polarize antigen-specific T cells to Th2 cells. Pb-DCs also enhanced allogeneic and autologous T cell proliferation in vitro, and in vivo studies suggested that Pb-DCs inhibited Th1 effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The Pb effect was mainly on DCs, rather than on T cells, and Pb's modification of DC function appears to be the main cause of Pb's promotion of type-2-related immunity, which may relate to Pb's enhanced activation of the Erk/MAP kinase pathway

  7. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  8. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: High levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean Condor widen the problem to a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Pérez, Miguel A; Torres Bianchini, Laura; Sampietro, Luciano; Bravo, Guillermo F; Jácome, N Luis; Astore, Vanesa; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America. Wild condors from Argentina (n = 76) presented high lead levels consistent with both recent and previous exposure (up to 104 μg/dL blood level, mean 15.47 ± 21.21 μg/dL and up to 148.20 ppm bone level, mean 23.08 ± 31.39 ppm). In contrast, captive bred individuals -not exposed to lead contamination- had much lower lead levels (mean blood level 5.63 ± 3.08 μg/dL, and mean bone level 2.76 ± 3.06 ppm). Condors were exposed to lead throughout their entire range in continental Argentina, which represents almost sixty percent (>4000 km) of their geographical distribution. We also present evidence of lead exposure events in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Lead poisoning is a widespread major conservation threat for the Andean Condor, and probably other sympatric carnivores from South America. The high number and wide range of Andean Condors with lead values complement the results for the California Condor and other scavengers in North America suggesting lead poisoning is a continental threat. Urgent actions are needed to reduce this poison in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transplanted Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modify the In Vivo Microenvironment Enhancing Angiogenesis and Leading to Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschi, Maria Rosa; El Backly, Rania; Capelli, Chiara; Daga, Antonio; Patrone, Eugenio; Introna, Martino; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) show properties similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), although controversial data exist regarding their osteogenic potential. We prepared clinical-grade UC-MSCs from Wharton's Jelly and we investigated if UC-MSCs could be used as substitutes for BM-MSCs in muscoloskeletal regeneration as a more readily available and functional source of MSCs. UC-MSCs were loaded onto scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously (ectopically) and in critical-sized calvarial defects (orthotopically) in mice. For live cell-tracking experiments, UC-MSCs were first transduced with the luciferase gene. Angiogenic properties of UC-MSCs were tested using the mouse metatarsal angiogenesis assay. Cell secretomes were screened for the presence of various cytokines using an array assay. Analysis of implanted scaffolds showed that UC-MSCs, contrary to BM-MSCs, remained detectable in the implants for 3 weeks at most and did not induce bone formation in an ectopic location. Instead, they induced a significant increase of blood vessel ingrowth. In agreement with these observations, UC-MSC-conditioned medium presented a distinct and stronger proinflammatory/chemotactic cytokine profile than BM-MSCs and a significantly enhanced angiogenic activity. When UC-MSCs were orthotopically transplanted in a calvarial defect, they promoted increased bone formation as well as BM-MSCs. However, at variance with BM-MSCs, the new bone was deposited through the activity of stimulated host cells, highlighting the importance of the microenvironment on determining cell commitment and response. Therefore, we propose, as therapy for bone lesions, the use of allogeneic UC-MSCs by not depositing bone matrix directly, but acting through the activation of endogenous repair mechanisms. PMID:25685989

  10. Effects of mineral content on the fracture properties of equine cortical bone in double-notched beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jordan; Stover, Susan M; Gibeling, Jeffery C; Fyhrie, David P

    2012-06-01

    We recently developed a method to measure cortical bone fracture initiation toughness using a double-notched beam in four-point bending. This method was used to test the hypothesis that mineralization around the two notch roots is correlated with fracture toughness and crack extension (physical damage). Total energy absorbed to failure negatively correlated with average mineralization of the beam (r(2)=0.62), but not with notch root mineralization. Fracture initiation toughness was positively correlated to mineralization at the broken notch root (r(2)=0.34). Crack length extension at the unbroken notch was strongly negatively correlated with the average mineralization of the notch roots (r(2)=0.81) whereas crack length extension at the broken notch did not correlate with any of the mineralization measurements. Mineralization at the notch roots and the average mineralization contributed independently to the mechanical and damage properties. The data are consistent with a hypothesis that a) high notch root mineralization results in less stable crack length extension but high force to initiate unstable crack propagation while b) higher average mineralization leads to low post-yield (and total) energy absorption to failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Józefowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1. The content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in the surface layer (0-30 cm was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills than in soils of Ciężkowickie Foothills. The bedrocks from which the soils of these two mesoregions are formed differed significantly only in the content of zinc (it was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills. The content of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface layer of soil depends on its texture and organic carbon and total nitrogen content. There was also a positive correlation between the content of Pb and Cd and hydrolytic acidity and between the content of Zn and Ca and CEC. Different types of land uses did not influence the content of the metals.

  12. Disrupted bone remodeling leads to cochlear overgrowth and hearing loss in a mouse model of fibrous dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Akil

    Full Text Available Normal hearing requires exquisite cooperation between bony and sensorineural structures within the cochlea. For example, the inner ear secretes proteins such as osteoprotegrin (OPG that can prevent cochlear bone remodeling. Accordingly, diseases that affect bone regulation can also result in hearing loss. Patients with fibrous dysplasia develop trabecular bone overgrowth resulting in hearing loss if the lesions affect the temporal bones. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for this hearing loss, which could be sensorineural and/or conductive, remain unclear. In this study, we used a unique transgenic mouse model of increased Gs G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR signaling induced by expression of an engineered receptor, Rs1, in osteoblastic cells. These ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ mice showed dramatic bone lesions that histologically and radiologically resembled fibrous dysplasia. We found that ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ mice showed progressive and severe conductive hearing loss. Ossicular chain impingement increased with the size and number of dysplastic lesions. While sensorineural structures were unaffected, ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae had abnormally high osteoclast activity, together with elevated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl mRNA expression. ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae also showed decreased expression of Sclerostin (Sost, an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway that normally increases bone formation. The osteocyte canalicular networks of ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae were disrupted and showed abnormal osteocyte morphology. The osteocytes in the ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13 and TRAP, both of which can support osteocyte-mediated peri-lacunar remodeling. Thus, while the ossicular chain impingement is sufficient to account for the progressive hearing loss in fibrous dysplasia, the deregulation of bone remodeling extends to the

  13. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, I.R.; Orueetxebarria, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Schofield, P.F.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m 2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMS TM ) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  14. Low-dose combined oral contraceptive use is associated with lower bone mineral content variation in adolescents over a 1-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biason, Talita Poli; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Moretto, Maria Regina; Teixeira, Altamir Santos; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2015-04-03

    Low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can interfere with bone mass acquisition during adolescence. This study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in female adolescents taking a standard low-dose COC (ethinylestradiol 20 μg/desogestrel 150 μg) over a 1-year period and to compare their data with those of healthy adolescents from the same age group not taking COCs. This was a non-randomized parallel-control study with a 1-year follow-up. Sixty-seven adolescents aged from 12 to 19 years, divided into COC users (n = 41) taking 20 μg ethinylestradiol/150 μg desogestrel and COC non-user controls (n = 26), were evaluated by bone densitometry examinations at baseline and after 12 months. Comparisons between the groups at the study onset were performed using the Mann-Whitney test with the significance level fixed at 5% or p variations in the median percentages for bone mass variables. The COC users presented with low bone mass acquisition in the lumbar spine, and had BMD and BMC median variations of 2.07% and +1.57%, respectively, between the measurements at baseline and 12 months. The control group had median variations of +12.16% and +16.84% for BMD and BMC, respectively, over the same period. The total body BMD and BMC showed similar evolutions during the study in both groups. Statistical significance (p variation between COC users and non-users. Use of a low-dose COC (ethinylestradiol 20 μg/desogestrel 150 μg) was associated with lower bone mass acquisition in adolescents during the study period. Registry Number, RBR-5h9b3c.

  15. US Transuranium Registry report of the 241Am content of a whole body. Part IV: Preparation and analysis of the tissues and bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; Romero, D.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has analyzed autopsy tissue for the USTR, as a part of its study of the uptake, distribution and retention of Pu and other transuranic elements in occupationally exposed workers since 1978. In April 1979, Los Alamos received the internal organs and bone samples from the first whole-body donation to the USTR. The donor was known to have an internal deposition of 241 Am. All soft tissue, the bones from the right half of the skeleton, and the odd-numbered vertebrae were received at Los Alamos in February 1980. The bones were subdivided along anatomical areas of interest. All soft tissues and bone specimens were analyzed for their 241 Am content. A total deposition of 147.4 nCi 241 Am was measured. Approximately 18% of the 241 Am remaining in the body (disregarding that in the left hand), was found in the soft tissues, and 82% was in the bones and teeth. The soft tissues and organs containing the largest amounts of 241 Am were the combined soft tissue (striated muscle, connective tissue and skin) 8.8%; liver, 6.4% and respiratory tract, 1.5%. The remaining organs accounted for 0.9% of the systemic burden

  16. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalskov, S; Ritz, C; Larnkjær, A; Damsgaard, C T; Petersen, R A; Sørensen, L B; Ong, K K; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Mølgaard, C

    2016-04-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely associated with bone size in girls. Obesity causes larger bone size and bone mass, but the role of hormones in this up-regulation of bone in obesity is not well elucidated. We examined longitudinal associations between baseline body fat mass (FM), and fat-independent fasting levels of ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), osteocalcin, and intact parathyroid hormone, and subsequent changes in height and in whole-body height-adjusted bone area "BAheight" and size-adjusted bone mineral content "BMCsize" in 8- to 11-year-olds. Analyses were carried out separately for boys (n = 325) and girls (n = 308) including data from baseline, 3 and 6 months from OPUS School Meal Study. In both sexes: gain in BAheight was positively associated with baseline FM (≥2.05 cm(2)/kg, both p ≤ 0.003). Furthermore, gain in height was positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (≥0.02 cm/ng/ml, p = 0.001) and osteocalcin (≥0.13 cm/ng/ml, p ≤ 0.009); and gain in BAheight was positively associated with baseline osteocalcin (≥0.35 cm(2)/ng/ml, p ≤ 0.019). In girls only, gain in BAheight was also positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (0.06 cm(2)/ng/ml, p = 0.017) and inversely associated with both baseline ghrelin (-0.01 cm(2)/pg/ml, p = 0.001) and leptin (-1.21 cm(2)/μg/ml, p = 0.005). In boys, gain in BMCsize was positively associated with osteocalcin (0.18 g/ng/ml, p = 0.030). This large longitudinal study suggests that in 8- to 11-year-old children, IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while FM, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in BAheight. Fat-independent inverse

  17. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  18. Recql4 haploinsufficiency in mice leads to defects in osteoblast progenitors: Implications for low bone mass phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jieping; Murthy, Sreemala; Winata, Therry; Werner, Sean; Abe, Masumi; Prahalad, Agasanur K.; Hock, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie skeletal abnormalities in defective Recql4-related syndromes are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to explore the function of Recql4 in osteoblast biology both in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry on adult mouse bone showed Recql4 protein localization in active osteoblasts around growth plate, but not in fully differentiated osteocytes. Consistent with this finding, Recql4 gene expression was high in proliferating mouse osteoblastic MC3T3.E1 cells and decreased as cells progressively lost their proliferation activity during differentiation. Recql4 overexpression in osteoblastic cells exhibited higher proliferation activity, while its depletion impeded cell growth. In addition, bone marrow stromal cells from male Recql4+/- mice had fewer progenitor cells, including osteoprogenitors, indicated by reduced total fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-f) and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f colonies concomitant with reduced bone mass. These findings provide evidence that Recql4 functions as a regulatory protein during osteoprogenitor proliferation, a critical cellular event during skeleton development

  19. The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content in adolescence: The Tromsø Study, Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Tore; Ahmed, Luai A; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Dennison, Elaine M; Evensen, Elin K; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Grimnes, Guri; Nilsen, Ole-Andreas; Schei, Berit; Tell, Grethe S; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Winther, Anne; Emaus, Nina

    2017-12-01

    The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral parameters in adolescence is unclear. We found a positive association between birth size and bone mineral content, attenuated by lifestyle factors. This highlights the impact of environmental stimuli and lifestyle during growth. The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content later in life is unclear, especially in adolescence. This study evaluated the impact of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content among adolescents. We included 961 participants from the population-based Fit Futures study (2010-2011). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH) and total body (TB). BMD and BMC measures were linked with birth weight and length ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Linear regression models were used to investigate the influence of birth parameters on BMD and BMC. Birth weight was positively associated with BMD-TB and BMC at all sites among girls; standardized β coefficients [95% CI] were 0.11 [0.01, 0.20] for BMD-TB and 0.15 [0.06, 0.24], 0.18 [0.09, 0.28] and 0.29 [0.20, 0.38] for BMC-FN, TH and TB, respectively. In boys, birth weight was positively associated with BMC at all sites with estimates of 0.10 [0.01, 0.19], 0.12 [0.03, 0.21] and 0.15 [0.07, 0.24] for FN, TH and TB, respectively. Corresponding analyses using birth length as exposure gave significantly positive associations with BMC at all sites in both sexes. The significant positive association between birth weight and BMC-TB in girls, and birth length and BMC-TB in boys remained after multivariable adjustment. We found a positive association between birth size and BMC in adolescence. However, this association was attenuated after adjustment for weight, height and physical activity during adolescence.

  20. Bone apatite composition of necrotic trabecular bone in the femoral head of immature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruwajoye, Olumide O; Kim, Harry K W; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) can lead to excessive resorption of the trabecular bone and collapse of the femoral head as a structure. A well-known mineral component to trabecular bone is hydroxyapatite, which can be present in many forms due to ionic substitution, thus altering chemical composition. Unfortunately, very little is known about the chemical changes to bone apatite following IOFH. We hypothesized that the apatite composition changes in necrotic bone possibly contribute to increased osteoclast resorption and structural collapse of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to assess the macroscopic and local phosphate composition of actively resorbed necrotic trabecular bone to isolate differences between areas of increased osteoclast resorption and normal bone formation. A piglet model of IOFH was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on femoral heads to characterize normal and necrotic trabecular bone. Backscattered SEM, micro-computed tomography and histology showed deformity and active resorption of necrotic bone compared to normal. XANES and Raman spectroscopy obtained from actively resorbed necrotic bone and normal bone showed increased carbonate-to-phosphate content in the necrotic bone. The changes in the apatite composition due to carbonate substitution may play a role in the increased resorption of necrotic bone due to its increase in solubility. Indeed, a better understanding of the apatite composition of necrotic bone could shed light on osteoclast activity and potentially improve therapeutic treatments that target excessive resorption of bone.

  1. Prediction of bone mineral density and content from measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior in younger and older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori I. Braun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of engaging in sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during adolescence and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults to improve bone health in females.

  2. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis applications in the age dynamics assessment of Ca, Cl, K, Mg. Mn, Na, P, and Sr contents in the human cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Senile osteoporosis and particularly osteoporosis among postmenopausal women represents an urgent problem of modern medicine. One of the main osteoporosis symptoms is a decrease in both bone mineral density and subsequent bone strength. The upper extremity of the femur in humans is a particularly vulnerable section of the skeleton, being subject to fracture and necrosis and to destruction of its cartilage. Iliac crest biopsies are commonly taken clinically on patients. It is known that the control of the mineral component providing bone strength is a good indicator to detect bone diseases like osteoporosis. Despite this, changes of chemical element contents occurring with age in the femoral head and the iliac crest of female and male separately have been little studied, but in iliac cortical bone have not been studied at all. The effect of age and sex on chemical element contents in intact cortical bone of femoral neck and iliac crest of 81 relatively healthy 15-55 years old women (n=36) and men (n=45) was investigated. All subjects had died suddenly and bone samples were obtained at necropsy from the right side of bodies within twenty-four hours after death. A tool made of titanium and plastic was used to clear samples from soft tissues and blood and to cut cortical part of bone. The IAEA and NIST reference materials (H-5 animal bone and SRM1486 bone meal) were used to estimate the precision and accuracy of results. Contents of Ca, Cl, K, Mg> Mn, Na, P, and Sr in intact bone samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides. Our means data for each element of reference materials were within the certified 95 % confidence interval, and indicate an acceptable accuracy of the obtained results. No age- and sex-related differences in the cortical femoral neck composition were detected. Mean values (M±S.E.M.) of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Sr mass fractions (on dry weight basis) for female and male all

  3. Gender and age groups interactions in the quantification of bone marrow fat content in lumbar spine using 3T MR spectroscopy: A multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Piña-Jimenez, Carlos; Favila, Rafael; Rios, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There is an age-related conversion of red to yellow bone marrow in the axial skeleton, with a gender-related difference less well established. Our purpose was to clarify the variability of bone marrow fat fraction (FF) in the lumbar spine due to the interaction of gender and age groups. Methods: 44 healthy volunteers (20 males, 30–65 years old and 24 females, 30–69 years old) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and conventional MRI examination of the lumbar spine; single-voxel spectrum was acquired for each vertebral body (VB). After controlling body mass index (BMI), a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed the gender and age group differences in FF quantification for each lumbar VB. Results: There was a significant interaction between gender and age group, p = .017, with a large effect size (partial η 2 = .330). However the interaction explained only 33% of the observed variance. Main effects were not statistically significant. BMI was non-significantly related to FF quantification. Conclusions: Young males showed a high FF content, which declined in the 4th decade, then increased the next 3 decades to reach a FF content just below the initial FF means. Females’ FF were low in the 3rd decade, depicted an accelerated increase in the 4th decade, then a gradual increase the next 3 decades to reach a FF content similar to males’ values. Our findings suggest that quantification of bone marrow FF using MRS might be used as a surrogate biomarker of bone marrow activity in clinical settings

  4. Gender and age groups interactions in the quantification of bone marrow fat content in lumbar spine using 3T MR spectroscopy: A multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto, E-mail: ernest.roldan@usa.net [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City (Mexico); Piña-Jimenez, Carlos [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City (Mexico); Favila, Rafael [GE Healthcare, Mexico City (Mexico); Rios, Camilo [Neurochemistry Department, Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: There is an age-related conversion of red to yellow bone marrow in the axial skeleton, with a gender-related difference less well established. Our purpose was to clarify the variability of bone marrow fat fraction (FF) in the lumbar spine due to the interaction of gender and age groups. Methods: 44 healthy volunteers (20 males, 30–65 years old and 24 females, 30–69 years old) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and conventional MRI examination of the lumbar spine; single-voxel spectrum was acquired for each vertebral body (VB). After controlling body mass index (BMI), a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed the gender and age group differences in FF quantification for each lumbar VB. Results: There was a significant interaction between gender and age group, p = .017, with a large effect size (partial η{sup 2} = .330). However the interaction explained only 33% of the observed variance. Main effects were not statistically significant. BMI was non-significantly related to FF quantification. Conclusions: Young males showed a high FF content, which declined in the 4th decade, then increased the next 3 decades to reach a FF content just below the initial FF means. Females’ FF were low in the 3rd decade, depicted an accelerated increase in the 4th decade, then a gradual increase the next 3 decades to reach a FF content similar to males’ values. Our findings suggest that quantification of bone marrow FF using MRS might be used as a surrogate biomarker of bone marrow activity in clinical settings.

  5. Acumulación de plomo en hueso y sus efectos en la salud Lead storage in bone and its effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Sanín

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos nocivos del plomo han sido conocidos desde tiempos antiguos por su amplia gama; este metal afecta prácticamente todos los órganos y sistemas del cuerpo humano. Recientemente se han documentado efectos tóxicos crónicos en los sistemas cardiovascular y nervioso, con niveles que antes se consideraban seguros. El sitio primario de almacenamiento de plomo en el organismo es el hueso, pero sólo hasta fechas recientes se ha clarificado la significancia toxicológica de este hecho. En este artículo se analiza el papel del plomo en hueso como fuente de exposición endógena, como biomarcador de exposición crónica y como tejido blanco. Se presentan además los avances recientes para la medición de plomo en hueso mediante los rayos X-fluorescentes (XRF. Finalmente se revisa la importancia, para la salud pública, de estudiar y medir el plomo en hueso en lugares con una historia de exposición crónica como la Ciudad de México y en los ambientes ocupacionales, especialmente como fuente remanente de exposición. Se analiza especialmente el caso de mujeres en edad reproductiva, quienes pueden convertirse en fuentes de exposición para el feto y para el niño amamantado.The adverse effects of lead have been known for long since the metal affects practically all organs and systems of the human body. Recently, toxic effects have been reported in the cardiovascular and nervous systems at lead levels previously considered to be secure. The main lead storage site in the body is bone. The toxicologic significance of this fact has been clarified only recently. The present study analyzes the role of lead as an endogenous source of exposure, as a chronic exposure biomarker and as a target organ. Recent advances to measure bone lead through fluorescent X-Rays are discussed. Additionally, the importance of bone lead from a public health perspective in places with a chronic history of exposure such as Mexico City, and in some occupational

  6. Effect of tocotrienol from Bixa orellana (annatto on bone microstructure, calcium content, and biomechanical strength in a model of male osteoporosis induced by buserelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad NV

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nur-Vaizura Mohamad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Kok-Yong Chin Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy experience secondary hypogonadism, associated bone loss, and increased fracture risk. It has been shown that tocotrienol from Bixa orellana (annatto prevents skeletal microstructural changes in rats experiencing primary hypogonadism. However, its potential in preventing bone loss due to androgen deprivation therapy has not been tested. This study aimed to evaluate the skeletal protective effects of annatto tocotrienol using a buserelin-induced osteoporotic rat model. Methods: Forty-six male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3 months were randomized into six groups. The baseline control (n=6 was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The normal control (n=8 received corn oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol orally daily and normal saline (the vehicle of buserelin subcutaneously daily. The buserelin control (n=8 received corn oil orally daily and subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg daily. The calcium control (n=8 was supplemented with 1% calcium in drinking water and daily subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg. The remaining rats were given daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg (n=8 or 100 mg/kg (n=8 plus daily subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg (n=8. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized and their blood, tibia, and femur were harvested. Structural changes of the tibial trabecular and cortical bone were examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Femoral bone calcium content and biomechanical strength were also evaluated. Results: Annatto tocotrienol at 60 and 100 mg/kg significantly prevented the deterioration of trabecular bone and cortical thickness in buserelin-treated rats (P<0.05. Both doses of annatto tocotrienol also improved femoral biomechanical strength and bone calcium content

  7. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  8. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Józefowska; Anna Miechówka; Michał Gąsiorek; Paweł Zadrożny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1). The conte...

  9. 3 Tesla (1) H MR spectroscopy of hip bone marrow in a healthy population, assessment of normal fat content values and influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, Vittorio; Monnet, Aurélien; Salleron, Julia; Hardouin, Pierre; Cortet, Bernard; Cotten, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate in a healthy population normal spectroscopic fat content (FC) values of the hip bone marrow and to assess the influence of age and sex on bone marrow conversion. Eighty volunteers (40 men; 40 women; ages: 20-60 years; divided into four consecutive groups) underwent acetabulum, femoral head, femoral neck, greater trochanter, and diaphysis localized (1) H MR spectroscopy. FC values of each anatomical site were obtained according to the following formula: Fat content = CH2 /(CH2  + Water)*100. To assess bone marrow conversion, a spectroscopic conversion index (SCI) was calculated as FC neck/FC greater trochanter. FC values showed a gradient as follows: greater trochanter > femoral head > femoral neck > diaphysis > acetabulum in every age group both in men and in women. SCI increased with age both in men and women, showing lower values in women for every age group. We obtained normal spectroscopic FC values from different areas of the hip, according to age and sex. These values may be used as reference values to evaluate, by the means of (1) H MR spectroscopy, pathological conditions affecting hip bone marrow. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Accuracy of lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the determination of bone mineral content in the thoracic and lumbar spine: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondston, S.J. (Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Singer, K.P. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia) Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Price, R.I. (Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia)); Breidahl, P.D. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia))

    1993-04-01

    Lateral scanning with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was undertaken on 153 thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from nine individuals (mean age 67; range 34-92 years) to establish their bone mineral content (BMC). All specimens were subsequently de-fatted and ashed to compare ash weight with BMC of the T1 to L5 segments. Linear regression analysis indicated a higher correlation between BMC and measured ash weights for each vertebral column (range: r = 0.97-0.99), with error analysis for all vertebrae tested showing a standard error of 0.40 g, or 10.8%. For the L2-4 segments the accuracy error was 0.50 g or 7.9%. In both cases there was a mean trend towards underestimation of ash weight. Mean BMC values of the T1 to T5 segments were similar before a progressive increase caudally. These data affirm the utility of DXA for determining bone mineral content in the vertebral column across wide ranges of age, and segmental and bone density. (Author).

  11. Accuracy of lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the determination of bone mineral content in the thoracic and lumbar spine: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmondston, S.J.; Breidahl, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Lateral scanning with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was undertaken on 153 thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from nine individuals (mean age 67; range 34-92 years) to establish their bone mineral content (BMC). All specimens were subsequently de-fatted and ashed to compare ash weight with BMC of the T1 to L5 segments. Linear regression analysis indicated a higher correlation between BMC and measured ash weights for each vertebral column (range: r = 0.97-0.99), with error analysis for all vertebrae tested showing a standard error of 0.40 g, or 10.8%. For the L2-4 segments the accuracy error was 0.50 g or 7.9%. In both cases there was a mean trend towards underestimation of ash weight. Mean BMC values of the T1 to T5 segments were similar before a progressive increase caudally. These data affirm the utility of DXA for determining bone mineral content in the vertebral column across wide ranges of age, and segmental and bone density. (Author)

  12. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  13. [Study on Content Determination of Lead and Arsenic in Four Traditional Tibetan Medicine Prescription Preparations by Wet Digestion Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-yuan; Du, Yu-zhi; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Ming-jie; Li, Cen; Yang, Hong-xia; Zhao, Jing; Xia, Zheng-hua; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-04-01

    Four common traditional tibetan medicine prescription preparations "Anzhijinghuasan, Dangzuo, Renqingchangjue and Rannasangpei" in tibetan areas were selected as study objects in the present study. The purpose was to try to establish a kind of wet digestion and flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HAAS) associated analysis method for the content determinations of lead and arsenic in traditional tibetan medicine under optimized digestion and measurement conditions and determine their contents accurately. Under these optimum operating conditions, experimental results were as follows. The detection limits for lead and arsenic were 0.067 and 0.012 µg · mL(-1) respectively. The quantification limits for lead and arsenic were 0.22 and 0.041 µg · mL(-1) respectively. The linear ranges for lead and arsenic were 25-1,600 ng · mL(-1) (r = 0.9995) and 12.5-800 ng · mL(-1) (r = 0.9994) respectively. The degrees of precision(RSD) for lead and arsenic were 2.0% and 3.2% respectively. The recovery rates for lead and arsenic were 98.00%-99.98% and 96.67%-99.87% respectively. The content determination results of lead and arsenic in four traditional tibetan medicine prescription preparations were as fol- lows. The contents of lead and arsenic in Anzhijinghuasan are 0.63-0.67 µg · g(-1) and 0.32-0.33 µg · g(-1) in Anzhijinghua- san, 42.92-43.36 µg · g(-1) and 24.67-25.87 µg · g(-1) in Dangzuo, 1,611. 39-1,631.36 µg · g(-1) and 926.76-956.52 µg- g(-1) in Renqing Changjue, and 1,102.28-1,119.127 µg-g(-1) and 509.96-516.87 µg · g(-1) in Rannasangpei, respectively. This study established a method for content determination of lead and arsenic in traditional tibetan medicine, and determined the content levels of lead and arsenic in four tibetan medicine-prescription preparations accurately. In addition, these results also provide the basis for the safe and effective use of those medicines in clinic.

  14. Pre-administration of safe exogenous substance minimizes radiation induced bone-marrow aplsia which may otherwise lead to hematopoietic disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Verma, Savita; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induces injuries to biological system primarily by producing free radicals and also by directly interacting with cellular entities. In irradiated animals hematopoietic system gets severely affected leading to inactive microenvironment, damaged blood vessels and non functional endothelial cells of the marrow. Vascular damage inhibits the efficacy of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of fibroblast further contribute to the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. Various findings have revealed the occurrence of radiation induced aplasia and vascular damage cause large number of RBCs occupying the space and intrusion of fibrotic cells in the marrow of irradiated mice. Administration of effective radioprotective agents prior to irradiation has been amply reported for significant decline in the grade of vascular damage and inclusion of marrow fibrous tissues in these animals. In addition the formulations have also shown the presence stem cell population which is efficient to proliferate, differentiate and ultimately enrich bone marrow cellularity within 25-40 days depending on type of radiation and its dose and dose rate. Protection to bone marrow is multi-factorial phenomenon out of which inhibition of radiation induced free radical generation has been recognized as the key factor but essentially not the lone one. Protection to colony forming ability of bone marrow is also critically important which occurs mainly due to DNA protection and up-regulation of repair pathways. Preservation of microenvironment for providing stem cells to remain functional is lately reported as equally prominent factor. Our studies on a combination of two compounds of natural origin, administered to lethally irradiated animals have shown recovery in stem/precursor cells of all hematopoietic lineages. Major entities related to hematopoietic system were found nearly 90% recovered within 30 days. Current talk is focused

  15. Trace determination of heavy metals in human bones - problems in their analysis and result interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, T; Simon, J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation of the lead and cadmium contents of rib-bones of patients suffering from bronchial cancer was carried out with the aid of electrothermal AAS and DPASV. An analysis of the anamnesis data indicated a significant correlation between the bone-cadmium content and the patient's smoking history.

  16. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Health of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Rotnitzky, A. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  18. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome – the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Methods We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. Results This intensive lifestyle intervention (15–20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. Conclusion After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917 PMID:26376093

  19. Evaluation of cadmium, lead and metallothionein contents in the tissues of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Campania coast (Italy): levels and seasonal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Cretì, Patrizia; Trinchella, Francesca; Grazia Esposito, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The biological effect of seasonality on cadmium, lead and metallothionein contents was assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from natural banks located along the coastline of the Gulf of Naples (Campania, Italy). Heavy metals and metallothionein concentrations were measured in digestive and reproductive glands. The results showed a clear correlation between metallothionein content and the reproductive gland status determined during the seasons; on the contrary, no correlation was found between metallothionein and metal contents. Data allow us to hypothesize that metallothionein functions go beyond metal detoxification, thus opening new scenarios for these proteins in invertebrates. The effect of seasons on metals concentration in mussel tissues showed similar seasonal patterns between the sites, regardless of their anthropogenic impacts. Cadmium content was not strictly related to seasonal periods, whereas lead content was significantly lower in summer. The results also indicate that the metal contents in mussels from the Gulf of Naples do not represent a risk to human health, even in the period of their maximum accumulation, and that the relaying of mussels before marketing could improve the animal stress conditions, but having a slight effect on metal excretion. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  1. Crocodile bones as archives of pollution exposure: lead contamination in Kakadu National Park, and what's in Sweetheart's Osteoderms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Markich, S.J.; Hammerton, K.M.; Russell, R.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental findings made it then possible to evaluate the hypothesis that the estuarine crocodile osteodermal laminations would record enhanced blood lead concentrations resulting from the ingestion of lead shot. At about 140 days following lead shot ingestion, two osteoderms were removed from each exposed and control animal. SIMS analysis of Pb-208 and Ca-42 signal intensities was then performed on sections that were prepared and analysed using similar methods previously used on field-collected specimens (Twining et al., 1999). These initial findings are consistent with the hypothesis that incremental laminations of the osteoderm will archive a lead signal that responds to enhanced levels of lead in the animal's blood during its life. SEM analysis identified the laminated structure of the osteoderm, however microprobe analysis did not detect appreciable amounts of even Ca and P, although the organic matrix was obviously present. It is proposed that this anomalous result is due to the preparatory tanning of the skin, in acid solution, that could be expected to leach elements from the organic matrix. An analogy is drawn with the decalcified skeletons in the bodies of the Druid sacrifices due their deposition in acid swamp waters in the UK. The challenge is now to sample osteoderms from large crocodiles in the Finniss River, preferably in close proximity to the Rum Jungle mine site, where any archived pollution signal would be more intense, and then repeat this analytical investigation of the osteodermal history of contaminant loadings

  2. Contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in organs of Rhizophora mangle in Sevilla River mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Sanchez, Yury A; Troncoso, Olivo Walberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in leaves, stalks, and root of Rhizophora mangle, samples from three parcels located in the river Sevilla mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, were taken in October 2003. Measures of metals concentrations were made through the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry technique (ICP-AES). The results indicated that lead concentration in R. mangle organs was below method detection limit ≤38 g/g) except the absorbent root (16.3 g/g); and significant differences exist in the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead into R. mangle organs, following this concentration order: absorbent roots ≥ stalk ≥ young leaves ≥adult leaves ≥ aerial roots

  3. Determination of lead content in blood from the female transit police who belong to the Center and South units of Metropolitan Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arosquipa Aguilar, Graciela; Villegas Silva, Elvito

    2013-01-01

    The average content of lead in blood from the female police who belong to the center and south units from Metropolitan Lima in 2005 and 2008 have been below the threshold level (20 μg Pb/dL) for both workers in the street and in offices. Nevertheless, there is the possibility of occupational risk for the toxicity of lead in any concentration in a human being. For p < 0,05 there are no significant differences between the average contents of lead in blood for the workers in the streets but in different units; and there was similar situation for the workers in offices, in both years 2005 and 2008. (author)

  4. Circadian Clock Protein Content and Daily Rhythm of Locomotor Activity Are Altered after Chronic Exposure to Lead in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbar, Mariam; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria

    2017-01-01

    Lead exposure has been reported to produce many clinical features, including parkinsonism. However, its consequences on the circadian rhythms are still unknown. Here we aimed to examine the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity following lead intoxication and investigate the mechanisms by which lead may induce alterations of circadian rhythms in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with lead or sodium acetate (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) during 4 weeks. Both groups were tested in the “open field” to quantify the exploratory activity and in the rotarod to evaluate motor coordination. Then, animals were submitted to continuous 24 h recordings of locomotor activity under 14/10 Light/dark (14/10 LD) cycle and in complete darkness (DD). At the end of experiments, the clock proteins BMAL1, PER1-2, and CRY1-2 were assayed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) using immunohistochemistry. We showed that lead significantly reduced the number of crossing in the open field, impaired motor coordination and altered the daily locomotor activity rhythm. When the LD cycle was advanced by 6 h, both groups adjusted their daily locomotor activity to the new LD cycle with high onset variability in lead-intoxicated rats compared to controls. Lead also led to a decrease in the number of immunoreactive cells (ir-) of BMAL1, PER1, and PER2 without affecting the number of ir-CRY1 and ir-CRY2 cells in the SCN. Our data provide strong evidence that lead intoxication disturbs the rhythm of locomotor activity and alters clock proteins expression in the SCN. They contribute to the understanding of the mechanism by which lead induce circadian rhythms disturbances. PMID:28970786

  5. Electric properties and phase transition behavior in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics with low zirconate content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Lou, Qi-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Dong, Xian-Lin; Wang, Gen-Shui

    2015-11-01

    The phase transitions, dielectric properties, and polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.42Sn0.58-xTix)O3 (0.13≤ x ≤0.18) (PLZST) bulk ceramics were systematically investigated. This study exhibited a sequence of phase transitions by analyzing the change of the P-E hysteresis loops with increasing temperature. The antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary of PLZST with the Zr content of 0.42 was found to locate at the Ti content between 0.14 and 0.15. This work is aimed to improve the ternary phase diagram of lanthanum-doped PZST with the Zr content of 0.42 and will be a good reference for seeking high energy storage density in the PLZST system with low-Zr content. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51202273, 11204304, and 11304334) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261000).

  6. G-CSF-primed autologous and allogeneic bone marrow for transplantation in clinical oncology. Cell content and immunological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivtsova, L. Yu; Melkova, K. N.; Kupryshkina, N. A.; Vorotnikov, I. K.; Grigoryeva, T. A.; Selchuk, V. Yu; Grebennikova, O. P.; Titova, G. V.; Tupitsyn, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    60 samples of G-CSF-primed bone marrow (39 cancer patients and 21 healthy donors) to be used for transplantation to cancer patients were analyzed and compared by main characteristics with historical control and 13 bone marrow samples from control patient with mastopathy. Basing on morphological and multicolor flow cytometry findings certain characteristics of G-CSF-primed bone marrow were discovered, such as a significant increase in blast count in cancer patients as compared to donors and control patients (p<0.037), a higher neutrophil maturation index (p<0.001) and a lower percentage of mature lymphocytes (p<0.008) as compared to the control group. Among lymphocyte populations G-CSF-priming was associated with a significant increase in the total of mature CD3+ T-cells and CD8+ T-killers (p<0.0001) and a decrease in CD56+CD3- and/or CD16+CD3- NK-cells (p<0.006) both in cancer patients and healthy donors in comparison with the controls.

  7. Changes in the contents of strontium, barium, and lead in scales of bream Abramis brama from the Mozhaisk Reservoir over a quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, E A; Pelgunova, L A; Sokolova, E L; Skomorokhov, M O; Demidova, T B; Golubtsov, A S

    2016-03-01

    The heavy metal contents in the scales of bream (Abramis brama) from the Mozhaisk Reservoir collected in the second half of the 1980s were compared to the current values. The concentrations of three out of the seven elements studied in the bream scales have changed severalfold during the past quarter century: that of strontium has decreased, and those of barium and lead have increased. Short-term variations of heavy metal contents have proved to be smaller than the observed long-term differences. There is grounds to believe that these long-term differences adequately reflect the changes that have occurred in the water body.

  8. Wide Variability in Caloric Density of Expressed Human Milk Can Lead to Major Underestimation or Overestimation of Nutrient Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles W; Boutin, Mallory A; Kim, Jae H

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat). Calorie content was calculated. A total of 64 samples from 24 participants was analyzed. Wide variability was found in calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat composition. The authors found an average of 17.9 kcal/ounce, with only 34% of samples falling within 10% of the expected caloric density. The assumption that human milk contains 20 kcal/ounce is no longer supported based on this study. This supports promoting an individualized nutrition strategy as a crucial aspect to optimal nutrition.

  9. Analyzing Lead Content in Ancient Bronze Coins by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Archaeometry Laboratory with Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Mary Kate; Whissel, Greg; Dumas, Ashley; Golden, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    A unique, interdisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and classics has led to the development of an experiment for nonscience majors. This instrumental analysis experiment was designed for use in an archaeology course to quantify the amount of lead in ancient bronze coins. The coins were corroded beyond visual identification, so provenance…

  10. Repression of both isoforms of disproportionating enzyme leads to higher malto-oligosaccharide content and reduced growth in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Henrik Lütken; Lloyd, James Richard; Glaring, Mikkel A.

    2010-01-01

    Two glucanotransferases, disproportionating enzyme 1 (StDPE1) and disproportionating enzyme 2 (StDPE2), were repressed using RNA interference technology in potato, leading to plants repressed in either isoform individually, or both simultaneously. This is the first detailed report of their combin...

  11. Monitoring the content of fluorine, lead and cadmium in water for human consumption in a sector of Santa Barbara of Heredia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Sanchez, Federico; Alvarado, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of drinking water from natural sources and distribution tanks in a specific area of Santa Barbara of Heredia were analyzed. The content of fluorine, lead and cadmium was determined applying the Spans method and Anodic Stripping Voltamperometry respectively, over a period of nine months. During July 1994 to February 1995, levels of lead, cadmium and fluoride in the samples, remained under the permissible limits according to the Norma Nacional para la Calidad del Agua Potable, and therefore do not represent a toxicological danger to the population of Santa Barbara of Heredia. (author) [es

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence with an OPO system. Part II: direct determination of lead content in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, A; Lijour, Y; Giamarchi, P; Burel-Deschamps, L; Stephan, L

    2003-03-01

    Fluorescence was induced by coupling a laser with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to develop an analytical method for the direct determination of lead content, at ultra-trace level, in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). The optimization of atomization conditions, laser pulse energy, and mainly temporal parameters allowed us to reach a 3 fg detection limit (0.3 ng L(-1)) despite the low repetition rate of the device. The expected error on predicted concentrations of lead, at trace levels, in seawater was below 15%.

  13. A next-to-leading determination of the singlet axial charge and the polarized gluon content of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D; Ridolfi, G

    1996-01-01

    We perform a full next-to-leading analysis of the the available experimental data on the polarized structure function g_1 of the nucleon, and give a precise determination of its singlet axial charge together with a thorough assessment of the theoretical uncertainties. We find that the data are now sufficient to separately determine first moments of the polarized quark and gluon distributions and show in particular that the gluon contribution is large and positive.

  14. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis of lead and calcium content of primary teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Guerra, Carolina de; Fernanda Gerlach, Raquel; Graciele Villela Pinto, Nivia; Coutinho Cardoso, Simone; Moreira, Silvana; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Teixeira Alves Peixoto, Iza; Henrique Meloni, Carlos; Lemos Mota, Carla; Fernando de Oliveira, Luis; Braz, Delson; Cely Barroso, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Primary teeth were analyzed by micro-SRXRF. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental distribution of lead and calcium in different regions of primary incisor of children living in a notoriously contaminated area (Santo Amaro da Purificacao, Bahia State, Brazil). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 deg. incidence, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil).

  15. Androgen receptor mutations associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome: a high content analysis approach leading to personalized medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Szafran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS is a rare disease associated with inactivating mutations of AR that disrupt male sexual differentiation, and cause a spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities having as a common denominator loss of reproductive viability. No established treatment exists for these conditions, however there are sporadic reports of patients (or recapitulated mutations in cell lines that respond to administration of supraphysiologic doses (or pulses of testosterone or synthetic ligands. Here, we utilize a novel high content analysis (HCA approach to study AR function at the single cell level in genital skin fibroblasts (GSF. We discuss in detail findings in GSF from three historical patients with AIS, which include identification of novel mechanisms of AR malfunction, and the potential ability to utilize HCA for personalized treatment of patients affected by this condition.

  16. Influence of digestion methods on the recovery of Iron, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead contents in 11 organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are currently many devices and techniques to quantify trace elements (TEs in various matrices, but their efficacy is dependent on the digestion methods (DMs employed in the opening of such matrices which, although "organic", present inorganic components which are difficult to solubilize. This study was carried out to evaluate the recovery of Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb contents in samples of composts and cattle, horse, chicken, quail, and swine manures, as well as in sewage sludges and peat. The DMs employed were acid digestion in microwaves with HNO3 (EPA 3051A; nitric-perchloric digestion with HNO3 + HClO4 in a digestion block (NP; dry ashing in a muffle furnace and solubilization of residual ash in nitric acid (MDA; digestion by using aqua regia solution (HCl:HNO3 in the digestion block (AR; and acid digestion with HCl and HNO3 + H2O2 (EPA 3050. The dry ashing method led to the greatest recovery of Cd in organic residues, but the EPA 3050 protocol can be an alternative method for the same purpose. The dry ashing should not be employed to determine the concentration of Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the residues. Higher Cr and Fe contents are recovered when NP and EPA 3050 are employed in the opening of organic matrices. For most of the residues analyzed, AR is the most effective method for recovering Ni. Microwave-assisted digestion methods (EPA3051 and 3050 led to the highest recovery of Pb. The choice of the DM that provides maximum recovery of Zn depends on the organic residue and trace element analyzed.

  17. Certification measurement of the cadmium, copper and lead contents in rice using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, Emilia; Quetel, Christophe R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the certification of the Cd, Cu and Pb amount contents in a rice material, that were used as reference values for round 19 of the international measurement evaluation programme (IMEP). The protocol developed in this study was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). A multiple spiking approach was applied to reduce significantly the number of analytical steps. For the decomposition of the sample, three different microwave assisted digestion procedures were tested and compared. The use of hydrofluoric acid was found necessary to ensure full solubilisation and complete isotopic equilibration. Estimation of the combined uncertainty attached to the measurement results was performed according to the ISO guidelines. Contributions from the correction for moisture content, sample homogeneity, procedural blank, spike impurities, spectral interferences, instrumental background and dead-time effects were evaluated. SI-traceable values with less than 2% combined uncertainty (k = 2) were obtained for Cd, Cu and Pb, respectively, (14.39 ± 0.21) x 10 -6 mol kg -1 , (44.31 ± 0.42) x 10 -6 mol kg -1 and (2.034 ± 0.034) x 10 -6 mol kg -1 . The rice powder was observed to be highly hygroscopic and a second series of isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements was carried out on samples in equilibrium with the ambient moisture conditions ('saturated' samples). The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) requested this approach for the participation to the key comparison 24 on the same rice test material. The excellent agreement for Cd between the IMEP-19 reference value, the value submitted by the institute for reference materials and measurements (IRMM) to CCQM-K24 and the corresponding reference value obtained as the arithmetic mean from the results of the 11 participating National Measurement Institutes (less than 0.27% difference) further validated this work. Eventually, this series

  18. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  19. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  20. High Content of Lead Is Associated with the Softness of Drinking Water and Raised Cardiovascular Morbidity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Dadar, Maryam; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Aaseth, Jan

    2018-04-14

    Daily ingestion of lead (Pb), even through piped drinking water, has long time been an important issue of concern, attracting for decades research in environmental science and toxicology, and again comes to prominence because of recent high-profile cases of exposure of populations in several countries to Pb-contaminated water. Numerous studies have reported an association between Pb in water and the risk of cardiovascular pathologies. Low levels of magnesium and calcium, i.e., low degree of hardness of the drinking water, may accentuate Pb leaching from water pipes and furthermore increase Pb absorption. This review evaluates the evidence for an association between Pb exposure from drinking water and cardiovascular end points in human populations.

  1. The Hazard Content of Cadmium, Lead, and Other Trace Elements in Some Medicinal Herbs and Their Water Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad A. Ababneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 54 samples belonging to 23 herbal species (15 individuals and 8 mixtures were analyzed for their contents of heavy metals in the raw materials and in their water infusions. Trace and toxic elements in these samples were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES following acid digestion. The order of decreasing mean metal concentrations in raw materials (mg/kg was found to be as follows: Fe (440 > Mn (162 > Zn (45.8 > Cu (12 > Pb (10.4 > Ni (5.4 > Cr (2.9 > Co (0.91 > Cd (0.5. It was found that 21% of the analyzed samples contain both Cd and Pb above their permissible limits. However, the infusions produced from these plants were found to contain fewer amounts of metals than the raw materials. Studied metals had the following mass transfer percentages to the infusion solutions (Fe: 3.5%, Cd: 14%, Cr: 15%, Pb: 20%, Co: 29%, Ni: 31%, Zn: 36%, Cu: 48%, and Mn: 53%. The estimated daily intake calculated for the toxic elements Pb and Cd through the consumption of herbal infusions was far below the tolerable daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  2. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Lao, Jeemeng [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Catena, Michela [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Verhertbruggen, Yves [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Herter, Thomas [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Yang, Fan [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Harholt, Jesper [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Ebert, Berit [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Ronald, Pamela C. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant Pathology and the Genome Center, University of California, Davis CA USA

    2015-01-14

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  3. Effect of sodium butyrate treatment on the granule morphology, histamine level and elemental content of the bone marrow-derived mast cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzynski, K. [Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Dalen, H. [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    Mast cells derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mice (BMMC) were cultures and their growth ceased with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment (1 mM, 4 days) caused maturation of the granules, and increased histamine content from approx. 1 pg/cell to 4 pg/cell. X-ray microanalysis revealed that maturation of the granules was accompanied by the increase in relative weight percent of sodium, phosphorus and sulphur, with concomitant decrease in chloride. The sulphur to potassium ratio increased three-fold in butyrate-treated mast cells. The existence of a different elemental composition during mast cell maturation may provide additional parameter for rapid discrimination of mast cell subpopulations. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs.

  4. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  5. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo. Annual progress report, 15 July 1971--15 July 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated and the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna. (U.S.)

  6. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  7. Orchards for edible cities: cadmium and lead content in nuts, berries, pome and stone fruits harvested within the inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hoffen, Laura Pauline; Säumel, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Today's urban gardening focuses mainly on vegetable production and rarely includes fruit trees. Health effects of consuming urban crops are questioned due to high local pollution loads. Here, we determined cadmium and lead content in the edible parts of nuts, berries, pome, and stone fruits harvested from fruit trees and shrubs within inner city neighbourhoods of Berlin, Germany. We analysed how local settings at sampling sites shaped the trace metal content. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, fruit type, local traffic, and parameters related to barriers between the sampling site and neighbouring roads. Higher overall traffic burden and proximity to roads increased whereas buildings or vegetation as barriers reduced trace metal content in the edible biomass. We demonstrate, that the consumption of non-vegetable fruits growing in inner city sites in Berlin does not pose a risk on human health as long as the fruits are thoroughly washed and it is provided that site pollutions and impacts are considered in garden concepts and guidelines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Indirect rapid prototyping of sol-gel hybrid glass scaffolds for bone regeneration - Effects of organic crosslinker valence, content and molecular weight on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Stephan; Kascholke, Christian; Flath, Tobias; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2016-04-15

    We present a series of organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel derived glasses, made from a tetraethoxysilane-derived silica sol (100% SiO2) and oligovalent organic crosslinkers functionalized with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The material was susceptible to heat sterilization. The hybrids were processed into pore-interconnected scaffolds by an indirect rapid prototyping method, described here for the first time for sol-gel glass materials. A large panel of polyethylene oxide-derived 2- to 4-armed crosslinkers of molecular weights ranging between 170 and 8000Da were incorporated and their effect on scaffold mechanical properties was investigated. By multiple linear regression, 'organic content' and the 'content of ethylene oxide units in the hybrid' were identified as the main factors that determined compressive strength and modulus, respectively. In general, 3- and 4-armed crosslinkers performed better than linear molecules. Compression tests and cell culture experiments with osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells showed that macroporous scaffolds can be produced with compressive strengths of up to 33±2MPa and with a pore structure that allows cells to grow deep into the scaffolds and form mineral deposits. Compressive moduli between 27±7MPa and 568±98MPa were obtained depending on the hybrid composition and problems associated with the inherent brittleness of sol-gel glass materials could be overcome. SaOS-2 cells showed cytocompatibility on hybrid glass scaffolds and mineral accumulation started as early as day 7. On day 14, we also found mineral accumulation on control hybrid glass scaffolds without cells, indicating a positive effect of the hybrid glass on mineral accumulation. We produced a hybrid sol-gel glass material with significantly improved mechanical properties towards an application in bone regeneration and processed the material into macroporous scaffolds of controlled architecture by indirect rapid prototyping. We were able to produce macroporous materials

  9. Natural contents of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb, and /sup 210/Po in young human bones and teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czegledi, P

    1987-07-01

    /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb, and /sup 210/Po activity concentrations were determined in tooth and bone samples of children. The children of 0 to 13 years were residents of Budapest and died from various diseases. In respect of both /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb activity concentrations, calvaria was representative for the whole skeleton. Examining the total sample, the mean activity concentrations were found to be as follows: /sup 226/Ra 1.53 +- 0.66 mBq/g Ca/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/; /sup 210/Pb 4.34 +- 0.74 mBq/g Ca/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and /sup 210/Po 3.48 +- 0.53 mBq/g Ca/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. It is shown that the burden of the skeleton is about one order of magnitude greater in the age group 1 to 13 years for all three radionuclides.

  10. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  11. Lead intoxication under environmental hypoxia impairs oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Martínez, María Pilar; Conti, María Ines

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that chronic lead intoxication under hypoxic environment induces alveolar bone loss that can lead to periodontal damage with the subsequent loss of teeth. The aim of the present study was to assess the modification of oral inflammatory parameters involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis in the same experimental model. In gingival tissue, hypoxia increased inducible nitric oxid synthase (iNOS) activity (p lead decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content (p lead and PGE2 content was increased by both lead and hypoxia (p lead under hypoxic conditions. Results suggest a wide participation of inflammatory markers that mediate alveolar bone loss induced by these environmental conditions. The lack of information regarding oral health in lead-contaminated populations that coexist with hypoxia induced us to evaluate the alteration of inflammatory parameters in rat oral tissues to elucidate the link between periodontal damage and these environmental conditions.

  12. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  13. Relationship between the v2PO4/amide III ratio assessed by Raman spectroscopy and the calcium content measured by quantitative backscattered electron microscopy in healthy human osteonal bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschger, Andreas; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hofstetter, Birgit; Masic, Admir; Blouin, Stéphane; Messmer, Phaedra; Berzlanovich, Andrea; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Raman microspectroscopy and quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) of bone are powerful tools to investigate bone material properties. Both methods provide information on the degree of bone matrix mineralization. However, a head-to-head comparison of these outcomes from identical bone areas has not been performed to date. In femoral midshaft cross sections of three women, 99 regions (20×20 μ) were selected inside osteons and interstitial bone covering a wide range of matrix mineralization. As the focus of this study was only on regions undergoing secondary mineralization, zones exhibiting a distinct gradient in mineral content close to the mineralization front were excluded. The same regions were measured by both methods. We found a linear correlation (R2=0.75) between mineral/matrix as measured by Raman spectroscopy and the wt. %Mineral/(100-wt. %Mineral) as obtained by qBEI, in good agreement with theoretical estimations. The observed deviations of single values from the linear regression line were determined to reflect biological heterogeneities. The data of this study demonstrate the good correspondence between Raman and qBEI outcomes in describing tissue mineralization. The obtained correlation is likely sensitive to changes in bone tissue composition, providing an approach to detect potential deviations from normal bone.

  14. Myeloma cell-induced disruption of bone remodelling compartments leads to osteolytic lesions and generation of osteoclast-myeloma hybrid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas L; Søe, Kent; Søndergaard, Teis Esben

    2010-01-01

    on the physical organisation of the myeloma cell microenvironment. The proximity between myeloma cells and osteoclasts or osteoblasts was shown to be conditioned by the recently discovered layer of flat cells that separates the osteoclasts and osteoblasts from the bone marrow, by forming a canopy over bone...

  15. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perches and elevated platforms in commercial broiler farms: use and effect on walking ability, incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, E; Norring, M; Valros, A

    2017-05-01

    Modern fast-growing broilers spend excessive periods resting and their activity further decreases with age. Inactivity has been suggested to increase impaired gait and the incidence of leg disorders. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a common leg pathology in broilers. A more complex environment might facilitate more activity and improve leg health. Perches or elevated platforms bring variety to broilers' environment and could motivate more locomotion. This study examined the impact of perches and elevated platforms on walking ability, the occurrence of TD and level of bone ash and mineral contents. The investigation was performed on four commercial broiler farms throughout six consecutive batches with platforms and four to five with perches. On each farm at least two separate houses were included, enabling the comparison of furnished flocks to control flocks during each batch. Plastic slats with ramp access elevated by 30 cm or wooden perches of 10 and 30 cm height were offered in the furnished house. Farmers recorded the platform and perch usage twice a week with a five-point scale. Gait was scored before slaughter on a six-point scale according to the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for poultry. The severity of TD was determined using a four-point scale on farm from all birds gait scored as 3 and at slaughter from 200 birds/flock. Farmers estimated 50% to 100% of the platforms to be occupied in all flocks throughout the entire growing period. Only single birds were perching, thus perch structures were constantly evaluated to be empty. Due to the low use, the perch-equipped houses were excluded when analysing bone content, walking ability and TD. On average, 30% of the tested birds exhibited gait score ⩾3. Younger scoring age resulted in a lower mean gait score and a lower percentage of scores 3 and 4 to 5. Overall, 2.3% of the birds examined at slaughter and 3.5% of the birds with gait score 3 were affected by TD. Leg health was better in birds with access

  17. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-]). The factor CaP- was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn- was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). Intake was individually monitored every day. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker for digestibility estimates. The bulls were slaughtered (84 or 147 d on feed), and then carcass characteristics were measured and liver and rib samples were collected. Feed, feces, rib bones, and liver samples were analyzed for DM, ash, CP, ether extract (EE), Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu. There were no significant interactions ( ≥ 0.06) between macro- and micromineral supplementation for any variables in the study. Calcium, P, and micromineral concentrations did not affect ( ≥ 0.20) intake of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CP, TDN, and nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). Calcium and P intake were affected ( < 0.01) by macromineral factor. Animals fed without Ca and P supplementation consumed less of these minerals. Dry matter and nutrient fecal excretion (OM, NDF, EE, CP, and NFC) were similar ( ≥ 0.23) among all factors. Performance and carcass characteristics were similar ( ≥ 0.09) among diets. The content of ash in rib bones was not affected by diets ( ≥ 0.06). Plasma P and phosphatase alkaline concentrations were similar (

  18. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  19. Zinc, copper and lead contents of wines. Comparison between the total concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and the concentrations of the free ions by polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Fournier

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this article, some examples of the use of trace element data in the characterisation of viticultural produce are reminded. This paper described the determination of zinc, copper and lead by two techniques based on radically different principles. The atomic absorption spectrometry, applied after the mineralisation of the samples by wet process, allows the determination of the total element contents in wine. The polarography allows the analysis of the concentrations of these elements that are under labile chemical forms, and which are dissolved under the ionic forms Zn++, Cu++ and Pb++. The wines analysed in this study were produced from three different parcels chosen in relation to their geological qualities. The vines implanted on these parcels are strictly identical, and three fermentation techniques were applied to each lots of grapes. The results obtained shows that the copper is only under ionic form and that the temperature of the fermentation influences the total copper level in the final wine. At the opposite, there is no ion Pb++ in the samples, but a long duration of maceration increases the lead content. Concerning zinc, only the ions Zn++ are present in the wine in case of a short duration of the maceration. When this duration increases, some other chemical forms of zinc are dissolved in addition to the ions Zn++ which are instantaneously dissociated in aqueous solutions. The problem of the contamination of grapes by the materials used, the phytosanitary treatments and the atmospheric pollution is discussed. The knowledge of the proportion of a trace element that is under ionic forms is indispensable to evaluate the bio-availability of the considered element and the toxicologic risks. The advent and the expansion of the electrochemical methods is expected as an important advance in this field of research.

  20. Study on reducing radiation dose in dental radiography for children, 1. The seltering effects of lead content rubber sheet and ready-made apron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikone, Mitsuru; Tsuchida, Atsushi; Tateno, Hidemi; Uchimura, Noboru; Higaki, Morio; Kanno, Masanori; Higashi, Tomomitsu

    1986-12-01

    X-ray examination is one of the effective diagnoses in dentistry. And it is difficult to conduct a precise dental examination without X-ray films, especially in pedodontics. However, radiography may be attended with many radiation injury, and we must perform the complete protection of patients when taking X-ray radiography for children, because their tissues are much more sensitive to radiation than those of adult. Children have some radiosensitive immature organs such as the thyroid gland, eyes (crystalline lens), gonad etc., accordingly, it is very important to protect them from exposure of X-rey. It has been suggested that the thyroid gland is the most sensitive to radiation among many organs. We, therefore, establish a protector for children's thyroid gland as soon as possible. In this study, the auther had designed X-ray protecting rubber sheet which had various lead contents, for finding an optimum condition of the protector. Additionally, the sheltering effects were compared among ready-made protectors. 1. It was satisfactory for complete sheltering of direct beam that the rubber sheet contained 0.375 mmPb, 0.5 mmPb, and 0.75 mmPb, at the tubevoltage of 65 kVp, 70 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. 2. The radiolucency ratio of Hagoromo Apron containing 0.25 mmPb was 0 % at 65 kVp, and that of X-ray Shield containing 0.50 mmPb was 0 % at 65, 70 kVp and 80 kVp too. 3. Among the ready-made aprons, there was one which had less lead content than the indicated value.

  1. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  2. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Z, D.

    2005-01-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  3. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  4. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  5. [The occurance lead and cadmium in hip joint in aspect of exposure on tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunia, Mariusz; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Ahnert, Bozena; Kowol, Jolanta; Nogaj, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was qualification of content cadmium and lead in selected elements of the hip joint in aspect of tobacco smoking. The material for the research were 5 elements of hip joint (articular cartilage, trabecular bone and cortical bone femur head, fragment articular capsule and fragment trabecular bone from region intertrochanteric femoral bone), obtained intraoperatively during endoprothesoplastic surgeries. The samples come from habitants of Upper Silesian Region. Determination of trace elements contents were performed by ASA method (Pye Unicam SP-9) in acetylene-oxygen flame. Higher contents of lead were observed for smoking people, however in case of cadmium the differences of this element were not statistical essential between smokers and non-smokers.

  6. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2014-05-21

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al+DFP (Group III) and Al+DFO+DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al+DFP to Al+DFO+DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO+DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  8. Comparison of the distributions of bromine, lead, and zinc in tooth and bone for an ancient Peruvian burial site by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Sapp, W.D.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Caber) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient. (author)

  9. Determination of lead content in drilling fueled soil using laser induced spectral analysis and its cross validation using ICP/OES method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I; Gondal, M A; Rehan, K

    2018-05-15

    A detection system based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was designed, optimized, and successfully employed for the estimation of lead (Pb) content in drilling fueled soil (DFS) collected from oil field drilling areas in Pakistan. The concentration of Pb was evaluated by the standard calibration curve method as well as by using an approach based on the integrated intensity of strongest emission of an element of interest. Remarkably, our investigation clearly demonstrated that the concentration of Pb in drilling fueled soil collected at the exact drilling site was greater than the safe permissible limits. Furthermore, the Pb concentration was observed to decline with increasing distance away from the specific drilling point. Analytical determinations were carried out under the assumptions that laser generated plasma was optically thin and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In order to improve the sensitivity of our LIBS detection system, various parametric dependence studies were performed. To further validate the precision of our LIBS results, the concentration of Pb present in the acquired samples were also quantified via a standard analytical tool like inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Both results were in excellent agreement, implying remarkable reliability for the LIBS data. Furthermore, the Limit of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system for Pb was estimated to be 125.14 mg L -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contents of the heavy metals nickel and lead in leaves of Paulownia elongata S.Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was carried out on the capabilities of the two species Paulownia elongata S. Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. as biomonitors of atmospheric (and soil heavy-metal pollution. Research on content of the heavy metals nickel (Ni and lead (Pb in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata growing under urban and suburban conditions with the comparison to the concentration of these elements in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortunei on an experimental plot in Bela Crkva showed average nickel concentrations of 2.7 μg/g on the experimental plot in Bela Crkva, Serbia, twice as low as the concentrations measured under extreme urban conditions (6.62 μg/g, or 4.54 μg/g in the immediate vicinity of suburban traffic lines. Inasmuch as Paulownia elongata endures urban conditions well, it can be recommended for cultivation in parks, tree alleys, and wind-protection zones along urban and regional traffic lines.

  11. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found.

  12. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower ( p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  13. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  14. Creatine Supplementation During Resistance Training Does Not Lead to Greater Bone Mineral Density in Older Humans: A Brief Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Forbes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Creatine supplementation during resistance training has potential beneficial effects on properties of bone in aging adults. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs investigating the effect of creatine supplementation combined with resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD in aging adults. We searched PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases and included RCTs of ≥3 months duration that examined the combined effect of creatine and resistance training on bone mineral in adults >50 years of age or postmenopausal. Meta-analyses were performed when applicable trials were available on whole body and clinically important bone sites. Five trials met inclusion criteria with a total of 193 participants. Two of the studies reported significant benefits of creatine supplementation and resistance training compared to resistance training alone on bone. Meta-analyses revealed no greater effect of creatine and resistance training compared to resistance training alone on whole body BMD (MD: 0.00, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.01, p = 0.50, hip BMD (MD −0.01, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.01, p = 0.26, femoral neck BMD (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.01, p = 0.71, and lumbar spine BMD (MD 0.01, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.03, p = 0.32. In conclusion, there is a limited number of RCTs examining the effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on BMD in older adults. Our meta-analyses revealed no significant effect on whole body, hip, femoral neck, or lumbar spine BMD when comparing creatine and resistance training to resistance training alone. Future longer term (>12 month trials with higher resistance training frequencies (≥3 times per week is warranted.

  15. Effect of strontium addition and chitosan concentration variation on cytotoxicity of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite based bone scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkasa, Rilis Eka; Umniati, B. Sri; Sunendar, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    Bone scaffold is one of the most important component in bone tissue engineering. Basically, bone scaffold is a biocompatible structure designed to replace broken bone tissue temporarily. Unlike conventional bone replacements, an advanced bone scaffold should be bioactive (e.g: supporting bone growth) and biodegradable as new bone tissue grow, while retain its mechanical properties similarity with bone. It is also possible to add more bioactive substrates to bone scaffold to further support its performance. One of the substrate is strontium, an element that could improve the ability of the bone to repair itself. However, it must be noted that excessive consumption of strontium could lead to toxicity and diseases, such as osteomalacia and hypocalcemia. This research aimed to investigate the effect of strontium addition to the cytotoxic property of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite bone scaffold. The amount of strontium added to the bone scaffold was 5% molar of the carbonate apatite content. As a control, bone scaffold without stronsium (0% molar) were also made. The effect of chitosan concentration variation on the cytotoxicity were also observed, where the concentration varies on 1% and 3% w/v of chitosan solution. The results showed an optimum result on bone scaffold sample with 5% molar of strontium and 3% chitosan, where 87.67% cells in the performed MTS-Assay cytotoxicity testing survived. This showed that the use of up to 5% molar addition of strontium and 3% chitosan could enhance the survivability of the cell.

  16. Effect of lead on nucleic acid and protein contents of rice (Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings and its interaction with IAA and GA/sub 3/ in different plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, P.; Mukherh, S.

    1979-09-01

    Activity of lead acetate, (CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/Pb, 3 H/sub 2/O, was studied in germinating rice seedlings with respect to RNA, DNA and alkali soluble protein contents. RNA, DNA and protein contents greatly reduced both in embryo and endosperm with increasing concentrations of lead and with concomitant increase in amino acid content in embryo. When IAA was supplied in combination with lead acetate, variable amounts of relief of elongation inhibition of wheat coleoptile sections were noticed. With GA/sub 3/, however, lead-induced inhibition of either lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) hypocotyl elongation or ..cap alpha..-amylase production in rice half seeds was largely overcome.

  17. Disruption of Runx1 and Runx3 Leads to Bone Marrow Failure and Leukemia Predisposition due to Transcriptional and DNA Repair Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsia Qiuxia Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The RUNX genes encode transcription factors involved in development and human disease. RUNX1 and RUNX3 are frequently associated with leukemias, yet the basis for their involvement in leukemogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that Runx1;Runx3 double-knockout (DKO mice exhibited lethal phenotypes due to bone marrow failure and myeloproliferative disorder. These contradictory clinical manifestations are reminiscent of human inherited bone marrow failure syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA, caused by defective DNA repair. Indeed, Runx1;Runx3 DKO cells showed mitomycin C hypersensitivity, due to impairment of monoubiquitinated-FANCD2 recruitment to DNA damage foci, although FANCD2 monoubiquitination in the FA pathway was unaffected. RUNX1 and RUNX3 interact with FANCD2 independently of CBFβ, suggesting a nontranscriptional role for RUNX in DNA repair. These findings suggest that RUNX dysfunction causes DNA repair defect, besides transcriptional misregulation, and promotes the development of leukemias and other cancers.

  18. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  19. Yield, SDG lignan, cadmium, lead, oil and protein contents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in trials and at different farm conditions in the south-western part of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketta Saastamoinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed varieties were studied in variety trials and under farm conditions in south-western Finland in the years 2007−2010. The variation in yield, oil, protein, SDG lignan, cadmium and lead contents were studied in 8 oil and 2 fibre linseed varieties. Genotypic, environmental and genotype x environment interaction variance estimates were calculated. Fibre varieties ‘Belinka’ and ‘Martta’ had higher protein and lower oil contents than oil linseed varieties.The SDG lignan contents of linseed varieties varied between 3635−9560 mg kg-1. Rather high genotypic variance was found in yield, oil, protein and SDG lignan contents. Variety ‘Laser’ had lower SDG lignan content. ‘Abacus’, ‘Helmi’ and ‘Martta’ had the highest SDG lignan contents. Variation in cadmium and lead contents were caused by environmental effects. The highest cadmium contents, 0.82−1.69 mg kg-1, were found in soils fertilized by wastewater sludge about 20 years ago and at fields with low bottom soil pH (4.1−4.5.

  20. Modulation of Host Osseointegration during Bone Regeneration by Controlling Exogenous Stem Cells Differentiation Using a Material Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping; Xia, Zengmin; Chen, Li; Jiang, Xi; Rowe, David; Wei, Mei

    2014-02-01

    Stem cell-based tissue engineering for large bone defect healing has attracted enormous attention in regenerative medicine. However, sufficient osseointegration of the grafts combined with exogenous stem cells still remains a major challenge. Here we developed a material approach to modulate the integration of the grafts to the host tissue when exogenous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used as donor cells. Distinctive osseointegration of bone grafts was observed as we varied the content of hydroxyapatite (HA) in the tissue scaffolds implanted in a mouse femur model. More than 80% of new bone was formed in the first two weeks of implantation in high HA content scaffold but lack of host integration while only less than 5% of the new bone was formed during this time period in the no HA group but with much stronger host integration. Cell origin analysis leveraging GFP reporter indicates new bone in HA containing groups was mainly derived from donor BMSCs. In comparison, both host and donor cells were found on new bone surface in the no HA groups which led to seamless bridging between host tissue and the scaffold. Most importantly, host integration during bone formation is closely dictated to the content of HA present in the scaffolds. Taken together, we demonstrate a material approach to modulate the osseointegration of bone grafts in the context of exogenous stem cell-based bone healing strategy which might lead to fully functional bone tissue regeneration.

  1. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814

  2. In Vivo Over-expression of Circulating Dlk1/Pref-1 Protein Using Hydrodynamic-based Gene Transfer Leads to Lower Bone mass With Marked Effects on Trabecular Bone Micro-architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    determined by PIXImus (LunarR) and micro-CT (ScancoR) respectively. We could only localize the plasmid in the liver and no complications were detected due to transgene expression. Serum levels of FA1 in Dlk1 injected mice (Dlk1+mice) was elevated by more than 15 folds compared to control saline injected mice...... and BMD was negatively correlated with the circulating levels of FA1. Micro-CT analysis revealed significantly decreased micro-architectural parameters of trabecular bone in the distal femur and proximal tibia of the Dlk1+mice compared to controls (see table). Naked DNA delivery by hydrodynamic injection...

  3. The Effect of Lead on the Glomalin Content of Hypha and Root Reactive with Monoclonal Antibody and Bradford in both in Vitro and Pot Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Malekzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glomalin is known as a specific fungal glycoprotein belonging to the order Glomerales in phylum Glomeromycota and has been introduced as a heat shock protein. We hypothesised that increasing the level of Pb would lead to increase in glomalin production. Glomalin is usually determined by two methods, the Bradford protein dye-binding assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since many laboratories are not equipped to carry out the ELISA assay, many studies have measured glomalin-related soil protein using the Bradford colorimetric total protein assay. While, the ELISA method specifically measures glomalin by using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. Materials and Methods: The pot experiment was conducted in the sterile free-glomalin sand with Trifolium repens L. mycorrhized by Rhizophagus irregularis fungus and treated with the Pb levels of 0, 150, 300 and 450 µM. Thus, in vitro experiment was performed in two-compartments plates containing of the transformed carrot roots (Daucus carota L. mycorrhized with the same fungus in root compartment and hyphal compartment treated with the Pb levels of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM as Pb(NO32. For glomalin extraction, hyphal or root samples were autoclaved at 121 ⁰C with 50 mM sodium citrate buffer for 60 min in three cycles. Protein concentrations in the extracted samples were determined using a modified Bradford protein assay. Also, glomalin content in the samples were determined by indirect ELISA using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. The percentages of the total root length were colonised by mycorrhizal fungi in pot culture and both hyphal and spore densities in the metal-containing hyphal compartment were determined. Results and Discussion: In the in vitro culture the percentage of total hyphae and spore frequency decreased, while Bradford reactive total hyphal protein (BRHP and Immunoreactive hyphal protein (IRHP in hyphal compartment increased as the concentrations of Pb increased

  4. Investigations of 90Sr Activity Concentrations in Animal Bones in Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of 90Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs, lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. The investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment of Croatia. Bone is critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemical behaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones in year 2005 (472.61 mBqgCa -1 or 2.14 Bqkg -1 ). In cow bones highest value being found was in 1998, being 611.42 mBqgCa -1 or 69.09 Bqkg -1 90Sr. The transient increases and decreases in 90Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical and biochemical factors that naturally fluctuate. As the levels of stable strontium in bone tissue is strongly correlated to calcium content of bone, 90Sr can be used as efficient radiotracer of stable strontium, which is itself important since it positively affects bone metabolism promoting bone formation and decreasing bone resorption, leading to normalized bone density.(author)

  5. Loss of Asxl1 Alters Self-Renewal and Cell Fate of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell, Leading to Bohring-Opitz-like Syndrome in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available De novo ASXL1 mutations are found in patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome, a disease with severe developmental defects and early childhood mortality. The underlying pathologic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using Asxl1-targeted murine models, we found that Asxl1 global loss as well as conditional deletion in osteoblasts and their progenitors led to significant bone loss and a markedly decreased number of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs compared with wild-type littermates. Asxl1−/− BMSCs displayed impaired self-renewal and skewed differentiation, away from osteoblasts and favoring adipocytes. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, skeletal development, and morphogenesis. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis showed decreased expression of stem cell self-renewal gene signature, suggesting a role of Asxl1 in regulating the stemness of BMSCs. Importantly, re-introduction of Asxl1 normalized NANOG and OCT4 expression and restored the self-renewal capacity of Asxl1−/− BMSCs. Our study unveils a pivotal role of ASXL1 in the maintenance of BMSC functions and skeletal development.

  6. Loss of Asxl1 Alters Self-Renewal and Cell Fate of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell, Leading to Bohring-Opitz-like Syndrome in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Xing, Caihong; Rhodes, Steven D; He, Yongzheng; Deng, Kai; Li, Zhaomin; He, Fuhong; Zhu, Caiying; Nguyen, Lihn; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Shi; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Xu, Mingjiang; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2016-06-14

    De novo ASXL1 mutations are found in patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome, a disease with severe developmental defects and early childhood mortality. The underlying pathologic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using Asxl1-targeted murine models, we found that Asxl1 global loss as well as conditional deletion in osteoblasts and their progenitors led to significant bone loss and a markedly decreased number of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) compared with wild-type littermates. Asxl1(-/-) BMSCs displayed impaired self-renewal and skewed differentiation, away from osteoblasts and favoring adipocytes. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, skeletal development, and morphogenesis. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis showed decreased expression of stem cell self-renewal gene signature, suggesting a role of Asxl1 in regulating the stemness of BMSCs. Importantly, re-introduction of Asxl1 normalized NANOG and OCT4 expression and restored the self-renewal capacity of Asxl1(-/-) BMSCs. Our study unveils a pivotal role of ASXL1 in the maintenance of BMSC functions and skeletal development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  8. Pre-irradiation of tissue culture flasks leads to diminished stem and progenitor cell production in long-term bone marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, P.; Wright, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Empty plastic tissue culture flasks were exposed to X-irradiation doses of 0.3-10.0 Gy, prior to the establishment of long-term bone marrow cultures. During the course of a 10 week culture period, all irradiated plastic flasks exhibited a dramatic decrease in the number of both haemopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells, in the non-adherent layer, when compared with controls. This decrease was not due to a decrease in the number of non-adherent cells produced. Histological examination of non-adherent cells showed an increase in mature granulocytic cells with few blast cells. Morphologically, the adherent layers of irradiated flasks demonstrated a delay in appearance or absence of fat cell production. X-irradiation of glass tissue culture flasks had no deleterious effect. (author)

  9. The comparative study of contents of zinc and lead in ore samples of Namtu-Bawdwin Mine by wet analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyaw-Soe,

    1990-05-01

    Lead-zinc ores taken from Namtu-Bawdwin area had been analyzed by wet processes in the Department of Chemistry, 1984. These ore samples have been analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method in the Department of Physics and X-ray diffraction method is also used to determine elements of lead and zinc compounds in these ore samples in the University`s Research Centre. In brief, we study comparatively the contents of lead and zinc and their compounds using the methods of wet processes, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. (author).

  10. Formation of blood clot on biomaterial implants influences bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Goss, Ben; Lutton, Cameron; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2014-12-01

    The first step in bone healing is forming a blood clot at injured bones. During bone implantation, biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood, leading to a blood clot formation on its surface prior to bone regeneration. Despite both situations being similar in forming a blood clot at the defect site, most research in bone tissue engineering virtually ignores the important role of a blood clot in supporting healing. Dental implantology has long demonstrated that the fibrin structure and cellular content of a peri-implant clot can greatly affect osteoconduction and de novo bone formation on implant surfaces. This article reviews the formation of a blood clot during bone healing in relation to the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gels. It is implicated that PRP gels are dramatically altered from a normal clot in healing, resulting in conflicting effect on bone regeneration. These results indicate that the effect of clots on bone regeneration depends on how the clots are formed. Factors that influence blood clot structure and properties in relation to bone healing are also highlighted. Such knowledge is essential for developing strategies to optimally control blood clot formation, which ultimately alter the healing microenvironment of bone. Of particular interest are modification of surface chemistry of biomaterials, which displays functional groups at varied composition for the purpose of tailoring blood coagulation activation, resultant clot fibrin architecture, rigidity, susceptibility to lysis, and growth factor release. This opens new scope of in situ blood clot modification as a promising approach in accelerating and controlling bone regeneration.

  11. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  12. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R

    1949-01-01

    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  13. Fluorine poisoning from waste gases and dust emitted by a superphosphate plant: determination of F content from deposits in plants, drinking water, forage, and bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stas, M E

    1941-01-01

    An extensive review is given of the literature on detrimental effects caused by fluorine in plants, animals, and humans, as well as the literature on methods of determining trace amounts of fluorine in water, air, and various other locales. A report is given of an original study of fluorine determination in plants, rainwater, drinking water, plant life consumed by cattle, and the bones of cattle. Results obtained in the immediate vicinity (distances of 100 to 300 m from the fertilizer factory) were compared with control results from other locales. The water, grass, and hay consumed by the cattle contained high amounts of fluorine, and that the bones of cattle that died with the symptoms of fluorine poisoning contained a higher fluorine level than other cattle.

  14. THE CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN BAY BOLETE (XEROCOMUS BADIUS (FR. E. COLLECTED FROM A STRONGLY POLLUTED FOREST COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pająk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the Świerklaniec Forest District, the Brynica sub-district, which is located in the immediate vicinity of a metallurgical plant, a zinc mine named Huta Cynku "Miasteczko Śląskie" (HCMŚ. In autumn 2008, in the area in question, 31 permanent trial plots were established, aligned within a regular net of squares, with dimensions of 1500×1500 m. The trial plots were located to the north-east and to the east of the emitter (the HCMŚ zinc mine, accordingly with the direction of prevailing winds. In September 2013, and September and October 2014, sporocarps of bay bolete (Xerocomus badius (Fr. E. were collected from the trial plots. The analyses performed for the material gathered covered a determination of heavy metal content in mushrooms (Zn, Pb and Cd, using a method of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ICP-AES. This paper aimed to establish the accumulation levels of selected heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd in bay bolete growing in forests of the Brynica sub-district, in the Świerklaniec Forest District, and the correlation between their content in soil and in the mushrooms under scrutiny. The analyses revealed that the contamination degree in the investigated species was extremely high. The content of toxic elements in bay bolete significantly exceeded the acceptable standards referring to the maximum content of heavy metals in mushrooms, which was particularly true for cadmium.

  15. Interaction between x-irradiated plateau-phase bone marrow stromal cell lines and co-cultivated factor-dependent cell lines leading to leukemogenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naparstek, E.; Anklesaria, P.; FitzGerald, T.J.; Sakakeeny, M.A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Plateau-phase mouse clonal bone marrow stromal cell lines D2XRII and C3H cl 11 produce decreasing levels of M-CSF (CSF-1), a specific macrophage progenitor cell humoral regulator, following X-irradiation in vitro. The decrease did not go below 40% of control levels, even after irradiation doses of 50,000 rad (500 Gy). In contrast, a distinct humoral regulator stimulating growth of GM-CSF/IL-3 factor-dependent (FD) hematopoietic progenitor cell lines was detected following radiation to doses above 2000 rad. This humoral factor was not detectable in conditioned medium from irradiated cells, weakly detected using factor-dependent target cell populations in agar overlay, and was prominently detected by liquid co-cultivation of factor-dependent cells with irradiated stromal cell cultures. Subclonal lines of FD cells, derived after co-cultivation revealed karyotypic abnormalities and induced myeloblastic tumors in syngeneic mice. Five-eight weeks co-cultivation was required for induction of factor independence and malignancy and was associated with dense cell to cell contact between FD cells and stromal cells demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Increases in hematopoietic to stromal cell surface area, total number of adherent cells per flask, total non-adherent cell colonies per flask, and cumulative non-adherent cell production were observed after irradiation. The present data may prove very relevant to an understanding of the cell to cell interactions during X-irradiation-induced leukemia

  16. Build Up Your Bones! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Build Up Your Bones! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Exercise ... who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis. The Best Bone-Building Exercise The best exercise for your bones ...

  17. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  18. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  19. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  20. Certification of the content (mass fractions) of arsenic, cadmium, copper, cobalt, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in a single-cell protein. CRM no. 274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griepink, B

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preparation of a single cell protein as a reference material. Homogeneity and stability of the material are studied. The applied methods for the determination of concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Co, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn are presented, the contents of which are resp.: 0.1, 0.03, 0.04, 13, 52, 0.04, 1 and 43 ..mu..g/g. With 5 graphs, 55 tabs.

  1. Monitoring content of cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium and manganese in tea leaves by electrothermal and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkić Ante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the simplicity of tea preparation (pouring hot water onto different dried herbs and its high popularity as a beverage, monitoring and developing a screening methodology for detecting the metal content is very important. The concentrations of Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg and Mn in 11 different samples of sage (Salvia officinalis L., linden (Tilia L. and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. purchased at local herbal pharmacy were determined using electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The concentrations determined were: Cd (0.012 – 0.470 mg kg−1, Ca (5209 – 16340 mg kg−1, Cu (22.01 – 33.05 mg kg−1, Fe (114.2 – 440.3 mg kg−1, Pb (0.545 – 2.538 mg kg−1, Mg (2649 – 4325 mg kg−1 and Mn (34.00 – 189.6 mg kg−1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to identify factors (soil and climate influencing the content of the measured elements in herbal samples. The proposed methodology developed in this work was successfully applied to the detection of metals in herbal samples. The analysis showed that the content of toxic metals in herbal teas was below the maximum dose recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  2. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  3. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  4. Determination of bone mineral content (BMC) by dual photon absorptiometry: Age-, sex-, and menopause-related changes in Bavaria and effect of estrogen replacement in early postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Henning, J.; Utz, G.; Scheffel, H.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular bone mass (L2-4) have been determined repeatedly with DPA using GD 153 (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 female and 112 male pts with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal', (age- and sex-related average) BMC values differed significantly from those of US people determined by same equipment, i.e., were in average about 30% lower, but matched well with corresponding results from Belgium. BMC-area was found the most suitable parameter both for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, since BMC-area is independent from height and weight. But there is still need to reduce the overlap and improve accuracy and reproducibility for making decisions after shorter intervals. Assessment of the individual mineral loss and fracture risk by comparing to average values, however, remains problematic due to the wide range of 'normal' BMC and in women additionally due to the variable onset of menopause. For estimations of the individual fracture risk of elderly pts BMC should not be normalized on age, because at the age of 65 half of the women had 'pathologic' values, i.e. were below the so called 'osteoporosis threshold'. Comparison of the individually measured postmenopausal BMC to average values of premenopausal women and to BMC values normalized to their menopausal age may be helpful approaches for overcoming these difficulties. Because of the lack of earlier individual data in most cases repeated BMC measurements are still required for assessment of demineralization speed. Preliminary results of estrogen replacement therapy with low doses of natural conjugated estrogen show good prevention of bone loss in healthy but not in ovarectomized women. (orig./MG)

  5. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. The effect of parathyroid hormone and teriparatide on bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Continuous exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to hypercalcemia and a decrease in bone volume, which is referred to as its catabolic effect, while intermittent exogenously administered PTH leads to an anabolic effect on bone. Intermittent administration of PTH dramatically increases bone remodeling and modeling through their direct and indirect effects on the functional cells of bone remodeling units and their precursors. These effects on bone metabolism differ according to dosing frequency of PTH. Therefore, different dosing frequency of PTH shows different therapeutic effects on bone in terms of bone volume and bone quality in patients with osteoporosis.

  6. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Kiminori; Kure, Yoshio; Suzuki, Akira; Sekino, Haruo; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Goto, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Akihiko

    1990-01-01

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  7. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  8. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  9. The effect of brown coal on the decrease in the content of mobile forms of copper and lead in ordinary calcareous chernozem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezuglova, O.S.; Ignatenko, E.L.; Morozov, I.V.; Shevchenko, I.D. [Rostov State University, Rostov na Donu (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    Data on the use of brown coal as a soil detoxicant are presented. Purification of soil from heavy metals with brown coal depends on its sorptive properties and the ability of coal-derived humic acids to bind heavy metals into low mobile complexes. The effect of brown coal on the use of mobile copper by soil microorganisms leading to the enhancement of biological activity in chernozems is shown.

  10. The Effect of Lead on the Glomalin Content of Hypha and Root Reactive with Monoclonal Antibody and Bradford in both in Vitro and Pot Culture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Malekzadeh; Jafar Majidi; Nasser Aliasgharzad; Jalal Abdolalizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glomalin is known as a specific fungal glycoprotein belonging to the order Glomerales in phylum Glomeromycota and has been introduced as a heat shock protein. We hypothesised that increasing the level of Pb would lead to increase in glomalin production. Glomalin is usually determined by two methods, the Bradford protein dye-binding assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since many laboratories are not equipped to carry out the ELISA assay, many studies have mea...

  11. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  12. Contributions of Severe Burn and Disuse to Bone Structure and Strength in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L.A.; Wu, X.; Tou, J. C.; Johnson, E.; Wolf, S.E.; Wade, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14 days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by microcomputed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

  13. Heavy metals in human bones in different historical epochs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, M J; Moreno, J M; Moreno-Clavel, J; Vergara, N; García-Sánchez, A; Guillamón, A; Portí, M; Moreno-Grau, S

    2005-09-15

    The concentration of the metals lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and iron was determined in bone remains belonging to 30 individuals buried in the Region of Cartagena dating from different historical periods and in eight persons who had died in recent times. The metals content with respect to lead, cadmium and copper was determined either by anodic stripping voltammetry or by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the concentrations present in the bone remains. In all cases, zinc and iron were quantified by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead concentrations found in the bone remains in our city are greater than those reported in the literature for other locations. This led to the consideration of the sources of these metals in our area, both the contribution from atmospheric aerosols as well as that from the soil in the area. Correlation analysis leads us to consider the presence of the studied metals in the analysed bone samples to be the consequence of analogous inputs, namely the inhalation of atmospheric aerosols and diverse contributions in the diet. The lowest values found in the studied bone remains correspond to the Neolithic period, with similar contents to present-day samples with respect to lead, copper, cadmium and iron. As regards the evolution over time of the concentrations of the metals under study, a clear increase in these is observed between the Neolithic period and the grouping made up of the Bronze Age, Roman domination and the Byzantine period. The trend lines used to classify the samples into 7 periods show that the maximum values of lead correspond to the Roman and Byzantine periods. For copper, this peak is found in the Byzantine Period and for iron, in the Islamic Period. Zinc shows an increasing tendency over the periods under study and cadmium is the only metal whose trend lines shows a decreasing slope.

  14. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  15. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  16. Determination of the content of aluminium, manganese, fluorine, lead and cadmium in water for human consumption in a sector of Santa Barbara of Heredia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Sanchez, F.

    1995-01-01

    This study developed an analytical procedure dependable and precise, for the determination of manganese and aluminum by means of the technique of Atomic Emission with Plasma Fountain Coupled Inductively (Icp-Aes), and applied to the water that they supply to a sector of the community of Santa Barbara of Heredia. For the determination of aluminum and manganese, the samples showed that they don't need any prior mineralization or preconcentration processing, for which the analysis is rapid and economic. It determined the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the samples, by means of the volt amperometric method of Anodic Spoils with Differential Pulse, and the technique of standard addition for the quantization of the samples. It also determined the concentrations of fluorine by the colorimetric method of SPANDS. (author) [es

  17. Assessment of the potential health risks associated with the aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead content in selected fruits and vegetables grown in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann M.R. Antoine

    Full Text Available Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops − ackee (Blighia sapida, banana (Musa acuminate, cabbage (Brassica oleracea, carrot (Daucus carota, cassava (Manihot esculenta, coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium, dasheen (Colocasia esculenta, Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and turnip (Brassica rapa − were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fresh weight mean concentrations in these food crops (4.25–93.12 mg/kg for aluminium; 0.001–0.104 mg/kg for arsenic; 0.015–0.420 mg/kg for cadmium; 0.003–0.100 mg/kg for lead were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI, target hazard quotient (THQ, hazard index (HI and target cancer risk (TCR for arsenic, associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic elements. Each food type had a THQ and HI < 1 indicating no undue non-carcinogenic risk from exposure to a single or multiple potentially toxic elements from the same food. The TCR for arsenic in these foods were all below 1 × 10−4, the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. There is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with the consumption of these Jamaican-grown food crops. Keywords: Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Target hazard quotient, Target cancer risk, Hazard index, Food, Jamaican crops, Estimated daily intake

  18. A Small Decrease in Rubisco Content by Individual Suppression of RBCS Genes Leads to Improvement of Photosynthesis and Greater Biomass Production in Rice Under Conditions of Elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2017-03-01

    Rubisco limits photosynthesis at low CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), but does not limit it at elevated [CO2]. This means that the amount of Rubisco is excessive for photosynthesis at elevated [CO2]. Therefore, we examined whether a small decrease in Rubisco content by individual suppression of the RBCS multigene family leads to increases in photosynthesis and biomass production at elevated [CO2] in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previous studies indicated that the individual suppression of RBCS decreased Rubisco content in rice by 10-25%. Three lines of BC2F2 progeny were selected from transgenic plants with individual suppression of OsRBCS2, 3 and 5. Rubisco content in the selected lines was 71-90% that of wild-type plants. These three transgenic lines showed lower rates of CO2 assimilation at low [CO2] (28 Pa) but higher rates of CO2 assimilation at elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). Similarly, the biomass production and relative growth rate (RGR) of the two lines were also smaller at low [CO2] but greater than that of wild-type plants at elevated [CO2]. This greater RGR was caused by the higher net assimilation rate (NAR). When the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for the NAR was estimated by dividing the NAR by whole-plant leaf N content, the NUE for NAR at elevated [CO2] was higher in these two lines. Thus, a small decrease in Rubisco content leads to improvements of photosynthesis and greater biomass production in rice under conditions of elevated CO2. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Assessment of the influence of body composition on bone mass in children and adolescents based on a functional analysis of the muscle-bone relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joanna; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The functional model of skeletal development considers the mechanical factor to be the most important skeletal modulant. The aim of the study was a functional analysis of the bone-muscle relationship in children with low and normal bone mass. The study involved 149 children with low and 99 children with normal bone mass (control group). All patients underwent a densitometry examination (DXA). Low bone mass was diagnosed if the Z-score was below values of Z-scores for all parameters in children with low bone mass as compared to the control group. Children with low bone mass had lower content of adipose and muscle tissue and a marked deficit of muscle tissue with regard to height (which according to mechanostat theory leads to lower muscle-generated strain on bones). This group of children had also lower TBBMC/LBM Z-scores, which indicates greater fracture susceptibility. 1. Functional analysis, which showed associations between bone and muscle tissues, can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring skeletal system disorders as well as making therapeutic decisions.2. The study emphasizes the role of proper nutrition and physical activities, which contribute to proper body composition, in the prevention of bone mineralization disorders in childhood and adolescence. 3. The study showed the inadequacy of the classic reference ranges used in interpreting DXA data in children and demonstrated the usefulness of continuous variables for that purpose.

  20. Identification of rice cultivars with low brown rice mixed cadmium and lead contents and their interactions with the micronutrients iron, zinc, nickel and manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Wang, Xun; Qi, Xiaoli; Huang, Lu; Ye, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    Paddy fields in mining areas are usually co-contaminated by a cocktail of mixed toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb in Pb/Zn mines). However, previous studies on rice cultivars screened for effective metal exclusion have mostly focused on individual metals, and have been conducted under pot-trial or hydroponic solution conditions. This study identified rice cultivars with both low Cd and Pb accumulation under Cd- and Pb-contaminated field conditions, and the interactions of the toxic elements Cd and Pb with the micronutrient elements Fe, Zn, Mn and Ni were also studied. Among 32 rice cultivars tested, there were significant differences in Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg) and Pb (0.25-3.15 mg/kg) levels in their brown rice, and similar results were also found for the micronutrient elements. Significant decreases in concentrations of Fe and Mn were detected with increasing Cd concentrations and a significant elevation in Fe, Mn and Ni with increasing Pb concentrations. A similar result was also shown by Cd and Ni. Three cultivars were identified with a combination of low brown rice Cd and Pb, high micronutrient and grain yield (Wufengyou 2168, Tianyou 196 and Guinongzhan). Present results suggest that it is possible to breed rice cultivars with low mixed toxic element (Cd, Pb) and high micronutrient contents along with high grain yields, thus ensuring food safety and quality.

  1. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  2. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  3. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    increase in the production of poultry meat at a reasonable cost (Alam et al., ...... 36(4): 537-541. Taggart MA, Figuerola J, Green AJ, Mateo R, Deacon C, Osborn D, ... selenium, lead and copper levels in the livers and bones of five waterfowl ...

  4. Intoxication for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Ruben Dario; Tamayo, Margarita Maria

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of a hospitalized girl with bronchopneumonia, who needed mechanic ventilation. Also she had a developmental delay and Burtons border in gums. Radiological studies showed dense transverse metaphiseal bands in long bones and hyperdensity in basal ganglia. We found high serum lead levels

  5. Food survey: levels and potential health risks of chromium, lead, zinc and copper content in fruits and vegetables consumed in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherfi, Abdelhamid; Abdoun, Samira; Gaci, Ouardia

    2014-08-01

    A food survey was carried out with the aim to investigate the levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in various fruits and vegetables sold in Algeria. Concentrations (mg/kgdry wt.) in selected foodstuffs were detected within the following ranges: 4-29.49, 11.17-49, 12.33-39.33 and 3-16.33 for Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr respectively. The food ingestion rate of the selected items was investigated by self-administered questionnaires which were filled by a total of 843 people randomly recruited at the exit of markets. The potential health risk for consumers was investigated by estimating the daily intake (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) for each heavy metal. For all foodstuffs, the EDI and the THQ were below the threshold values for Cu, Zn and Cr while they exceeded the thresholds for Pb (EDI: 15.66μgPb/kg body weight/day; THQ: 4.37), indicating an obvious health risk over a life time of exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation; Preparacion de hueso desproteinizado esterilizado con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  7. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation; Preparacion de hueso desproteinizado esterilizado con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  8. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  9. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe May 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last En español Send ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  10. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  11. Lead-210, polonium-210, and stable lead in the food-chain lichen, reindeer and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.

    1972-01-01

    The measurements of stable lead and the natural fallout radionuclides lead-210 and polonium-210 in communities of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden from 1961 to 1970 indicate a quite constant level. The average lead-210 content per unit area in lichen carpets was found to be 15 +- 2 nCi m -2 , the average lead-210 activity concentration 6.7 +- 0.9 nCi per kg dry weight and the lead-210 specific activity 630 +- 60 nCi per g of stable lead. The polonium-210/lead-210 activity ratio was about 0.9 +- 0.1. The vertical distribution of lead-210 in the lichen carpet showed a maximum concentration in the top layer. The distribution was similar during 1967 and 1968 but the low amount of precipitation during 1968 and 1969 disturbed the distribution pattern in 1969 and 1970. The transfer of lead-210, polonium-210 and stable lead through the food chain: lichen, reindeer, and man was characterized. The absorbed dose rate in Lapps due to polonium-210 was estimated to be about 6 to 8 mrad per year in gonads and 8 to 20 mrad per year in bone tissues. This is about ten percent of their entire absorbed dose contribution from all natural radiation sources. (U.S.)

  12. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mineral elements in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoh, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)

  14. Hydroxyapatite particles maintain peri-implant bone mantle during osseointegration in osteoporotic bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tami, A.E.; Leitner, M.M.; Baucke, M.G.; Mueller, T.L.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Müller, R.; Ito, K.

    2009-01-01

    In osteoporotic bones, resorption exceeds formation during the remodelling phase of bone turnover. As a consequence, decreased bone volume and bone contact result in the peri-implant region. This may subsequently lead to loss of fixation. In this study we investigated whether the presence of

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  16. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 21 hemodialysis (HD) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Sato, Motoaki; Oh, Songchol; Sato, Atsushi; Saito, Hisao; Funyu, Tomihisa.

    1996-01-01

    BMC of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) was measured by QCT and DXA in 21 HD patients. The effect of sex, aging, HD duration, postmenopausal years and various blood parameters of bone metabolism on BMC was assessed statistically. BMC showed a good positive correlation not only with DXA and QCT (trabecular and cortical bone), but with QCT (trabecular bone) and QCT (cortical bone). A significant age-related decrease in BMC, particularly by QCT (trabecular bone), was found in both sexes. BMC measured by QCT (trabecular bone) increased with the duration of HD in male patients. A negative relationship between postmenopausal years and BMC measured by QCT (trabecular and cortical bone) was prominent. BMC was not found to be correlated with various blood parameters of bone metabolism. Thus, measurement of BMC (L2-L4) by QCT has the advantage of allowing more precise examination of changes in cortical and trabecular bone. (author)

  17. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  18. Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality

  19. Study of lead and cadmium content of surface enamel of school children from an industrial area in Belgium; Etude du contenu en plomb et en cadmium de l'email dentaire chez des enfants d'age scolaire vivant dans une zone industrielle belge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleymaet, R.; Bottenberg, P.; Slop, D.; Clara, R.; Coomans, D.

    1999-06-01

    A school children study of lead and cadmium content of surface enamel is summarized. The children concerned were living in Belgium near a non-ferrous metal factory. It seems that the lead and cadmium content of the surface enamel, may be a relevant indicator for a long date exposure.

  20. Influence of PbCl2 content in PbI2 solution of DMF on the absorption, crystal phase, morphology of lead halide thin films and photovoltaic performance in planar perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mao; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Jincheng; Wu, Ni; Ying, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of PbCl 2 content in PbI 2 solution of DMF on the absorption, crystal phase and morphology of lead halide thin films was systematically investigated and the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells was evaluated. The result revealed that the various thickness lead halide thin film with the small sheet-like, porous morphology and low crystallinity can be produced by adding PbCl 2 powder into PbI 2 solution of DMF as a precursor solution. The planar perovskite solar cell based on the 300-nm-thick CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Cl x thin film by the precursor solution with the mixture of 0.80 M PbI 2 and 0.20 M PbCl 2 exhibited the optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.12% along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.93 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 15.70 mA cm −2 and a fill factor of 0.69. - Graphical abstract: The figure showed the surface and cross-sectional SEM images of lead halide thin films using the precursor solutions: (a) 0.80 M PbI 2 , (b) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.20 M PbCl 2 , (c) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.40 M PbCl 2 , and (d) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.60 M PbCl 2 . With the increase of the PbCl 2 content in precursor solution, the size of the lead halide nanosheet decreased and the corresponding thin films gradually turned to be porous with low crystallinity. - Highlights: • Influence of PbCl 2 content on absorption, crystal phase and morphology of thin film. • Influence of perovskite film thickness on photovoltaic performance of solar cell. • Lead halide thin film with small sheet-like, porous morphology and low crystallinity. • Planar solar cell with 300 nm-thick perovskite thin film achieved PCE of 10.12%.

  1. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  2. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  3. Anorexia Nervosa, Obesity and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and obesity are conditions at the extreme ends of the nutritional spectrum, associated with marked reductions versus increases respectively in body fat content. Both conditions are also associated with an increased risk for fractures. In anorexia nervosa, body composition and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content are important determinants of low bone density, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength. In addition, anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in marrow adiposity and decreases in cold activated brown adipose tissue, both of which are related to low bone density. In obese individuals, greater visceral adiposity is associated with greater marrow fat, lower bone density and impaired bone structure. In this review, we discuss bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and obesity in relation to adipose tissue distribution and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content. PMID:24079076

  4. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  5. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  6. Hygienic aspects of lead osteotropicity as a risk factor of calcium-deficit pathology in man (literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biletska E.M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For today problem of chemical contamination of the environment and inner enviroment of the organism is extremely topical. Among all toxicants scientists pay special attention to lead, as it is characterized by a global prevalence in the enviroment and polytropic action on the human organism. Aim of the work – on the basis of analytical generalization of research data to establish peculiarities of lead impact on formation and functioning of bone tissue, calcium balance in the organism. It was determined that despite a low external exposure of metal, in man’s biosubstrates its levels are much higher than allowable. Herewith bone tissue due to its anatomy-physiology peculiarities accumulates lead selectively, forming inner additional source of its impact on the organism, potentiating toxic impact of xenobiotic. Therefore biomonitoring data on lead content in bone tissue is an important informative finding not only of danger but of duration, permanence and complex impact on the organism.

  7. Distribution of transuranic elements in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, P W

    1992-01-01

    The transport, retention, and excretion of transuranic elements from the body have been widely studied for many years. A summary of the results is given with an emphasis on the distribution of these elements in bone. Implications of these studies for understanding the relationships between lead in blood and lead in bone are presented. The expected distribution of lead at various bone sites is also considered.

  8. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  9. Investigating the Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Bone Development Using Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Y.Y. Lau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the diet may promote the development of a healthy skeleton and thereby reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis in later life. Studies using developing animal models suggest lowering dietary n-6 PUFA and increasing n-3 PUFA intakes, especially long chain n-3 PUFA, may be beneficial for achieving higher bone mineral content, density and stronger bones. To date, the evidence regarding the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA remain equivocal, in contrast to evidence from the longer chain products, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This review reports the results of investigations into n-3 PUFA supplementation on bone fatty acid composition, strength and mineral content in developing animal models as well as the mechanistic relationships of PUFA and bone, and identifies critical areas for future research. Overall, this review supports a probable role for essential (ALA and long chain (EPA and DHA n-3 PUFA for bone health. Understanding the role of PUFA in optimizing bone health may lead to dietary strategies that promote bone development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton.

  10. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-05-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life.

  12. The Protein Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Expanded Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived CD133+ and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially Explains Why both Sources are Advantageous for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulski, Addeli B B; Capriglione, Luiz G; Batista, Michel; Marcon, Bruna H; Senegaglia, Alexandra C; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Correa, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133 + cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133 + cells and bone marrow-derived hMSC