WorldWideScience

Sample records for bone health designing

  1. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. Evidence suggests the importance of oxidative stress in bone metabolism and bone loss. Tea consumption may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its antioxidant capability. However, lack of objective data characterizing tea consumption has hindered the precise evaluation of the association between tea ingestion and bone mineral density in previous questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. On the other hand, although published studies suggest that Tai Chi (TC exercise can benefit bone health and may reduce oxidative stress, all studies were conducted using a relatively healthy older population, instead of a high-risk one such as osteopenic postmenopausal women. Therefore, this study was designed to test an intervention including green tea polyphenol (GTP and TC exercise for feasibility, and to quantitatively assess their individual and interactive effects on postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Methods/Design One hundred and forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia (defined as bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip between 1 to 2.5 SD below the reference database were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms: (1 placebo group receiving 500 mg medicinal starch daily, (2 GTP group receiving 500 mg of GTP per day, (3 placebo+TC group receiving both placebo treatment and TC training (60-minute group exercise, 3 times per week, and (4 GTP+TC group receiving both GTP and TC training for 24 weeks. The outcome measures were bone formation biomarker (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, bone resorption biomarker (serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, and oxidative DNA damage biomarker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. All outcome measures were determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Urinary and serum GTP concentrations were also determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks for bioavailability. Liver function was monitored monthly for safety. A

  2. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  3. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  4. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  5. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  6. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  7. Bone health in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman-Levin, N; Hochberg, Z; Latzer, Y

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) put adolescents and young adults at risk for impaired bone health. Low bone mineral density (BMD) with ED is caused by failure to accrue peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. Although ED patients diagnosed with bone loss may be asymptomatic, some suffer bone pains and have increased incidence of fractures. Adolescents with ED are prone to increased prevalence of stress fractures, kyphoscoliosis and height loss. The clinical picture of the various EDs involves endocrinopathies that contribute to impaired bone health. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low bone turnover, with relatively higher osteoclastic (bone resorptive) than osteoblastic (bone formation) activity. Bone loss in AN occurs in both the trabecular and cortical bones, although the former is more vulnerable. Bone loss in AN has been shown to be influenced by malnutrition and low weight, reduced fat mass, oestrogen and androgen deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis, and more. Bone loss in AN may not be completely reversible despite recovery from the illness. Treatment modalities involving hormonal therapies have limited effectiveness, whereas increased caloric intake, weight gain and resumption of menses are essential to improved BMD. PMID:24165231

  8. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  9. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  10. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M;

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  11. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  12. Bone health in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220

  13. Flavonoid intake and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods, from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to ha...

  14. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  15. B Vitamins, Homocysteine and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fratoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors involved in the development and maintenance of good bone health. Calcium and Vitamin D have confirmed and established roles in the maintenance of proper bone health. However, other nutritional factors could also be implicated. This review will explore the emerging evidence of the supporting role of certain B Vitamins as modifiable factors associated with bone health. Individuals with high levels of homocysteine (hcy exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD, alteration in microarchitecture and increased bone fragility. The pathophysiology caused by high serum homocysteine is not completely clear regarding fractures, but it may involve factors, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone blood flow and collagen cross-linking. It is uncertain whether supplementation with B Vitamins, such as folate, Vitamin B1, and Vitamin B6, could decrease hip fracture incidence, but the results of further clinical trials should be awaited before a conclusion is drawn.

  16. Vitamin D and bone health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is to keep the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range to maintain essential cellular functions and to promote mineralization of the skeleton. Most foods do not contain any vitamin D. Foods fortified with vitamin D have a variable amount present and cannot be depended on as a sole source of vitamin D nutrition. Exposure to sunlight provides most humans with their vitamin D requirement. Aging, sunscreen use and the change in the zenith angle of the sun can dramatically affect the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes osteomalacia but can exacerbate osteoporosis. It is generally accepted that an increase in calcium intake to 1000-1500 mg/d along with an adequate source of vitamin D of at least 400 IU/d is important for maintaining good bone health

  17. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  18. Bone Quest - A Space-Based Science and Health Education Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; David-Street, Janis E.; Abrams, Steve A.

    2000-01-01

    This proposal addresses the need for effective and innovative science and health education materials that focus on space bone biology and its implications for bone health on Earth. The focus of these materials, bone biology and health, will increase science knowledge as well as health awareness. Current investigations of the bone loss observed after long-duration space missions provide a link between studies of bone health in space, and studies of osteoporosis, a disease characterized by bone loss and progressive skeletal weakness. The overall goal of this project is to design and develop web-based and print-based materials for high school science students, that will address the following: a) knowledge of normal bone biology and bone biology in a microgravity environment; b) knowledge of osteoporosis; c) knowledge of treatment modalities for space- and Earth-based bone loss; and d} bone-related nutrition knowledge and behavior. To this end, we propose to design and develop a Bone Biology Tutorial which will instruct students about normal bone biology, bone biology in a microgravity environment, osteoporosis - its definition, detection, risk factors, and prevention, treatment modalities for space- and Earth-based bone loss, and the importance of nutrition in bone health. Particular emphasis will be placed on current trends in . adolescent nutrition, and their relationships to bone health. Additionally, we propose to design and develop two interactive nutrition/health ' education activities that will allow students to apply the information provided in the Bone Biology Tutorial. In the first, students will apply constructs provided in the Bone Biology Tutorial to design "Bone Health Plans" for space travelers.

  19. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for periodontitis and tooth loss. Role of the Dentist and Dental X Rays Research supported by the ... normal bone density. Because many people see their dentist more regularly than their doctor, dentists are in ...

  20. The BMD muddle: the disconnect between bone densitometry results and perception of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Joanna E M; Beaton, Dorcas E; Bogoch, Eal R; Elliot-Gibson, Victoria; Frankel, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study to examine fracture patients' interpretations of their most recent bone densitometry results and perceptions of their current bone health. English-speaking outpatients who had sustained a fragility fracture in the previous 18-24 mo and reported having at least 1 previous bone mineral density (BMD) test were eligible. Data were collected through semistructured interviews in patients' homes. Patients were asked to describe their most recent BMD test results and perception of their bone health status based on these results. Eighteen patients (14 women and 4 men) aged 49-82 yr were recruited. BMD results showed bone density in patients to be normal (n=4), osteopenic (n=9), and osteoporotic (n=5). A correct diagnosis was recalled by 6 patients. Two common interpretations of BMD test results emerged: (1) no news was considered to be good news (n=9) and (2) evidence of compromised bone health was not considered to be serious or accurate (n=6). Medication adherence did not appear to be associated with perception of bone health or actual BMD results. Patients' perceptions of their current bone health did not correspond to the results of their most recent BMD test. Standardized bone densitometry reporting may improve patients' understanding of their bone health. PMID:21029973

  1. Well-Designed Bone-Seeking Radiolabeled Compounds for Diagnosis and Therapy of Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are frequently used as diagnostic agents in nuclear medicine, because they can detect bone disorders before anatomical changes occur. Furthermore, their effectiveness in the palliation of metastatic bone cancer pain has been demonstrated in the clinical setting. With the aim of developing superior bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, many compounds have been designed, prepared, and evaluated. Here, several well-designed bone-seeking compounds used for diagnostic and therapeutic use, having the concept of radiometal complexes conjugated to carrier molecules to bone, are reviewed. PMID:26075256

  2. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  3. Transdermal hormone therapy and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee P Shulman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lee P ShulmanDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The clinical aftermath of the reporting of the initial findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI in 2002 was a profound reduction in the use of hormone therapies by menopausal women. This reduction led to a well documented increase in vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy among those women who discontinued their hormone regimens. However, another adverse impact among these women, as well as many other menopausal women, is the well recognized increased likelihood of osteoporosis resulting from the decline in circulating estradiol levels associated with natural and surgical menopause. Although the use of non-hormonal drugs such as bisphosphonates has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in women with osteoporosis, bisphosphonates have not been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in non-osteoporotic women. Indeed, only oral estrogen (as demonstrated in the WHI studies has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women. As non-oral hormone therapies have been shown to be as effective in treating vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy and to have a different (and perhaps more beneficial physiological effect than oral regimens, it behooves us to assess the impact of non-oral hormone regimens on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Although there are no clinical trials that primarily assess the impact of non-oral regimens on fracture risk in menopausal women, numerous studies are consistent in demonstrating the positive impact of non-oral regimens in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density among users, even for those women using estrogen doses that are considered to be “too low” to have a beneficial impact on other menopausal symptoms.Keywords: menopause, hormone, estrogen, non-oral, bone, osteoporosis

  4. Green Tea and Bone Health: Evidence from Laboratory Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etio...

  5. [Bone health in patients with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2013-02-01

    Osteoporosis associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is common, and tends to be severe, slow to recover from, and sometimes irreversible. The abnormal bone metabolism in severely emaciated AN patients involves both a reduction in bone formation and an increase in bone resorption. The annual change in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly correlated with BMI at the entry. The critical BMI for a positive increase in BMD was 16.4±0.3 kg/m(2). Nutritional improvement with body weight gain is the most important goal of treatment for AN-related osteoporosis since it increases both serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, a potent osteogenic factor, and estradiol, a powerful bone resorption inhibitor. However, it is difficult for AN patients to accept weight gain. About 50% of AN patients are insufficient of vitamin D and 43% show an increase in plasma undercalboxylated osteocalcin, indicating a deficiency state of the vitamin K(2). Vitamin D(3) or vitamin K(2) (menatetrenone) can prevent further bone loss in severely emaciated AN patients. Recently, bone strength has been evaluated by both BMD and bone quality. Plasma levels of homocysteine, a marker of degradation of bone quality, have significantly positive correlation with their ages of AN patients. We must evaluate bone density as well as bone quality in AN patients. PMID:23354095

  6. Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedillas Hugo; González-Agüero Alejandro; Moreno Luis A; Casajus José A; Vicente-Rodríguez Germán

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass. Methods A scientific literature search on studies discussing bone mass and bone metabolism in cyclists was performed to collect all relevant published material up to April 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional studies were all reviewed. Inclusion criteria...

  7. Calcium Fructoborate for Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Biţă, Andrei; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Croitoru, Octavian; Rău, Gabriela; Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Florescu, Dan Nicolae; Neamţu, Johny; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2016-08-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CF), a natural sugar-borate ester found in fresh fruits and vegetables, is a source of soluble boron. CF contains three forms of borate (diester, monoester, and boric acid) and all are biologically active, both at the intracellular (as free boric acid) and extracellular level (as fructose-borate diester and monoester). At the cellular and molecular level, CF is superior to the boric acid/borate, exhibiting a complex "protective" effect against inflammatory response. CF is commercially available in the USA as a "nature-identical" complex, an active compound for dietary supplements. It provides effective and safe support against the discomfort and lack of flexibility associated with osteoarticular conditions (arthritis and joint degeneration), and improves Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) and McGill indexes. In addition, orally administered CF is effective in ameliorating symptoms of physiological response to stress, including inflammation of the mucous membranes, discomfort associated with osteoarthritis disorders, and bone loss, and also for supporting cardiovascular health. Clinical studies have exhibited the ability of CF to significantly modulate molecular markers associated with inflammatory mechanisms, mainly on the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMID:26686846

  8. Bone Health in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Zikan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a gait disorder characterized by acute episodes of neurological defects leading to progressive disability. Patients with MS have multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, such as progressive immobilization, long-term glucocorticoids (GCs treatment or vitamin D deficiency. The duration of motor disability appears to be a major contributor to the reduction of bone strength. The long term immobilization causes a marked imbalance between bone formation and resorption with depressed bone formation and a marked disruption of mechanosensory network of tightly connected osteocytes due to increase of osteocyte apoptosis. Patients with higher level of disability have also higher risk of falls that combined with a bone loss increases the frequency of bone fractures. There are currently no recommendations how to best prevent and treat osteoporosis in patients with MS. However, devastating effect of immobilization on the skeleton in patients with MS underscores the importance of adequate mechanical stimuli for maintaining the bone structure and its mechanical competence. The physical as well as pharmacological interventions which can counteract the bone remodeling imbalance, particularly osteocyte apoptosis, will be promising for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with MS.

  9. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  10. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Jason L.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.; Mahan, John D

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serio...

  11. Bone Health in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vit Zikan

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a gait disorder characterized by acute episodes of neurological defects leading to progressive disability. Patients with MS have multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, such as progressive immobilization, long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment or vitamin D deficiency. The duration of motor disability appears to be a major contributor to the reduction of bone strength. The long term immobilization causes a marked imbalance between bone formation and reso...

  12. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  13. Wine and bone health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutleša, Zvonimir; Budimir Mršić, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    A light-to-moderate wine consumption has been shown to provide several beneficial effects on the skeletal system, including reduced risk of bone mass loss and fractures. Wine is rich in phenolic compounds, strong phytoestrogens and natural antioxidants, to which bone protection is mainly attributed. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the exact mechanisms by which wine consumption is involved in bone protection. We found a great variety of in vitro research on the beneficial effects of isolated wine phenolics on the skeletal system, with a significant lack of evidence of their in vivo effects. In addition, we found almost no studies investigating how wine, a mixture of these phenolics dissolved in ethanol, affects the skeletal system. Our results warrant further research on this interesting topic. PMID:25832032

  14. Premenopausal bone health: osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alice; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    This article will discuss the diagnosis of osteoporosis in premenopausal women and the evaluation and management of those with low-trauma fractures and/or low bone mineral density. As secondary causes (glucocorticoid excess, anorexia nervosa, premenopausal estrogen deficiency, and celiac disease) are commonly the underlying cause of osteoporosis in this population, treatment of the underlying condition should be the focus of management. Additional management options, generally reserved for those with major or multiple fractures and/or ongoing bone loss, will also be described. PMID:24022503

  15. Premenopausal Bone Health: Osteoporosis in Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Alice; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article will discuss the diagnosis of osteoporosis in premenopausal women and the evaluation and management of those with low-trauma fractures and/or low bone mineral density. As secondary causes (glucocorticoid excess, anorexia nervosa, premenopausal estrogen deficiency, and celiac disease) are commonly the underlying cause of osteoporosis in this population, treatment of the underlying condition should be the focus of management. Additional management options, generally reserved for th...

  16. [Bone and Nutrition. The association of vitamin K intake and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The association of vitamin K with bone mineral density has been reported in some previous cohort studies and intervention studies. In cohort studies, higher vitamin K1 intake was associated with lower fracture incidence. Some intervention studies have described that vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4 : MK-4) supplementation were modestly efficacious in preventing fracture, but not in preserving bone mass. Although dietary reference intake (adequate intake : AI) for vitamin K was increased from previous value, current AI was determined as the dose sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation with little mentioning to bone. Vitamin K intake greater than the current AI would be required for the bone health. PMID:26119310

  17. [Nutrition and bone health: What ist the evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Nutrients are of particular importance for bone health: they act as structural elements of bones, modulate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and influence bone remodeling through various mediators. A bone protective diet can be characterised as a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, dairy products, seeds and nuts, whole grain and soy products and moderate amounts of fish, eggs and lean meat. This diet provides sufficient amounts of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamins (e. g. K, C, folic acid, B6 and B12), which are important for bone development. For specific nutrients, the following bone-protective recommendations can be given: 1.0-1.3 g protein/kg body weight and day; 1000-1200 mg/day calcium, preferably as part of the normal diet. In case of insufficient calcium intake or on antiresorptive medication a supplementation of 200-500 mg or 500-1000 mg calcium/day, respectively, should be given. Furthermore, for prevention of bone fractures a cut off level of ≥ 75 nmol calcidiol/l is suggested. PMID:27439256

  18. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emma T. Callegari; Nicola Reavley; Suzanne M Garland; Alexandra Gorelik; Wark, John D.; on behalf of the Safe-D study team

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study i...

  19. Personality Traits, Motivation and Bone Health in Vegetarians

    OpenAIRE

    Bobić, Jasminka; Cvijetić, Selma; Colić Barić, Irena; Šatalić, Zvonimir

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarian diets attract more and more attention due to growing concerns about health, ecology and/or animal welfare in general population. The main purpose of this paper was to examine whether vegetarianism could be associated with some specific personality characteristics, with the emphasis on the main motivational factors which determined acquiring the diet. Since the nutrition is also an important determinant of bone health we additionally analyzed the association between personal charact...

  20. Bike racing, recreational riding, impact sport and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmont Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cycling has been shown to confer considerable benefits in terms of health, leading to reductions in death rates principally due to cardiovascular improvements and adaptation. Given the disparity between the benefits of cycling on cardiovascular fitness and previous research finding that cycling may not be beneficial for bone health, Hugo Olmedillas and colleagues performed a systematic review of the literature. They concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. They postulate that the cause of this is that, particularly at a competitive level, riders spend long periods of time in a weight-supported position on the bike. Training programs may be supplemented with impact loading to preserve bone health; however, the small increased risk of soft tissue injury must also be considered. See related commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/168

  1. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapilmoto Monika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1 improve nutrition, (2 increase health literacy and, (3 increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood test panel and a quality of life inventory (AlgaeCal 1. Two weeks after the last subject completed, a second group of 58 was enrolled and followed the identical plan, but with a different bone-health supplement (AlgaeCal 2. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline bone mineral density (BMD or in variables related to BMD (age, sex, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, or fat-free mass. In both groups, no significant differences in BMD or related variables were found between volunteers and non-volunteers or between those who completed per protocol and those who were lost to attrition. Both groups experienced a significant positive mean annualized percent change (MAPC in BMD compared to expectation [AlgaeCal 1: 1.15%, p = 0.001; AlgaeCal 2: 2.79%, p = 0.001]. Both groups experienced a positive MAPC compared to baseline, but only AlgaeCal 2 experienced a significant change [AlgaeCal 1: 0.48%, p = 0.14; AlgaeCal 2: 2.18%, p p = 0.005. The MAPC contrast between compliant and partially compliant subjects was significant for both plans (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively. No clinically significant changes in a 43-panel blood chemistry test were found nor were there any changes in self-reported quality of life in either group. Conclusions Following The Plan for six months with either version of the bone health supplement was associated with significant increases in BMD as compared to expected and, in AlgaeCal 2, the increase from

  2. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public health Vitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared

  3. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs. PMID:23719553

  4. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  5. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  6. Optimizing bone health in older adults: the importance of dietary protein

    OpenAIRE

    Surdykowski, Anna K; Kenny, Anne M.; Insogna, Karl L.; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Age-related bone loss is progressive and can lead to osteoporosis. While it is accepted that both dietary calcium and vitamin D are important and beneficial for skeletal health, the impact of dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone balance remains controversial. Contrary to the hypothesis that increasing dietary protein contributes to bone loss, research supports the notion that protein may play a pivotal role in maintenance of bone health by several mechanisms; for example, increasing...

  7. A comprehensive bone-health management approach for men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. E.; Leslie, W.D.; Czaykowski, P.; Gingerich, J.; Geirnaert, M.; Lau, Y.K.J.

    2011-01-01

    For advanced and metastatic prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (adt) is the mainstay of treatment. Awareness of the potential bone-health complications consequent to adt use is increasing. Many studies have shown that prolonged adt leads to significant bone loss and increased fracture risk that negatively affect quality of life. Clinical practice guidelines for preserving bone health in men with prostate cancer on adt vary across Canada. This paper reviews recent studies on bone he...

  8. Yacon flour and Bifidobacterium longum modulate bone health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Carvalho; Castro, Adriano Simões Barbosa; Rodrigues, Vívian Carolina; Fernandes, Sérgio Antônio; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2012-07-01

    Yacon flour has been considered a food with prebiotic potential because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides, which allows for its use in formulating synbiotic foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour and probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) on the modulation of variables related to bone health. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, yacon flour, diet+B. longum, and yacon flour+B. longum. After euthanasia, the bones were removed for analysis of biomechanical properties (thickness, length, and strength of fracture) and mineral content (Ca, Mg, and P); the cecum was removed for analysis of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids. Tibia Ca, P, and Mg content was significantly (Pyacon flour+B. longum than in the control group. An increase in fracture strength was observed in the yacon flour (8.1%), diet+B. longum (8.6%), and yacon flour+B. longum (14.6%) in comparison to the control group. Total anaerobe and weight of the cecum were higher (Pyacon flour diet compared with the other groups. Cecal concentration of propionate was higher in all experimental groups compared with the control (PYacon flour in combination with B. longum helped increase the concentration of minerals in bones, an important factor in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:22510044

  9. Designing digital health information in a health literacy context

    OpenAIRE

    Meppelink, C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Digital health information is widely available, but not everyone fully benefits due to limited health literacy. Until now, little was known about how health literacy influences information processing and how design features of digital health information can be used to create optimal health messages for different health literacy groups. This dissertation showed that processing health information places more cognitive demands on people with limited health literacy, resulting in less recall of t...

  10. Designing digital health information in a health literacy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Meppelink

    2016-01-01

    Digital health information is widely available, but not everyone fully benefits due to limited health literacy. Until now, little was known about how health literacy influences information processing and how design features of digital health information can be used to create optimal health messages

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Condlin, Michelle L.; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation si...

  12. Vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental health in young Australian women: the Safe-D study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T. Callegari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study. Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life.

  13. [Software Design for a Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiangjun; Ding, Jie; Xu, Shijie; Geng, Ruihua; He, Aijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ultrasound bone density measurement, we designed a sofware based on Visual Studio C+ + 2008. The software includes interface design, acquisition and control, data processing and parameter extraction, data storage and printing. Excellent human-computer interface (HCI) will give users a convenient experience. Auto gain control (AGC) and digital filter can improve the precision effectively. In addition, we can observe waveform clearly in real time. By using USB communication, we can send control commands to the acquisition and get data effectively, which can shorten the measuring time. Then we calculated the speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Patients' information can be accessed by using XML document. Finally, the software offers printing function. PMID:26964306

  14. The Personal Health Technology Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    enable designers to make informed and well-articulated design decision, the authors propose a design space for personal health technologies. This space consists of 10 dimensions related to the design of data sampling strategies, visualization and feedback approaches, treatment models, and regulatory......Interest is increasing in personal health technologies that utilize mobile platforms for improved health and well-being. However, although a wide variety of these systems exist, each is designed quite differently and materializes many different and more or less explicit design assumptions. To...

  15. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  16. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  17. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of infectious

  18. Topography of Acoustical Properties of Long Bones: From Biomechanical Studies to Bone Health Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Tatarinov, Alexey; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective view on the assessment of long bones condition using topographical patterns of the acoustic properties. The application of ultrasonic point-contact transducers with exponential waveguides on a short acoustic base for detailed measurements in human long bones by the surface transmission was initiated during the 1980s in Latvia. The guided wave velocity was mapped on the surface of the long bones and the topographical patterns reflected the biomechanical pec...

  19. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Schündeln

    Full Text Available Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI, a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths.The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec of the distal radius.The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 -L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001. The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 -L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively. Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001, but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation.The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands.

  20. For Strong Bones...For Lifelong Health...Milk Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carry your body weight. Activities such as walking, running, dancing, climbing stairs, and playing team sports like basketball, soccer, and volleyball help make bones stronger. Older teenagers ...

  1. Music, Health, Technology and Design

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Imagine that objects in your home environment – let us say a pillow, a carpet or a toy – became musical and interactive. Do you think that they could offer new ways of playing and being together? Could they even have the potential to reduce isolation and passivity and promote health and well-being for some of us? This anthology, the eighth in the Series from the Centre for Music and Health, presents a compilation of articles that explore the many intersections of music, health, technology ...

  2. A Review of Dental Implant Treatment Planning and Implant Design Based on Bone Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkzaban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Context A key determinant for clinical success is the diagnosis of the bone density in a potential implant site. The percentage of bone-implant contact is related to bone density, and the axial stress contours around an implant are affected by the density of bone. Evidence Acquisition A number of reports have emphasized the importance of the quality of bone on the survival of dental implants. The volume and density of the recipient bone have also been shown to be determining criteria to establish proper treatment plans with adequate number of implants and sufficient surface area. Previous clinical reports that did not alter the protocol of treatment related to bone density had variable survival rates. To the contrary, altering the treatment plan to compensate for soft bone types has provided similar survival rates in all bone densities. Results When bone density decreases and bone become softer, the implant surface in contact with the bone decreases, therefore treatment plan should be modified by changing the drilling protocol, using gradual loading and reducing the force on the prosthesis or increasing the loading area with increasing implant number, implant position, implant size, implant design (deeper and more threads with more pitch, squared shape and implant body surface condition. Conclusions Once the prosthetic option, key implant position, and patient force factors have been determined, the bone density in the implant sites should be evaluated to modify the treatment plan. Inappropriate implant number or design in poor quality bone results in higher failure rates. Changing the treatment plan and implant design is suggested, based on bone density to achieve higher survival rates.

  3. School meals for better nutrition and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Mandatory new standards for food served in schools in England are being phased in from September 2008. These comprise three sets of standards: food-based, nutrient-based and standards covering food other than lunch. They reflect the Governments concern about poor nutrition and rising trends of obesity among the school-age population and the effect of these on ong- as well as short-term health, including increased risks of diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancers. The standards set minimum requirements for healthier foods and restrict less healthy items served at lunchtimes and other meals and snacks at school, including from vending machines or tuck shops. The standards set specific requirements for nutrients and the frequency, and in some cases the quantity, on which they should be provided. They cover fruit and vegetables (not less than two portions per pupil per day), drinks, deep-fried foods and micronutrients. There are requirements for calcium, as evidence shows that many school-age children and adolescents do not consume adequate amounts for bone health. The standards recommend that a variety of dairy foods, low-fat where possible, should be provided, including milk, cheese, yoghurt, fromage frais and custard. A minimum of 193 mg of calcium must be provided at lunch for all primary school children from September 2008. The standards apply to all Local Authority maintained primary and secondary schools, sixth forms on the premises of secondary schools, schools for children with special educational needs, and pupil referral units. They are not mandatory for independent schools although these will be expected to comply. The standards are derived from the UK nutrient recommendations (Dietary Reference Values). Responsibility for the provision of school meals and for ensuring the standards are met lies with the Local Authorities, or the schools under delegated powers. Monitoring will be by Ofsted, the body responsible for inspecting schools. Implementing the

  4. Dietary Habits, Nutrients and Bone Mass in Spanish Premenopausal Women: The Contribution of Fish to Better Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Calderon-Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05 bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05 was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5–7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  5. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  6. Severe osteopenia in adolescence: poor bone health for life

    OpenAIRE

    Baldan, Alessandro; et al.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass that leads to increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal pain and/or diarrhea following the ingestion of lactose in people with lactase deficiency. The most common therapeutic approach to lactose intolerance is to exclude dairy products from the diet, which are the main source of calcium. We studied a group of patients with symptoms attributab...

  7. [An improved software design of ultrasound bone densitometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengtao; Yang, Lian; Xu, Shijie; Deng, Jiangjun; Dong, Qingqing; He, Aijun

    2014-10-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ultrasound bone density measurement, we proposed a software solution to improve the accuracy and speed of measurement of bone mineral density of the ultrasound bone densitometer. We used a high-speed USB interface chip FT232H, along with a high-speed AD converter chip to calculate speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA ) and other bone density parameters in the PC software. This solution improved the accuracy of the measurement data, reduced the measurement time and increased the quality of the displayed image. It is well concluded that the new software can greatly improve the accuracy and transmission speed of bone density measurement data through a high-speed USB interface and a software data processing technology. PMID:25764722

  8. Gamified Design for Health Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Increasing lifespans for chronic disease sufferers means a population of young patients who require lifestyle intervention from an early age. For multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, social problems begin with the decline of cognitive skills and their quality of life is affected. In this workshop, organizers will propose participants to work on different gamification design approachs to solve MS patients' engagement problem. Participants will obtain skills that can be extrapolated to other conditions that require patients change to adopt a different behavior. At the end, participants will present their proposed gamification design and discuss and comment each solution, assessing potential unintended outcomes and advantages. PMID:27332273

  9. Roles of Zinc and Iron on Bone Health in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Danhua

    Bone is one of the most vital organs in animals, serving as both structural and protective functions. Remodeling of bone is an important indicator of bone health, and disorders in bone remodeling may lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis increases risk of bone fracture and even death, and much more preferable to be happened in postmenopausal women due to great changes in hormones. Micronutrients, such as Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe), would as well influence bone health in different manners. That Zn would promote bone health is widely accepted, for the reasons Zn increases osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation, inhibits osteoclast cell activities, and forms alkaline phosphatase that does help to maintain bone metabolism. Diseases caused by Fe overload is usually related to osteoporosis. Ferric ion could facilitate osteoclast differentiation, inhibit osteoblast and alkaline phosphatase activities, and interfere with hydroxyapatite crystal growth and depositions. However, changes of concentrations and distributions for Zn and Fe in osteoporotic bones are seldom studied. In this thesis, ovariectomized rat femur bones are used as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rats from different ages and health conditions are categorized as 6 AM (6-month age matched control), 6 OVX (6-month ovariectomized control), 12 AM (12-month age matched control), 12 OVX (12-month ovariectomized control). The trace elements Zn and Fe is studied through Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence (SRXRF). Elemental maps are used to observe changes in distribution, and further quantitative analysis is used to discover changes in concentration among different animal groups. Both the decrease of Zn and the increase of Fe are significant from healthy to osteoporotic bones (p0.1) is also observed over age in healthy groups. Both elements show changes in distribution, that healthy animals present a more even distribution while in OVX groups the tendency of aggregation is

  10. Design of a multi-axis implantable MEMS sensor for intraosseous bone stress monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability to assess the biomechanical properties of living bone is important for basic research as well as the clinical management of skeletal trauma and disease. Even though radiodensitometric imaging is commonly used to infer bone quality, bone strength does not necessarily correlate well with these non-invasive measurements. This paper reports on the design, fabrication and initial testing of an implantable ultra-miniature multi-axis sensor for directly measuring bone stresses at a micro-scale. The device, which is fabricated with CMOS-MEMS processes, is intended to be permanently implanted within open fractures, or embedded in bone grafts, or placed on implants at the interfaces between bone and prosthetics. The stress sensor comprises an array of piezoresistive pixels to detect a stress tensor at the interfacial area between the MEMS chip and bone, with a resolution to 100 Pa, in 1 s averaging. The sensor system design and manufacture is also compatible with the integration of wireless RF telemetry, for power and data retrieval, all within a 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.3 mm footprint. The piezoresistive elements are integrated within a textured surface to enhance sensor integration with bone. Finite element analysis led to a sensor design for normal and shear stress detection. A wired sensor was fabricated in the Jazz 0.35 µm BiCMOS process and then embedded in mock bone material to characterize its response to tensile and bending loads up to 250 kPa

  11. Design of a multi-axis implantable MEMS sensor for intraosseous bone stress monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Fernando; Weiss, Lee; Campbell, Phil; Miller, Mark; Fedder, Gary K.

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess the biomechanical properties of living bone is important for basic research as well as the clinical management of skeletal trauma and disease. Even though radiodensitometric imaging is commonly used to infer bone quality, bone strength does not necessarily correlate well with these non-invasive measurements. This paper reports on the design, fabrication and initial testing of an implantable ultra-miniature multi-axis sensor for directly measuring bone stresses at a micro-scale. The device, which is fabricated with CMOS-MEMS processes, is intended to be permanently implanted within open fractures, or embedded in bone grafts, or placed on implants at the interfaces between bone and prosthetics. The stress sensor comprises an array of piezoresistive pixels to detect a stress tensor at the interfacial area between the MEMS chip and bone, with a resolution to 100 Pa, in 1 s averaging. The sensor system design and manufacture is also compatible with the integration of wireless RF telemetry, for power and data retrieval, all within a 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.3 mm footprint. The piezoresistive elements are integrated within a textured surface to enhance sensor integration with bone. Finite element analysis led to a sensor design for normal and shear stress detection. A wired sensor was fabricated in the Jazz 0.35 µm BiCMOS process and then embedded in mock bone material to characterize its response to tensile and bending loads up to 250 kPa.

  12. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...

  13. Oral Health and Bone Density in Adolescents and Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Brian F.; Feldman, Henry A.; Cleveland, Robert; Sonis, Andrew; Brown, Julia N.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the dental and periodontal health of adolescents and young women with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN), and relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and dental radiographs. Study Design Twenty-three young women, median age 17.6 years (range 14.4-27.2), were studied within three months of entering a clinical trial. DXA BMD measurements were obtained and subjects underwent a comprehensive dental examination, including panoramic and bitewing dental radiographs. Three observers assessed mandibular cortical width (MCW) in the mental foramen region on panoramic radiographs. Results Dental findings included very good to excellent oral hygiene. Gingival recession was evident in 10 participants (43%). Dental erosion was not seen and the mean decayed missing or filled teeth (DMFT) was 8.6. There was a weak positive correlation between BMD by DXA and MCW on radiographs. Conclusions We report dental manifestations associated with restrictive AN, and the association between bone assessments by DXA and dental radiographs in this patient group. Despite subnormal DXA measurements in most patients, essentially all adolescents had a normal dental examination. Dental providers should be cognizant of the fact that many patients with eating disorders may not display the “classic” findings reported in the literature. PMID:19358371

  14. Designing phantom for head-and-neck treatment verification: feasibility tests with bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to investigate the possibility of implanting real bone samples and bone substitutes into a gel sample. Attention is paid to the head-and-neck treatment verification as this location presents a complex site with irregular surface and different heterogeneous organs ( e.g. spinal cord, vertebrae, larynx, etc. ). A dedicated glass phantom was designed to simulate the shape of the head-and-neck region. It can accommodate vertebrae (real or bone-like material) and thus simulate the spinal canal filled with the radiosensitive gel. The following text summarizes practical experience and complications encountered when implanting real bones into a polymer gel. (authors)

  15. Quantitative ultrasound and bone health Ultrasonido cuantitativo y salud ósea

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This review of quantiative ultrasound (QUS) and bone health uses the current literature to summarise the clinical and research effectiveness of QUS. QUS has been demonstrated to have the ability to predict fracture, particularly at the hip. However, the magnitude of prediction is fracture-site, measurement-site and device dependent. The correlations between dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone mineral density (BMD) are weak to moderate, resulting in different subjects being identified as ...

  16. Selenium in Bone Health: Roles in Antioxidant Protection and Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Huawei Zeng; Cao, Jay J; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which Se supports these cellular processes can lead to a better understanding of the role of this nutrient in normal bone metabolism. This article reviews the current knowledge...

  17. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs. PMID:27187017

  18. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Gregor, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on October 4-6, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Bone and Muscle Risk SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the Panel's review. The Bone and Muscle Risk SRP consisted of scientists who are experts in muscle, bone, or both and could evaluate the existing evidence with sufficient knowledge of the potential effects of long duration exposure to microgravity. More important, although expertise in basic science is important, the SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the realistic demands placed on the HRP. In short, all tasks presented in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) should address specific questions related to the challenges faced by the astronauts as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity. All tasks proposed to fill the gaps in knowledge should provide applied, translational data necessary to answer the specific questions. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the panel charge, either as a group or in separate sessions for the Bone and Muscle Risk subgroups. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on October 6, 2009. Taking the evidence and identified risks as givens, the SRP concluded that 1) integration of information should lead to a more comprehensive approach to identifying the gaps, 2) not all tasks addressed the gaps as

  19. A study of the bone healing kinetics of plateau versus screw root design titanium dental implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Gary

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the bone healing process around plateau root from (PRF) and screw root from (SRF) titanium dental implants over the immediate 12 week healing period post implant placement.

  20. Designing Mobile Health Technology for Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, JE; Frost, Mads; Szántó, Károly;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of pervasive healthcare systems are being designed, that allow people to monitor and get feedback on their health and wellness. To address the challenges of self-management of mental illnesses, we have developed the MONARCA system - a personal monitoring system for bipolar...... patients. We conducted a 14 week field trial in which 12 patients used the system, and we report findings focusing on their experiences. The results were positive; compared to using paper-based forms, the adherence to self-assessment improved; the system was considered very easy to use; and the perceived...... usefulness of the system was high. Based on this study, the paper discusses three HCI questions related to the design of personal health technologies; how to design for disease awareness and self-treatment, how to ensure adherence to personal health technologies, and the roles of different types of...

  1. Designing online health services for patients

    OpenAIRE

    Crotty, Bradley H; Slack, Warner V

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly interacting with their healthcare system through online health services, such as patient portals and telehealth programs. Recently, Shabrabani and Mizrachi provided data outlining factors that are most important for users or potential users of these online services. The authors conclude convincingly that while online health services have great potential to be helpful to their users, they could be better designed. As patients and their families play an increasingly ac...

  2. The contribution of bone scintigraphy in occupational health or medical insurance claims: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with a suspicion of bone damage following an industrial or traffic accident are often referred for bone scintigraphy as part of an occupational health or medical insurance investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution and the potential role of bone scintigraphy compared with X-ray investigations in the aforementioned situation. To this end we evaluated 70 consecutive patients referred for bone scintigraphy during 1996 and 1997 by occupational health or medical insurance physicians. The most common reasons for referral were the exclusion of occult fractures of hands and feet, whiplash injuries, reflex sympathetic dystrophy or avascular necrosis, or the differentiation between an old and a recent vertebral fracture. X-rays were only available for comparative review of 53 patients, so only those were analysed. The results of bone scintigraphy were compared with X-rays, and their contribution and potential role in occupational health or medical insurance investigations assessed. In 31 out of the 53 patients investigated, bone scintigraphy findings concurred with X-rays as to the number and location of abnormalities. For 19 of the 53 patients, bone scintigraphy showed clinically relevant additional foci when compared with X-rays, predominantly involving lesions to hands/wrists and feet/ankles. Among these 19 patients, scintigraphic diagnoses were subsequently confirmed in ten cases by means of X-ray or computed tomography. In four patients, supplementary radiological investigations revealed no abnormalities, and in five patients no further investigations were undertaken. Finally, in three of the 53 patients, X-rays revealed bone damage (burst fractures) whilst the corresponding bone scintigraphy was negative, thus excluding recent injury. In conclusion, in 22 patients, representing 42% of the cases analysed, bone scintigraphy was conclusive compared with X-ray imaging in the final diagnosis and in this way in detecting occult or excluding

  3. Designing online health services for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Bradley H; Slack, Warner V

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly interacting with their healthcare system through online health services, such as patient portals and telehealth programs. Recently, Shabrabani and Mizrachi provided data outlining factors that are most important for users or potential users of these online services. The authors conclude convincingly that while online health services have great potential to be helpful to their users, they could be better designed. As patients and their families play an increasingly active role in their health care, online health services should be made easier for them to use and better suited to their health-related needs. Further, the online services should be more welcoming to people of all literacy levels and from all socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:27307985

  4. Design and fabrication of biomimetic multiphased scaffolds for ligament-to-bone fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Zhang, Wenyou; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Xiang; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2015-05-01

    Conventional ligament grafts with single material composition cannot effectively integrate with the host bones due to mismatched properties and eventually affect their long-term function in vivo. Here we presented a multi-material strategy to design and fabricate composite scaffolds including ligament, interface and bone multiphased regions. The interface region consists of triphasic layers with varying material composition and porous structure to mimic native ligament-to-bone interface while the bone region contains polycaprolactone (PCL) anchor and microchanneled ceramic scaffolds to potentially provide combined mechanical and biological implant-bone fixation. Finite element analysis (FEA) demonstrated that the multiphased scaffolds with interference value smaller than 0.5 mm could avoid the fracture of ceramic scaffold during the implantation process, which was validated by in-vitro implanting the multiphased scaffolds into porcine joint bones. Pull-out experiment showed that the initial fixation between the multiphased scaffolds with 0.47 mm interference and the host bones could withstand the maximum force of 360.31±97.51 N, which can be improved by reinforcing the ceramic scaffolds with biopolymers. It is envisioned that the multiphased scaffold could potentially induce the regeneration of a new bone as well as interfacial tissue with the gradual degradation of the scaffold and subsequently realize long-term biological fixation of the implant with the host bone. PMID:25746239

  5. The impact on children's bone health of a school-based physical education program and participation in leisure time sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a school based physical education (PE) program and the amount of leisure time sport (LTS) on children's bone health and to examine if LTS influences the impact of school type on children's bone health. METHODS: Children attending "sports" schools (6×45min PE...... lessons per week) were compared to children at "traditional" schools (2×45min of PE lessons per week) in Svendborg, Denmark. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline (2008) and at a two-year follow-up (2010). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone area (BA) were measured...

  6. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Condlin, Michelle L; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation significantly prevented ovariectomy-associated weight and fat mass gain, compared to non-supplemented controls. CLA significantly increased bone markers without major changes in bone mineral composition in the femur compared to respective controls. CLA treatment increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) significantly (p=0.0172), while serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was not changed by CLA. Meanwhile, CLA significantly reduced femur tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, suggesting potential reduction of osteoclastogenesis. The data suggest that CLA, along with dietary calcium, has great potential to be used to prevent bone loss and weight gain associated with menopause. PMID:23578644

  8. Nutritional strategies for skeletal and cardiovascular health: hard bones, soft arteries, rather than vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bergman, Nathaniel; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Fontes-Villalba, Maélan; DiNicolantonio, James J; Cordain, Loren

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to explore better strategies for optimising bone strength and reducing risk of fracture, while at the same time decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The majority of Americans do not consume the current recommended dietary allowance for calcium, and the lifetime risk of osteoporosis is about 50%. However, traditional mononutrient calcium supplements may not be ideal. We comprehensively and systematically reviewed the scientific literature in order to determine the optimal dietary strategies and nutritional supplements for long-term skeletal health and cardiovascular health. To summarise, the following steps may be helpful for building strong bones while maintaining soft and supple arteries: (1) calcium is best obtained from dietary sources rather than supplements; (2) ensure that adequate animal protein intake is coupled with calcium intake of 1000 mg/day; (3) maintain vitamin D levels in the normal range; (4) increase intake of fruits and vegetables to alkalinise the system and promote bone health; (5) concomitantly increase potassium consumption while reducing sodium intake; (6) consider increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins K1 and K2; (7) consider including bones in the diet; they are a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite and many other nutrients needed for building bone. PMID:27042317

  9. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jurgen; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules—a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA. PMID:27347968

  10. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-06-24

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules—a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA.

  11. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Afsarimanesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I molecules—a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA.

  12. Mental Health Technologies: Designing With Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Simone; Matthews, Ben; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Jones, Gabrielle; Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Collin, Philippa

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the promise of e-mental and well-being interventions, little supporting literature exists to guide their design and the evaluation of their effectiveness. Both participatory design (PD) and design thinking (DT) have emerged as approaches that hold significant potential for supporting design in this space. Each approach is difficult to definitively circumscribe, and as such has been enacted as a process, a mind-set, specific practices/techniques, or a combination thereof. At its core, however, PD is a design research tradition that emphasizes egalitarian partnerships with end users. In contrast, DT is in the process of becoming a management concept tied to innovation with strong roots in business and education. From a health researcher viewpoint, while PD can be reduced to a number of replicable stages that involve particular methods, techniques, and outputs, projects often take vastly different forms and effective PD projects and practice have traditionally required technology-specific (eg, computer science) and domain-specific (eg, an application domain, such as patient support services) knowledge. In contrast, DT offers a practical off-the-shelf toolkit of approaches that at face value have more potential to have a quick impact and be successfully applied by novice practitioners (and those looking to include a more human-centered focus in their work). Via 2 case studies we explore the continuum of similarities and differences between PD and DT in order to provide an initial recommendation for what health researchers might reasonably expect from each in terms of process and outcome in the design of e-mental health interventions. We suggest that the sensibilities that DT shares with PD (ie, deep engagement and collaboration with end users and an inclusive and multidisciplinary practice) are precisely the aspects of DT that must be emphasized in any application to mental health provision and that any technology development process must

  13. Perceived messages about bone health after a fracture are not consistent across healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Joanna E M; Hawker, Gillian; Cameron, Cathy; Bogoch, Earl; Jain, Ravi; Beaton, Dorcas; Jaglal, Susan; Funnell, Larry

    2015-01-01

    To examine messages perceived by members of an osteoporosis (OP) patient group from various healthcare providers regarding bone health. We conducted a phenomenological (qualitative) study in members of an OP patient group who resided in Canada, had sustained a fragility fracture at 50+ years old, and were not taking antiresorptive medication at the time of that fracture. Participants were interviewed for approximately 1 h by telephone and responded to questions about visits to healthcare providers for their bone health and what was discussed during those visits. We analyzed the data guided by Giorgi's methodology. We interviewed 28 members (2 males, 26 females; 78 % response rate), aged 51-89 years old. Most participants perceived that their specialist was more interested than their primary care physician in bone health and took the time to discuss issues with them. Participants perceived very few messages from the fracture clinic and other providers. We found many instances where perceived messages within and across various healthcare providers were inconsistent, suggesting there is a need to raise awareness of bone health management guidelines to providers who treat fracture patients. PMID:24962740

  14. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J;

    2015-01-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how...

  15. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MACROPOROUS SILICON NITRIDE-BASED CERAMICS DESIGNED FOR BONE SUBSTITUTES

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Bodisova; Monika Kasiarova; Vilcekova Zuzana; Domanicka Magdalena; Lences Zoltan; Hnatko Miroslav; Gromosova Silvia; Sajgalik Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon nitride preforms designed for bone substitutes were prepared by two different forming methods: by introduction of semolina as pore forming agent and by template method with polyurethane sponge. Silicon nitride-based green bodies were sintered in air at two different temperatures, while the Si + 20 % Si3N4 samples were sintered by reaction bonding process in nitrogen. Template method yields samples with interconnected macroporous structure comparable to the bone structu...

  16. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iuliano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives: To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design: Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results: Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI/adequate intakes (AI] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001, magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001, potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001 and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001, and above the upper limit (UL for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001, whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001 and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001. Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d. Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05, nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions: Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  17. Environmental, health, and safety by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Turbines Incorporated created a self-directed work team, the Safety and Environmental Awareness (SEA) Team that initiated a company wide effort to raise employee awareness to promote integrating responsible environmental, health, and safety practices into product design, manufacturing, and services. Environmental, health, and safety issues influence how all businesses operate around the world. Companies choose to operate in an environmentally responsible manner because it not only benefits employees and the communities where they live, it also benefits the business when superior performance results in a competitive advantage. Solar surveyed gas turbines users to identify their top environmental and safety concerns and issues. The authors asked about various environmental and safety aspects of their equipment. Results from the survey has helped engineering and design focus efforts so that future products and product improvements assist customers in meeting their regulatory obligations and social responsibilities. Air pollution has historically been one of the most important environmental issues facing customers, because pollutant emissions greatly influence equipment choices and operation flexibility. There are other environmental, health and safety issues: sustainable fire suppression choices, start systems, hazardous materials use and ability to recycle materials, package accessibility, noise and product take back issues

  18. Investigating the role of natural phyto-oestrogens on bone health in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtueña, S.; Cashman, K.; Robins, S.P.; Cassidy, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Branca, F.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the bone effects of natural phyto-oestrogens after menopause is at a relatively early stage. Published studies are few, difficult to compare and often inconclusive, due in part to design weaknesses. Currently, many questions remain to be answered including to what extent a safe daily int

  19. Dissemination of a theory-based online bone health program: Two intervention approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Bellantoni, Michele; Zhu, Shijun; Brown, Clayton; Brennan, Patricia F; Charters, Kathleen; Brown, Jeanine; Rietschel, Matthew; Pinna, Joanne; An, Minjeong; Park, Bu Kyung; Plummer, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing nationwide emphasis on eHealth, there has been a rapid growth in the use of the Internet to deliver health promotion interventions. Although there has been a great deal of research in this field, little information is available regarding the methodologies to develop and implement effective online interventions. This article describes two social cognitive theory-based online health behavior interventions used in a large-scale dissemination study (N = 866), their implementation processes, and the lessons learned during the implementation processes. The two interventions were a short-term (8-week) intensive online Bone Power program and a longer term (12-month) Bone Power Plus program, including the Bone Power program followed by a 10-month online booster intervention (biweekly eHealth newsletters). This study used a small-group approach (32 intervention groups), and to effectively manage those groups, an eLearning management program was used as an upper layer of the Web intervention. Both interventions were implemented successfully with high retention rates (80.7% at 18 months). The theory-based approaches and the online infrastructure used in this study showed a promising potential as an effective platform for online behavior studies. Further replication studies with different samples and settings are needed to validate the utility of this intervention structure. PMID:26021668

  20. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, M; Birrell, F.; Francis, R; Rawlings, D; Tuck, S; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumba...

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Primary Stability of BoneTrust Sinus Implant Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülses, Aydin; Ayna, Mustafa; Güçlü, Hakan; Sencimen, Metin; Basiry, M Nabi; Gierloff, Matthias; Açil, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the primary stability of BoneTrust Sinus implants (BTSIs), which are intended to enable higher primary stability by their special design with reduced thread section in cases of reduced vertical bone availability, in comparison with standard BoneTrust implants (SBTIs) in vitro. A bone window 3 cm in length, 4 cm in width, and 3 cm in depth, resembling the maxillary bone window of the lateral sinus wall with 4 mm of residual bone height, was prepared at the dorsal side of freshly slaughtered bovine ribs. One single BTSI and a single SBTI with the same diameter (4 or 5 mm) were placed in each window. After implant placement, the implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured by using resonance frequency analysis with an Osstell device. A total of 88 implants were placed. ISQ values varied between 63 and 84. Among the implants with 4-mm diameter, all BTSIs showed higher ISQ values compared with SBTIs. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference between BTSIs/SBTIs (P < .05). BTSIs with 4-mm diameter showed statistically higher values compared to BTSIs with 5-mm diameter (P < .05). Among the implants with 5-mm diameter, all SBTIs showed higher ISQ values compared to BTSIs but there was no significant difference. The use of 4-mm-diameter BTSIs could present higher ISQ values during simultaneous implant placement in conjunction with lateral sinus floor augmentation. PMID:27560678

  2. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) l...

  3. Energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and bone health in sports: an overwiew of the female athlete triad

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Márquez; Olga Molinero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The female athlete triad (FAT) is a serious health-related problem that threatens women who exercise. This condition is an interrelated multifactorial syndrome which includes low energy availability, menstrual cycle disturbances and decreased bone mineral density. Objective: To review the major components of the FAT and their relationships, as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Articles related to the topic were reviewed through PubMed and SportDiscus datab...

  4. Topological design and additive manufacturing of porous metals for bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Xu, Shanqing; Zhou, Shiwei; Xu, Wei; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Qian, M; Brandt, Milan; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-03-01

    One of the critical issues in orthopaedic regenerative medicine is the design of bone scaffolds and implants that replicate the biomechanical properties of the host bones. Porous metals have found themselves to be suitable candidates for repairing or replacing the damaged bones since their stiffness and porosity can be adjusted on demands. Another advantage of porous metals lies in their open space for the in-growth of bone tissue, hence accelerating the osseointegration process. The fabrication of porous metals has been extensively explored over decades, however only limited controls over the internal architecture can be achieved by the conventional processes. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have provided unprecedented opportunities for producing complex structures to meet the increasing demands for implants with customized mechanical performance. At the same time, topology optimization techniques have been developed to enable the internal architecture of porous metals to be designed to achieve specified mechanical properties at will. Thus implants designed via the topology optimization approach and produced by additive manufacturing are of great interest. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of topological design and manufacturing processes of various types of porous metals, in particular for titanium alloys, biodegradable metals and shape memory alloys. This review also identifies the limitations of current techniques and addresses the directions for future investigations. PMID:26773669

  5. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  6. “Vitamin D supplementation and bone health in adults with diabetic nephropathy: the protocol for a randomized controlled trial”

    OpenAIRE

    Mager, Diana R; Jackson, Stephanie T; Hoffmann, Michelle R; Jindal, Kailash; Senior, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Suboptimal vitamin D status is highly prevalent in Northern communities, particularly in those patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic renal disease. Emerging literature suggests that adherence to daily vitamin D supplementation may be an important factor influencing vitamin D status and overall bone health, but compliance with therapies for bone health is a major challenge. It is unknown what level of vitamin D supplementation will ameliorate or improve subopti...

  7. Life Course Dietary Patterns and Bone Health in Later Life in a British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kate A; Prentice, Ann; Kuh, Diana L; Adams, Judith E; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for the contribution of individual foods and nutrients to bone health is weak. Few studies have considered hypothesis-based dietary patterns and bone health. We investigated whether a protein-calcium-potassium-rich (PrCaK-rich) dietary pattern over the adult life course, was positively associated with bone outcomes at 60 to 64 years of age. Diet diaries were collected at ages 36, 46, 53, and 60 to 64 years in 1263 participants (661 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. DXA and pQCT measurements were obtained at age 60 to 64 years, including size-adjusted bone mineral content (SA-BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). A food-based dietary pattern best explaining dietary calcium, potassium, and protein intakes (g/1000 kcal) was identified using reduced rank regression. Dietary pattern Z-scores were calculated for each individual, at each time point. Individual trajectories in dietary pattern Z-scores were modeled to summarize changes in Z-scores over the study period. Regression models examined associations between these trajectories and bone outcomes at age 60 to 64 years, adjusting for baseline dietary pattern Z-score and other confounders. A consistent PrCaK-rich dietary pattern was identified within the population, over time. Mean ± SD dietary pattern Z-scores at age 36 years and age 60 to 64 years were -0.32 ± 0.97 and 2.2 ± 1.5 (women) and -0.35 ± 0.98 and 1.7 ± 1.6 (men), respectively. Mean trajectory in dietary pattern Z-scores ± SD was 0.07 ± 0.02 units/year. Among women, a 0.02-SD unit/year higher trajectory in dietary pattern Z-score over time was associated with higher SA-BMC (spine 1.40% [95% CI, 0.30 to 2.51]; hip 1.35% [95% CI, 0.48 to 2.23]), and vBMD (radius 1.81% [95% CI, 0.13 to 3.50]) at age 60 to 64 years. No statistically significant associations were found in men. During adulthood, an increasing score for a dietary pattern rich in protein, calcium, and potassium

  8. Designing for health in school buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Larsen, Kristian; Kural, René

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the kinds of knowledge practitioners use when planning and designing for health in school buildings. Methods: Twelve semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with architects, teachers and officials to investigate use of knowledge in the making of school buildings....... Results: Practitioners drew on many kinds and sources of knowledge, but in particular they made use of concepts, examples or pictures or thought-provoking knowledge. However, the interviews indicate a number of hurdles for efficient knowledge sharing between research and practice: (1) a considerable...... discrepancy between kinds of knowledge used by practice and knowledge traditionally produced by research; (2) research-knowledge and practice-knowledge form two circuits and the flow from one circuit to the other is weak; (3) practitioners’ knowledge was often based on experience and therefore person...

  9. Postmenopausal Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitors, and Bone Health: What the Surgeon Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatjes, K J; Apffelstaedt, J P; Kotze, M J; Conradie, M

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer, as the most common malignancy in women, remains a major public health issue despite countless advances across decades. Endocrine therapy is the cornerstone of treatment of the hormone-sensitive subtype of breast cancer. The use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the postmenopausal women has extended the survival beyond that of Tamoxifen, but harbors a subset of side effects, most notably accelerated bone loss. This, however, does not occur in all women undergoing treatment. It is vital to identify susceptible patients early, to limit such events, employ early treatment thereof, or alter drug therapy. International trials on AIs, predominantly performed in North American and European females, provide little information on what to expect in women in developing countries. Here, surgeons often prescribe and manage endocrine therapy. The prescribing surgeon should be aware of the adverse effect of the endocrine therapy and be able to attend to side effects. This review highlights clinical and biochemical factors associated with decrease in bone mineral density in an, as yet, unidentified subgroup of postmenopausal women. In the era of personalized medical care, appropriate management of bone health by surgeons based on these factors becomes increasingly important. PMID:27189076

  10. Physical Activity and Bone Health%体力活动与骨健康

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红娟; 王正珍; 严翊

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to review the progress and trend of the research concerning physical activity and bone health with Dr.Wolffe memorial lecture in the 59th ACSM annual meeting as the breakthrough point.Evidence-based research provides moderate evidence for the positive role of physical activity in improving bone health and preventing osteoporosis fracture.The Wolff Law and the Mechanostat lay the theory foundation for the positive effect of physical activity in improving bone health.But there is lack of strong evidence in the clinical guidance of the physical activity in preventing osteoporosis.It′s necessary to expand Mechanostat theory and explore it′s mechanism through multi-discipline research.Multi-disciplinary and multi-type research was conducted to discuss mechanical load mechanism of the function of physical activity on bones and its metabolizing effect.It also conducted the research on the effect of different types of exercises on bone metabolize and effective exercise load of different groups of people.Multi-center randomized controlled trial for years would be the best way to get strong evidence for the role of physical activity in health promotion.%以2012年ACSM第59届年会Dr.Wolffe纪念讲座为切入点,对体力活动与骨骼健康的研究进展及未来发展趋势进行综述。循证研究表明:体力活动有益骨健康和预防骨质疏松性骨折,证据等级为中等,Wolff定律、机械负荷理论等为体力活动促进骨健康奠定了理论基础。但现有预防骨质疏松的体力活动临床指南还缺乏强有力的证据支持,必须进一步拓展和深入研究机械负荷理论,从多学科、多层次探讨体力活动作用于骨骼的机械负荷机制和代谢影响;开展不同运动方式对骨代谢的影响及不同人群有效运动负荷的研究;通过多中心的随机对照试验,可为体力活动促进骨健康提供更多更有力的证据支持。

  11. DXA study on bone health status among hospital based middle aged population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    III 70-100 years. Group I consisted of 43 female and 11 male patients. Of the 43 female 9 (21%) showed osteopenia while 5 (12 %) showed osteoporotic change and 29 patients had normal scan. Of the 11 male patients only 1 had osteopenia and one osteoporosis and both had history of renal failure while 9 patients showed normal scan. In-group ii there was 203 female and 27 male patients. Among the 203 female 61 (30%) showed osteopenia while 83 (41%) showed osteoporotic change while 59 had normal scan. Among the 27 male 4 (15 %) had osteopenia and 5 ( 18 %) osteoporosis and 18 showed normal scan. Group III consisted of 19 female and 8 male patients. Out of 19 female 6 (32%) had osteopenia while 9 (47%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis while 4 were normal. Of the 8 male patients 2 had osteopenia and 4 were diagnosed with osteoporosis while 2 were normal. Conclusion: Bone pain present as a manifestation among the middle aged and the elderly population in Bangladesh. Various investigations like X-ray, BMD, serum calcium, uric acid levels, complete blood picture etc. are done to find out the cause. It was observed from this study that in group II female patients showed predominance of bone loss and early bony change mostly appeared in the lumber spine while established cases of osteoporosis were mostly seen in the proximal part of the femur. It may be concluded that bone mineral loss was evident in individuals (group II) who are under the process of reduction of gonadal hormones. Therefore early diagnosis of bone health status in this group of patients may assist the physicians as well as the affected individuals for early therapeutic intervention and better management to ensure a fracture risk free life. As a result improvement in the lifestyle and national health status of the senior citizens can be expected. (authors)

  12. Monitoring Bone Health after Spaceflight: Data Mining to Support an Epidemiological Analysis of Age-related Bone Loss in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S,; Amin, S.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Through the epidemiological analysis of bone data, HRP is seeking evidence as to whether the prolonged exposure to microgravity of low earth orbit predisposes crewmembers to an earlier onset of osteoporosis. While this collaborative Epidemiological Project may be currently limited by the number of ISS persons providing relevant spaceflight medical data, a positive note is that it compares medical data of astronauts to data of an age-matched (not elderly) population that is followed longitudinally with similar technologies. The inclusion of data from non-ISS and non-NASA crewmembers is also being pursued. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide critical information for NASA to understand the impact of low physical or minimal weight-bearing activity on the aging process as well as to direct its development of countermeasures and rehabilitation programs to influence skeletal recovery. However, in order to optimize these results NASA needs to better define the requirements for long term monitoring and encourage both active and retired astronauts to contribute to a legacy of data that will define human health risks in space.

  13. Walking sticks for muscle, bone and joint health in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Salsbury, Stacie A; Nissen, Nina;

    Objectives: People of rural Botswana rely on walking as their principal mode of transport over long distances and rugged geographical terrain. For those who suffer from Muscle, Bone and Joint (MuBoJo) disorders, navigating spaces and places contributes to everyday burdens that are not well...... represented in the literature. In this qualitative study we observed the use of walking sticks amongst villagers in rural Botswana and examined how they might support MuBoJo health. Methods: Ethnographic fieldwork over eight months included participant observation, document review, and 70 interviews with 48...... providers, villagers claimed little or no instruction for use; no educational notes were identified in villager health cards. Conclusions: Many walking sticks are homemade and most are used without professional instruction. To promote MuBoJo health amongst villagers in Botswana, it is essential that...

  14. Clinical Guidelines for Management of Bone Health in Rett Syndrome Based on Expert Consensus and Available Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Amanda; Leonard, Helen; Siafarikas, Aris; Woodhead, Helen; Fyfe, Sue; Ward, Leanne M.; Munns, Craig; Motil, Kathleen; Tarquinio, Daniel; Shapiro, Jay R.; Brismar, Torkel; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Coppola, Giangennaro; Ellaway, Carolyn; Freilinger, Michael; Geerts, Suzanne; Humphreys, Peter; Jones, Mary; Lane, Jane; Larsson, Gunilla; Lotan, Meir; Percy, Alan; Pineda, Mercedes; Skinner, Steven; Syhler, Birgit; Thompson, Sue; Weiss, Batia; Witt Engerström, Ingegerd; Downs, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We developed clinical guidelines for the management of bone health in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians. Methods An initial guidelines draft was created which included statements based upon literature review and 11 open-ended questions where literature was lacking. The international expert panel reviewed the draft online using a 2-stage Delphi process to reach consensus agreement. Items describe the clinical assessment of bone health, bone mineral density assessment and technique, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Results Agreement was reached on 39 statements which were formulated from 41 statements and 11 questions. When assessing bone health in Rett syndrome a comprehensive assessment of fracture history, mutation type, prescribed medication, pubertal development, mobility level, dietary intake and biochemical bone markers is recommended. A baseline densitometry assessment should be performed with accommodations made for size, with the frequency of surveillance determined according to individual risk. Lateral spine x-rays are also suggested. Increasing physical activity and initiating calcium and vitamin D supplementation when low are the first approaches to optimizing bone health in Rett syndrome. If individuals with Rett syndrome meet the ISCD criterion for osteoporosis in children, the use of bisphosphonates is recommended. Conclusion A clinically significant history of fracture in combination with low bone densitometry findings is necessary for a diagnosis of osteoporosis. These evidence and consensus-based guidelines have the potential to improve bone health in those with Rett syndrome, reduce the frequency of fractures, and stimulate further research that aims to ameliorate the impacts of this serious comorbidity. PMID:26849438

  15. Clinical Guidelines for Management of Bone Health in Rett Syndrome Based on Expert Consensus and Available Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jefferson

    Full Text Available We developed clinical guidelines for the management of bone health in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians.An initial guidelines draft was created which included statements based upon literature review and 11 open-ended questions where literature was lacking. The international expert panel reviewed the draft online using a 2-stage Delphi process to reach consensus agreement. Items describe the clinical assessment of bone health, bone mineral density assessment and technique, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.Agreement was reached on 39 statements which were formulated from 41 statements and 11 questions. When assessing bone health in Rett syndrome a comprehensive assessment of fracture history, mutation type, prescribed medication, pubertal development, mobility level, dietary intake and biochemical bone markers is recommended. A baseline densitometry assessment should be performed with accommodations made for size, with the frequency of surveillance determined according to individual risk. Lateral spine x-rays are also suggested. Increasing physical activity and initiating calcium and vitamin D supplementation when low are the first approaches to optimizing bone health in Rett syndrome. If individuals with Rett syndrome meet the ISCD criterion for osteoporosis in children, the use of bisphosphonates is recommended.A clinically significant history of fracture in combination with low bone densitometry findings is necessary for a diagnosis of osteoporosis. These evidence and consensus-based guidelines have the potential to improve bone health in those with Rett syndrome, reduce the frequency of fractures, and stimulate further research that aims to ameliorate the impacts of this serious comorbidity.

  16. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  17. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. An adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been shown to lower the risk of vascular damage because it activates matrix GLA protein (MGP), which inhibits the deposits of calcium on the walls. Vitamin K, particularly as vitamin K2, is nearly nonexistent in junk food, with little being consumed even in a healthy Western diet. Vitamin K deficiency results in inadequate activation of MGP, which greatly impairs the process of calcium removal and increases the risk of calcification of the blood vessels. An increased intake of vitamin K2 could be a means of lowering calcium-associated health risks. PMID:26770129

  18. Bone Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truskowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns that astronauts in long duration flights might have a greater risk of bone fracture as they age than the general population. A panel of experts was convened to review the information and recommend mechanisms to monitor the health of bones in astronauts. The use of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans for risk surveillance to detect the clinical trigger and to inform countermeasure evaluation is reviewed. An added benefit of QCT is that it facilitates an individualized estimation of bone strength by Finite Element Modeling (FEM), that can inform approaches for bone rehabilitation. The use of FEM is reviewed as a process that arrives at a composite number to estimate bone strength, because it integrates multiple factors.

  19. Project HealthDesign: Stimulating the Next Generation of Personal Health Records

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Downs, Stephen; Casper, Gail; Kenron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Project HealthDesign is a national program designed to rethink the power and potential of personal health records. It intends to stimulate development of new personal health management tools by harnessing the content of the personal health record and making advice, recommendations, and data-tracking tools available to lay people. The program goals include creating a set of prototype personal health records applications, deriving the core functions needed to support interoperable ‘plug-and-pla...

  20. Towards an Effective Health Interventions Design: An Extension of the Health Belief Model

    OpenAIRE

    Orji, Rita; Vassileva, Julita; Mandryk, Regan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The recent years have witnessed a continuous increase in lifestyle related health challenges around the world. As a result, researchers and health practitioners have focused on promoting healthy behavior using various behavior change interventions. The designs of most of these interventions are informed by health behavior models and theories adapted from various disciplines. Several health behavior theories have been used to inform health intervention designs, such as the Theory ...

  1. A Prospective Cluster-Randomized Trial of Telehealth Coaching to Promote Bone Health and Nutrition in Deployed Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from previous studies suggest that inadequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D and a decrease in exercise while deployed can be detrimental to bone health. This study enrolled 234 soldiers randomized to receive one-time nutrition and exercise education pre-deployment (n = 149), or telehealth coaching (n = 85), throughout the deployment cycle. Results suggest that online educational efforts may enhance sports activity, bone turnover, and vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D statu...

  2. A Prospective Cluster-Randomized Trial of Telehealth Coaching to Promote Bone Health and Nutrition in Deployed Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S. McCarthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Findings from previous studies suggest that inadequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D and a decrease in exercise while deployed can be detrimental to bone health. This study enrolled 234 soldiers randomized to receive one-time nutrition and exercise education pre-deployment (n = 149, or telehealth coaching (n = 85, throughout the deployment cycle. Results suggest that online educational efforts may enhance sports activity, bone turnover, and vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D status and remaining active while deployed appears to sustain healthy bone density in young soldiers. Early and aggressive educational outreach to young adults may prevent chronic musculoskeletal conditions and disabling osteoporosis later in life.

  3. Design and Fabrication of 3D printed Scaffolds with a Mechanical Strength Comparable to Cortical Bone to Repair Large Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Newman, Peter; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in regenerating large bone defects under load is to create scaffolds with large and interconnected pores while providing a compressive strength comparable to cortical bone (100-150 MPa). Here we design a novel hexagonal architecture for a glass-ceramic scaffold to fabricate an anisotropic, highly porous three dimensional scaffolds with a compressive strength of 110 MPa. Scaffolds with hexagonal design demonstrated a high fatigue resistance (1,000,000 cycles at 1-10 MPa compressive cyclic load), failure reliability and flexural strength (30 MPa) compared with those for conventional architecture. The obtained strength is 150 times greater than values reported for polymeric and composite scaffolds and 5 times greater than reported values for ceramic and glass scaffolds at similar porosity. These scaffolds open avenues for treatment of load bearing bone defects in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications.

  4. Designing health insurance exchanges: key decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Amanda; Kolstad, Jonathan T

    2012-02-01

    A cornerstone of health care reform is the establishment of state-level insurance exchanges where individuals and small businesses can purchase health insurance in an online marketplace. States are required to develop an exchange by 2014, or participate in a federal one. The exchanges will help people without employer-sponsored insurance find and choose a health plan to meet their needs. This Issue Brief reviews the experience of Massachusetts in developing a health insurance exchange and offers policymakers guidance on key features and likely consumer responses. PMID:22451998

  5. Rodent bone densitometer on the International Space Station: Instrument design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul; Todd, Paul; Boland, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    The study of bone loss dynamics, mechanisms and countermeasures has been a publicly stated purpose of biomedical research aboard the International Space Station. Rodent research has always played a major role in terrestrial laboratories studying bone loss. The "gold standard" for assessing bone loss in human patients has been dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). DEXA is also widely applied to the study of bone loss in laboratory animals, so this technology has been added to the ISS inventory of analytical tools in the form of the ISS Bone Densitometer (BD) designed, constructed, tested and integrated by Techshot, Inc. (Greenville, Indiana, USA). The BD is a re-packaged COTS device known as PIXImus (GE-Lunar, USA), which was installed on ISS in November 2014 after launching on SpaceX-4. To facilitate operations in microgravity and to meet spaceflight facility and safety requirements the commercial x-ray source, control electronics and imaging system were modified and packaged by Techshot into a drawer that fits into a single EXPRESS Locker replacement. A space-rated "Exam Box" is also supplied for containment of the anesthetized subject during transfer into the BD and during exposure. The commercial software package controls four paired-energy exposures, 80 and 35 kV, and applies DEXA algorithms to the fluorescence images and displays bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, lean mass, fat mass, total mass and per cent fat. The BD is therefore also a means for measuring mass and body composition making it a versatile tool for many types of rodent studies on orbit. The BD has been operated multiple times on orbit, and its performance has not differed significantly from its performance on the ground. It has been shown to measure body mass with a precision of +/- 0.1 g and on-orbit accuracy of -0.3 g. It is expected to detect BMD losses of approximately 2%. The image data are stored in a manner that allows post-test data analysis especially including the

  6. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  7. The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen M; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Jensen, Allan Bardow;

    2011-01-01

    Gerodontology 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00383.x The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health Background: In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established. Objectives: To descri...

  8. Using Usability Evaluation to Inform Alberta's Personal Health Record Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Bellwood, Paule; Davies, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Alberta Health is deploying the Personal Health Portal (PHP) (MyHealth.Alberta.ca) to all people in the province of Alberta, Canada. The PHP will include several components such as a Personal Health Record (PHR) where users can enter and access their own health data. For the first PHR of its kind in Canada, Alberta Health asked the University of Victoria's eHealth Observatory to evaluate the PHP, including the PHR. The evaluation includes pre-design, design, and adoption evaluation. This paper focuses on early usability evaluations of the PHR software. Persona-based usability inspection was combined with usability testing sessions using think aloud. These evaluations found that while people were familiar with the web-based technology, several aspects of the PHR information architecture, content, and presentation could be improved to better support and provide value to the users. The findings could be helpful to others designing and implementing similar PHR software. PMID:25676994

  9. A health information system in radiotherapy to support health personnel in evaluation of standard pain in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is a medical specialty that uses ionizing radiation sources, and can be applied to relieve the pain. The Numerical Dosimetry Group (GDN) of Recife-PE, Brazil presented in June 2012 the SISRAD (Health information system in radiotherapy), developed to organize information about data of patients with bone metastasis, aiming to evaluate patterns of pain after radiation treatment. They have since been carried out interviews with this type of patient and the answers have been added to a data file of the software. Were developed some graphical visualization tools as well as data sheets. The current version of SISRAD reads the data file and displays graphics and numerical results, with options to save them or print them. In this paper is presented a roadmap for the health care professional use with efficiency the SISRAD to form quantitative profiles of intensity of pain that their patients, on their responsibility, feel after the radiation treatment. A hypothesis used in SISRAD consists of organizing the responses of the patients supposing them free from other effects other than those arising from the permanence of the pain he felt before treatment or modification by the treatment. So the way the information is handled in the SISRAD enable the trader can discern patterns of pain and, consequently, improve the quality of treatment. In this sense the computational tool here presented can be classified as educational software for health professionals

  10. Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865

  11. Health physics in fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in the control of tritium exposures to workers and the public gained through the design and operation of Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations has been applied to fusion projects and to design studies on emerging fusion reactor concepts. Ontario Hydro performance in occupational tritium exposure control and environmental impact is reviewed. Application of tritium control technologies and dose management methodology during facility design is highlighted

  12. Why Health Care Needs Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Today's pediatric health care lacks methods to tap into the emotional state of hospitalized pediatric patients (age 4-6 years). The most frequently used approaches were developed for adults and fail to acknowledge the importance of imaginary experiences and the notion of play that may appeal...... of the preliminary tests show that games could serve as a system in which children are willing to express their emotions through play. The results are based on two comparative analyses of the CPgame through which it is possible to identify three different types of players among the patients playing the game....... Furthermore, the data reveal that pediatric patients display a radically different play pattern than children who are not in hospital. The inquiry takes an interdisciplinary approach; it has obvious health care-related objectives and seeks to meet the urgent need for new methods within health care to optimize...

  13. Endocrinopathies, Bone Health, and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Fanconi Anemia after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Jessie L; Petryk, Anna; Zhang, Lei; DeFor, Todd E; Baker, K Scott; Steinberger, Julia; Nathan, Brandon; Wagner, John E; MacMillan, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    A number of endocrinopathies have been described after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but data are limited in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA). We report several endocrine-based disorders in a cohort of 44 patients with FA after HCT compared with both 74 patients who received HCT for hematologic malignancies and with 275 healthy controls. Endocrinopathies assessed included hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, short stature, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, abnormalities in body composition, and bone health. Most (86%) patients with FA had at least 1 endocrinopathy, with 11% having 3 or more. Hypothyroidism was seen in 57%, hypogonadism in 27%, short stature in 50%, and reduced total body and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) (height adjusted Z-score android/gynoid ratio by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hypothyroidism, short stature, and reduced total body BMD were more prevalent in patients with FA compared with patients with hematologic malignancies. We recommend an assessment before transplantation and close follow-up afterwards to ensure proper clinical management. Future studies should continue to explore the impact of HCT on endocrinopathies in FA patients. PMID:27180116

  14. Investigating the impact of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of a pamphlet on achieving and maintaining bone health in breast cancer survivors: a patient education resource development primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adirim, Tara; Chafranskaia, Aleksandra; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2012-03-01

    Considerable need exists to raise awareness of breast cancer (BC) treatment-induced bone loss and provide management and preventative strategies. We describe the development and evaluation process of an educational pamphlet for BC survivors on achieving and maintaining bone health. A Participatory Design approach was used. The pamphlet was first critically evaluated by interdisciplinary healthcare professionals and less vulnerable members of the target audience prior to evaluation by 45 BC survivors, who completed two questionnaires inquiring about demographics and pamphlet evaluation and satisfaction. Pamphlet effectiveness was correlated with income and education to determine differences between socioeconomic groups. Perceived knowledge increased significantly after reading the brochure for all groups. Socioeconomic status had no impact on pamphlet effectiveness. This methodological approach is presented as a blueprint to promote knowledge translation in cancer patient education contexts aiming to provide cancer patients with the best possible resources for effective self-management of their conditions. PMID:21748475

  15. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  16. Huge "wellness incentives" are more about health plan benefit design than health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Regulations governing employers' use of financial incentives for employees who participate in health promotion programs or are successful in achieving health goals go into effect today (January 1, 2014). It is important to recognize that huge incentives have more to do with health plan design and less to do with effective strategies to improve health. Comprehensive health promotion programs need to increase awareness of the link between lifestyle and health, enhance motivation to improve health, build the skills important for a healthy lifestyle, and provide an abundance of opportunities to practice a healthy lifestyle. PMID:24380428

  17. Association between the awareness of osteoporosis and the quality of care for bone health among Korean women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyun-Young; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Kiheon; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of osteoporosis is increasing and is a socio-economic burden worldwide. Although screening tests for osteoporosis in Korea are easily accessible, this condition remains undertreated. Evaluating post-diagnostic behavior changes may be helpful for improving the quality of care for bone health in osteoporotic patients. Methods After reviewing the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, 1,114 women with osteoporosis aged >50 years were i...

  18. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  19. Design of polymer-biopolymer-hydroxyapatite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Through molecular control of interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra

    In this dissertation, novel biomaterials are designed for bone biomaterials and bone tissue engineering applications. Novel biomaterials of hydroxyapatite with synthetic and natural polymers have been fabricated using a combination of processing routes. Initially, we investigated hydroxyapatite-polycaprolactone-polyacrylic acid composites and observed that minimal interfacial interactions between polymer and mineral led to inadequate improvement in the mechanical properties. Bioactivity experiments on these composites showed that the presence of functional groups, such as carboxylate groups, influence bioactivity of the composites. We have developed and investigated composites of hydroxyapatite with chitosan and polygalacturonic acid (PgA). Chitosan and PgA are biocompatible, biodegradable, and also electrostatically complementary to each other. This strategy led to significant improvement in mechanical properties of new composites. The nanostructure analysis using atomic force microscopy revealed a multilevel organization in these composites. Enhancement in mechanical response was attributed to stronger interfaces due to strong electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged chitosan and PgA. Further analysis using the Rietveld method showed that biopolymers have marked impact on hydroxyapatite crystal growth and also on its crystal structure. Significant changes were observed in the lattice parameters of hydroxyapatite synthesized by following biomineralization method (organics mediated mineralization). For scaffold preparation, chitosan and PgA were mixed first, and then, nano-hydroxyapatite was added. Oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, such as chitosan and PgA, spontaneously form complex upon mixing. The poly-electrolyte complex exists as nano-sized particles. Chitosan/PgA scaffolds with and without hydroxyapatite were prepared by the freeze drying method. By controlling the rate of cooling and concentration, we have produced both fibrous and sheet

  20. CMOS IC design for wireless medical and health care

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhihua; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with detailed explanation of the design principles of CMOS integrated circuits for wireless medical and health care, from the perspective of two successfully-commercialized applications. Design techniques for both the circuit block level and the system level are discussed, based on real design examples. CMOS IC design techniques for the entire signal chain of wireless medical and health care systems are covered, including biomedical signal acquisition, wireless transceivers, power management and SoC integration, with emphasis on ultra-low-power IC design techniques. • Discusses CMOS integrated circuit design for wireless medical and health care, based on two successfully-commercialized medical and health care applications; • Describes design techniques for the entire signal chain of wireless medical and health care systems; • Focuses on techniques for short-range wireless communication systems; • Emphasizes ultra-low-power IC design techniques; • Enables readers to tu...

  1. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity and Bone Health in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kathleen F.; Thomas, David Q.; Ford, M. Allison; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence strongly supports a positive, causal effect of physical activity on bone strength and suggests long-term benefits of childhood physical activity to the prevention of osteoporosis. The contribution of healthy bone development in youth is likely to be as important to fracture prevention as the amount of late adulthood bone loss. Families,…

  2. Peaks Over Threshold Method for Structural Health Monitoring Detector Design

    OpenAIRE

    HMAD, Ouadie; MECHBAL, Nazih; REBILLAT, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system offers new approaches to interrogate the integrity of structures. The most critical step of such systems is the damage detection step since it is the first and because performances of the following steps (damage localization, severity estimation…) depend on it. Care has thus to be taken when designing the detector. The objective of this communication is to discuss issues related to the design of a detector for the structural health monitoring of compo...

  3. eHealth literacy issues, constructs, models, and methods for health information technology design and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Monkman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of eHealth literacy is beginning to be recognized as a being of key importance in the design and adoption of effective and efficient health information systems and applications targeted to lay people and patients. Indeed, many systems such as patient portals and personal health records have not been adopted due to a mismatch between the level of eHealth literacy demanded by a system and the level of eHealth literacy possessed by end users. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of important concepts related to eHealth literacy, as well as how the notion of eHealth literacy can be applied to improve the design and adoption of consumer health information systems. This paper begins with describing the importance of eHealth literacy with respect to design of health applications for the general public paired with examples of consumer health information systems whose limited success and adoption has been attributed to the lack of consideration for eHealth literacy. This is followed by definitions of what eHealth literacy is and how it emerged from the related concept of health literacy. A model for conceptualizing the importance of aligning consumers’ eHealth literacy skills and the demands systems place on their skills is then described. Next, current tools for assessing consumers’ eHealth literacy levels are outlined, followed by an approach to systematically incorporating eHealth literacy in the deriving requirements for new systems is presented. Finally, a discussion of evolving approaches for incorporating eHealth literacy into usability engineering methods is presented.

  4. Refinements in Sarcoma Classification in the Current 2013 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Doyle, Leona A

    2016-10-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone was published in February 2013. The 2013 WHO volume provides an updated classification scheme and reproducible diagnostic criteria, which are based on recent clinicopathologic studies and genetic and molecular data that facilitated refined definition of established tumor types, recognition of novel entities, and the development of novel diagnostic markers. This article reviews updates and changes in the classification of bone and soft tissue tumors from the 2002 volume. PMID:27591490

  5. The optimal design of an implant to improve bone quality of implant surroundings based on stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyama, Yoshihiro; Kuramoto, Koichi [Nakashima Medical Division, Nakashima Propeller Co., Ltd., 688-1 Joto-Kitakata, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8691 (Japan); Nagayama, Noriyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Applied Electronics Group Industrial Technology Centre of Okayama Prefecture, 5301 Haga, Okayama 701-1296 (Japan); Nakano, Takayoshi [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Research on how implant surface shape contributes to long-term stability after implantation is important in the field of orthopaedics. In particular, technology that controls various bone quality parameters and voluntary bone inducement in implant surroundings should be developed for the next generation of implants and this will improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). For this research, we focused on the inducement of the appropriate alignment for biological apatite (BAp) crystallites and related collagen (Col.) fibres as a bone quality parameter. In this study, we predicted that when stress is applied to bone, the BAp/Col. preferential alignment can be formed if osteocytes are in an environment that is aligned with the principle stress vector. We tested this idea by introducing grooves in the principal stress direction on the surface of an implant. This work thus analyzes the effect of stress transmission by a load at the proximal femur on the bone inside and near the grooves by using mechanical simulation in which groove angles can be changed on the implant surface. Coordinate data from the mechanical simulation of the combined bone/implant environment was verified against the coordinate data obtained by CT scans of actual canine bone. Results suggest that the tendency of stress transmission differs depending on the position and angle of the grooves and based on a vector diagram of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The simulation was able to predict bone dynamics in vivo and enabled a best design of an implant to control the BAp/Col. alignment as an index of bone quality.

  6. The optimal design of an implant to improve bone quality of implant surroundings based on stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyama, Yoshihiro; Nagayama, Noriyuki; Kuramoto, Koichi; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2009-05-01

    Research on how implant surface shape contributes to long-term stability after implantation is important in the field of orthopaedics. In particular, technology that controls various bone quality parameters and voluntary bone inducement in implant surroundings should be developed for the next generation of implants and this will improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). For this research, we focused on the inducement of the appropriate alignment for biological apatite (BAp) crystallites and related collagen (Col.) fibres as a bone quality parameter. In this study, we predicted that when stress is applied to bone, the BAp/Col. preferential alignment can be formed if osteocytes are in an environment that is aligned with the principle stress vector. We tested this idea by introducing grooves in the principal stress direction on the surface of an implant. This work thus analyzes the effect of stress transmission by a load at the proximal femur on the bone inside and near the grooves by using mechanical simulation in which groove angles can be changed on the implant surface. Coordinate data from the mechanical simulation of the combined bone/implant environment was verified against the coordinate data obtained by CT scans of actual canine bone. Results suggest that the tendency of stress transmission differs depending on the position and angle of the grooves and based on a vector diagram of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The simulation was able to predict bone dynamics in vivo and enabled a best design of an implant to control the BAp/Col. alignment as an index of bone quality.

  7. The optimal design of an implant to improve bone quality of implant surroundings based on stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on how implant surface shape contributes to long-term stability after implantation is important in the field of orthopaedics. In particular, technology that controls various bone quality parameters and voluntary bone inducement in implant surroundings should be developed for the next generation of implants and this will improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). For this research, we focused on the inducement of the appropriate alignment for biological apatite (BAp) crystallites and related collagen (Col.) fibres as a bone quality parameter. In this study, we predicted that when stress is applied to bone, the BAp/Col. preferential alignment can be formed if osteocytes are in an environment that is aligned with the principle stress vector. We tested this idea by introducing grooves in the principal stress direction on the surface of an implant. This work thus analyzes the effect of stress transmission by a load at the proximal femur on the bone inside and near the grooves by using mechanical simulation in which groove angles can be changed on the implant surface. Coordinate data from the mechanical simulation of the combined bone/implant environment was verified against the coordinate data obtained by CT scans of actual canine bone. Results suggest that the tendency of stress transmission differs depending on the position and angle of the grooves and based on a vector diagram of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The simulation was able to predict bone dynamics in vivo and enabled a best design of an implant to control the BAp/Col. alignment as an index of bone quality.

  8. Project HealthDesign: stimulating the next generation of personal health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Downs, Stephen; Casper, Gail; Kenron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Project HealthDesign is a national program designed to rethink the power and potential of personal health to rethink the power and potential of personal health records. It intends to stimulate development of new personal health management tools by harnessing the content of the personal health record and making advice, recommendations, and data-tracking tools available to lay people. The program goals include creating a set of prototype personal health records applications, deriving the core functions needed to support interoperable 'plug-and-play' resources for managing health challenges, and addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues that confront the development of computer tools to promote health actions. Response to the call for proposals was tremendous; from the over 160 groups who submitted proposals, 9 teams were selected to design and create prototypes of innovative personal health management tools. This paper summarizes the full set of proposals, their populations of interest, and the technical challenges that await full implementation of the PHR-based applications designed to promote health. PMID:18693800

  9. A computer-designed scaffold for bone regeneration within cranial defect using human dental pulp stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Doo Yeon Kwon; Jin Seon Kwon; Seung Hun Park; Ji Hun Park; So Hee Jang; Xiang Yun Yin; Jeong-Ho Yun; Jae Ho Kim; Byoung Hyun Min; Jun Hee Lee; Wan-Doo Kim; Moon Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    A computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold offer several potential advantages such as ease of customized manufacture and in vivo safety. In this work, we firstly used a computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate neo-bone within cranial bone defects. The hDPSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and served as an abundant source of stem cells with a high proliferation rate. In addition, hDPSCs showed a phenotype of differentiated osteob...

  10. A Design of Mobile Health for Android Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vuda Sreenivasa Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For healthiness and wellness, exercising is one of the key factors. In this paper, a mobile health application is developed to recommend healthcare support referring to exercises on the Android Smart Phone. This application has been designed to provide exercise advice depending on Body Mass Index (BMI, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and the energy used in each activity or sport (e.g. aerobic dancing, cycling, jogging working and swimming. Also, this application has been designed to present special exercise advice for patients with health issues. Moreover, it has been designed to store information in a database and to have the ability to produce reports to users.

  11. The influence of thread geometry on biomechanical load transfer to bone: A finite element analysis comparing two implant thread designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha G Herekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of dental implants depends on the manner in which stresses are transferred to the surrounding bone. An important consideration is to design an implant with a geometry that will minimize the peak bone stresses caused by standard loading. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of implant thread geometry on biomechanical load transfer and to compare the difference between two different thread designs. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model of D2 bone representing mandibular premolar region was constructed. Two implants of differing thread geometries, 13-mm length, and 4-mm diameter along with superstructures were simulated. One design featured fourfold microthread of 0.4-mm pitch, 0.25-mm depth in the crestal one-third; 0.8-mm pitch, 0.5-mm depth in the apical two-third. The other design had a single-pitch microthread of 0.8-mm pitch, 0.25-mm depth in the crestal one-third; 0.8-mm pitch, 0.5-mm depth in the apical two-third. A static axial load of 100-N was applied to the occlusal surface of the prosthesis. ANSYS CLASSIC 9.0 (PA,USAsoftware was used for stress analysis as von Mises stresses. Results: A comparison of von Mises stresses between two thread designs revealed that fourfold microthread allows better stress distribution within the implant body by 43.85%, abutment by 15.68%, its superstructure by 39.70% and 36.30% within cancellous bone as compared to single-pitch microthread. The effective stress transfer to the cortical bone is lowered by 60.47% with single-pitch microthread. Conclusion: Single-pitch microthread dissipates lesser stresses to cortical bone while the implant body, abutment, and superstructure absorb more stress. This will have a positive influence on the bone-implant contact and contribute to preservation of crestal bone. Implant with single pitch microthread will thus be preferable to be used in areas where the amount of cortical bone available is less.

  12. Evaluation of Strain Distribution in Bone around Implant in Treatment Design of Overdentures Using Computer and Modeling of Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Khoshhal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Introduction: Few studies have investigated the distribution of stress around implants. In this study the distribution of stress in bones around implants was investigated in five overdenture (OD treatment designs including OD-1, OD-2, OD-3, OD-4 and OD-5. Materials and methods: The Catia modeling software was used in order to simulate the tooth/implant model and bone. First, the borders of cancellous and cortical bone in each section of the CT images were attained by Photoshop software. Then, modeling softwares SolidWorks and NUMBER were applied to make the final three-dimensional model of jaw. Finally, the amount of stress on the surface of bone/implant was studied by means of stress analysis software (Ansys v11.0. Results: Protrusive movements of implants B and D in OD-1 showed the highest amount of strain, 2435 εµ. Also, high amounts of strain, 1668 and 1557 εµwere observed in OD-1 and OD-2 designs in lateral movements respectively. Conclusion: The bottom line is that no forces to the extent of destruction based on the Ferost model were found for these designs. The highest amount of strain occurred in OD-1 design, which is held in mild overload window. Moreover, the amounts of strain in the rest of designs investigated were in adaptive window.

  13. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition...

  14. Energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and bone health in sports: an overwiew of the female athlete triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Márquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The female athlete triad (FAT is a serious health-related problem that threatens women who exercise. This condition is an interrelated multifactorial syndrome which includes low energy availability, menstrual cycle disturbances and decreased bone mineral density. Objective: To review the major components of the FAT and their relationships, as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Articles related to the topic were reviewed through PubMed and SportDiscus databases. Results: Interrelationship between components of the FAT may result in clinical manifestations, including eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Clinical conditions are not always exhibited simultaneously. Prevention is important to minimize complications. Diagnosis and treatment is complicated and often must involve an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. Conclusions: Understanding of the disease may be facilitated by a unified framework focusing on energy deficiency. Preventive or early interventions require to increase energy availability through a higher total energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure trough excessive physical exercise. A healthy lifestyle, and support by parents and coaches should be included. Psychotherapy may be necessary when eating disorders are present.

  15. Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D

    2015-02-01

    Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high. PMID:25642607

  16. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  17. Designation of a Novel DKK1 Multiepitope DNA Vaccine and Inhibition of Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Sibo; Li, Shentao; Du, Yuxuan; Dou, Yunpeng; Li, Zhanguo; Yuan, Huihui; Zhao, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a secretory inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling, plays a critical role in certain bone loss diseases. Studies have shown that serum levels of DKK1 are significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and are correlated with the severity of the disease, which indicates the possibility that bone erosion in RA may be inhibited by neutralizing the biological activity of DKK1. In this study, we selected a panel of twelve peptides using the software DNASTAR 7.1 and screened high affinity and immunogenicity epitopes in vitro and in vivo assays. Furthermore, we optimized four B cell epitopes to design a novel DKK1 multiepitope DNA vaccine and evaluated its bone protective effects in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA. High level expression of the designed vaccine was measured in supernatant of COS7 cells. In addition, intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with this vaccine was also highly expressed and sufficient to induce the production of long-term IgG, which neutralized natural DKK1 in vivo. Importantly, this vaccine significantly attenuated bone erosion in CIA mice compared with positive control mice. These results provide evidence for the development of a DNA vaccine targeted against DKK1 to attenuate bone erosion. PMID:26075259

  18. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. PMID:27322315

  19. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Born Rita; Zwahlen Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM) and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM) in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were liv...

  20. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for...... (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. METHODS: Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in...

  1. Front end design of smartphone-based mobile health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changfan; He, Lingsong; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ling, Cong; Du, Jianhao

    2015-02-01

    Mobile health has been a new trend all over the world with the rapid development of intelligent terminals and mobile internet. It can help patients monitor health in-house and is convenient for doctors to diagnose remotely. Smart-phone-based mobile health has big advantages in cost and data sharing. Front end design of it mainly focuses on two points: one is implementation of medical sensors aimed at measuring kinds of medical signal; another is acquisition of medical signal from sensors to smart phone. In this paper, the above two aspects were both discussed. First, medical sensor implementation was proposed to refer to mature measurement solutions with ECG (electrocardiograph) sensor design taken for example. And integrated chip using can simplify design. Then second, typical data acquisition architecture of smart phones, namely Bluetooth and MIC (microphone)-based architecture, were compared. Bluetooth architecture should be equipped with an acquisition card; MIC design uses sound card of smart phone instead. Smartphone-based virtual instrument app design corresponding to above acquisition architecture was discussed. In experiments, Bluetooth and MIC architecture were used to acquire blood pressure and ECG data respectively. The results showed that Bluetooth design can guarantee high accuracy during the acquisition and transmission process, and MIC design is competitive because of low cost and convenience.

  2. Designing minimum data sets of health smart card system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Nematollahi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays different countries benefit from health system based on health cards and projects related to smart cards. Lack of facilities which cover this technology is obvious in our society. This paper aims to design Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card System for Iran. Method: This research was an applied descriptive study. At first, we reviewed the same projects and guidelines of selected countries and the proposed model was designed in accordance to the country’s needs, taking people’s attitude about it by Delphi technique. A data analysis in study stage of MDS(Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card in the selective countries was done by comparative tables and determination of similarities and differences of the MDS. In the stage of gaining credit for model, it was accomplished with descriptive statistics to the extent of absolute and relative frequency through SPSS (version 16. Results: MDS of Health Smart Card for Iran is presented in the patient’s card and health provider’s card on basisof studiesin America, Australia, Turkey and Belgium and needs of our country and after doing Delphi technique with 94 percent agreement confirmed. Conclusion: Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card provides continuous care for patients and communication among providers. So, it causes a decrease in the complications of threatening diseases. Collection of MDS of diseases increases the quality of care assessment

  3. Sound & Vibration 20 Design Guidelines for Health Care Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Tocci, Gregory; Cavanaugh, William

    2013-01-01

    Sound, vibration, noise and privacy have significant impacts on health and performance. As a result, they are recognized as essential components of effective health care environments. However, acoustics has only recently become a prominent consideration in the design, construction, and operation of healthcare facilities owing to the absence, prior to 2010, of clear and objective guidance based on research and best practices. Sound & Vibration 2.0 is the first publication to comprehensively address this need. Sound & Vibration 2.0 is the sole reference standard for acoustics in health care facilities and is recognized by: the 2010 FGI Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities (used in 60 countries); the US Green Building Council’s LEED for Health Care (used in 87 countries); The Green Guide for Health Care V2.2; and the International Code Council (2011). Sound & Vibration 2.0 was commissioned by the Facility Guidelines Institute in 2005, written by the Health Care Acous...

  4. Molecular Actions of Glucocorticoids in Cartilage and Bone During Health, Disease, and Steroid Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Kerstin; Koenen, Mascha; Schauer, Sebastian; Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie; Ahmad, Mubashir; Baschant, Ulrike; Tuckermann, Jan P

    2016-04-01

    Cartilage and bone are severely affected by glucocorticoids (GCs), steroid hormones that are frequently used to treat inflammatory diseases. Major complications associated with long-term steroid therapy include impairment of cartilaginous bone growth and GC-induced osteoporosis. Particularly in arthritis, GC application can increase joint and bone damage. Contrarily, endogenous GC release supports cartilage and bone integrity. In the last decade, substantial progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of GC action has been gained through genome-wide binding studies of the GC receptor. These genomic approaches have revolutionized our understanding of gene regulation by ligand-induced transcription factors in general. Furthermore, specific inactivation of GC signaling and the GC receptor in bone and cartilage cells of rodent models has enabled the cell-specific effects of GCs in normal tissue homeostasis, inflammatory bone diseases, and GC-induced osteoporosis to be dissected. In this review, we summarize the current view of GC action in cartilage and bone. We further discuss future research directions in the context of new concepts for optimized steroid therapies with less detrimental effects on bone. PMID:26842265

  5. A Patient Specific Biomechanical Analysis of Custom Root Analogue Implant Designs on Alveolar Bone Stress: A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anssari Moin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse by means of FEA the influence of 5 custom RAI designs on stress distribution of peri-implant bone and to evaluate the impact on microdisplacement for a specific patient case. Materials and Methods. A 3D surface model of a RAI for the upper right canine was constructed from the cone beam computed tomography data of one patient. Subsequently, five (targeted press-fit design modification FE models with five congruent bone models were designed: “Standard,” “Prism,” “Fins,” “Plug,” and “Bulbs,” respectively. Preprocessor software was applied to mesh the models. Two loads were applied: an oblique force (300 N and a vertical force (150 N. Analysis was performed to evaluate stress distributions and deformed contact separation at the peri-implant region. Results. The lowest von Mises stress levels were numerically observed for the Plug design. The lowest levels of contact separation were measured in the Fins model followed by the Bulbs design. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the applied methodology, adding targeted press-fit geometry to the RAI standard design will have a positive effect on stress distribution, lower concentration of bone stress, and will provide a better primary stability for this patient specific case.

  6. A Patient Specific Biomechanical Analysis of Custom Root Analogue Implant Designs on Alveolar Bone Stress: A Finite Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse by means of FEA the influence of 5 custom RAI designs on stress distribution of peri-implant bone and to evaluate the impact on microdisplacement for a specific patient case. Materials and Methods. A 3D surface model of a RAI for the upper right canine was constructed from the cone beam computed tomography data of one patient. Subsequently, five (targeted) press-fit design modification FE models with five congruent bone models were designed: “Standard,” “Prism,” “Fins,” “Plug,” and “Bulbs,” respectively. Preprocessor software was applied to mesh the models. Two loads were applied: an oblique force (300 N) and a vertical force (150 N). Analysis was performed to evaluate stress distributions and deformed contact separation at the peri-implant region. Results. The lowest von Mises stress levels were numerically observed for the Plug design. The lowest levels of contact separation were measured in the Fins model followed by the Bulbs design. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the applied methodology, adding targeted press-fit geometry to the RAI standard design will have a positive effect on stress distribution, lower concentration of bone stress, and will provide a better primary stability for this patient specific case.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin and oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) has been asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin, and oral health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the....../outcome measures which are acceptable. Rather, it presents examples drawn from evaluations already carried out to illustrate the approach of the Panel, as well as some examples which are currently under consideration within ongoing evaluations. A draft of this guidance document, endorsed by the NDA Panel on 25...

  8. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Anne J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Methods Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA. 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions – East and West, were used. Results Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score ≤ -1 was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.22–2.87 in women in Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. Conclusion We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors.

  9. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignasiak, Zofia; Radwan-Oczko, Malgorzata; Rozek-Piechura, Krystyna; Cholewa, Marta; Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Tomasz; Slawinska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD), and gingival bleeding. Results In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric characteristics and body composition were significantly and positively correlated with PD and bleeding on probing. Conclusion The results suggest that body composition and BMD are not significantly correlated with tooth number and gingival bleeding. PMID:27042033

  10. Serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, and its relationship to bone health indices in Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Eibhlis; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Jakobsen, Jette; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E.; Cashman, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent cross-sectional data suggest that better vitamin K status in young girls (aged 3-16 years) is associated with decreased bone turnover, even though it is not associated with bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum...... percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), as an index of vitamin K status, and BMC and biochemical indices of bone turnover in peri-pubertal Danish girls. This peri-pubertal stage is a dynamic period of bone development, and as such, may represent an important window of opportunity for vitamin K...... status to modulate childhood bone health. Serum %ucOC and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were measured at baseline in a study of 223 healthy girls aged 11-12 years. Urinary pyridinium crosslinks of collagen and serum total osteocalcin as markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively, as...

  11. Vitamin K and Bone Health: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, J.; Darling, AL; Shearer, M; Gibbs, MA; Adamson, J.; Torgerson, D.; Lanham-New, SA

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests vitamin K may increase bone mass, prevent loss of bone mineral density (BMD), and possibly reduce fracture incidence. The purpose of this study was to update the systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of both vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7) on bone turnover, BMD and fracture risk that we published in 2007 in the light of key vitamin K supplementation studies completed in the last 30 months. The Cochrane Library (1994-2009) and ...

  12. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  13. Nutrient intake and bone health status of Korean male college students as related to smoking situations

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Cho, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Mi-hyun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in Korean male collegians as related to smoking situation. One hundred sixty one young adult males at the age of 20-26 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: non smoker (n=42), light smoker (n=34), moderate smoker (n=49) and heavy smoker (n=36). The anthropometric characteristics, smoking situations, dietary habits and nutrient intakes w...

  14. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  15. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A., E-mail: kazimmer@vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  16. [Vitamin D, determinant of bone and extrabone health. Importance of vitamin D supplementation in milk and dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is obtained mainly from ultraviolet irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to form cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and minimally from diet, unless vitamin D fortified food is taken, mainly enriched milk. In some countries, vitamin D is added to diet as ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). In the liver, vitamin D3 is hydroxylated to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (marker of body nutritional status of vitamin D). Subsequently, in the kidney, 25OHD3 is hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). By VDR stimulation, (1,25)OH)2D3 controls calcium homeostasis and bone health and, what is more, many other cells and tissues including skin, muscle, cardiovascular and immune systems as well as glucose homeostasis. Thus, about 3% of the human genome is regulated by this hormone. Association and recent intervention studies describe beneficial effects on bone, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2,colorectal cancer, breast cancer, multiple sclerosis, immune function inflammation etc. A minimum target for public health should be to achieve serum 25OHD levels above 20 ng/ml to ensure optimum status for bone health. However, levels above 30 ng/ml should be reached to achieve other health goals. Paradoxically, inadequacy (or even deficiency) in vitamin D levels is highly prevalent in children and youth in Spain. This deficit persists in adults, as well as in postmenopausal women (osteoporotic or not) and the elderly (especially amongst those institutionalized). Seasonal variation barely normalizes serum 25OHD levels after summer-autumn. Treated postmenopausal osteoporotic women also show high prevalence of inadequate levels of vitamin D, a major contributor to antiresortive treatments failure. A normalization of serum vitamin D enables diet to provide the calcium necessary to achieve a good bone health and an adequate response to antiresortive drugs. Given the difficulty to get adequate levels of vitamin D by UV irradiation and diet, a

  17. Effects of Soy Phytoestrogens and New Zealand Functional Foods on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, M C; Tousen, Y; Katsumata, S; Tadaishi, M; Kasonga, A E; Deepak, V; Coetzee, M; Ishimi, Y

    2015-01-01

    New Zealand is a rich source of food components that may have bioactivity on bone. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil has been shown to maintain bone in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Kiwifruit, a source of fibre and carotenoids, may also affect bone via a prebiotic as well as direct cell-based mechanisms. We aimed to 1) ascertain the effects of DHA on two cell models, including interactions with soy isoflavones; 2) and investigate the specific effects of carotenoids from kiwifruit as well as whole kiwifruit in cell-based and rodent models as well as in a human study. RAW 264.7 mouse monocytes or mouse bone marrow was used to generate osteoclasts (OC). Cells were exposed to the agents between 5 and 21 d and formation and activity of OC measured, including molecular markers. DHA inhibited OC formation in both cell models, including expression of cathepsin K, NFATc1 as well as actin ring formation. Combination with isoflavones enhanced these effects. In OVX rats and mice fed with kiwifruit for 8 wk, green kiwifruit reduced the rate of bone loss after OVX, and in mice it reduced C-telopeptide of Type 1 collagen (CTX) levels and RANKL expression while in menopausal women, green kiwifruit affected blood lipids and bone markers positively. PMID:26598831

  18. Quantitative ultrasound and bone health Ultrasonido cuantitativo y salud ósea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Knapp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of quantiative ultrasound (QUS and bone health uses the current literature to summarise the clinical and research effectiveness of QUS. QUS has been demonstrated to have the ability to predict fracture, particularly at the hip. However, the magnitude of prediction is fracture-site, measurement-site and device dependent. The correlations between dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and bone mineral density (BMD are weak to moderate, resulting in different subjects being identified as being at risk of fracture by the two different methods. QUS is sensitive to age and menopause-related changes and to clinical risk factors and lifestyle factors associated with osteoporosis. Whilst a limited ability of QUS to monitor therapeutic intervention has been demonstrated, this is still an area where it's poorer precision, in comparison to DXA, results in limited applicability. Whilst DXA remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, QUS may be of use for the prediction of those at risk of future fracture in areas where there is limited availability of DXA.En esta revisión sobre el Ultrasonido Cuantitativo (QUS y su aplicación en la evaluación de la salud de los huesos, se analiza detalladamente la literatura disponible para conocer su papel y efectividad en la clínica cotidiana y en los programas de investigación. El QUS ha probado ser útil para predecir fracturas, especialmente de la cadera. Sin embargo, la exactitud de la predicción depende del sitio de fractura que se desea evaluar, del sitio anatómico donde se realiza la medición y de los diferentes instrumentos. La correlación que existe entre densitometría de rayos X (DXA y QUS puede ser débil a moderada, porque ambos métodos determinan diferentes componentes de la masa ósea relacionados con la presentación de las fracturas. El resultado del QUS como el del DXA también es sensible a la edad, cambios relacionados con la menopausia, a factores de riesgo clínicos y de

  19. Effect of a program of short bouts of exercise on bone health in adolescents involved in different sports: the PRO-BONE study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A.; Karen M. Knapp; Metcalf, Brad S.; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with high morbidity, mortality and increased economic costs. Early prevention during adolescence appears to be one of the most beneficial practices. Exercise is an effective approach for developing bone mass during puberty, but some sports may have a positive or negative impact on bone mass accrual. Plyometric jump training has been suggested as a type of exercise that can augment bone, but its effects on adolescent bone mass have not b...

  20. Nudging for health: on public policy and designing choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a 'nudge unit' with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

  1. Comparison of Marginal Bone Changes with Internal Conus and External Hexagon Design Implant Systems: A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Tarnow, Dennis; Froum, Stuart; Moriarty, John; De Kok, Ingeborg J

    2016-01-01

    A central dental implant success criterion is the marginal bone response as measured longitudinally. Factors that influence marginal bone changes include osseous and soft tissue architecture, occlusal loading factors, implant position, implant design, and inflammatory processes. The evolution of implant design is multifactorial and includes the implant-abutment interface geometries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the proximal marginal bone changes following placement and loading of internal conus design implants (ICI) and external hex design implants (EXI) used in the treatment of posterior partial edentulism. Among 45 enrolled participants, 39 were treated with 47 ICI or 46 EXI implants using a one-stage implant protocol. Prosthetic restoration was completed after 12 weeks using stock titanium abutments and all-ceramic crowns. Follow-up visits including clinical and radiographic examinations were performed 6 months after permanent restoration and then annually for 3 years. Marginal bone level changes, papilla index scores, condition of the peri-implant mucosa, presence of complications, and participant satisfaction were evaluated. The mean marginal bone level change from implant placement to 3 years was -0.25 ± 0.60 mm and -0.5 ± 0.93 mm for ICI and EXI implants, respectively. The change recorded from permanent restoration to 3 years was a gain of 0.31 ± 0.41 mm versus 0.04 ± 0.51 mm for ICI and EXI implants, respectively (P 90%) of participants stated they were satisfied or very satisfied with their implant prosthesis and rated function and esthetics highly for both implant types after 3 years in function. Modestly greater marginal bone loss occurred at EXI implants. Further, more positive papilla scores were found between adjacent ICI implants than between adjacent EXI implants. EXI implants displayed more abutment complications than the ICI implants. The implant-abutment interface design may contribute to therapeutic outcome differences

  2. Exercise therapy for bone and muscle health: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Kåre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs are widely prevalent in present-day society, with resultant high healthcare costs and substantial negative effects on patient health and quality of life. The main aim of this overview was to synthesize evidence from systematic reviews on the effects of exercise therapy (ET on pain and physical function for patients with MSCs. In addition, the evidence for the effect of ET on disease pathogenesis, and whether particular components of exercise programs are associated with the size of the treatment effects, was also explored. Methods We included four common conditions: fibromyalgia (FM, low back pain (LBP, neck pain (NP, and shoulder pain (SP, and four specific musculoskeletal diseases: osteoarthritis (OA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, and osteoporosis (OP. We first included Cochrane reviews with the most recent update being January 2007 or later, and then searched for non-Cochrane reviews published after this date. Pain and physical functioning were selected as primary outcomes. Results We identified 9 reviews, comprising a total of 224 trials and 24,059 patients. In addition, one review addressing the effect of exercise on pathogenesis was included. Overall, we found solid evidence supporting ET in the management of MSCs, but there were substantial differences in the level of research evidence between the included diagnostic groups. The standardized mean differences for knee OA, LBP, FM, and SP varied between 0.30 and 0.65 and were significantly in favor of exercise for both pain and function. For NP, hip OA, RA, and AS, the effect estimates were generally smaller and not always significant. There was little or no evidence that ET can influence disease pathogenesis. The only exception was for osteoporosis, where there was evidence that ET increases bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, but no significant effects were found for clinically relevant outcomes

  3. Bone Health in Patients with Breast Cancer: Recommendations from an Evidence-Based Canadian Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. G. Paterson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss is common in patients with breast cancer. Bone modifying agents (BMAs, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, have been shown to reverse or stabilize bone loss and may be useful in the primary and metastatic settings. The purpose of this review is to provide clear evidence-based strategies for the management of bone loss and its symptoms in breast cancer. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 1996 and 2012 was conducted of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. Zoledronate, pamidronate, clodronate, and denosumab are recommended for metastatic breast cancer patients; however, no one agent can be recommended over another. Zoledronate or any oral bisphosphonate and denosumab should be considered in primary breast cancer patients who are postmenopausal on aromatase inhibitor therapy and have a high risk of fracture and/or a low bone mineral density and in premenopausal primary breast cancer patients who become amenorrheic after therapy. No one agent can be recommended over another. BMAs are not currently recommended as adjuvant therapy in primary breast cancer for the purpose of improving survival, although a major Early Breast Cancer Cooperative Trialists’ Group meta-analysis is underway which may impact future practice. Adverse events can be managed with appropriate supportive care.

  4. Design and Validation of Automated Femoral Bone Morphology Measurements in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Noyeol; Lee, Jehee; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok; Koo, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of bone morphology is important for monitoring the progress of bony deformation in patients with cerebral palsy. The purpose of the study was to develop an automatic bone morphology measurement method using one or two radiographs. The study focused on four morphologic measurements—neck-shaft angle, femoral anteversion, shaft bowing angle, and neck length. Fifty-four three-dimensional (3D) geometrical femur models were generated from the computed tomography (CT) of cere...

  5. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    OpenAIRE

    Casasnovas José A; Alcaide Victor; Civeira Fernando; Guallar Eliseo; Ibañez Borja; Borreguero Jesús; Laclaustra Martin; León Montserrat; Peñalvo José; Ordovás José M; Pocovi Miguel; Sanz Ginés; Fuster Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to des...

  6. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  7. Health maintenance organizations: structure, performance, and current issues for employee health benefits design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M

    1991-03-01

    After summarizing the origins and key principles of HMOs, including the current characteristics of the HMO industry, this article reviews the evidence of HMO performance in the areas of benefits design, utilization and cost effectiveness, quality of care and consumer satisfaction, and selection and overall employer satisfaction. Outstanding issues and concerns, from the perspective of employee health benefits design, include issues such as assuring a fair price for HMO benefits, employer contribution methods, HMO diversification, and cost escalation and the search for value. Results of research studies have been generally positive about HMO performance on benefits, cost effectiveness, quality, and consumer satisfaction, and more mixed on employer satisfaction. As employers address concerns, some changes are likely in the methods used to integrate HMOs into a health benefits strategy. Because the issues involved in these changes are numerous and complex, careful consideration and design are desirable to assure that the net impact of any change is positive and consistent with overall goals. PMID:1903152

  8. Module for applications of bone scan in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the application of a software which enables the complete register of patient data, for delivering appropriate information in bone scan reports. Bone scan is a frequent study in Nuclear Medicine, which enables physicians to diagnose a primary bone cancer or metastases. The software was designed in order to complete data given by oncologists and constitutes an aid for the health team attending patients. (authors).

  9. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources Screening Tests and Immunizations Guidelines for ... calcium. Physical Activity. Girls and boys and young adults who exercise regularly generally achieve greater peak bone ...

  10. Designing smart analytical data services for a personal health framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumakis, Lefteris; Kondylakis, Haridimos; Chatzimina, Maria; Iatraki, Galatia; Argyropaidas, Panagiotis; Kazantzaki, Eleni; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Kiefer, Stephan; Marias, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Information in the healthcare domain and in particular personal health record information is heterogeneous by nature. Clinical, lifestyle, environmental data and personal preferences are stored and managed within such platforms. As a result, significant information from such diverse data is difficult to be delivered, especially to non-IT users like patients, physicians or managers. Another issue related to the management and analysis is the volume, which increases more and more making the need for efficient data visualization and analysis methods mandatory. The objective of this work is to present the architectural design for seamless integration and intelligent analysis of distributed and heterogeneous clinical information in the PHR context, as a result of a requirements elicitation process in iManageCancer project. This systemic approach aims to assist health-care professionals to orient themselves in the disperse information space and enhance their decision-making capabilities, to encourage patients to have an active role by managing their health information and interacting with health-care professionals. PMID:27225566

  11. Using conceptual work products of health care to design health IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew B L; Butler, Keith A; Harrington, Craig; Braxton, Melissa O; Walker, Amy J; Pete, Nikki; Johnson, Trevor; Oberle, Mark W; Haselkorn, Jodie; Paul Nichol, W; Haselkorn, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a new, model-based design method for interactive health information technology (IT) systems. This method extends workflow models with models of conceptual work products. When the health care work being modeled is substantially cognitive, tacit, and complex in nature, graphical workflow models can become too complex to be useful to designers. Conceptual models complement and simplify workflows by providing an explicit specification for the information product they must produce. We illustrate how conceptual work products can be modeled using standard software modeling language, which allows them to provide fundamental requirements for what the workflow must accomplish and the information that a new system should provide. Developers can use these specifications to envision how health IT could enable an effective cognitive strategy as a workflow with precise information requirements. We illustrate the new method with a study conducted in an outpatient multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic. This study shows specifically how the different phases of the method can be carried out, how the method allows for iteration across phases, and how the method generated a health IT design for case management of MS that is efficient and easy to use. PMID:26528606

  12. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems. (paper)

  13. Designing and regulating health insurance exchanges: lessons from Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Keith M Marzilli; Starc, Amanda

    The Massachusetts health care reform provides preliminary evidence on the function of health insurance exchanges and individual insurance markets. This paper describes the type of products consumers choose and the dynamics of consumer choice. Evidence shows that choice architecture, including product standardization and the use of heuristics (rules of thumb), affects choice. In addition, while consumers often choose less generous plans in the exchange than in traditional employer-sponsored insurance, there is considerable heterogeneity in consumer demand, as well as some evidence of adverse selection. We examine the role of imperfect competition between insurers, and document the impact of pricing and product regulation on the level and distribution of premiums. Given our extensive choice data, we synthesize the evidence of the Massachusetts exchange to inform the design and regulation on other exchanges. PMID:23469676

  14. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  15. Bone health and vitamin D status in children with motor disability and adults with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpinen-Loisa, PÀivi

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is not only a disease of the elderly, but is increasingly diagnosed in chronically ill children. Children with severe motor disabilities, such as cerebral palsy (CP), have many risk factors for osteoporosis. Adults with intellectual disability (ID) are also prone to low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fractures. This study was carried out to identify risk factors for low BMD and osteoporosis in children with severe motor disability and in adults with ID. In this stu...

  16. Osteosarcopenic obesity: the role of bone, muscle, and fat on health

    OpenAIRE

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Prado, Carla M; Ilich, Jasminka Z.; Purcell, Sarah; Siervo, Mario; Folsom, Abbey; Panton, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity are commonly observed in the process of aging, and recent evidence suggests a potential interconnection of these syndromes with common pathophysiology. The term osteosarcopenic obesity has been coined to describe the concurrent appearance of obesity in individuals with low bone and muscle mass. Although our understanding of osteosarcopenic obesity’s etiology, prevalence, and consequences is extremely limited, it is reasonable to infer its negat...

  17. The role of low acid load in vegetarian diet on bone health: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets contain low amounts of protein and calcium. For this reason they are supposed to cause low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. But this is not the case, except for vegans with a particularly low calcium intake. The absence of osteoporosis or low BMD can be explained by the low acid load of these diets. Nutritional acid load is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with fracture risk. Low acid load is correlated with lower bone resorption and higher BMD. It is linked to high intake of potassium-rich nutrients, such as fruits and vegetables, as found in vegetarian diets. The total nutritional acid load, which not only depends on the potassium content of the nutrition, was recently assessed in several studies on vegetarian and vegan diets and was found to be very low or absent, while the diet of Western-style omnivores produces daily 50 to 70 mEq of acid. This might be an important factor for the protection of vegetarians from osteoporosis. PMID:26900949

  18. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasiak Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zofia Ignasiak,1 Malgorzata Radwan-Oczko,2 Krystyna Rozek-Piechura,3 Marta Cholewa,4 Anna Skrzek,5 Tomasz Ignasiak,6 Teresa Slawinska1 1Department of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 2Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy in Internal Diseases, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 4DENTARAMA Dentistry Center, Walbrzych, Poland; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Ocupation Therapy in Motor-System Dysfunction, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 6Karkonosze State Higher School in Jelenia Gora, Jelenia Gora, Poland Objective: The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods: The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD, and gingival bleeding. Results: In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric

  19. Adaptive bone-remodeling theory applied to prosthetic-design analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huiskes (Rik); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); H.J. Grootenboer; M. Dalstra; B. Fudala; T.J. Slooff

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe subject of this article is the development and application of computer-simulation methods to predict stress-related adaptive bone remodeling, in accordance with 'Wolff's Law'. These models are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) in combination with numerical formulations of adap

  20. Geometry Design Optimization of Functionally Graded Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Mechanobiological Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boccaccio

    Full Text Available Functionally Graded Scaffolds (FGSs are porous biomaterials where porosity changes in space with a specific gradient. In spite of their wide use in bone tissue engineering, possible models that relate the scaffold gradient to the mechanical and biological requirements for the regeneration of the bony tissue are currently missing. In this study we attempt to bridge the gap by developing a mechanobiology-based optimization algorithm aimed to determine the optimal graded porosity distribution in FGSs. The algorithm combines the parametric finite element model of a FGS, a computational mechano-regulation model and a numerical optimization routine. For assigned boundary and loading conditions, the algorithm builds iteratively different scaffold geometry configurations with different porosity distributions until the best microstructure geometry is reached, i.e. the geometry that allows the amount of bone formation to be maximized. We tested different porosity distribution laws, loading conditions and scaffold Young's modulus values. For each combination of these variables, the explicit equation of the porosity distribution law-i.e the law that describes the pore dimensions in function of the spatial coordinates-was determined that allows the highest amounts of bone to be generated. The results show that the loading conditions affect significantly the optimal porosity distribution. For a pure compression loading, it was found that the pore dimensions are almost constant throughout the entire scaffold and using a FGS allows the formation of amounts of bone slightly larger than those obtainable with a homogeneous porosity scaffold. For a pure shear loading, instead, FGSs allow to significantly increase the bone formation compared to a homogeneous porosity scaffolds. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly relate the mechanical/biological environment to the scaffold microstructure, this model represents an important step towards

  1. The effects of strength training and raloxifene on bone health in aging ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Singulani, Monique Patrício; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Nakamune, Ana Cláudia Stevanato; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Rossi, Ana Cláudia; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training (ST) and raloxifene (Ral), alone or in combination, on the prevention of bone loss in an aging estrogen-deficient rat model. Aging Wistar female rats were ovariectomized at 14months and allocated to four groups: (1) non-trained and treated with vehicle, NT-Veh; (2) strength training and treated with vehicle, ST-Veh; (3) non-trained and treated with raloxifene, NT-Ral; and (4) strength training and treated with raloxifene, ST-Ral. ST was performed on a ladder three times per week and Ral was administered daily by gavage (1mg/kg/day), both for 120days. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), strength, microarchitecture, and biomarkers (osteocalcin, OCN; osteoprotegerin, OPG; and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP) were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), OCN, OPG, TRAP, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The rats that performed ST (ST-Veh) or were treated with Ral (NT-Ral) showed significant improvements in aBMD (p=0.001 and 0.004), bone strength (p=0.001), and bone microarchitecture, such as BV/TV (%) (p=0.001), BS/TV (mm(2)/mm(3)) (p=0.023 and 0.002), Conn.Dn (1/mm(3)) (p=0.001), Tb.N (1/mm) (p=0.012 and 0.011), Tb.Th (1/mm) (p=0.001), SMI (p=0.001 and 0.002), Tb.Sp (p=0.001), and DA (p=0.002 and 0.007); there was also a significant decrease in plasma levels of OCN (p=0.001 and 0.002) and OPG (p=0.003 and 0.014), compared with animals in the NT-Veh group. Ral, with or without ST, promoted an increased immunolabeling pattern for RUNX2 (p=0.0105 and p=0.0006) and OSX (p=0.0105), but a reduced immunolabeling pattern for TRAP (p=0.0056) and RANKL (p=0.033 and 0.004). ST increased the immunolabeling pattern for RUNX2 (p=0.0105), and association with Ral resulted in an increased immunolabeling pattern for OPG (p=0.0034) and OCN (p=0.0024). In summary, ST and Ral administration in aged, estrogen

  2. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  4. Design and Analysis of Architectures for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sixto, S. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of Health Usage and Monitoring Systems for structural health monitoring. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1. Reference HUMS architecture: We developed a high-level architecture for health monitoring and usage systems (HUMS). The proposed reference architecture is shown. It is compatible with the Generic Open Architecture (GOA) proposed as a standard for avionics systems. 2. HUMS kernel: One of the critical layers of HUMS reference architecture is the HUMS kernel. We developed a detailed design of a kernel to implement the high level architecture.3. Prototype implementation of HUMS kernel: We have implemented a preliminary version of the HUMS kernel on a Unix platform.We have implemented both a centralized system version and a distributed version. 4. SCRAMNet and HUMS: SCRAMNet (Shared Common Random Access Memory Network) is a system that is found to be suitable to implement HUMS. For this reason, we have conducted a simulation study to determine its stability in handling the input data rates in HUMS. 5. Architectural specification.

  5. Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities. PMID:24739774

  6. Maternal High Fat Feeding Does Not Have Long-Lasting Effects on Body Composition and Bone Health in Female and Male Wistar Rat Offspring at Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Miotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  7. Reproductive health in adolescent girls with special emphasis on menstrual disorders, bone health, sexuality and social factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wiksten-Almströmer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Menstrual disturbances are common during adolescence, especially within the first 1-3 years after menarche, and are often explained by immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, long-term medical consequences and other reproductive health issues in teenagers. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate aspects of reproductive health in adolescent girls and boys visiting a youth clinic. Endocrine ...

  8. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  9. Design and production of sintered β-tricalcium phosphate 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of sintered β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds produced by 3D printing were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression tests and cytotoxicity tests, using human osteoblast cells. The results reported include details of the β-TCP scaffolds' porosity, density, phase stability, mechanical behavior and cytotoxic profile. Collectively, these properties are fundamental for the future application of these scaffolds as bone substitutes for individualized therapy. Highlights: ► β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) 3D scaffolds were produced by rapid prototyping. ► Scaffold properties were assessed by SEM, FTIR, XRD and by mechanical tests. ► The cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds was characterized by in vitro assays. ► Scaffolds have good properties for its application as bone substitutes for individualized therapy.

  10. Design and production of sintered {beta}-tricalcium phosphate 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos F.L. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Silva, Abilio P. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Lopes, Luis [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Pires, Ines [Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica - Lisboa (IDMEC Lisboa/IST/UTL), Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Ilidio J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The characteristics of sintered {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds produced by 3D printing were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression tests and cytotoxicity tests, using human osteoblast cells. The results reported include details of the {beta}-TCP scaffolds' porosity, density, phase stability, mechanical behavior and cytotoxic profile. Collectively, these properties are fundamental for the future application of these scaffolds as bone substitutes for individualized therapy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) 3D scaffolds were produced by rapid prototyping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffold properties were assessed by SEM, FTIR, XRD and by mechanical tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds was characterized by in vitro assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds have good properties for its application as bone substitutes for individualized therapy.

  11. Computer-aided osteotomy design for harvesting autologous bone grafts in reconstructive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Zerfass, Peter; von Rymon-Lipinski, Bartosz; Jansen, Thomas; Hauck, Wolfgang; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Keeve, Erwin

    2001-05-01

    Autologous grafts serve as the standard grafting material in the treatment of maxillofacial bone tumors, traumatic defects or congenital malformations. The pre-selection of a donor site depends primarily on the morphological fit of the available bone mass and the shape of the part that has to be transplanted. To achieve sufficient incorporation of the autograft into the host bone, precise planning and simulation of the surgical intervention based on 3D CT studies is required. This paper presents a method to identify an optimal donor site by performing an optimization of appropriate similarity measures between donor region and a given transplant. At the initial stage the surgeon has to delineate the osteotomy border lines in the template CT data set and to define a set of constraints for the optimization of appropriate similarity measures between donor region and a given transplant. At the initial stage the surgeon has to delineate the osteotomy border lines in the template CT data set and to define a set of constraints for the optimization task in the donor site CT data set. The following fully automatic optimization stage delivers a set of sub-optimal and optimal donor sites for a given template. All generated solutions can be explored interactively on the computer display using an efficient graphical interface. Reconstructive operations supported by our system were performed on 28 patients. We found that the operation time can be considerably shortened by this approach.

  12. Bone health in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa: what is a clinician to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Debra K; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this case report is to present a pharmacologic strategy for treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and low bone mineral density (BMD). We present a 17.5-year-old girl with a 3-year history of AN and longstanding inability to optimize nutrition and gain weight, and a decrease over time in her already low BMD. A year after treatment with the 17-β estradiol patch (100 mcg twice weekly) with cyclic oral progesterone (2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for days 1-10 of every month), her spine and hip BMD Z-scores improved, and a further decrease was prevented. This novel treatment is a consideration for girls with AN at greatest risk for low BMD. Adolescents with AN are at risk for low BMD, and the most effective treatment is weight and menses restoration, which can be difficult to attain and to sustain. Recent studies have shown promising results with pharmacological therapy for low BMD in AN. This article discusses current concepts related to bone loss in AN, and new pharmacologic considerations for adolescents at greatest risk for low BMD. PMID:23658091

  13. Scenario-based design: A method for connecting information system design with public health operations and emergency management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Turner, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Responding to public health emergencies requires rapid and accurate assessment of workforce availability under adverse and changing circumstances. However, public health information systems to support resource management during both routine and emergency operations are currently lacking. We applied scenario-based design as an approach to engage public health practitioners in the creation and validation of an information design to support routine and emergency public health activities. Methods: Using semi-structured interviews we identified the information needs and activities of senior public health managers of a large municipal health department during routine and emergency operations. Results: Interview analysis identified twenty-five information needs for public health operations management. The identified information needs were used in conjunction with scenario-based design to create twenty-five scenarios of use and a public health manager persona. Scenarios of use and persona were validated and modified based on follow-up surveys with study participants. Scenarios were used to test and gain feedback on a pilot information system. Conclusion: The method of scenario-based design was applied to represent the resource management needs of senior-level public health managers under routine and disaster settings. Scenario-based design can be a useful tool for engaging public health practitioners in the design process and to validate an information system design. PMID:21807120

  14. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium and Bone Health: Possibility of Prevention of Osteoporosis in Women: The Polish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niedzwiedzka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium by women in the context of bone mineral density and to assess opportunities to prevent osteoporosis in a dietary manner. The study was carried out with 712 Polish women. In 170 women aged 32 to 59 bone mineral density (BMD was measured. The data on the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium and some other osteoporosis risk factors was collected from 712 women. The average calcium intake from a diet was 507 mg/day. Only 2% of the women met Polish calcium intake recommendations. During adulthood, dairy product consumption or dietary calcium intake did not differ significantly between women with low BMD (below −1 SD and women with regular BMD (≥−1 SD (47.4 vs. 44.3 servings/week and 459 vs. 510 mg/day, respectively, p > 0.05. The odds ratios adjusted for age, menstruation and BMI in women with upper BMD tercile in comparison to the reference group (bottom tercile was 2.73 (95% CI: 1.14, 6.55; p < 0.05 for the daily consumption of dairy products during the pre-school period and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.01, 5.70; p < 0.05 for the daily consumption of dairy products during the school period. Two clusters of women were established. In the S1 cluster, low BMD (below −1 SD was associated with older age (≥50 years, lack of menstrual cycle. In the S2 cluster, regular BMD (≥−1 SD was related to younger aged women (<50 years, presence of menstrual cycle, consumption of higher level of dairy products (≥28 servings/week during adulthood and daily intake of dairy products during childhood and adolescence. The results indicate that good bone health to the large extent depended upon the combined impact of dietary factors and some non-modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis such as age and the presence of menstruation. Consumption of dairy products in childhood and adolescence may improve bone mineral density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in

  15. Communication of fracture risk and treatment benefit in terms of ‘bone health age’ using FRAX or Qfracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hansen, Carrinna;

    2013-01-01

    the same time increase agreement between risk algorithms. Results: The algorithms differed less in estimated bone health age than in percent risk. A 60 years old woman with a maternal history of hip fracture has a predicted major osteoporotic fracture risk equivalent to that of a 71 years (FRAX) or 68......Introduction: Communication of absolute and relative risks is challenging despite the development of tools to quickly derive absolute fracture risk estimates from risk factors with or without BMD. We speculated that back-transformation of risks to a risk age could make for a clearer message and at...... years-old woman (Qfracture). Treatment with 40% risk reduction is equivalent to a reduction in risk age by 10 years in both algorithms, reducing risk age to 62 (FRAX) or 60 years (Qfracture). Table 1 Assuming no treatment Assuming treatment with 40% risk reduction FRAX ‘Age’/ 10 years risk Qfracture...

  16. Finite element modelling of non-bonded piezo sensors for biomedical health monitoring of bones based on EMI technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Bhalla, Suresh; Madan, Alok; Gupta, Ashok

    2016-04-01

    Extensive research is currently underway across the world for employing piezo sensors for biomedical health monitoring in view of their obvious advantages such as low cost,fast dynamics response and bio-compatibility.However,one of the limitations of the piezo sensor in bonded mode based on the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique is that it can cause harmful effects to the humans in terms of irritation ,bone and skin disease. This paper which is in continuation of the recent demonstration of non-bonded configuration is a step towards simulating and analyzing the non-bonded configuration of the piezo sensor for gauging its effectiveness using FEA software. It has been noted that the conductance signatures obtained in non-bonded mode are significantly close to the conventional bonded configuration, thus giving a positive indication of its field use.

  17. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  18. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  19. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term. PMID:18341120

  20. Designing with daylight; the relationship between daylight and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    of daylight. The paper concludes that access to daylight is vital for existential reasons (health, social reasons and to feel connected to one’s natural environment), showing the window as much more than a technical artefact. Based on this I argue for the window to be acknowledged as vital for...... aiming at as much daylight as possible through the year. Those responsible for designing and building the home, architects and engineers, rely on quantifiable ways of allowing enough daylight into buildings (or reducing too much); yet people living in the homes may have entirely different perceptions and......, photos and postcards for storytelling, I will show how daylight is perceived, used, coped with, and negotiated by these people in their homes, thus exploring the social character of a natural phenomenon. A metaphor will be used from biomimetics (Benyus 1997), claiming that the Danish people, like plants...

  1. Design and Implementation of Ubiquitous Health System U-Health Using Smart-Watches Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Termeh, V.; Sadeghi Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Today as diseases grow rapidly, the responsibilities of the health clinics in giving services to patients increase and patients have to be more monitored and controlled. Remote systems of monitoring patients result in reducing cost, ease of movement, and also persistent control of patients by their doctors, so that patient can be monitored without need to go to the clinic. Recent advances in the field of ubiquitous sciences as well as using smartphones have resulted in increasingly use of this devices in remote monitoring of patients. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a ubiquitous health system using smartphones and sensors of smart-watches. This is accomplished through the information sent to the smartphone from the sensors of the watch, e.g. heart beat measurement sensor and ultraviolet ray. Then, this information is analyzed in the smartphone and some information based on the position of the patient and the path of him/her using GIS analyses as well as the information about the health level of the patient is sent to the doctor via SMS or phone call. Unnatural heart beats can be resulted in diseases such as Heart Failure and Arterial Fibrillation. With the approach adopted in this study, the patient or the doctor could be aware of these diseases at any time. The proposed approach is a low cost, without need to complex and resilient equipment, system in ubiquitous health that does not limit the movement of the patient.

  2. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF UBIQUITOUS HEALTH SYSTEM (U-HEALTH USING SMART-WATCHES SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Razavi Termeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today as diseases grow rapidly, the responsibilities of the health clinics in giving services to patients increase and patients have to be more monitored and controlled. Remote systems of monitoring patients result in reducing cost, ease of movement, and also persistent control of patients by their doctors, so that patient can be monitored without need to go to the clinic. Recent advances in the field of ubiquitous sciences as well as using smartphones have resulted in increasingly use of this devices in remote monitoring of patients. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a ubiquitous health system using smartphones and sensors of smart-watches. This is accomplished through the information sent to the smartphone from the sensors of the watch, e.g. heart beat measurement sensor and ultraviolet ray. Then, this information is analyzed in the smartphone and some information based on the position of the patient and the path of him/her using GIS analyses as well as the information about the health level of the patient is sent to the doctor via SMS or phone call. Unnatural heart beats can be resulted in diseases such as Heart Failure and Arterial Fibrillation. With the approach adopted in this study, the patient or the doctor could be aware of these diseases at any time. The proposed approach is a low cost, without need to complex and resilient equipment, system in ubiquitous health that does not limit the movement of the patient.

  3. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  4. Iranian mental health survey: design and field proced.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS was conducted to assess the twelve-month prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in the Iranian adult population and to determine the pattern of health care utilization and cost of services. IranMHS is a cross-sectional national household survey with face-to-face interviews as the main data collection method. The study was carried out between January and June 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was applied for the selection of a representative sample from the non-institutionalized population aged 15 to 64. The primary instrument utilized for assessing the prevalence of mental disorders was the Persian version of Composite International Diagnosis Interview, version 2.1. The instruments for assessing the service and cost of mental illness were developed by the research team. The response rate was 86.2%, and a total of 7886 individuals participated in the study. Sampling weights were the joint product of inverse probability of unit selection, non-response weights and post-stratification weights. This paper presents an overview of the study design, fieldwork organization and procedures, weightings and analysis. The strengths and limitations of the study are also discussed.

  5. Biochemical Assessment of Bone Health in Working Obese Egyptian Females with Metabolic Syndrome; the Effect of Weight Loss by Natural Dietary Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha I.A. Moaty

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSION: These results confirm the benefit of doum in improving bone health parameter [25 (OH D/PTH axis] in the MetS patients, beside the MetS criteria. So, we can conclude that natural effective supplements lead towards the optimization of biochemical parameters in favor of a healthy outcome.

  6. Designer Dual Therapy Nanolayered Implant Coatings Eradicate Biofilms and Accelerate Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jouha; Choi, Ki Young; Dreaden, Erik C; Padera, Robert F; Braatz, Richard D; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

    2016-04-26

    Infections associated with orthopedic implants cause increased morbidity and significant healthcare cost. A prolonged and expensive two-stage procedure requiring two surgical steps and a 6-8 week period of joint immobilization exists as today's gold standard for the revision arthroplasty of an infected prosthesis. Because infection is much more common in implant replacement surgeries, these issues greatly impact long-term patient care for a continually growing part of the population. Here, we demonstrate that a single-stage revision using prostheses coated with self-assembled, hydrolytically degradable multilayers that sequentially deliver the antibiotic (gentamicin) and the osteoinductive growth factor (BMP-2) in a time-staggered manner enables both eradication of established biofilms and complete and rapid bone tissue repair around the implant in rats with induced osteomyelitis. The nanolayered construct allows precise independent control of release kinetics and loading for each therapeutic agent in an infected implant environment. Antibiotics contained in top layers can be tuned to provide a rapid release at early times sufficient to eliminate infection, followed by sustained release for several weeks, and the underlying BMP-2 component enables a long-term sustained release of BMP-2, which induced more significant and mechanically competent bone formation than a short-term burst release. The successful growth factor-mediated osteointegration of the multilayered implants with the host tissue improved bone-implant interfacial strength 15-fold when compared with the uncoated one. These findings demonstrate the potential of this layered release strategy to introduce a durable next-generation implant solution, ultimately an important step forward to future large animal models toward the clinic. PMID:26923427

  7. Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations: Clinic Measures of Iron, Folate, Vitamin B12, Cholesterol, Bone Density, and Lead Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Frazao, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations study examined several eating behaviors for children and adults using 1988-94 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) data. This summary focuses on the nutritional biochemistry blood tests and bone density measures that showed differences between income groups. The measures provide a baseline to monitor eating behaviors of Americans, focusing on the low-income population.

  8. Physical activity based intervention program on health, bone mineral density and fitness status for rheumatology patient over 60 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopkáné Plachy Judit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: regular physical activity is important both for the prevention of illnesses and for rehabilitation purposes because it has significant impact on the physical and mental health of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess whether two different half-year regular training programmes had positive effects on health dimensions, bone mineral density, and fitness status in population of women aged over 60 years.

  9. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918

  10. Bridges analysis, design, structural health monitoring, and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakht, Baidar

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a valuable guide for practicing bridge engineers and graduate students in structural engineering; its main purpose is to present the latest concepts in bridge engineering in fairly easy-to-follow terms. The book provides details of easy-to-use computer programs for: ·      Analysing slab-on-girder bridges for live load distribution. ·      Analysing slab and other solid bridge components for live load distribution. ·      Analysing and designing concrete deck slab overhangs of girder bridges under vehicular loads. ·      Determining the failure loads of concrete deck slabs of girder bridges under concentrated wheel loads. In addition, the book includes extensive chapters dealing with the design of wood bridges and soil-steel bridges. Further, a unique chapter on structural health monitoring (SHM) will help bridge engineers determine the actual load carrying capacities of bridges, as opposed to their perceived analytical capacities. The chapter addressing structures...

  11. Health Maintenance System (HMS) Hardware Research, Design, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Stefanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences division (SLSD) concentrates on optimizing a crew member's health. Developments are translated into innovative engineering solutions, research growth, and community awareness. This internship incorporates all those areas by targeting various projects. The main project focuses on integrating clinical and biomedical engineering principles to design, develop, and test new medical kits scheduled for launch in the Spring of 2011. Additionally, items will be tagged with Radio Frequency Interference Devices (RFID) to keep track of the inventory. The tags will then be tested to optimize Radio Frequency feed and feed placement. Research growth will occur with ground based experiments designed to measure calcium encrusted deposits in the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will assess the urine calcium levels with Portable Clinical Blood Analyzer (PCBA) technology. If effective then a model for urine calcium will be developed and expanded to microgravity environments. To support collaboration amongst the subdivisions of SLSD the architecture of the Crew Healthcare Systems (CHeCS) SharePoint site has been redesigned for maximum efficiency. Community collaboration has also been established with the University of Southern California, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hardware disbursements will transpire within these communities to support planetary surface exploration and to serve as an educational tool demonstrating how ground based medicine influenced the technological development of space hardware.

  12. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casasnovas José A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain. Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%. Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index. Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7 years, 27.7 (3.6 kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9 cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048, and 40.8 (11.6 years, 24.4 (3.8 kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9 cm, among females (N = 351. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male, the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least

  13. Usefulness of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound stiffness for the evaluation of bone health in HIV-1-infected subjects: comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Ceci, Fabrizio; Cacciatore, Francesco; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mezzaroma, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the “gold standard” technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate bone mineral status in a group of 158 HIV-1-infected subjects. The primary endpoint was the feasibility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) as a screening tool for BMD. All subjects were receiving stable cART and were virologically suppressed (HIV-RNA vitamin D levels ng/mL (P-values: 0.004, 0.016, and 0.015, respectively). Conclusion As an alternative and/or integrative examination to DXA, calcaneal QUS could be proposed as a useful screening in HIV-1-infected patients for assessing bone health impairment. In fact, the results obtained confirm that calcaneal QUS may be useful for monitoring bone status, being a noninvasive and inexpensive technique, especially in those subjects with the classical traditional risk factors for bone damage that were observed earlier in HIV-1 population. PMID:27330330

  14. Designing calcium phosphate-based bifunctional nanocapsules with bone-targeting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khung, Yit-Lung; Bastari, Kelsen; Cho, Xing Ling; Yee, Wu Aik; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    Using sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles as template, hollow-cored calcium phosphate nanocapsules were produced. The surfaces of the nanocapsule were subsequently silanised by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based silane with an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester end groups which permits for further attachment with bisphosphonates (BP). Characterisations of these nanocapsules were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. To further validate the bone-targeting potential, dentine discs were incubated with these functionalised nanocapsules. FESEM analysis showed that these surface-modified nanocapsules would bind strongly to dentine surfaces compared to non-functionalised nanocapsules. We envisage that respective components would give this construct a bifunctional attribute, whereby (1) the shell of the calcium phosphate nanocapsule would serve as biocompatible coating aiding in gradual osteoconduction, while (2) surface BP moieties, acting as targeting ligands, would provide the bone-targeting potential of these calcium phosphate nanocapsules.

  15. Bone's responses to different designs of implant-supported fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Chen, Junning; Rungsiyakull, Pimduen; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the biomechanics and associated bone remodeling responses of two different abutment configurations, namely implant-implant-supported versus tooth-implant-supported fixed partial dentures. Two 3D finite element analysis models are created based upon computerized tomography data. The strain energy density induced by occlusal loading is used as a mechanical stimulus for driving the bone remodeling. To measure osseointegration and stability during healing, a resonance frequency analysis is conducted. At the second premolar peri-implant region, overloading resorption around the neck of implant is identified in both the models over the first 12 months. Stress-shielding around the edentulous region is also observed in both the models with a greater resorption rate found in the implant-implant case. The remodeling and resonance frequency analyses reveal that the tooth-implant scheme offers a higher degree of osseointegration. The remodeling procedure is expected to provide prosthodontists with a modeling tool to assess possible long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25209424

  16. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  17. Novel Osteogenic Ti-6Al-4V Device For Restoration Of Dental Function In Patients With Large Bone Deficiencies: Design, Development And Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D J; Cheng, A; Kahn, A; Aviram, M; Whitehead, A J; Hyzy, S L; Clohessy, R M; Boyan, B D; Schwartz, Z

    2016-01-01

    Custom devices supporting bone regeneration and implant placement are needed for edentulous patients with large mandibular deficiencies where endosteal implantation is not possible. We developed a novel subperiosteal titanium-aluminum-vanadium bone onlay device produced by additive manufacturing (AM) and post-fabrication osteogenic micro-/nano-scale surface texture modification. Human osteoblasts produced osteogenic and angiogenic factors when grown on laser-sintered nano-/micro-textured surfaces compared to smooth surfaces. Surface-processed constructs caused higher bone-to-implant contact, vertical bone growth into disk pores (microCT and histomorphometry), and mechanical pull-out force at 5 and 10 w on rat calvaria compared to non surface-modified constructs, even when pre-treating the bone to stimulate osteogenesis. Surface-modified wrap-implants placed around rabbit tibias osseointegrated by 6 w. Finally, patient-specific constructs designed to support dental implants produced via AM and surface-processing were implanted on edentulous mandibular bone. 3 and 8 month post-operative images showed new bone formation and osseointegration of the device and indicated stability of the dental implants. PMID:26854193

  18. Novel Osteogenic Ti-6Al-4V Device For Restoration Of Dental Function In Patients With Large Bone Deficiencies: Design, Development And Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D. J.; Cheng, A.; Kahn, A.; Aviram, M.; Whitehead, A. J.; Hyzy, S. L.; Clohessy, R. M.; Boyan, B. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Custom devices supporting bone regeneration and implant placement are needed for edentulous patients with large mandibular deficiencies where endosteal implantation is not possible. We developed a novel subperiosteal titanium-aluminum-vanadium bone onlay device produced by additive manufacturing (AM) and post-fabrication osteogenic micro-/nano-scale surface texture modification. Human osteoblasts produced osteogenic and angiogenic factors when grown on laser-sintered nano-/micro-textured surfaces compared to smooth surfaces. Surface-processed constructs caused higher bone-to-implant contact, vertical bone growth into disk pores (microCT and histomorphometry), and mechanical pull-out force at 5 and 10 w on rat calvaria compared to non surface-modified constructs, even when pre-treating the bone to stimulate osteogenesis. Surface-modified wrap-implants placed around rabbit tibias osseointegrated by 6 w. Finally, patient-specific constructs designed to support dental implants produced via AM and surface-processing were implanted on edentulous mandibular bone. 3 and 8 month post-operative images showed new bone formation and osseointegration of the device and indicated stability of the dental implants. PMID:26854193

  19. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  20. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  1. Health technology assessment of magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Huysse, W.C.J. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: Wouter.huysse@ugent.be

    2008-02-15

    The high spatial resolution and the lack of ionizing radiation, makes magnetic resonance imaging the method of choice for imaging most spinal pathology, especially if associated with neurological symptoms. However, due to the high sensitivity of MR imaging, careful correlation between imaging findings and clinical findings is important to ensure appropriate treatment. Substituting radiographic evaluations for rapid MRI in the primary care setting may offer little additional benefit to patients. It may even increase the costs of care but the decisions about the use of imaging depend on judgments concerning whether the small observed improvement in outcome justifies additional cost. Because the presence of an abscess is a major factor in deciding between conservative and surgical treatment, MRI plays an essential role in the decision-making process concerning the treatment of spondylodiscitis. MR is also the method of choice for quantitative evaluation of bone marrow in lymphoma patients when a crucial therapeutic decision has to be made or for the qualitative evaluation of the spinal cord if compression is suspected in primary spinal malignancy or metastatic disease.

  2. Effects of rhBMP-2 on Sandblasted and Acid Etched Titanium Implant Surfaces on Bone Regeneration and Osseointegration: Spilt-Mouth Designed Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Lee, So-Hyoun; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of rhBMP-2 applied at different concentrations to sandblasted and acid etched (SLA) implants on osseointegration and bone regeneration in a bone defect of beagle dogs as pilot study using split-mouth design. Methods. For experimental groups, SLA implants were coated with different concentrations of rhBMP-2 (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL). After assessment of surface characteristics and rhBMP-2 releasing profile, the experimental groups and untreated control groups (n = 6 in each group, two animals in each group) were placed in split-mouth designed animal models with buccal open defect. At 8 weeks after implant placement, implant stability quotients (ISQ) values were recorded and vertical bone height (VBH, mm), bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC, %), and bone volume (BV, %) in the upper 3 mm defect areas were measured. Results. The ISQ values were highest in the 1.0 group. Mean values of VBH (mm), BIC (%), and BV (%) were greater in the 0.5 mg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL groups than those in 0.1 and control groups in buccal defect areas. Conclusion. In the open defect area surrounding the SLA implant, coating with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations of rhBMP-2 was more effective, compared with untreated group, in promoting bone regeneration and osseointegration. PMID:26504807

  3. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C.; Wolber, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a “brittle bone” disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. PMID:27322315

  4. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena C. Kruger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a “brittle bone” disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  5. Workable competition in health care: Prospects for the Dutch design

    OpenAIRE

    Schut, Erik

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Since 1989 a gradual restructing of the Dutch health care system is taking place to realize a multiple choice social health insurance system with workable competition among health care providers. This paper investigates whether the structural change will induce the intended competition. An examination of the characteristics of the markets for health insurance, physician services and hospital services in the Netherlands points out that the scope for competition is ...

  6. Microlearning mApp raises health competence: hybrid service design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, L.P.A.; Foerster, F.; Bruck, P.A.; Motiwalla, L.; Jonker, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Work place health support interventions can help support our aging work force, with mApps offering cost-effectiveness opportunities. Previous research shows that health support apps should offer users enough newness and relevance each time they are used. Otherwise the ‘eHealth law of attrition’ appl

  7. Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...

  8. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  9. Efficacy of recreational football on bone health, body composition, and physical functioning in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Jacob; Hornstrup, Therese; Christensen, Jesper F;

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) impairs musculoskeletal health. We evaluated the efficacy of 32-week football training on bone mineral density (BMD) and physical functioning in men undergoing ADT for PCa. Football training improved the femoral shaft and total hip BMD...... and physical functioning parameters compared to control. INTRODUCTION: ADT is a mainstay in PCa management. Side effects include decreased bone and muscle strength and increased fracture rates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 32 weeks of football training on BMD, bone...... turnover markers (BTMs), body composition, and physical functioning in men with PCa undergoing ADT. METHODS: Men receiving ADT >6 months (n = 57) were randomly allocated to a football training group (FTG) (n = 29) practising 2-3 times per week for 45-60 min or to a standard care control group (CON) (n = 28...

  10. Impact of Different Screw Designs on Durability of Fracture Fixation: In Vitro Study with Cyclic Loading of Scaphoid Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Dominik; Herr, Robert; Hely, Hans; Hofmann, Peer; Klitscher, Daniela; Hofmann, Alexander; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The use of new headless compression screws (HCSs) for scaphoid fixation is growing, but the nonunion rate has remained constant. The aim of this study was to compare the stability of fixation resulting from four modern HCSs using a simulated fracture model to determine the optimal screw design(s). Methods We tested 40 fresh-frozen cadaver scaphoids treated with the Acumed Acutrak 2 mini (AA), the KLS Martin HBS2 midi (MH), the Stryker TwinFix (ST) and the Synthes HCS 3.0 with a long thread (SH). The bones with simulated fractures and implanted screws were loaded uniaxially into flexion for 2000 cycles with a constant bending moment of 800 Nmm. The angulation of the fracture fragments was measured continuously. Data were assessed statistically using the univariate ANOVA test and linear regression analysis, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results The median angulation of bone fragments φ allowed by each screw was 0.89° for AA, 1.12° for ST, 1.44° for SH and 2.36° for MH. With regards to linear regression, the most reliable curve was achieved by MH, with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.827. This was followed by AA (R2 = 0.354), SH (R2 = 0.247) and ST (R2 = 0.019). Data assessed using an adapted ANOVA model showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.291) between the screws. Conclusions The continuous development of HCSs has resulted in very comparable implants, and thus, at this time, other factors, such as surgeons’ experience, ease of handling and price, should be taken into consideration. PMID:26741807

  11. Network design for telemedicine--e-health using satellite technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graschew, Georgi; Roelofs, Theo A; Rakowsky, Stefan; Schlag, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade various international Information and Communications Technology networks have been created for a global access to high-level medical care. OP 2000 has designed and validated the high-end interactive video communication system WinVicos especially for telemedical applications, training of the physician in a distributed environment, teleconsultation and second opinion. WinVicos is operated on a workstation (WoTeSa) using standard hardware components and offers a superior image quality at a moderate transmission bandwidth of up to 2 Mbps. WoTeSa / WinVicos have been applied for IP-based communication in different satellite-based telemedical networks. In the DELTASS-project a disaster scenario was analysed and an appropriate telecommunication system for effective rescue measures for the victims was set up and evaluated. In the MEDASHIP project an integrated system for telemedical services (teleconsultation, teleelectro-cardiography, telesonography) on board of cruise ships and ferries has been set up. EMISPHER offers an equal access for most of the countries of the Euro-Mediterranean area to on-line services for health care in the required quality of service. E-learning applications, real-time telemedicine and shared management of medical assistance have been realized. The innovative developments in ICT with the aim of realizing a ubiquitous access to medical resources for everyone at any time and anywhere (u-Health) bear the risk of creating and amplifying a digital divide in the world. Therefore we have analyzed how the objective needs of the heterogeneous partners can be joined with the result that there is a need for real integration of the various platforms and services. A virtual combination of applications serves as the basic idea for the Virtual Hospital. The development of virtual hospitals and digital medicine helps to bridge the digital divide between different regions of the world and enables equal access to high-level medical care. Pre

  12. High-resolution 3D imaging of osteocytes and computational modelling in mechanobiology: insights on bone development, ageing, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, P M; Zygalakis, K C; Oreffo, R O; Schneider, P

    2016-01-01

    Osteocytes are involved in mechanosensation and mechanotransduction in bone and hence, are key to bone adaptation in response to development, ageing and disease. Thus, detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the osteocyte network (ON) and the surrounding lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) is essential. Enhanced understanding of the ON&LCN will contribute to a better understanding of bone mechanics on cellular and sub-cellular scales, for instance through improved computational models of bone mechanotransduction. Until now, the location of the ON within the hard bone matrix and the sub-µm dimensions of the ON&LCN have posed significant challenges for 3D imaging. This review identifies relevant microstructural phenotypes of the ON&LCN in health and disease and summarises how light microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray imaging techniques have been used in studies of osteocyte anatomy, pathology and mechanobiology to date. In this review, we assess the requirements for ON&LCN imaging and examine the state of the art in the fields of imaging and computational modelling as well as recent advances in high-resolution 3D imaging. Suggestions for future investigations using volume electron microscopy are indicated and we present new data on the ON&LCN using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. A correlative approach using these high-resolution 3D imaging techniques in conjunction with in silico modelling in bone mechanobiology will increase understanding of osteocyte function and, ultimately, lead to improved pathways for diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27209400

  13. Improving Bone-Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truszkowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    DXA measurement of areal bone mineral density [aBMD,g/cm2] is required by NASA for assessing skeletal integrity in astronauts. Due to the abundance of population-based data that correlate hip and spine BMDs to fragility fractures, BMD is widely applied as a predictor of fractures in the general aging population. In contrast, QCT is primarily a research technology that measures three-dimensional , volumetric BMD (vBMD,mg/cm3) of bone and is therefore capable of differentiating between cortical and trabecular components. Additionally, when combined with Finite Element Modeling [FEM], a computational tool, QCT data can be used to estimate the whole bone strength of the hip [FE strength] for a specific load vector. A recent report demonstrated that aBMD failed to correlate with incurred changes in FE strength (for fall and stance loading) by astronauts over typical 180-day ISS (International Space Station) missions. While there are no current guidelines for using QCT data in clinical practice, QCT increases the understanding of how bone structure and mineral content are affected by spaceflight and recovery on Earth. In order to understand/promote/consider the use of QCT, NASA convened a panel of clinicians specializing in osteoporosis. After reviewing the available, albeit limited, medical and research information from long-duration astronauts (e.g., data from DXA, QCT, FEM, biochemistry analyses, medical records and in-flight exercise performance) the panelists were charged with recommending how current and future research data and analyses could inform clinical and operational decisions. The Panel recommended that clinical bone tests on astronauts should include QCT (hip and lumbar spine) for occupational risk surveillance and for the estimation of whole hip bone strength as derived by FEM. FE strength will provide an improved index that NASA could use to select astronauts of optimal bone health for extended duration missions, for repeat missions or for specific

  14. Sprinklr: Designing a ‘cool’ health-oriented social networking site with and for teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teenagers with chronic health challenges are not disclosing their health on social media. Yet, social and emotional support has an impact on health. Currently there is no online health community in Norway targeting teenage patients. Initiatives such as Upopolis have failed to generate critical user mass because they were not age-appropriate. Objective: This study examines how a ‘cool’ online health community looks like when designing it with teenagers. The study aims to extend...

  15. Choropleth map legend design for visualizing community health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromley Ellen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health outcomes across communities are a central concern in public health and epidemiology. Health disparities research often links differences in health outcomes to other social factors like income. Choropleth maps of health outcome rates show the geographical distribution of health outcomes. This paper illustrates the use of cumulative frequency map legends for visualizing how the health events are distributed in relation to social characteristics of community populations. The approach uses two graphs in the cumulative frequency legend to highlight the difference between the raw count of the health events and the raw count of the social characteristic like low income in the geographical areas of the map. The approach is applied to mapping publicly available data on low birth weight by town in Connecticut and Lyme disease incidence by town in Connecticut in relation to income. The steps involved in creating these legends are described in detail so that health analysts can adopt this approach. Results The different health problems, low birth weight and Lyme disease, have different cumulative frequency signatures. Graphing poverty population on the cumulative frequency legends revealed that the poverty population is distributed differently with respect to the two different health problems mapped here. Conclusion Cumulative frequency legends can be useful supplements for choropleth maps. These legends can be constructed using readily available software. They contain all of the information found in standard choropleth map legends, and they can be used with any choropleth map classification scheme. Cumulative frequency legends effectively communicate the proportion of areas, the proportion of health events, and/or the proportion of the denominator population in which the health events occurred that falls within each class interval. They illuminate the context of disease through graphing associations with other

  16. Designing a health equity audit model for Iran in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health equity audit, as an alternative solution, is a process by which local partners systematically review inequalities in the patients` health, their access to appropriate services and health system outputs. Then, necessary activities needed in order to have more equitable services are agreed on and these concurrences become the executive scheme and action initiates. Therefore, it is pivotal for health care organizations to pay special attention to this important topic. The objective of the current study was to review the health equity audit model in different countries to gather viewpoints of various involved groups in health sector, particularly health experts, and to offer a practical and appropriate model for health equity audit in Iran. Methods: This study adopted applied research approach in two phases. In the first step, this study conducted theoretical health equity audit models in the texts; the experiences of other countries were studied and the most appropriate model for Iranian health system was selected. In the second step, this study employed the Delphi technique. According to the Delphi technique the questionnaire applied in order to gather data and then, the final model was extracted. Results: Agreeable topics, performing agencies, 6 equity audit stages, and equity indicators under 3 main parts with 16 sub-sections were elaborated and viewpoints of Iranian experts in the above fields were gathered and presented as the proposed health equity audit model for Iran. Conclusions: This study reviewed the model of health equity audit for UK and provided a comparative model for health system of Iran with respect to the opinions of academic experts.

  17. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  18. Health promotion intervention in mental health care: design and baseline findings of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaeghe Nick; De Maeseneer Jan; Maes Lea; Van Heeringen Cornelis; Bogaert Veerle; Clays Els; De Bacquer Dirk; Annemans Lieven

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing attention is given to the effects of health promotion programs targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. The design of evaluation studies of public health interventions poses several problems and the current literature appears to provide only limited evidence on the effectiveness of such programs. The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physic...

  19. Design, construction and mechanical testing of digital 3D anatomical data-based PCL-HA bone tissue engineering scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Yan, Junwei; Hu, Wenhao; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the techniques of design and construction of CT 3D reconstructional data-based polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold. Femoral and lumbar spinal specimens of eight male New Zealand white rabbits were performed CT and laser scanning data-based 3D printing scaffold processing using PCL-HA powder. Each group was performed eight scaffolds. The CAD-based 3D printed porous cylindrical stents were 16 piece × 3 groups, including the orthogonal scaffold, the Pozi-hole scaffold and the triangular hole scaffold. The gross forms, fiber scaffold diameters and porosities of the scaffolds were measured, and the mechanical testing was performed towards eight pieces of the three kinds of cylindrical scaffolds, respectively. The loading force, deformation, maximum-affordable pressure and deformation value were recorded. The pore-connection rate of each scaffold was 100 % within each group, there was no significant difference in the gross parameters and micro-structural parameters of each scaffold when compared with the design values (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the loading force, deformation and deformation value under the maximum-affordable pressure of the three different cylinder scaffolds when the load was above 320 N. The combination of CT and CAD reverse technology could accomplish the design and manufacturing of complex bone tissue engineering scaffolds, with no significant difference in the impacts of the microstructures towards the physical properties of different porous scaffolds under large load. PMID:25596860

  20. Understanding the links among neuromedin U Gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Gianfagna; Daniela Cugino; Wolfgang Ahrens; Bailey, Mark E.S.; Karin Bammann; Diana Herrmann; Anna C Koni; Yiannis Kourides; Staffan Marild; Dénes Molnár; Moreno, Luis A; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Paola Russo; Alfonso Siani; Sabina Sieri

    2013-01-01

    Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 intera...

  1. The relationship between boron, stress hormones and bone markers in humans of different ages, life style and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Chummun, Narain Harry

    2000-01-01

    Hormones (sex hormones, thyroxine, cortisol and parathyroid), cytokines (interleukins-1 and 2 and tumour necrosis factor), life style (exercise, smoking and reproductive history), nutrition (calcium, meat, vegetables, vitamin D, caffeine and alcohol) and diseases (diabetes mellitus, malabsorption and thyrotoxicosis) affect bone mass. The loss of calcium, phosphate and magnesium from bone makes it weaker which enhances the incidence of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis and ...

  2. Design of an indicator for health and safety governance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto F. Minguillón; Yacuzzi, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Occupational Health and Safety Governance (OHSG) is a branch of Corporate Governance by which the board directs and controls labor risks created by their own enterprise. The OHSG concept is relatively new; unlike Occupational Health and Safety Management, which is mostly related to the work of managerial ranks, OHSG deals with principles, the interests of stakeholders, and the work of directors. The paper defines the new concept, OHSG, develops an original health and safety indicator, and pre...

  3. Public Participation in Design of Health Empowering Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders

    2009-01-01

    as a result of information being accessible. The British Choose and Book portal (www.healthspace.nhs.uk) and Danish e-health portal (www.sundhed.dk) are examples of making knowledge and services available to the individual citizens: Sundhed.dk is the official Danish eHealth Portal for the public...

  4. Impact of Different Screw Designs on Durability of Fracture Fixation: In Vitro Study with Cyclic Loading of Scaphoid Bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gruszka

    Full Text Available The use of new headless compression screws (HCSs for scaphoid fixation is growing, but the nonunion rate has remained constant. The aim of this study was to compare the stability of fixation resulting from four modern HCSs using a simulated fracture model to determine the optimal screw design(s.We tested 40 fresh-frozen cadaver scaphoids treated with the Acumed Acutrak 2 mini (AA, the KLS Martin HBS2 midi (MH, the Stryker TwinFix (ST and the Synthes HCS 3.0 with a long thread (SH. The bones with simulated fractures and implanted screws were loaded uniaxially into flexion for 2000 cycles with a constant bending moment of 800 Nmm. The angulation of the fracture fragments was measured continuously. Data were assessed statistically using the univariate ANOVA test and linear regression analysis, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05.The median angulation of bone fragments φ allowed by each screw was 0.89° for AA, 1.12° for ST, 1.44° for SH and 2.36° for MH. With regards to linear regression, the most reliable curve was achieved by MH, with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.827. This was followed by AA (R2 = 0.354, SH (R2 = 0.247 and ST (R2 = 0.019. Data assessed using an adapted ANOVA model showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.291 between the screws.The continuous development of HCSs has resulted in very comparable implants, and thus, at this time, other factors, such as surgeons' experience, ease of handling and price, should be taken into consideration.

  5. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  6. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  7. The crucible of public health practice: major trends shaping the design of the Management Academy for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H; Sabol, Barbara J; Baker, Edward L

    2006-01-01

    Public health leaders and managers need new leadership and management skills as well as greater entrepreneurial acumen to respond effectively to broad demographic, socioeconomic, and political trends reshaping public health. This article asserts that the need for such training and skills was the impetus for the conceptualization, design, and launch of the Management Academy for Public Health--an innovative executive education program jointly offered by the schools of business and public health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PMID:16912602

  8. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  9. 77 FR 64521 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Health Design Challenge”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... medical record (EMR) software. Submitted designs should use the sections and fields found in a CCD. See... breast cancer receiving care from multiple providers. A busy mom managing her kids' health and helping... opportunity for talented designers to reshape the way health records are presented to create a better...

  10. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.;

    2013-01-01

    optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, including 3rd and 4th graders from nine public schools. In autumn 2011, fasting blood samples were drawn and serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH analysed. Background interviews were...... status and childhood bone health are needed. Objective: To evaluate the status of serum 25(OH)D in autumn and the association between 25(OH)D concentrations and bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish children (55°N). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using baseline data from the...... for bone area (BA), age, height, weight, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and physical activity. Likewise, no associations were found between serum 25(OH)D and BA or BMD. Conclusion: A substantial number of Danish children did not reach the recommended level of 25(OH)D (>50 nmol/l) during autumn...

  11. A Service Design Thinking Approach for Stakeholder-Centred eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji

    2016-01-01

    Studies have described the opportunities and challenges of applying service design techniques to health services, but empirical evidence on how such techniques can be implemented in the context of eHealth services is still lacking. This paper presents how a service design thinking approach can be applied for specification of an existing and new eHealth service by supporting evaluation of the current service and facilitating suggestions for the future service. We propose Service Journey Modelling Language and Service Journey Cards to engage stakeholders in the design of eHealth services. PMID:27577366

  12. Changes in Crestal Bone Around Endosseous Implants During Functional Loading: A Radiographic Evaluation in Edentulous Patients Comparing Different Implant Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Tymstra, N.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Vissink, A

    2012-01-01

    Marginal bone changes around titanium plasma-sprayed implants (n = 240) placed in the mandibular interforaminal regions of 120 edentulous patients were assessed over 5 years of follow-up, with emphasis on the influence of the locations of the microgap and rough/smooth border. Marginal bone changes were measured on standardized radiographs. Locations of the microgap and the rough/smooth border were both shown not to be major contributing factors in determining the marginal bone level around im...

  13. Effects of rhBMP-2 on Sandblasted and Acid Etched Titanium Implant Surfaces on Bone Regeneration and Osseointegration: Spilt-Mouth Designed Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nam-Ho Kim; So-Hyoun Lee; Jae-Jun Ryu; Kyung-Hee Choi; Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of rhBMP-2 applied at different concentrations to sandblasted and acid etched (SLA) implants on osseointegration and bone regeneration in a bone defect of beagle dogs as pilot study using split-mouth design. Methods. For experimental groups, SLA implants were coated with different concentrations of rhBMP-2 (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL). After assessment of surface characteristics and rhBMP-2 releasing profile, the experimental groups and untreated contro...

  14. The bone care nurse project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casentini, Cristiana; Chiaramonti, Giuseppe; Amedei, Antonietta; Cioppi, Federica; Falchetti, Alberto; Masi, Laura; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    In today's society, citizens are called to play an increasingly active role in decision planning related to the various aspects of work, social and political life. This trend has been also confirmed in the health's field. In fact, the citizen is also required to have the skills to take responsibility for his/her own health, to have knowledge of the health care system, understand the advice and instructions of health professionals, actively participating with them in the therapeutical path. The lack or an inadequate level of these skills will affect both the health of the individual and the costs related to the National Health System. The nursing staff that interfaces between physicians and patients plays a key role in health's promotion as an important determinant of health and welfare of the patient-citizen. With regard to osteoporosis, due to better knowledge of its determining causes, it is now possible an easy access to diagnosis and treatment options before fragility fractures occur, providing a real prevention to such complications. Prevention must be addressed to two different, but related, objectives: 1) prevention of osteoporosis; and 2) prevention of fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis. In the context of both primary and secondary prevention, the nurse can better informed the patients and/or citizens about either the risks related to an inappropriate behavior or situations and events particularly dangerous to health, as well as provide information to simply and effectively implement protective measures. This project aims to raise awareness and create competent and specialized nurse figures, with a good understanding of the bone diseases, through the organization of seminars and training courses. Thus, it will be create clinical pathways and welfare in which the figure of the "Bone Care Nurse" will be responsible for administration of questionnaires relating to lifestyle and, for patients in drug treatment, questionnaires designed to assess

  15. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery...

  16. Prognostics Design Solutions in Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The chapter describes the application of prognostic techniques to the domain of structural health and demonstrates the efficacy of the methods using fatigue data...

  17. Designing an Health Insurance Scheme for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  18. Designing and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: Simple Rules for a Complex Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2003-01-01

    Health improvement planning models exist to support strategic management of health improvement efforts and to guide program administrators in taking a comprehensive approach to health promotion planning from problem identification to program evaluation and diffusion. This article outlines a model which follows four simple steps to program design and four simple steps to program evaluation. The first phase is characterized as the 4-Ss of program design, which includes size, scope, scalability,...

  19. Designing National Regimes that Promote Public Health Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gehl Sampath, Padmashree

    2003-01-01

    The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects on Intellectual Property Rights, 1995, has introduced several mandatory changes to patent protection on pharmaceuticals that can affect health care and delivery in developing countries. The potential detrimental impacts of such IPR protection raise three major concerns for developing countries in the area of public health: (a) How can developing countries deal with price increases that can result from increased patent protection to ensure access to and a...

  20. American society of clinical oncology update on the role of bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vysotskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available American society of clinical oncology update on the roleof bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

  1. Age-Sensitive Design of Online Health Information: Comparative Usability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Richard; Price, Margaux M; Thatcher, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Background Older adults’ health maintenance may be enhanced by having access to online health information. However, usability issues may prevent older adults from easily accessing such information. Prior research has shown that aging is associated with a unique pattern of cognitive changes, and knowledge of these changes may be used in the design of health websites for older adults. Objective The goal of the current study was to examine whether older adults use of a health information website...

  2. Study Design and Participation Rates of the New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Lorna E.; Charon Gwynn, R; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Roberts, Sarah; Frieden, Thomas R; Tsoi, Benjamin; Berman, Lew; Porter, Kathryn; Ostchega, Yechiam; Curtain, Lester R; Montaquila, Jill; Mohadjer, Leyla

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Few state or local health agencies have accurate local-level information on the prevalence of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES) was designed as a new local surveillance initiative to determine the prevalence of health conditions among adult residents of New York City. Methods Modeled after the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the survey was initiated in June 2004 as a population-ba...

  3. Exploring Qualitative Research Synthesis: The Role of Patients' Perspectives in Health Policy Design and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Helle Ploug. Hansen; Eva Draborg; Finn Brlum. Kristensen

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on the design and delivery of services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient involvement in health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Furthermore, there is a growing research interest in eliciting patients' views, not only on 'what works' for patients but also on the need for intervention and on factors influencing the implementation of particular health technologies, their appropriate...

  4. Accreditation and Participatory Design in the Health-Care Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes......-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain....

  5. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-02-01

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds.

  6. Relationship between pulmonary function and bone mineral density in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Seon; Leem, Ah Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Rhee, Yumie; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Young Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The relationship between osteoporosis and COPD has been primarily reported in patients with moderate to severe COPD, but there is no report in the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and lung function in the general Korean population. Methods: This study was based on data acquired from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V), conducted from 2008 to 2010. The study population included 4,501 subjects (aged ≥ 50 years) who underwent both spirometry and BMD. The study populations were divided into two groups by sex to correct for the effects of gender on BMD. All female participants were postmenopausal women. Results: The BMD values of the femur neck, total femur, and L-spine tended to decrease with degree of airflow limitation in both genders. To correct confounding factors, data were analyzed and adjusted for age, body mass index, fat free mass index, body fat percentage, smoking amount, parathyroid hormone levels, daily calcium and phosphorus intake, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. While the BMD of the femur neck, total femur, and L-spine was reduced significantly as age and ALP increased, the correlation between airway obstruction and BMD of all regions disappeared in both genders. Conclusions: In the general population aged 50 years and older, diminution of BMD is not associated with airway obstruction. Further investigation along other factors is needed to determine the possible role of pulmonary function and BMD. PMID:27604798

  7. Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    Toxic chemicals used in product design and manufacturing are grave concerns due to their significant impact on human health. Sustainable material selections are needed by industry to reduce the overall impact of toxic chemicals in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, we integrate the human health impact assessment into standard material selection process for developing a sustainable material selection metric for decision support in design and manufacturing. A schematic method is pres...

  8. Guided Discussion and Activities in English for Future Health Professionals: Relationships between Nursing and Community Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltshire,Timothy L.; Mogami,Tamiko; Kevin M,Leyden; Maeta,Michio

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in community design has become evident in medical circles. Relationships between a community’s design, its function, and citizens’ health are an increasing concern for people who care about the quality of human life. Among these people, an influential group is health professionals. They can play a great part in how a community can be constructed or (re)designed to afford better living conditions in society. To develop a sense of the importance of involvement in community plann...

  9. Changes in Crestal Bone Around Endosseous Implants During Functional Loading : A Radiographic Evaluation in Edentulous Patients Comparing Different Implant Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymstra, N.; Meijer, H.J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Vissink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Marginal bone changes around titanium plasma-sprayed implants (n = 240) placed in the mandibular interforaminal regions of 120 edentulous patients were assessed over 5 years of follow-up, with emphasis on the influence of the locations of the microgap and rough/smooth border. Marginal bone changes w

  10. Molecular interactions in biomineralized hydroxyapatite amino acid modified nanoclay: In silico design of bone biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulations driven approach to design of a novel biomaterial nanocomposite system is described in this study. Nanoclays modified with amino acids (OMMT) were used to mineralize hydroxyapatite (HAP), mimicking biomineralization. Representative models of organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and OMMT-hydroxyapatite (OMMT-HAP) were constructed using molecular dynamics and validated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Attractive interactions exist between Ca atoms of HAP and C=O group of aminovaleric acid, indicating chelate formation in OMMT-HAP. Interaction energy maps describe molecular interactions among different constituents and their quantitative contributions in the OMMT and OMMT-HAP systems at both parallel and perpendicular orientations. High attractive and high repulsive interactions were found between PO43− and MMT clay as well as aminovaleric molecules in OMMT-HAP perpendicular and parallel models. Large non-bonded interactions in OMMT-HAP indicate influence of neighboring environment on PO43− in in situ HAPclay. Extensive hydrogen bonds were observed between functional hydrogen atoms of modifier and MMT clay in OMMT-HAP as compared to OMMT. Thus, HAP interacts with clay through the aminovaleric acid. This computational study provides a framework for materials design and selection for biomaterials used in tissue engineering and other areas of regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Representative models of a hybrid nanoclay-hydroxyapatite biomaterial are built. • Interaction energy maps are constructed using a molecular dynamics. • Quantitative interactions between the three components of the biomaterial are found. • The modeling and experimental approach provides insight into the complex nanomaterial

  11. Molecular interactions in biomineralized hydroxyapatite amino acid modified nanoclay: In silico design of bone biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katti, Dinesh R., E-mail: Dinesh.Katti@ndsu.edu; Sharma, Anurag; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-01-01

    A simulations driven approach to design of a novel biomaterial nanocomposite system is described in this study. Nanoclays modified with amino acids (OMMT) were used to mineralize hydroxyapatite (HAP), mimicking biomineralization. Representative models of organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and OMMT-hydroxyapatite (OMMT-HAP) were constructed using molecular dynamics and validated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Attractive interactions exist between Ca atoms of HAP and C=O group of aminovaleric acid, indicating chelate formation in OMMT-HAP. Interaction energy maps describe molecular interactions among different constituents and their quantitative contributions in the OMMT and OMMT-HAP systems at both parallel and perpendicular orientations. High attractive and high repulsive interactions were found between PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and MMT clay as well as aminovaleric molecules in OMMT-HAP perpendicular and parallel models. Large non-bonded interactions in OMMT-HAP indicate influence of neighboring environment on PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in in situ HAPclay. Extensive hydrogen bonds were observed between functional hydrogen atoms of modifier and MMT clay in OMMT-HAP as compared to OMMT. Thus, HAP interacts with clay through the aminovaleric acid. This computational study provides a framework for materials design and selection for biomaterials used in tissue engineering and other areas of regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Representative models of a hybrid nanoclay-hydroxyapatite biomaterial are built. • Interaction energy maps are constructed using a molecular dynamics. • Quantitative interactions between the three components of the biomaterial are found. • The modeling and experimental approach provides insight into the complex nanomaterial.

  12. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  13. The future of global health cooperation: designing a new World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, K; Stenson, B; Sterky, G

    1996-06-01

    This article discusses some needed changes to the functioning and management of the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO is unable to meet new challenges and needs reform. The Executive Board of WHO initiated an internal review in 1992 that led to a management-related focus, while informal groups within the agency tackled funding constraints. Some governments and nongovernmental groups have proposed reorganization of international health assistance. The authors urge that the public health sector and researchers join the reform effort. WHO was established in 1948 and was the sole global health agency. The demand for greater international health cooperation has increased over time. WHO is an association of sovereign states. WHO demonstrated success in eliminating smallpox, promotion of health policy, collection and dissemination of epidemiologic information, and establishment of standards in health care and medical ethics. WHO staff comprises about 5000 persons. The annual budget is too small at about US$900 million. In 1995 only 56% of receipts were collected. WHO's constitution mandates complete health for all, but there has been a widening gap between rich and poor and those with access to health services and those without. Absolute and relative poverty are the main determinants of premature mortality and ill health. The major challenge for health policy is this disparity; the focus of international collaboration should be on this issue. The machine metaphor of organizational structure no longer works in today's world. The authors propose that WHO limit functions in health development and create a full mandate for dealing with determinants of health. WHO should be participatory, open to constituents, autonomous, and flexible. Member states must be more powerful in policy formulation. Program implementation should occur in independent programs in a decentralized system. PMID:12291612

  14. Fuzzy bi-objective preventive health care network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Soheil; Kilic, Kemal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2015-09-01

    Preventive health care is unlike health care for acute ailments, as people are less alert to their unknown medical problems. In order to motivate public and to attain desired participation levels for preventive programs, the attractiveness of the health care facility is a major concern. Health economics literature indicates that attractiveness of a facility is significantly influenced by proximity of the clients to it. Hence attractiveness is generally modelled as a function of distance. However, abundant empirical evidence suggests that other qualitative factors such as perceived quality, attractions nearby, amenities, etc. also influence attractiveness. Therefore, a realistic measure should incorporate the vagueness in the concept of attractiveness to the model. The public policy makers should also maintain the equity among various neighborhoods, which should be considered as a second objective. Finally, even though the general tendency in the literature is to focus on health benefits, the cost effectiveness is still a factor that should be considered. In this paper, a fuzzy bi-objective model with budget constraints is developed. Later, by modelling the attractiveness by means of fuzzy triangular numbers and treating the budget constraint as a soft constraint, a modified (and more realistic) version of the model is introduced. Two solution methodologies, namely fuzzy goal programming and fuzzy chance constrained optimization are proposed as solutions. Both the original and the modified models are solved within the framework of a case study in Istanbul, Turkey. In the case study, the Microsoft Bing Map is utilized in order to determine more accurate distance measures among the nodes. PMID:25171939

  15. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  16. Bones, brains and B-vitamins : the impact of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine on bone health and cognitive function in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaarden, van, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    ABackground An elevated homocysteine level has been indicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, and fractures. Supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid in order to normalize homocysteine levels might be of substantial public health importance as this might reduce the risk for several age-related conditions. This thesis focuses on two health outcomes frequently associated with elevated homocysteine levels and low levels of vitamin B12 and folate: osteoporosi...

  17. Web interface design and testing for the MineHealth Training and Education Material

    OpenAIRE

    Alatyppö, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Usability and user experience are the driving concepts behind the web user interface design today. This thesis explores web user interface usability as a concept as well as how to apply it to a wide range of multilayered and lengthy material of the MineHealth project. The objective of this thesis is a pleasant and useful design for the MineHealth training and education material website. This thesis presents the process of web interface design commissioned by the MineHealth Kolarctic ENPI CBC ...

  18. Case Study: Impact of Inter- and Intra-Day Energy Parameters on Bone Health, Menstrual Function, and Hormones in an Elite Junior Female Triathlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; VanHeest, Jaci L

    2016-08-01

    This observational case study examined the association of inter- and intraday energy intake and exercise energy expenditure with bone health, menstrual status and hematological factors in a female triathlete. The study spanned 7 months whereby energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were monitored three times (13 d); 16 blood samples were taken, urinary hormones were assessed for 3 months, and bone mineral density was measured twice. Energy availability tended to be sustained below 30 kcal/kg FFM/d and intraday energy intake patterns were often "back-loaded" with approximately 46% of energy consumed after 6 p.m. Most triiodothyronine values were low (1.1-1.2nmol/L) and supportive of reduced energy availability. The athlete had suppressed estradiol (105.1 ± 71.7pmol/L) and progesterone (1.79 ±1.19nmol/L) concentrations as well as urinary sex-steroid metabolites during the entire monitoring period. Lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone mineral density was low (age-matched Z-score -1.4 to -1.5). Despite these health related maladies the athlete was able to perform typical weekly training loads (swim: 30-40 km, bike: 120-300 km, run 45-70 km) and was competitive as indicated by her continued improvement in ITU World Ranking during and beyond the assessment period. There is a delicate balance between health and performance that can become blurred especially for endurance athletes. Education (athletes, coaches, parents) and continued monitoring of specific indicators will enable evidence-based recommendations to be provided and help reduced the risk of health related issues while maximizing performance gains. Future research needs to longitudinally examine how performance on standardized tests in each discipline (e.g., 800-m swim, 20-km time trial, 5-km run) is impacted when aspects of the female athlete triad are present. PMID:26696652

  19. Designing an Electronic Personal Health Record for Professional Iranian Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolkhani, Robab; Halabchi, Farzin; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Shadanfar, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background: By providing sports organizations with electronic records and instruments that can be accessed at any time or place, specialized care can be offered to athletes regardless of injury location, and this makes the follow-up from first aid through to full recovery more efficient. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an electronic personal health record for professional Iranian athletes. Patients and Methods: First, a comparative study was carried out on the types of profes...

  20. The Design of Health Care Management Program for Chinese Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao Ling

    2008-01-01

    Business education has been booming in China due to the increasing demand of business graduates since China's economic reform. Chinese health care professionals are eager for business education to improve their competencies. The purpose of the study was to investigate the determinants of a successful health care management program for Chinese…

  1. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noble B.

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas o...

  2. Biomimetic fiber mesh scaffolds based on gelatin and hydroxyapatite nano-rods: Designing intrinsic skills to attain bone reparation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartuqui, Javier; Gravina, A Noel; Rial, Ramón; Benedini, Luciano A; Yahia, L'Hocine; Ruso, Juan M; Messina, Paula V

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic material skills have a deep effect on the mechanical and biological performance of bone substitutes, as well as on its associated biodegradation properties. In this work we have manipulated the preparation of collagenous derived fiber mesh frameworks to display a specific composition, morphology, open macroporosity, surface roughness and permeability characteristics. Next, the effect of the induced physicochemical attributes on the scaffold's mechanical behavior, bone bonding potential and biodegradability were evaluated. It was found that the scaffold microstructure, their inherent surface roughness, and the compression strength of the gelatin scaffolds can be modulated by the effect of the cross-linking agent and, essentially, by mimicking the nano-scale size of hydroxyapatite in natural bone. A clear effect of bioactive hydroxyapatite nano-rods on the scaffolds skills can be appreciated and it is greater than the effect of the cross-linking agent, offering a huge perspective for the upcoming progress of bone implant technology. PMID:27220014

  3. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  4. Bones, brains and B-vitamins : the impact of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine on bone health and cognitive function in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.

    2013-01-01

    ABackground An elevated homocysteine level has been indicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, and fractures. Supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid in order to normalize homocysteine levels might be of substantial public health importance as

  5. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  6. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  7. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  8. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Christopher E. Davies; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Stephanie E Hodson

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population.Objective: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study.Method: At Phase 1, approximately ...

  9. On the Utility of E-Health Business Model Design Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Michaela; Mettler, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    New information technologies are not only enabling new health services, but also innovative business models. As the business model defines how value is created, delivered, as well as captured by an e-health service, it is key to the service’s economic success. However, business professionals responsible for developing e-health services often feel overwhelmed when it comes to the design of a corresponding business model because they lack the respective knowledge and experience. In this situati...

  10. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Tye; Jonine Jancey; Sarah McGann

    2013-01-01

    AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines ...

  11. Designing Iranian Model to Assess the Level of Health System Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Askari, Roohollah; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Gharaee, Hojat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the rapid pace of changes in community health needs and the mission of healthcare organizations to provide and promote the community’s health, the growing need to increase health system responsiveness to people as a key element of observance and fulfillment of justice is felt more than ever. Objectives: This study was aimed at designing the native model of responsiveness for Iran and to validate the aspects of the proposed model. Materials and Methods: Our study had a cross-...

  12. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  13. The Danish National Health Survey 2010. Study design and respondent characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Hvidberg, Michael Falk; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Ortiz, Britta; Juel, Knud

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the five Danish regions and the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark conducted a national representative health survey among the adult population in Denmark. This paper describes the study design and the sample and study population as well as the content...... of the questionnaire....

  14. Your health!? Transforming health perception into food product characteristics in consumer-oriented product design

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsema, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: food perception, health, consumer orientation, product developmentFood is part of everyday life and few things have changed more drastically in the last century than the way food is produced, processed, distributed, marketed and consumed. Food companies want to be more successful in product development, therefore this needs to be consumer oriented.This thesis develops a conceptual framework that enables transforming consumers' health perception into product characteristics, using he...

  15. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. PMID:24704345

  16. Designer probiotics: Development and applications in gastrointestinal health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roy; D; Sleator

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotics, improving their stress tolerance profile and ability to overcome the physiochemical defences of the host is an important biological goal. Herein, I review the current state of the art in the design of engineered probiotic cultures, with a specific focus on their utility as therapeutics for the developing world; from the treatment of chronic and acute enteric infections, andtheir associated diarrhoeal complexes, to targeting HIV and application as novel mucosal vaccine delivery vehicles.

  17. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  18. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a new calibration phantom for in vivo measurement of bone-seeking radionuclides (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, H.B.; Lodwick, J

    2000-07-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for use in calibrating in vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. The phantom has the external shape and appearance of the human adult knee and contains a realistic femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. Unique formulations of polyurethanes, CaCo{sub 3}, and other trace materials are used in construction of the phantom to produce substitutes for human tissue having the same density, attenuation coefficient, and effective Z as that of human muscle and trabecular bone. The formulation for trabecular bone includes provision for a precisely known quantity of radioactive material that is either uniformly distributed throughout the bone matrix or deposited on the exterior surface. The knee phantom is assembled in three interlocking sections that simplify inserting the skeletal structures and prevent streaming. One or more detectors can easily be positioned on the top or sides of the phantom. Intercomparison measurements of {sup 241}Am in bone using separate arrays of phoswich and germanium detectors demonstrate that a single knee phantom exhibits the same detection efficiency as that using the skull. In vivo measurement of the knee is a desirable alternative to the head if facial contamination is present or when evaluating recent exposure to bone seeking radionuclides, since bones of the knee exhibit more rapid uptake than the skull. In practice, greater measurement efficiency can be obtained by placing detectors over both knees since a larger fraction of the total body activity is observed. Calibration measurements using the new anthropometric knee phantom demonstrate that it is durable, easy to use, and provides consistent results over repeated measurements. (author)

  19. Crosstalk between cancer cells and bone microenvironment in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, as well as lung and liver, is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this preference need to be elucidated, it appears that bone microenvironments possess unique biological features that enable circulating cancer cells to home, survive and proliferate, and destroy bone. In conjunction, cancers that develop bone metastases likely have the capacity to utilize these unique bone environments for colonization and bone destruction. This crosstalk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. Disruption of this interaction will allow us to design mechanism-based effective and specific therapeutic interventions for bone metastases

  20. Bone Density in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Houlihan, Christine Murray; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.1 Osteoporosis remains a major health problem worldwide, costing an estimated $13.8 billion in health care each year in the United States. Despite advances in treating osteoporosis in the elderly, no cure exists. Osteoporosis has its roots in childhood. Accrual of bone mass occurs throughout childhood and early adulthood, and peak bone mass is a key determinant...

  1. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (...

  2. Prevention by Design: Construction and Renovation of Health Care Facilities for Patient Safety and Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Russell N

    2016-09-01

    The built environment supports the safe care of patients in health care facilities. Infection preventionists and health care epidemiologists have expertise in prevention and control of health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assist with designing and constructing facilities to prevent HAIs. However, design elements are often missing from initial concepts. In addition, there is a large body of evidence that implicates construction and renovation as being associated with clusters of HAIs, many of which are life threatening for select patient populations. This article summarizes known risks and prevention strategies within a framework for patient safety. PMID:27515144

  3. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  4. Human Health and Performance Aspects of Mars Design Reference Mission of July, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    1999-01-01

    The human element is the most complex element of the mission design Mars missions will pose significant physiological and psychological challenges to crew members Some challenges (human engineering, life support) must be overcome (potential "non-starters") Some challenges (bone, radiation) may be show-stoppers ISS will only Indirectly address Mars questions before any "Go/No Go" decision Significant amount of ground-based and specialized flight research will be required -- Critical Path Roadmap project will direct HSLSPO's research toward Mars exploration objectives

  5. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. PMID:24986104

  6. Lessons of Researcher-Teacher Co-Design of an Environmental Health Afterschool Club Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, Savreen; Levin, Daniel M.; Keselman, Alla

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of teachers' beliefs about argumentation and their community of practice framed views of teaching on co-designing an environmental health afterschool club curriculum with researchers. Our team collaborated with a group of four middle school teachers, asking them to co-design a club that would facilitate (1)…

  7. Health promotion intervention in mental health care: design and baseline findings of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaeghe Nick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing attention is given to the effects of health promotion programs targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. The design of evaluation studies of public health interventions poses several problems and the current literature appears to provide only limited evidence on the effectiveness of such programs. The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders living in sheltered housing. In this paper, the design of the study and baseline findings are described. Methods/design The design consists of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial. All sheltered housing organisations in the Flanders region (Belgium were asked if they were interested to participate in the study and if they were having a preference to serve as intervention or control group. Those without a preference were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Individuals in the intervention group receive a 10-week health promotion intervention above their treatment as usual. Outcome assessments occur at baseline, at 10 and at 36 weeks. The primary outcomes include body weight, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and fat mass. Secondary outcomes consist of physical activity levels, eating habits, health-related quality of life and psychiatric symptom severity. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be examined by calculating the Cost-Effectiveness ratio and through economic modeling.Twenty-five sheltered housing organisations agreed to participate. On the individual level 324 patients were willing to participate, including 225 individuals in the intervention group and 99 individuals in the control group. At baseline, no statistical significant differences between the two groups were found for the primary outcome variables. Discussion This is the first trial

  8. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  9. Design of a community-based intergenerational oral health study: “Baby Smiles”

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A.; Weinstein, Philip; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural, low-income pregnant women and their children are at high risk for poor oral health and have low utilization rates of dental care. The Baby Smiles study was designed to increase low-income pregnant women’s utilization of dental care, increase young children’s dental care utilization, and improve home oral health care practices. Methods/design Baby Smiles was a five-year, four-site randomized intervention trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Four hundred participants were rand...

  10. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  11. Preventing airborne disease transmission: review of methods for ventilation design in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A; Rogak, Steven N; Bartlett, Karen H; Green, Sheldon I

    2011-01-01

    Health care facility ventilation design greatly affects disease transmission by aerosols. The desire to control infection in hospitals and at the same time to reduce their carbon footprint motivates the use of unconventional solutions for building design and associated control measures. This paper considers indoor sources and types of infectious aerosols, and pathogen viability and infectivity behaviors in response to environmental conditions. Aerosol dispersion, heat and mass transfer, deposition in the respiratory tract, and infection mechanisms are discussed, with an emphasis on experimental and modeling approaches. Key building design parameters are described that include types of ventilation systems (mixing, displacement, natural and hybrid), air exchange rate, temperature and relative humidity, air flow distribution structure, occupancy, engineered disinfection of air (filtration and UV radiation), and architectural programming (source and activity management) for health care facilities. The paper describes major findings and suggests future research needs in methods for ventilation design of health care facilities to prevent airborne infection risk. PMID:22162813

  12. Designing a 100-unit Residential Complex with Public and Mental Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gholizadeh Maktoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study first discuses different climate conditions in Iran and traditional methods of architecture in these places as well as importance of identification and evaluation of these methods. Then, designing methods of residential complexes on the basis of components and conditions of the favorite climate will be closely taken into consideration. Finally, the impact of different methods and techniques of designing on society’s mental and public health will be examined. Accordingly, designing a 100-unit residential complex with open and local green spaces, dense neighborhoods with mixed land uses, physical and visual access to the nature, creation of cultural-social-business and entertainment opportunities adjacent to the residential complex, reducing car dependency in combination with walking, strategies of improving public health in designing residential complexes and architecture in Yazd city are used. Consequently, a few strategies are provided for enhancement of citizens’ health and development of this type of architecture.

  13. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Knapen, M. H. J.; Schurgers, L.J.; Vermeer, C

    2007-01-01

    Summary Vitamin K mediates the synthesis of proteins regulating bone metabolism. We have tested whether high vitamin K2 intake promotes bone mineral density and bone strength. Results showed that K2 improved BMC and femoral neck width, but not DXA-BMD. Hence high vitamin K2 intake may contribute to preventing postmenopausal bone loss. Introduction Vitamin K is involved in the synthesis of several proteins in bone. The importance of K vitamins for optimal bone health has been suggested by popu...

  14. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    OpenAIRE

    Karine de Mello Freire; Caio Marcelo Miolo de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted ...

  15. A Study of Mobility Support in Wearable Health Monitoring Systems: Design Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Boulemtafes, Amine; Rachedi, Abderrezak; Badache, Nadjib

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate main techniques and technologies enabling user's mobility in wearable health monitoring systems. For this, design requirements for key enabling mechanisms are pointed out, and a number of conceptual and technological recommendations are presented. The whole is schematized and presented into the form of a design framework covering design layers and taking in consideration patient context constraints. This work aspires to bring a further contribution for t...

  16. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  17. Vitamin D supplementation review and recommendations for women diagnosed with breast or ovary cancer in the context of bone health and cancer prognosis/risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Herranz, Ana; Salinas-Hernández, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D review and supplementation recommendations for women diagnosed with breast or ovary cancer have been defined in the context of bone health and cancer prognosis/risk taking as reference wider cancer patients and postmenopausal women. This specific group has been selected due to its higher osteoporosis risk versus postmenopausal women. Early vitamin D supplementation could help maintain bone health, as well as potentially enhance cancer survival rate. Factors considered for supplementation include daily dose, periodicity, chemical form, administration, and serum levels. Sufficient vitamin D serum levels are recommended to be above 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l). Maintenance oral supplementation equivalent to a minimum daily dosage of 800-1000 IU (20-25 μg) cholecalciferol provided in a daily to monthly bases is preferred, also advised to start with higher dosages when vitamin D serum levels are ng/ml (25 nmol/l). Calcidiol supplementation is more effective, making it advantageous for cases with very low or difficult to raise vitamin D serum levels. PMID:26068240

  18. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines of architecture and health promotion can work together to challenge the regulations that dictate design practice and ultimately bridge that gap for long-term change. The overarching aim is to undertake further evidenced-based research that will inform best practice in the planning and design of workplaces to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase opportunities for physical activity. Method Within this wide objective this paper focuses in particular on the idea of stairs-versus-lift movement strategies within office buildings. By examining building design guidelines from a health promotion perspective we expose a central dichotomy, where health promotion posters say “Take the stairs instead” whereas the language of building design suggests that the lift is best. Results From a design point of view, the National Codes of Construction (NCC, formally known as the Building Codes of Australia (BCA, the essential technical regulation for all building design and construction, primarily addresses the concepts of ‘egress’ and ‘travel distance’ for escape in the event of fire, and building access in terms of universal access. Additionally, The Property Council of Australia’s Guide to Office Building Quality prioritises lift performance criteria along with the quality and experience of lift use as a major grading factor. There is no provision in either set of standards for staircase quality and experience. Conclusion The stairs, despite being promoted

  19. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF UBIQUITOUS HEALTH SYSTEM (U-HEALTH) USING SMART-WATCHES SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Razavi Termeh; A. Sadeghi Niaraki

    2015-01-01

    Today as diseases grow rapidly, the responsibilities of the health clinics in giving services to patients increase and patients have to be more monitored and controlled. Remote systems of monitoring patients result in reducing cost, ease of movement, and also persistent control of patients by their doctors, so that patient can be monitored without need to go to the clinic. Recent advances in the field of ubiquitous sciences as well as using smartphones have resulted in increasingly use of thi...

  20. Impacto dos nutrientes na saúde óssea: novas tendências Nutrients impact on bone health: new trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Queiroz Morais

    2007-07-01

    this peak. In adult age, individuals who reached a high PBM will have a low risk of developing bone metabolic diseases when aging. Nutrients exert intense and wide-ranging effects on skeletal structures. Some of them have been consistently related with bone health, such as calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. However, it has been suggested that other nutrients are essential for normal bone metabolism: proteins, lipids, potassium, vitamins K and A, and sodium chloride. The influence of interactions between these nutritional factors, environment, lifestyle, and heredity will help understand the complex development of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. In addition, energy deficits can lead to reduced bone mass, in view of endocrine-metabolic disorders caused by food deprivation. This review aims at clarifying the impact of nutrients and of calories intake on the bones during different stages in life, describing possible interactions among nutrients and how these could affect bone and mineral homeostasis.

  1. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Bone Health Should Be an Important Concern in the Care of Patients Affected by 21 Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulon Jérome

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis has been an understandable concern for children and adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH who may receive or have received supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids. Some previous reports on bone mineral density (BMD in adult CAH patients showed no significant differences in BMD between patients with CAH and controls, but others have found lower BMD in CAH patients. In reports documenting the BMD reduction, this outcome has been attributed to an accumulated effect of prolonged exposure to excess glucocorticoids during infancy and childhood. We recently conducted a trial to establish the role of the total cumulative glucocorticoid dose on BMD. We established for the first time that there was a negative relationship between total cumulative glucocorticoid dose and lumbar and femoral BMD. Women might benefit from the preserving effect of estrogens compared to men. BMI (Body Mass Index also appeared to protect patients from bone loss. In light of this, physicians should bear in mind the potential consequences of glucocorticoids on bone and therefore adjust the treatment and improve clinical and biological surveillance from infancy. Furthermore, preventive measures against corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis should be discussed right from the beginning of glucocorticoid therapy.

  3. Using routine health information systems for well-designed health evaluations in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Bradley H; Sherr, Kenneth; Fernandes, Quinhas; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-02-01

    Routine health information systems (RHISs) are in place in nearly every country and provide routinely collected full-coverage records on all levels of health system service delivery. However, these rich sources of data are regularly overlooked for evaluating causal effects of health programmes due to concerns regarding completeness, timeliness, representativeness and accuracy. Using Mozambique's national RHIS (Módulo Básico) as an illustrative example, we urge renewed attention to the use of RHIS data for health evaluations. Interventions to improve data quality exist and have been tested in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Intrinsic features of RHIS data (numerous repeated observations over extended periods of time, full coverage of health facilities, and numerous real-time indicators of service coverage and utilization) provide for very robust quasi-experimental designs, such as controlled interrupted time-series (cITS), which are not possible with intermittent community sample surveys. In addition, cITS analyses are well suited for continuously evolving development contexts in LMICs by: (1) allowing for measurement and controlling for trends and other patterns before, during and after intervention implementation; (2) facilitating the use of numerous simultaneous control groups and non-equivalent dependent variables at multiple nested levels to increase validity and strength of causal inference; and (3) allowing the integration of continuous 'effective dose received' implementation measures. With expanded use of RHIS data for the evaluation of health programmes, investments in data systems, health worker interest in and utilization of RHIS data, as well as data quality will further increase over time. Because RHIS data are ministry-owned and operated, relying upon these data will contribute to sustainable national capacity over time. PMID:25887561

  4. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  5. Dietary Intervention Restored Menses in Female Athletes with Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction with Limited Impact on Bone and Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD is associated with low energy availability (EA, decreased bone mineral density (BMD, and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8 with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers, muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS, and energy intake (EI/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen; n = 10 were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12, EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17 and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14 were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles; one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1; low hip (ExMD = 2 than those with ExMD for <8 months; for 2 ExMD the intervention improved spinal BMD. POMS fatigue scores were 15% lower in ExMD vs. Eumen (p = 0.17; POMS depression scores improved by 8% in ExMD (p = 0.12. EI, EA, and EB were similar between groups, but the intervention (+360 kcal/day improved energy status enough to reverse ExMD despite no statistically significant changes in EI. Similar baseline EA and EB between groups suggests that some ExMD athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations.

  6. Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gianfagna

    Full Text Available Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714, was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ= -1.8, p=0.006. Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%, the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7% was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ= -1.0, p=0.04 as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4% showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ= -3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025. The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01. This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls.

  7. Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfagna, Francesco; Cugino, Daniela; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bailey, Mark E S; Bammann, Karin; Herrmann, Diana; Koni, Anna C; Kourides, Yiannis; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Russo, Paola; Siani, Alfonso; Sieri, Sabina; Sioen, Isabelle; Veidebaum, Toomas; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years) from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet) and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714), was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ= -1.8, p=0.006). Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%), the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7%) was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ= -1.0, p=0.04) as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4%) showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ= -3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025). The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01). This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls. PMID:23936460

  8. Implementing the World Mental Health Survey Initiative in Portugal – rationale, design and fieldwork procedures

    OpenAIRE

    XAVIER, MIGUEL; Baptista, Helena; Mendes, Jorge M; Magalhães, Pedro; Caldas-de-Almeida, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The World Mental Health Survey Initiative was designed to evaluate the prevalence, the correlates, the impact and the treatment patterns of mental disorders. This paper describes the rationale and the methodological details regarding the implementation of the survey in Portugal, a country that still lacks representative epidemiological data about psychiatric disorders. Methods: The World Mental Health Survey is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of th...

  9. Implementing the World Mental Health Survey Initiative in Portugal – rationale, design and fieldwork procedures

    OpenAIRE

    XAVIER, MIGUEL; Baptista, Helena; Mendes, Jorge M; Magalhães, Pedro; Caldas-de-Almeida, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Mental Health Survey Initiative was designed to evaluate the prevalence, the correlates, the impact and the treatment patterns of mental disorders. This paper describes the rationale and the methodological details regarding the implementation of the survey in Portugal, a country that still lacks representative epidemiological data about psychiatric disorders. Methods The World Mental Health Survey is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the Portuguese p...

  10. Design and development of meat-based functional foods with walnut: Technological, nutritional and health impact

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz; Olmedilla Alonso, Begoña

    2010-01-01

    With growing understanding of the relationship between diet and health has come the emergence of so-called functional foods. The idea of using food for health purposes and not merely as a source of nutrients opens up a whole new field in the meat industry. In addition to traditional presentations, there a number of ways in which the meat sector can modify the qualitative and quantitative composition of meat and meat product components and produce designer foods with specific properties. This ...

  11. Design and implementation of a health management information system in Malawi: issues, innovations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulagai, Chet N; Moyo, Christon M; Koot, Jaap; Moyo, Humphrey B M; Sambakunsi, Thokozani C; Khunga, Ferdinand M; Naphini, Patrick D

    2005-11-01

    As in many developing countries, lack of reliable data and grossly inadequate appreciation and use of available information in planning and management of health services were two main weaknesses of the health information systems in Malawi. Malawi began strengthening its health management information system with an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of existing information systems, sharing findings with all stakeholders. All were agreed on the need for reformation of various, vertical programme-specific information systems into a comprehensive, integrated, decentralized and action-oriented simple system. As a first step towards conceptualization and design of the system, a minimum set of indicators was identified and a strategy was formulated for establishing a system in the country. The design focused only on the use of information in planning, management and the improvement of quality and coverage of services. All health and support personnel were trained, employing a training of trainers cascade approach. Information management and use was incorporated into the pre-service training curriculum and the job description of all health workers and support personnel. Quarterly feedback, supportive supervision visits and annual reviews were institutionalized. Civil society organizations were involved in monitoring coverage of health services at local levels. A mid-term review of the achievements of the health information system judged it to be one of the best in Africa. For the first time in Malawi, the health sector has information by facility by month. Yet very little improvement has been noted in use of information in rationalizing decisions. The conclusion is that, no matter how good the design of an information system, it will not be effective unless there is internal desire, dedication and commitment of leadership to have an effective and efficient health service management system. PMID:16143590

  12. Association between insulin resistance and bone structure in non-diabetic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Finkelstein, Joel S; Bouxsein, Mary L; Yu, Elaine W

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength. DESIGN......, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study included 146 postmenopausal, non-diabetic Caucasian women (mean age 60.3 ± 2.7 years) who were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). INTERVENTIONS: None Main outcome measures: High-resolution peripheral quantitative....... RESULTS: There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained even after adjusting for body weight and other potential...

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Cavan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Finbarr

    2011-03-14

    Population trends suggest that the Irish population is ageing, and that this population will have substantial treatment needs. These patients will be better informed than previous generations, and will demand treatment aimed at preserving a natural dentition. This will impact upon delivery of oral healthcare and manpower planning needs to consider how to address the increased demand for dental care. Poor oral health is associated with systemic health problems, including cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus. It also has a negative impact upon quality of life, and the World Health Organisation has encouraged public healthcare administrators and decision makers to design effective and affordable strategies for better oral health and quality of life of older adults, which, in turn, are integrated into general health management programmes. Treatment concepts such as minimally invasive dentistry and the shortened dental arch concept are discussed in the context of these demographic changes and recommendations.

  14. Integrative health care model for climacteric stage women: design of the intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL, empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet. Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach

  15. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  16. DESIGNING E-EDUCATION SUPPORTS IN E-HEALTH BASED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhu-Omoregbe, NICHOLAS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The inadequate availability of medical information has often made health care services in many developing countries cumbersome with enormous paper work, waste of life, time and resources, long queues, and ineffective treatment procedures. The use of mobile technology devices such as Personal Digital Assistants, Cell phone, Tablet PCs etc for health care delivery promises a revolution in modern health care. However, applications that provide access to real-time patients and research information at the point-of-care via mobile devices are at best in their low stage of adoption across the health sector. In this paper, the experience gained in designing mobile health care applications is used to proffer e-Education functionalities in the design of healthcare systems to enhance their acceptance in the medical domain. The application discussed uses, the Unified Modelling Language, mobile, and Java-based technologies for its development. The application provides a real-time access to medical information at the points of health-care delivery within health care centres.

  17. Immediate loading short implants inserted on low bone quantity for the rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla using an All-on-4 design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, P; de Araújo Nobre, M A; Lopes, A V; Rodrigues, R

    2015-08-01

    More studies evaluating the outcome of short-length dental implants in immediate loading are needed. To evaluate the use of short-length tapered implants in immediate loading for complete edentulous maxillae rehabilitations using an All-on-4 design. This retrospective clinical study included a cohort of 43 patients with 172 implants (74 short-length implants) inserted in low bone quantity. The patients were followed between 4 months and 6 years (average = 3 years). Outcome measures were implant survival, marginal bone remodelling, biological and mechanical complications. Two patients with four short-length implants were lost to follow-up during the first year. Three short and three long implants failed in four patients, rendering an overall cumulative survival rate implant and patient level, respectively, of 95.7% and 95.1% for short implants, 100% for regular implants and 96.6% and 95.2% for long implants. The average marginal bone remodelling at 1 and 3 years was 0.97 and 1.25 mm for the short implants, 0.82 and 0.87 mm for regular implants and 0.87 and 0.98 mm for long implants. Three patients presented 4 short-length implants with peri-implant pockets (3 implants in 2 patients were pseudo-pockets). Mechanical complications were registered in 13 patients (7 provisional prostheses fractures and 6 abutment screw loosening). All complications were treated successfully. Within the limitations of this clinical study, the short-term outcome of fixed prosthetic complete edentulous maxillae rehabilitations supported by short-length implants inserted in low bone quantity areas is viable. Long-term clinical studies are necessary for evaluating the outcome of these implants. PMID:25757870

  18. Prioritizing the mHealth Design Space: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Smokers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    BlueSpruce, June; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers’ preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used. Objective The aim of this study was to understand smokers’ preferred design features of mHealth quit-smoking tools. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of focus groups and written surveys to understand the design preferences of adult smokers who were interested in quitting smoking (N=40). Focus groups were stratified by age to allow differing perspectives to emerge between older (>40 years) and younger (networks. Preferences for entertaining games or other rewarding incentives to encourage program use differed by age group. Based on quantitative analysis of surveys, participants rated the importance of select design features significantly differently (P<.001). Design features rated as most important included personalized content, the ability to track one’s progress, and features designed to help manage nicotine withdrawal and medication side effects. Design features rated least important were quit-smoking videos and posting on social media. Communicating with stop-smoking experts was rated more important than communicating with family and friends about quitting (P=.03). Perceived importance of various design features varied by age, experience with technology, and frequency of smoking. Conclusions Future mHealth cessation aids should be designed with an understanding of smokers’ needs and preferences for these tools. Doing so does not guarantee treatment effectiveness, but balancing

  19. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    OpenAIRE

    Tonia Gray; Carol Birrell

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from int...

  20. The impact of methods for estimating bone health and the global burden of bone disease Impacto de los métodos para medir la salud ósea y la carga global de enfermedades óseas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A Cole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem through its association with age related fractures. Fracture rates are generally higher in caucasian women than in other populations. Important determinants include estrogen deficiency in women, low body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, poor dietary calcium intake, physical inactivity, certain drugs and illnesses. Thus, modification of physical activity and dietary calcium/vitamin D nutrition should complement high risk approaches. In addition, the recently developed WHO algorithm for evaluation of 10-year absolute risk of fracture provides a means whereby various therapies can be targeted cost-effectively to those at risk. Risk factors, together with bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical indices of bone turnover, can be utilised to derive absolute risks of fracture and cost-utility thresholds at which treatment is justified. These data will provide the basis for translation into coherent public health strategies aiming to prevent osteoporosis both in individuals and in the general population.La osteoporosis constituye un importante problema de salud pública debido a su asociación con fracturas relacionadas con la edad. Las tasas de fractura generalmente son más altas en mujeres caucásicas que en otros grupos poblacionales. Los principales determinantes incluyen deficiencia de estrógeno en mujeres, bajo índice de masa corporal, consumo de tabaco y alcohol, escaso consumo de calcio, inactividad física y algunas drogas y enfermedades. De este modo, la modificación de la actividad física y el consumo de nutrimentos con calcio y vitamina D deben complementar los tratamientos en alto riesgo. Además, el recientemente desarrollado algoritmo de la OMS para la evaluación de riesgo de fractura absoluto a 10 años constituye una herramienta que permite plantear eficientemente diversas terapias a aquellos que están en riesgo. Los factores de riesgo, junto con la

  1. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  2. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Eric J.; Hyde, Kelly L.; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa; Lyon, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorp...

  3. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  4. The impact of information technology on organizational design: Example in health organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of information technology (IT on organization including all elements that are integral part of organizational design through Star Model (Kates and Galbraith, 2007, and to show that IT has become an important strategic resource that provides a concentration of all relevant information for quality decision-making and integration of complex organization with the concept of “Big Data” (Manyika et al, 2011. In order to achieve the aim, research was performed in organization in the health sector which affects the quality of life and standard of living. TheIT impact on organizational design and through him on organizational effectiveness in the health care is visible and provide insight into the implications of information technology and opportunities for reasoning about matters that are the subject of research: whether and how information technology causes changes in the design of the organization; whether it affects all elements of design equally; on which elements has the most intense impact and why; whether and why employees and users of health services exhibit resistance to information technology; under what conditions can be reduced or completely eliminated the resistance of employees and users of health services?

  5. Lessons of Researcher-Teacher Co-design of an Environmental Health Afterschool Club Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, Savreen; Levin, Daniel M.; Keselman, Alla

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the impact of teachers' beliefs about argumentation and their community of practice framed views of teaching on co-designing an environmental health afterschool club curriculum with researchers. Our team collaborated with a group of four middle school teachers, asking them to co-design a club that would facilitate (1) students' understanding of environmental health, (2) use of electronic resources, and (3) argumentation skills. The process included researcher-led sessions emphasizing the importance of argumentation to science and teacher-led curriculum design sessions. The qualitative analysis of the meetings and teacher interview transcripts suggests that while teachers viewed argumentation as important, its practice was relegated to the background by the focus on student engagement and perceived logistical and systemic constraints. The paper concludes that in addition to stressing relevance of argumentation to science learning, researchers involved in co-design need to emphasize the potential of argumentation to engage students and to fit into science curriculum. The analysis also reveals teacher-participants' views of environmental health as an important area of middle school education, relevant to students' lives, linkable to the existing curriculum, essential for informed citizenship, and capable of inspiring interest in science. These findings underscore the importance of integrating environmental health into science education and advocating for its inclusion in informal and formal educational settings.

  6. A conceptual curriculum framework designed to ensure quality student health visitor training in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinshead, Jayne; Stirling, Linda

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges faced by a trust in England following the introduction of the Health Visitor Implementation Plan. Two practice education facilitators designed a conceptual curriculum framework to ensure quality student health visitor education in practice. This curriculum complimented the excellent academic course already delivered by the University. A justification is provided for the design of the curriculum framework, including a rationale for the introduction of specific training sessions. Student and practice teacher feedback demonstrate the success of the introduction of this programme to ensure the development of student health visitors fit for practice. The conclusion places emphasis on the importance of continuous evaluation of the training programme to meet the needs of the students and the service. PMID:25167726

  7. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  8. Designing HIGH-COST medicine: hospital surveys, health planning, and the paradox of progressive reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Barbara Bridgman

    2010-02-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas' hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312

  9. Towards the Design of 3D Fiber-Deposited Poly(ε-caprolactone)/lron-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite Magnetic Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Roberta; Russo, Alessandro; Gloria, Antonio; D'Amora, Ugo; Russo, Teresa; Panseri, Silvia; Sandri, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio; Dediu, Valentin A; Wilde, Colin J; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    In the past few years, researchers have focused on the design and development of three-dimensional (3D) advanced scaffolds, which offer significant advantages in terms of cell performance. The introduction of magnetic features into scaffold technology could offer innovative opportunities to control cell populations within 3D microenvironments, with the potential to enhance their use in tissue regeneration or in cell-based analysis. In the present study, 3D fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix reinforced with iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles, were designed and manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique. The performances of these novel 3D PCL/FeHA scaffolds were assessed through a combination of theoretical evaluation, experimental in vitro analyses and in vivo testing in a rabbit animal model. The results from mechanical com- pression tests were consistent with FEM simulations. The in vitro results showed that the cell growth in the magnetized scaffolds was 2.2-fold greater than that in non-magnetized ones. In vivo experiments further suggested that, after only 4 weeks, the PCL/FeHA scaffolds were completely filled with newly formed bone, proving a good level of histocompatibility. All of the results suggest that the introduction of magnetic features into biocompatible materials may confer significant advantages in terms of 3D cell assembly. PMID:26307846

  10. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to evaluate "Animal Fun" - a program designed to enhance physical and mental health in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaren Sue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with poor motor ability have been found to engage less in physical activities than other children, and a lack of physical activity has been linked to problems such as obesity, lowered bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, if children are confident with their fine and gross motor skills, they are more likely to engage in physical activities such as sports, crafts, dancing and other physical activity programs outside of the school curriculum which are important activities for psychosocial development. The primary objective of this project is to comprehensively evaluate a whole of class physical activity program called Animal Fun designed for Pre-Primary children. This program was designed to improve the child's movement skills, both fine and gross, and their perceptions of their movement ability, promote appropriate social skills and improve social-emotional development. Methods The proposed randomized and controlled trial uses a multivariate nested cohort design to examine the physical (motor coordination and psychosocial (self perceptions, anxiety, social competence outcomes of the program. The Animal Fun program is a teacher delivered universal program incorporating animal actions to facilitate motor skill and social skill acquisition and practice. Pre-intervention scores on motor and psychosocial variables for six control schools and six intervention schools will be compared with post-intervention scores (end of Pre-Primary year and scores taken 12 months later after the children's transition to primary school Year 1. 520 children aged 4.5 to 6 years will be recruited and it is anticipated that 360 children will be retained to the 1 year follow-up. There will be equal numbers of boys and girls. Discussion If this program is found to improve the child's motor and psychosocial skills, this will assist in the child's transition into the first year of school. As a result of these changes

  11. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  12. mHealth: A Design of an Exercise Recommendation System for the Android Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpisit WUTTIDITTACHOTTI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For healthiness and wellness, exercising is one of the key factors. Therefore, this paper aims to present the first phase of a mobile health application developed to recommend healthcare support referring to exercises on an Android smartphone. This application has been designed to provide exercise advice depending on Body Mass Index (BMI, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and the energy used in each activity or sport (e.g. aerobic dancing, cycling, jogging working and swimming. Also, this application has been designed to present special exercise advice for patients with health issues. Moreover, it has been designed to store information in a database and to have the ability to produce reports to users. After designing, this proposed mHealth application has been evaluated by 30 subjects who have computer programming skills. It has been found that all diagrams, including use the case diagram, sequence diagrams and overall were assessed as ‘good’, except the part of user interfaces that was assessed as ‘fair’. Therefore, this design can be used to implement in the next phase of this application development with minor revision concerning the user interfaces.

  13. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  14. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Kok-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Kok-Yong Chin,1 Alia Annessa Ain Kamaruddin,2 Nie Yen Low,2 Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana1 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, 2ASASIpintar, PERMATApintar National Gifted Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. ...

  15. Comparing the methods of oral hygiene, over hanged removal and restoration—Changing on periodontal health and alveolar bone height of rest orated mandibular molars with proximal over hanged amalgam

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Bamadi; Mohammad Salarpour

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Conservative restoration principles that accurately reduce plaque accumulation are the goals of restorative dentistry. Correct and perfect restoration has an important effect on health of periodontious tissues. This study was done to compare the methods of oral hygiene, over hanged removal and restoration changing on periodontal health and alveolar bone height of restored mandible molars with proximal over hanged amalgam. Materials and Methods: All patients with over hanged am...

  16. Wear, bone density, functional outcome and survival in vitamin E-incorporated polyethylene cups in reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Veen Hugo C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasties is generally caused by periprosthetic bone resorption due to tissue reactions on polyethylene wear particles. In vitro testing of polyethylene cups incorporated with vitamin E shows increased wear resistance. The objective of this study is to compare vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene with conventional cross-linked polyethylene in “reversed hybrid” total hip arthroplasties (cemented all-polyethylene cups combined with uncemented femoral stems. We hypothesize that the adjunction of vitamin E leads to a decrease in polyethylene wear in the long-term. We also expect changes in bone mineral density, less osteolysis, equal functional scores and increased implant survival in polyethylene cemented cups incorporated with vitamin E in the long-term. Design A double-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients to be included are aged under 70, suffer from non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip and are scheduled for a primary total hip arthroplasty. The study group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. The control group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a conventional cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. Radiological follow-up will be assessed at 6 weeks and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years postoperatively, to determine polyethylene wear and osteolysis. Patient-reported functional status (HOOS, physician-reported functional status (Harris Hip Score and patients’ physical activity behavior (SQUASH will also be assessed at these intervals. Acetabular bone mineral density will be assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at 6 weeks and at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. Implant survival will be determined at 10 years postoperatively. Discussion In vitro results of vitamin E-stabilized polyethylene are promising

  17. Quality of life measurement in bone metastases: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirtha Tharmalingam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sukirtha Tharmalingam, Edward Chow, Kristin Harris, Amanda Hird, Emily SinclairRapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Quality of life (QOL has become an important consideration in the care of patients with bone metastases as prevalence, incidence and patient survival are on the rise. As a result, more interventional studies now measure patient’s QOL as a meaningful endpoint. However, well-developed bone metastases specific quality of life instruments are lacking. A literature review was conducted to better understand the nature of QOL instruments used in bone metastases trials. A total of 47 articles evaluating QOL in patients with bone metastases were identified. Twenty-five different instruments were used to evaluate QOL with study-designed questionnaires and the EORTC QLQ-C30 being most commonly employed. Many studies used more than one scale or instrument to measure QOL. This makes it difficult to compare QOL in bone metastases patients across studies and come to any formal conclusions. Therefore, this review demonstrates the need to develop a bone module that can be used across countries in future clinical trials.Keywords: bone metastases, quality of life, QOL instrument, review

  18. A Review of Design and Policy Interventions to Promote Nurses' Restorative Breaks in Health Care Workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Adeleh; Shepley, Mardelle; Rodiek, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The nursing profession in the United States is on the precipice of a crisis. Nurses are essential to the health care industry, and maintaining quality nursing care is a primary concern of today's health care managers. Health care facilities report high rates of staff burnout and turnover, and interest in the nursing profession among younger students is declining. Health care leaders must improve nurses' job satisfaction, performance, and retention. However, they often overlook the need for nurses' respite and underestimate the value of well-designed staff break areas. An exhaustive and systematic literature search was conducted in the summer of 2014, and all studies found on the topic were reviewed for their relevance and quality of evidence. The existing literature about the main causes of nurses' fatigue, barriers that prevent nurses from taking restorative breaks, and consequences of nurses' fatigue for staff, patient, and facility outcomes demonstrates the pressing need for interventions that improve nurses' working conditions. Additional literature on the restorative effects of breaks and the value of well-designed break areas indicates that efforts to improve breakroom design can play an important role in improving nurses' job satisfaction and performance. PMID:26814229

  19. An exploration of the longer-term impacts of community participation in rural health services design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Currie, Margaret; Kenny, Amanda; Munoz, Sarah-Anne

    2015-09-01

    This article explores what happened, over the longer term, after a community participation exercise to design future rural service delivery models, and considers perceptions of why more follow-up actions did or did not happen. The study, which took place in 2014, revisits three Scottish communities that engaged in a community participation research method (2008-2010) intended to design rural health services. Interviews were conducted with 22 citizens, healthcare practitioners, managers and policymakers all of whom were involved in, or knew about, the original project. Only one direct sustained service change was found - introduction of a volunteer first responder scheme in one community. Sustained changes in knowledge were found. The Health Authority that part-funded development of the community participation method, through the original project, had not adopted the new method. Community members tended to attribute lack of further impact to low participation and methods insufficiently attuned to the social nuances of very small rural communities. Managers tended to blame insufficient embedding in the healthcare system and issues around power over service change and budgets. In the absence of convincing formal community governance mechanisms for health issues, rural health practitioners tended to act as conduits between citizens and the Health Authority. The study provides new knowledge about what happens after community participation and highlights a need for more exploration. PMID:26248306

  20. MAC Protocol in Wireless Body Area Network for Mobile Health: A Survey and an Architecture Design

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Qi; Kun Wang; AnPeng Huang; Haifeng Hu; Guangjie Han

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become a leading solution in mobile health (mHealth). Typically, a WBAN consists of in-body or around-body sensor nodes for collecting data of physiological feature. For a WBAN to provide high throughput and low delay in an energy-efficient way, designing an efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol is of paramount importance because the MAC layer coordinates nodes’ access to the shared wireless medium. To show the difference of MAC protocols betw...

  1. Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lankford, Mary G.; Zembower, Teresa R.; Trick, William E.; Hacek, Donna M.; Noskin, Gary A.; Peterson, Lance R.

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the effect of medical staff role models and the number of health-care worker sinks on hand-hygiene compliance before and after construction of a new hospital designed for increased access to handwashing sinks. We observed health-care worker hand hygiene in four nursing units that provided similar patient care in both the old and new hospitals: medical and surgical intensive care, hematology/oncology, and solid organ transplant units. Of 721 hand-hygiene opportunities, 304 (42%) we...

  2. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  3. Method for Automated Bone Shape Correction within Bone Distraction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blynskiy, F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.

  4. 21 CFR 892.1180 - Bone sonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone sonometer. 892.1180 Section 892.1180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1180 Bone sonometer. (a) Identification. A bone sonometer is...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  6. Brainstorming Design for Health: Helping Patients Utilize Patient-Generated Information on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Hartzler, Andrea; Munson, Sean; Anderson, Nick; Edwards, Kelly; Gore, John L.; McDonald, David; O’Leary, Jim; Parker, Andrea; Streat, Derek; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Pratt, Wanda; Ackerman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners show increasing sinterest in utilizing patient-generated information on the Web. Although the HCI and CSCW communities have provided many exciting opportunities for exploring new ideas and building broad agenda in health, few venues offer a platform for interdisciplinary and collaborative brainstorming about design challenges and opportunities in this space. The goal of this workshop is to provide participants with opportunities to interact with stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and practices—researchers, practitioners, designers, programmers, and ethnographers—and together generate tangible design outcomes that utilize patient-generated information on the Web. Through small multidisciplinary group work, we will provide participants with new collaboration opportunities, understanding of the state of the art, inspiration for future work, and ideally avenues for continuing to develop research and design ideas generated at the workshop. PMID:24499843

  7. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz True or false: Prunes contain ... health. True False View Answers Loading ... Sponsored by: Food and Your Bones – Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  8. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. PMID:22920806

  9. Acumulación de plomo en hueso y sus efectos en la salud Lead storage in bone and its effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Sanín

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos nocivos del plomo han sido conocidos desde tiempos antiguos por su amplia gama; este metal afecta prácticamente todos los órganos y sistemas del cuerpo humano. Recientemente se han documentado efectos tóxicos crónicos en los sistemas cardiovascular y nervioso, con niveles que antes se consideraban seguros. El sitio primario de almacenamiento de plomo en el organismo es el hueso, pero sólo hasta fechas recientes se ha clarificado la significancia toxicológica de este hecho. En este artículo se analiza el papel del plomo en hueso como fuente de exposición endógena, como biomarcador de exposición crónica y como tejido blanco. Se presentan además los avances recientes para la medición de plomo en hueso mediante los rayos X-fluorescentes (XRF. Finalmente se revisa la importancia, para la salud pública, de estudiar y medir el plomo en hueso en lugares con una historia de exposición crónica como la Ciudad de México y en los ambientes ocupacionales, especialmente como fuente remanente de exposición. Se analiza especialmente el caso de mujeres en edad reproductiva, quienes pueden convertirse en fuentes de exposición para el feto y para el niño amamantado.The adverse effects of lead have been known for long since the metal affects practically all organs and systems of the human body. Recently, toxic effects have been reported in the cardiovascular and nervous systems at lead levels previously considered to be secure. The main lead storage site in the body is bone. The toxicologic significance of this fact has been clarified only recently. The present study analyzes the role of lead as an endogenous source of exposure, as a chronic exposure biomarker and as a target organ. Recent advances to measure bone lead through fluorescent X-Rays are discussed. Additionally, the importance of bone lead from a public health perspective in places with a chronic history of exposure such as Mexico City, and in some occupational

  10. [Good architecture exercises body and mind: on design and health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhoeven, Ton; Habraken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The design of hospitals is increasingly being based on scientific research. Spaces are designed in such a way that they contribute to the healing process - the 'healing environment'. Thinking about the hospital of the future should not be purely focused on the optimal building. It is also important to develop a vision of the connection between the institution of the hospital and society as a whole. It could be asked how increasingly short treatment times affect the way the patient experiences hospital. A compact hospital located in a town centre could take part in local activities. It is possible that social interaction between patient and passer by could be beneficial. Prevention and health education could possibly reach larger sections of the population more simply and directly. This sort of integration between society and hospital may not only be beneficial to patient health but also to the society in general. PMID:22200156

  11. Design of a Prognostics and Health Management System for Electromechanical Equipment Through Time Stress Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Ke-hong; QIU Jing; LIU Guan-jun

    2008-01-01

    Time stress includes all kinds of environment and operating stress such as shock, vibration, temperature and electric current that the electromechanical system suffers in the manufacture, transport and operating process. In this paper, the conception of time stress and prognostics and health management (PHM) system are introduced. Then, in order to improve the false alarm recognition and fault prediction capabilities of the electromechanical equipment, a novel PHM architecture for electromechanical equipment is put forward based on a built-in test (BIT) system design technology and time stress analysis method. Finally, the structure, the design and implementing method and the functions of each module of this PHM system are described in detail.

  12. Design and validation of wireless acceleration sensor network for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan; Ou Jinping

    2006-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is proposed to monitor the acceleration of structures for the purpose of structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures. Using commercially available parts, several modules are constructed and integrated into complete wireless sensors and base stations. The communication protocol is designed and the fusion arithmetic of the temperature and acceleration is embedded in the wireless sensor node so that the measured acceleration values are more accurate. Measures are adopted to finish energy optimization, which is an important issue for a wireless sensor network. The test is performed on an offshore platform model, and the experimental results are given to show the feasibility of the designed wireless sensor network.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Microcomputer Based Student Health Center System

    OpenAIRE

    McKinnie, Diana B.

    1990-01-01

    CAMPUS, a microcomputer based multi-user system was designed to meet the multiplicity of needs of a college or university Student Health Care facility. It contains an interactive appointment system, full medical records, on line patient demographics, and multiple searching functions. Various strategies such as magnetic card readers and a “superbill” data entry procedure both speed data entry and make the system more acceptable for users.

  14. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS): rationale and study design

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fisberg; Kovalskys, I.; Gómez, G.; Rigotti, A; Cortés, L. Y.; Herrera-Cuenca, M.; Yépez, M. C.; Pareja, R. G.; Guajardo, V.; I.Z. Zimberg; Chiavegatto Filho, A. D. P.; Pratt, M.; Koletzko, B; Tucker, K L; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. Lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity and dietary intake have been largely associated with obesity in many countries; however studies that combine nutrition and physical activity assessment in representative samples of Latin American countries are lacking. The aim of this study is to present the design rationale of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health/Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS) w...

  15. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Tran...

  16. Electronic health record usability: analysis of the user-centered design processes of eleven electronic health record vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj M; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Hettinger, A Zachary; Benda, Natalie C

    2015-11-01

    The usability of electronic health records (EHRs) continues to be a point of dissatisfaction for providers, despite certification requirements from the Office of the National Coordinator that require EHR vendors to employ a user-centered design (UCD) process. To better understand factors that contribute to poor usability, a research team visited 11 different EHR vendors in order to analyze their UCD processes and discover the specific challenges that vendors faced as they sought to integrate UCD with their EHR development. Our analysis demonstrates a diverse range of vendors' UCD practices that fall into 3 categories: well-developed UCD, basic UCD, and misconceptions of UCD. Specific challenges to practicing UCD include conducting contextually rich studies of clinical workflow, recruiting participants for usability studies, and having support from leadership within the vendor organization. The results of the study provide novel insights for how to improve usability practices of EHR vendors. PMID:26049532

  17. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  18. Strategic relevance and accountability expectations: new perspectives for health care information technology design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J K; Modrow, R E

    1999-05-01

    In this article, we discuss the traditional systems analysis perspective on end-user information requirements analysis and extend it to merge with the new accountability expectations perspective to guide the future planning and design of health organization information systems. Underlying the strategic relevance of health care information technology (HCIT) are three critical questions: (1) What is the ideal HCIT model for the health organization in terms of achieving strategic expertise and competitive advantage? Specifically, how does this model link industry performance standards with organizational performance and accountability expectations? (2) How should the limitations of past HCIT models be reconciled to the benefits presented by the superior arrangement of the ideal model in the context of changing accountability expectations? (3) How should alternative HCIT solutions be evaluated in light of evidence-based accountability and organizational performance benchmarking? Insights into these questions will ensure that health care managers, HCIT practitioners and researchers can continue to focus on the most critical issues in harnessing today's fast-paced changing technologies for evolving strategically relevant, performance-based health organization systems. PMID:10387658

  19. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often begins in the adolescent years, and decreased rates of bone mass accrual at this critical time are therefore also concerning for deficits in peak bone mass. Factors contributing to low bone density and decreased rates of bone accrual include alterations in body composition such as low BMI and lean body mass, and hormonal alterations such as hypogonadism, a nutritionally acquired resistance to growth hormone and low levels of IGF-1, relative hypercortisolemia, low levels of leptin, and increased adiponectin (for fat mass) and peptide YY. Therapeutic strategies include optimizing weight and menstrual recovery, and adequate calcium and vitamin D replacement. Oral estrogen-progesterone combination pills are not effective in increasing bone density in adolescents with AN. RhIGF-1 increases levels of bone formation markers in the short-term, while long-term effects remain to be determined. Bisphosphonates act by decreasing bone resorption, and are not optimal for use in adolescents with AN, in whom the primary defect is low bone formation. PMID:21301203

  20. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and

  1. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction (β2M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and β2M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone density.

  2. Peer-to-peer computing in health-promoting voluntary organizations: a system design analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irestig, Magnus; Hallberg, Niklas; Eriksson, Henrik; Timpka, Toomas

    2005-10-01

    A large part of the health promotion in today's society is performed as peer-to-peer empowerment in voluntary organisations such as sports clubs, charities, and trade unions. In order to prevent work-related illness and long-term sickness absence, the aim of this study is to explore computer network services for empowerment of employees by peer-to-peer communication. The 'technique trade-off method was used for the analysis of the system design. A Critical Incident Technique questionnaire was distributed to a representative sample of trade union shop stewards (n = 386), and focus-group seminars were arranged where a preliminary set of requirements was discussed. Seven basic requirements were identified and matched to a set of 12 design issues for computer network services, allocating a subset of design issues to each requirement. The conclusion is that the systems design displays an inexpensive and potentially feasible method for peer-to-peer computing in voluntary health-promoting organisations. PMID:16180479

  3. Designing an Operational Planning Model for Level-one Iranian Primary Health Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Ashkan Nasiripour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research was performed in 2008 in order to design an operational planning model for Iranian primary health care systems at level one. Methods: In this applied study, which was done in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner, some countries and international organizations which had comprehensive planning systems and some local organizations were studied. The required data from the selected countries were collected through data collection forms, and for local organizations, the data were collected through interview, and the initial model was presented accordingly. The model was tested via Delphi technique and taking the authorities’ views into account, the required changes were made and the ultimate model was prepared. Results: All the studied overseas and indigenous organizations had programming systems. However, none of the level-one Iranian primary health care units had a coherent planning system, and they did not follow any specific models. Since 2008, the model of operational planning has also been utilized by Iranian Ministry of Health, Care and Medical Education at headquarters levels; however, there was no model at lower levels especially in rural and urban health care centers. In all selected countries, the model of programs included title, objectives or expected results, schedule, activities, budget system and evaluation and monitoring indexes. Though these parts existed in the common models in Iran, no scientific basis could be observed in compiling the operational programs. The mechanism of designing the initial suggested operational planning had eight stages, but after three stages of reviewing by authorities, seven stages were ratified. Conclusion: Utilizing the suggested operational planning model can enhance the level-one performance indicators of health care networks in Iran

  4. The design and features of apatite-coated chitosan microspheres as injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we developed two types of chitosan-based microspheres with and without biomimetic apatite coatings and compared their potential as injectable scaffolds for bone regeneration. The microspheres were obtained by emulsion cross-linking (E0) and coacervate precipitation (C0), respectively. They were then biomimetically coated with apatite to become E1 and C1 microspheres. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the microspheres were characterized. Both E0 and C0 microspheres presented favorable ranges of diameter, density and Rockwell hardness. However, there were differences in the degree of cross-linking, shape, morphology, degradation rate, swelling rate, pH value after PBS immersion and the biocompatibility between E0 and C0. The apatite coating was successfully prepared for both C0 and E0, which enhanced the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest the feasibility of using chitosan microspheres as a potential injectable scaffold. Both the preparation method and the biomimetic apatite coating contribute to their biological properties. (paper)

  5. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  6. Designing Patient-facing Health Information Technologies for the Outpatient Settings: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of health information technologies (HITs has changed the dynamics of doctor–patient communication in outpatient settings. Designing patient-facing HITs provides patients with easy access to healthcare information during the visit and has the potential to enhance the patient-centred care.   Objectives: The objectives of this study are to systematically review how the designs of patient-facing HITs have been suggested and evaluated, and how they may potentially affect the doctor–patient communication and patient-centred care.   Method: We conducted an online database search to identify articles published before December 2014 relevant to the objectives of this study. A total of nine papers have been identified and reviewed in this study.   Results: Designing patient-facing HITs is at an early stage. The current literature has been exploring the impact of HITs on doctor–patient communication dynamics. Based on the findings of these studies, there is an emergent need to design more patient-centred HITs. There are also some papers that focus on the usability evaluation of some preliminary prototypes of the patient-facing HITs. The design styles of patient-facing HITs included sharing the health information with the patients on: (1 a separate patient display, (2 a projector, (3 a portable tablet, (4 a touch-based screen and (5 a shared computer display that can be viewed by both doctors and patients. Each of them had the strengths and limitations to facilitate the patient-centred care, and it is worthwhile to make a comparison of them in order to identify future research directions.   Conclusion: The designs of patient-facing HITs in outpatient settings are promising in facilitating the doctor-patient communication and patient engagement. However, their effectiveness and usefulness need to be further evaluated and improved from a systems perspective.

  7. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  8. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  9. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  10. Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education Locations Predominantly Located in Federally Designated Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities. PMID:27168895

  11. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  12. Effectiveness of a developmental curricular design to graduate culturally competent health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggis, Debra

    2012-01-01

    With the goal to facilitate cultural competency development of students enrolled in graduate-level health professional education, this study examined the effectiveness of a curricular program guided by the Intercultural Developmental Continuum (IDC) as measured by the Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI). The IDI was administered to 17 occupational therapy (OT) students and a control group of 25 non-OT health professional students upon matriculation into their respective programs of graduate study and again upon completion of 3 years of study. OT students participated in a cultural curricular design guided by the IDC, while the control group participated in cultural study not guided by the IDC. Though OT students did not show a significant change in overall developmental orientation mean scores from pre-test to post-test (t = 0.847, p = 0.41), the results indicate that the designed intercultural curriculum increased intercultural competence among those OT students who began their program with the monocultural mindset of polarization (an "us vs. them" evaluative viewpoint) and moved to the interculturally transitional mindset of minimization (recognizing cultural commonalities and elimination of the "us vs. them" mindset). The control group showed a significant decrease in developmental orientation mean scores at post-test (t = 6.1, p competency of OT students, appears to have mitigated a decrease in competence. Results suggest that the cultural challenges that students face appear to be considerable and, without targeted, integrated intercultural preparation, can overwhelm new health professionals' intercultural capability. PMID:22968776

  13. Designing a Model for Trauma System Management Using Public Health Approach: The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Panahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability around the world. Injuries are responsible for about six million deaths annually, of which ninety percent occur in developing countries. In Iran, injuries are the most common cause of death among age groups below fifty. Trauma system development is a systematic and comprehensive approach to injury prevention and treatment whose effectiveness has been proved. The present study aims at designing a trauma system management model as the first step toward trauma system establishment in Iran. In this qualitative research, a conceptual framework was developed based on the public health approach and three well-known trauma system models. We used Benchmarks, Indicators and Scoring (BIS to analyze the current situation of Iran trauma care system. Then the trauma system management was designed using the policy development phase of public health approach The trauma system management model, validated by a panel of experts, describes lead agency, trauma system plan, policy-making councils, and data-based control according to the four main functions of management: leading, planning, organizing and controlling. This model may be implemented in two phases: the exclusive phase, focusing on resource integration and the inclusive phase, which concentrates on system development. The model could facilitate the development of trauma system in Iran through pilot studies as the assurance phase of public health approach. Furthermore, the model can provide a practical framework for trauma system management at the international level.

  14. Symposium on ‘Nutrition and health in children and adolescents’ Session 1: Nutrition in growth and development: Nutrition and bone growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ann; Schoenmakers, Inez; Laskey, M. Ann; de Bono, Stephanie; Ginty, Fiona; Goldberg, Gail R

    2006-01-01

    The growth and development of the human skeleton requires an adequate supply of many different nutritional factors. Classical nutrient deficiencies are associated with stunting (e.g. energy, protein, Zn), rickets (e.g. vitamin D) and other bone abnormalities (e.g. Cu, Zn, vitamin C). In recent years there has been interest in the role nutrition may play in bone growth at intakes above those required to prevent classical deficiencies, particularly in relation to optimising peak bone mass and m...

  15. Designing a patient-centered personal health record to promote preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist Alex H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based preventive services offer profound health benefits, yet Americans receive only half of indicated care. A variety of government and specialty society policy initiatives are promoting the adoption of information technologies to engage patients in their care, such as personal health records, but current systems may not utilize the technology's full potential. Methods Using a previously described model to make information technology more patient-centered, we developed an interactive preventive health record (IPHR designed to more deeply engage patients in preventive care and health promotion. We recruited 14 primary care practices to promote the IPHR to all adult patients and sought practice and patient input in designing the IPHR to ensure its usability, salience, and generalizability. The input involved patient usability tests, practice workflow observations, learning collaboratives, and patient feedback. Use of the IPHR was measured using practice appointment and IPHR databases. Results The IPHR that emerged from this process generates tailored patient recommendations based on guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other organizations. It extracts clinical data from the practices' electronic medical record and obtains health risk assessment information from patients. Clinical content is translated and explained in lay language. Recommendations review the benefits and uncertainties of services and possible actions for patients and clinicians. Embedded in recommendations are self management tools, risk calculators, decision aids, and community resources - selected to match patient's clinical circumstances. Within six months, practices had encouraged 14.4% of patients to use the IPHR (ranging from 1.5% to 28.3% across the 14 practices. Practices successfully incorporated the IPHR into workflow, using it to prepare patients for visits, augment health behavior counseling, explain test results

  16. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk Health Capsules Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Paralyzed Men Regain Movement Featured Website: Mental Health Topics Past Issues Most Viewed May 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit ...

  17. Using R in experimental design with BIBD: An application in health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Teresa A.; Francisco, Carla; Oliveira, Amílcar; Ferreira, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Considering the implementation of an Experimental Design, in any field, the experimenter must pay particular attention and look for the best strategies in the following steps: planning the design selection, conduct the experiments, collect observed data, proceed to analysis and interpretation of results. The focus is on providing both - a deep understanding of the problem under research and a powerful experimental process at a reduced cost. Mainly thanks to the possibility of allowing to separate variation sources, the importance of Experimental Design in Health Sciences is strongly recommended since long time. Particular attention has been devoted to Block Designs and more precisely to Balanced Incomplete Block Designs - in this case the relevance states from the fact that these designs allow testing simultaneously a number of treatments bigger than the block size. Our example refers to a possible study of inter reliability of the Parkinson disease, taking into account the UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale) in order to test if there are significant differences between the specialists who evaluate the patients performances. Statistical studies on this disease were described for example in Richards et al (1994), where the authors investigate the inter-rater Reliability of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Examination. We consider a simulation of a practical situation in which the patients were observed by different specialists and the UPDRS on assessing the impact of Parkinson's disease in patients was observed. Assigning treatments to the subjects following a particular BIBD(9,24,8,3,2) structure, we illustrate that BIB Designs can be used as a powerful tool to solve emerging problems in this area. Once a structure with repeated blocks allows to have some block contrasts with minimum variance, see Oliveira et al. (2006), the design with cardinality 12 was selected for the example. R software was used for computations.

  18. Lagrangian heuristic method for the wireless sensor network design problem in railway structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Akio; Soga, Kenichi; Liu, Ruoshui; Wassell, Ian J.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we study a design method for minimizing the total cost of a wireless sensor network (WSN) used for health monitoring of railway structures. First, we present the problem, that is to simultaneously determine the number of relays and their deployment locations, the transmission power level for each sensor and relay, and the routes for transferring sensor data to a gateway using multi-hop wireless communication. Second, we formulate this task as a mathematical programming problem, and to solve this problem, we propose a near optimal algorithm based on the Lagrangian heuristic method. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of our algorithm through computational experiments carried out using data acquired from a real WSN used for railway structural health monitoring.

  19. The study design and characteristics of the Danish national health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Hesse, Ulrik; Davidsen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    of the four surveys. METHODS: The samples in 1987 and 1994 are based on simple random sampling. The samples in 2000 and 2005 are based on stratified random sampling. In addition, all invited to the survey in 1994 were re-invited in both 2000 and 2005. Data were collected via face-to-face interview at......AIMS: The Danish National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark has carried out national representative health interview surveys among adult Danes in 1987, 1994, 2000 and 2005. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the design, including the response rates...... the respondent's home. Following the interview in 1994, 2000 and 2005, all respondents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The response rate for the face-to-face interview fell from 79.9% in 1987 to 66.7% in 2005 and the response rate for the self...

  20. A mobile sensing system for structural health monitoring: design and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new approach using mobile sensor networks for structural health monitoring. Compared with static sensors, mobile sensor networks offer flexible system architectures with adaptive spatial resolutions. The paper first describes the design of a mobile sensing node that is capable of maneuvering on structures built with ferromagnetic materials. The mobile sensing node can also attach/detach an accelerometer onto/from the structural surface. The performance of the prototype mobile sensor network has been validated through laboratory experiments. Two mobile sensing nodes are adopted for navigating on a steel portal frame and providing dense acceleration measurements. Transmissibility function analysis is conducted to identify structural damage using data collected by the mobile sensing nodes. This preliminary work is expected to spawn transformative changes in the use of mobile sensors for future structural health monitoring

  1. Evaluation of a nurse-designed mobile health education application to enhance knowledge of Pap testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a 2-group randomized control pretest/ posttest design to determine if knowledge about Pap testing could be increased through use of a nurse-designed mobile smartphone app developed to educate individuals about the Pap test. A 14-item pretest survey of knowledge about Pap tests was distributed to women attending a university in New England. Participants in the intervention group were provided with an Android device on which a digital health education application on Pap testing had been downloaded. The control group was given a standard pamphlet on Pap testing., Paired t test results demonstrated that knowledge scores on the posttest increased significantly in both groups, but were significantly higher in the intervention group. User satisfaction with the app was high. The results of this study may enhance nursing care by informing nurses about a unique way of learning about Pap testing to recommend to patients. PMID:25000742

  2. Designing of Wireless Sensor Network Nodes to Detect Vibrational changes for Structural Health Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Raju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Structural Health Monitoring (SHM for building applications using wireless sensor networks is gaining a lot of interest now a day. The low power consumption, low cost and extendable network is a great challenge for designing and monitoring the building applications. Zigbee based on IEEE 802.15.4 characteristics are best suitable for SHM applications. In this paper Zigbee node is transferring the sensor data from sensor to the processing computer. A network has been designed with the coordinator and end device. End device will collect the data from the sensor and send the sensor data to the coordinator, through the coordinator data will be displayed by the processing computer. The prototype works as milestone for achieving the goal of transferring the sensor data with low power consumption.

  3. Public Health Insurance in Vietnam towards Universal Coverage: Identifying the challenges, issues, and problems in its design and organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Matsushima; Hiroyuki Yamada

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is attempting to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2014. Despite great progress, the country faces some challenges, issues and problems. This paper reviewed official documents, existing reports, and related literature to address: (1) grand design for achieving universal health coverage, (2) current insurance coverage, (3) health insurance premium and subsidies by the government, (4) benefit package and payment rule, and (5) organizational practices. From the review, it be...

  4. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  5. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  6. Design, Implementation, and Lessons Learned from a Digital Storytelling Project in an Undergraduate Health Promotion Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Marylen; Smalley, K. Bryant; Warren, Jacob C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and lessons learned from a digital storytelling project in a health promotion theory course. From 2011-2012, 195 health promotion majors completed a digital storytelling project at a Midwestern university. The instructor observed students' understanding of theories and models. This article adds to…

  7. Theory driven research designs for explaining behavioural health risk transitions: the case of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    Recent social network analyses have suggested that common chronic disease risk factors are more mutable than expected; raising practical considerations for public health interventions. Within this context, it is timely to assess the alternative social science reasoning being offered to explain behavioural health risk transitions. This paper takes up this challenge by critically reviewing the major theories applied to the temporal trends and sub-population variations in affluent country smoking behaviour. Three explanations dominate: a materialist approach; Bourdieu's distinctive class-based cultures; and, the spread of norms and emotions within social networks. We note conceptual tension when integrated theories are adopted. We also report on the relative absence of theoretical interrogation for the persistent adoption of smoking behaviours among present and successive lower socio-economic status (SES) cohorts. While unequal rates of persistence within cohorts has received some attention, the ongoing adoption of a non-innovative and health damaging behaviour is not well understood. To this end, we suggest the incorporation of several underused concepts: namely Bourdieu's 'rules of the game' and 'symbolic violence' and 'mimesis', an aspect of social contagion. We conclude by describing the implications for social action of the alternative theories, and argue that theory driven research designs could deliver more efficacious evidence for interventions than the post hoc application of theories to existing data sets. PMID:19394742

  8. Activity-Oriented Design of Health Pal: A Smart Phone for Elders' Healthcare Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shih-Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless telephones and personal digital assistants are emerging, as the information hubs connect their human users with assorted electronic devices and the World Wide Web. As such, they quickly become the de facto basis for personalized information services. The Kannon project team at the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU in Taiwan is developing a ubiquitous service infrastructure for elders' healthcare support. Among their deliverables, there is a PDA Phone, christened Health Pal, which can communicate with Bluetooth/ZigBee devices, uni¬ver¬sal plug-and-play (UPnP e-home service platforms, and online healthcare providers to offer 24/7 healthcare services to elderly people. This paper presents the early results of this effort including the functional and operational concepts of Health Pal as well as the activity-oriented approach of its design. Preliminary results of its usefulness and usability evaluations are reported. A comparison of this platform against several similar prototypes was also included to illustrate the advantage of applying activity-oriented design approach to human-computer interactions.

  9. Activity-Oriented Design of Health Pal: A Smart Phone for Elders' Healthcare Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Fan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless telephones and personal digital assistants are emerging, as the information hubs connect their human users with assorted electronic devices and the World Wide Web. As such, they quickly become the de facto basis for personalized information services. The Kannon project team at the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU in Taiwan is developing a ubiquitous service infrastructure for elders' healthcare support. Among their deliverables, there is a PDA Phone, christened Health Pal, which can communicate with Bluetooth/ZigBee devices, uni¬ver¬sal plug-and-play (UPnP e-home service platforms, and online healthcare providers to offer 24/7 healthcare services to elderly people. This paper presents the early results of this effort including the functional and operational concepts of Health Pal as well as the activity-oriented approach of its design. Preliminary results of its usefulness and usability evaluations are reported. A comparison of this platform against several similar prototypes was also included to illustrate the advantage of applying activity-oriented design approach to human-computer interactions.

  10. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in

  11. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  12. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C.; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners’ meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  13. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DESIGN OF FOOTWEAR WHICH ASSURES THE HEALTH OF THE FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂRCUŞ Liviu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high demands for cheap footwear can only be satisfied by mass fabrication. Costumed footwear would represent a regress, despite the advantages that it brings. This paper regards mainly the demands that mass footwear requires, in order to maintain the health of the foot. The desire to maintain the foot shape and functionality requires certain last forms and fabrication algorithms. We analyze certain aspects referring to: the correct design of the inner sole, insuring the flexibility of the lower part of the footwear by choosing the right type of materials and confection systems, choosing the right height of the heel, setting the adequate shape by increasing the number of different shoe sizes. In order to give a loose space to the adults’ toes, where they are not pressed, but have a complete range of motion, the orthopedists and the last specialists have set several requirements for building the contour of the inner sole. The technique of building a bond between the footwear forepart and the inferior ensemble is dependent to the purpose and partially to the fashion demands of the shoe. The sole shape is influenced by the buyers, as seen by the development of the ex-flex footwear. There must be noted that in this case, the work of the model designer coincides with the exigencies of the specialist in footwear health. With the help of certain functional considerations and of several mechanical calculations, it can be proven that a heel with a height of 3 cm does not necessarily have a negative impact on the foot health. This is why even the orthopedics consider this limit as acceptable. Higher heels must be avoided if we want to maintain a normal function and development of the foot.

  14. SPHERE's 'Dress Sense' a Multi-disciplinary approach to designing wearable technology to improve health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Healthcare systems face financial challenges, with a greater number of the population living longer with long term conditions. In order to deliver safe, high quality care within these constraints, we must place more emphasis on preventing illness than treating illness. We can use the science of behaviour change, health, and technology to create solutions to these problems. An example of innovation in this field include SPHERE’s multidisciplinary project entitled ‘Dress Sense’, with the aim to create a piece of wearable technology to improve health. Description This competition was run by SPHERE (Sensor Platform for HEalthcare in a Residential Environment which focuses on developing sensor systems to monitor health and wellbeing in the home. The teams comprised of computer scientists, medical professionals, students and school children, engineers, fashion designers and textile artists. They were provided with a kit including Arduino software, sensors and other items to make wearable computers. There were no constraints on what they could produce, except for a deadline of 3 weeks. The end project was judged according to the innovation and usefulness of the overall concept; the functionality, usability and desirability (aesthetics of the constructed device and the multi-displinary component. The idea was to foster open innovation in order to share ideas between specialities. Conclusions Ideas included tackling diabetic medical adherence through a wearable band to sensors woven into socks to prevent deep vein thrombosis. The winning concept was, ‘Yo’ a support system to aid cognitive behaviour therapy, through wearable products and accessories, to help those who begin CBT, stay motivated to engage effectively with therapy. This project highlighs how through multi-disciplinary collaboration and including the younger generation, innovative effective ideas can be found to harness digital technology to improve health.

  15. Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, state and local health departments in the United States (US have accelerated efforts to prepare for high-impact public health emergencies. One component of these activities has been the development and conduct of exercise programs to assess capabilities, train staff and build relationships. This paper summarizes lessons learned from tabletop exercises about public health emergency preparedness and about the process of developing, conducting, and evaluating them. Methods We developed, conducted, and evaluated 31 tabletop exercises in partnership with state and local health departments throughout the US from 2003 to 2006. Participant self evaluations, after action reports, and tabletop exercise evaluation forms were used to identify aspects of the exercises themselves, as well as public health emergency responses that participants found more or less challenging, and to highlight lessons learned about tabletop exercise design. Results Designing the exercises involved substantial collaboration with representatives from participating health departments to assure that the scenarios were credible, focused attention on local preparedness needs and priorities, and were logistically feasible to implement. During execution of the exercises, nearly all health departments struggled with a common set of challenges relating to disease surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, communications, command and control, and health care surge capacity. In contrast, performance strengths were more varied across participating sites, reflecting specific attributes of individual health departments or communities, experience with actual public health emergencies, or the emphasis of prior preparedness efforts. Conclusion The design, conduct, and evaluation of the tabletop exercises described in this report benefited from collaborative planning that involved stakeholders from participating health departments and exercise developers and

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member....../base balance and bone health” and “bone density/bone health”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal bone by maintaining acid-base balance. The Panel considers that...... maintenance of normal bone is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the...

  17. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  18. Theory-Guided Materials Design of Multi-Phase Ti-Nb Alloys with Bone-Matching Elastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Neugebauer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a scale-bridging approach for modeling the integral elasticresponse of polycrystalline composite that is based on a multi-disciplinary combination of(i parameter-free first-principles calculations of thermodynamic phase stability andsingle-crystal elastic stiffness; and (ii homogenization schemes developed forpolycrystalline aggregates and composites. The modeling is used as a theory-guidedbottom-up materials design strategy and applied to Ti-Nb alloys as promising candidatesfor biomedical implant applications. The theoretical results (i show an excellent agreementwith experimental data and (ii reveal a decisive influence of the multi-phase character ofthe polycrystalline composites on their integral elastic properties. The study shows thatthe results based on the density functional theory calculations at the atomistic level canbe directly used for predictions at the macroscopic scale, effectively scale-jumping severalorders of magnitude without using any empirical parameters.

  19. How Effective Are Clinical Pathways With and Without Online Peer-Review? An Analysis of Bone Metastases Pathway in a Large, Integrated National Cancer Institute–Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Clinical pathways are an important tool used to manage the quality in health care by standardizing processes. This study evaluated the impact of the implementation of a peer-reviewed clinical pathway in a large, integrated National Cancer Institute–Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network. Methods: In 2003, we implemented a clinical pathway for the management of bone metastases with palliative radiation therapy. In 2009, we required the entry of management decisions into an online tool that records pathway choices. The pathway specified 1 or 5 fractions for symptomatic bone metastases with the option of 10–14 fractions for certain clinical situations. The data were obtained from 13 integrated sites (3 central academic, 10 community locations) from 2003 through 2010. Results: In this study, 7905 sites were treated with 64% of courses delivered in community practice and 36% in academic locations. Academic practices were more likely than community practices to treat with 1–5 fractions (63% vs. 23%; p < 0.0001). The number of delivered fractions decreased gradually from 2003 to 2010 for both academic and community practices (p < 0.0001); however, greater numbers of fractions were selected more often in community practices (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that a significantly greater selection of 1–5 fractions developed after implementation online pathway monitoring (2009) with an odds ratio of 1.2 (confidence interval, 1.1–1.4) for community and 1.3 (confidence interval, 1.1–1.6) for academic practices. The mean number of fractions also decreased after online peer review from 6.3 to 6.0 for academic (p = 0.07) and 9.4 to 9.0 for community practices (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to examine the efficacy of a clinical pathway for radiation oncology in an integrated cancer network. Clinical pathway implementation appears to be effective in changing patterns of care, particularly with

  20. How Effective Are Clinical Pathways With and Without Online Peer-Review? An Analysis of Bone Metastases Pathway in a Large, Integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Flickinger, John C.; Rakfal, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rodgers, Edwin [Via Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Clinical pathways are an important tool used to manage the quality in health care by standardizing processes. This study evaluated the impact of the implementation of a peer-reviewed clinical pathway in a large, integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network. Methods: In 2003, we implemented a clinical pathway for the management of bone metastases with palliative radiation therapy. In 2009, we required the entry of management decisions into an online tool that records pathway choices. The pathway specified 1 or 5 fractions for symptomatic bone metastases with the option of 10-14 fractions for certain clinical situations. The data were obtained from 13 integrated sites (3 central academic, 10 community locations) from 2003 through 2010. Results: In this study, 7905 sites were treated with 64% of courses delivered in community practice and 36% in academic locations. Academic practices were more likely than community practices to treat with 1-5 fractions (63% vs. 23%; p < 0.0001). The number of delivered fractions decreased gradually from 2003 to 2010 for both academic and community practices (p < 0.0001); however, greater numbers of fractions were selected more often in community practices (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that a significantly greater selection of 1-5 fractions developed after implementation online pathway monitoring (2009) with an odds ratio of 1.2 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.4) for community and 1.3 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.6) for academic practices. The mean number of fractions also decreased after online peer review from 6.3 to 6.0 for academic (p = 0.07) and 9.4 to 9.0 for community practices (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to examine the efficacy of a clinical pathway for radiation oncology in an integrated cancer network. Clinical pathway implementation appears to be effective in changing patterns of care, particularly with online clinical

  1. Health Reform: A Community Experience Using Design Research as a Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Severson, Mary A.; Wood, Douglas L.; Chastain, Christine N.; Lee, Laura G.; Rees, Adam C.; Agerter, David C; Holtz, Carol P.; Broers, Joan K.; Savoleinen, Kimberly H.; Spurrier, Barbara R.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful health reform in the United States must improve the health of the population while lowering costs. In an effort to provide a framework for doing so, the Institute of Health Care Improvement created the triple aim, which encompasses the goals of (1) improving individual health and experience with the health care system, (2) improving population health, and (3) decreasing the rate of per capita health care costs. Current reform efforts have focused on the development of Patient-Cente...

  2. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...

  3. Cow's Milk Allergy in Childhood May Lead to Weaker Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158413.html Cow's Milk Allergy in Childhood May Lead to Weaker Bones: ... HealthDay News) -- Children who are allergic to cow's milk may have weaker bones than kids with other ...

  4. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. PMID:23562167

  5. Space Radiation and Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

  6. Coaching the process of designing a farm: Using the healthy human as a metaphor for farm health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloksma, J.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is on coaching farmers in (re)designing a farm. It describes how farmers can become inspired to design a sustainable farm by the way medical doctors look at the human being and his health. Sustainability in farm management is usually strived for in such a way that damage to People, Planet

  7. Responsive Evaluation as a Guide to Design and Implementation: Case Study of an E-Health Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Kim, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the design and implementation of a web-based e-health application offers an opportunity to apply extensive research findings and evidence-based practices from the learning and performance literature. In this study, we examined how interactions between stakeholders influenced the design, implementation, and outcomes of an e-health…

  8. Designing Iranian Model to Assess the Level of Health System Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Gharaee, Hojat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the rapid pace of changes in community health needs and the mission of healthcare organizations to provide and promote the community’s health, the growing need to increase health system responsiveness to people as a key element of observance and fulfillment of justice is felt more than ever. Objectives: This study was aimed at designing the native model of responsiveness for Iran and to validate the aspects of the proposed model. Materials and Methods: Our study had a cross-sectional design and was a validation study performed in 2014. In order to define and identify responsiveness model aspects, the first phase recorded the views of 200 key informants from 19 provinces of Iran. Snowball sampling was used to select experts (based on WHO guideline). Then, the opinions of 18 comments were received from service recipients in the form of three focus group discussions and were analyzed by the frame framework analysis (interviewed recipients were selected using the purposive sampling method). Finally, in order to confirm the model’s efficacy, a responsiveness questionnaire with 7 aspects (domains) and 52 indicators (items) obtained from the initial proposed model was answered by 600 members of the selected families in the two provinces of Fars and Yazd. A multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used for the household survey. The results were analyzed by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) test and through the use of Lisrel software. Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis, based on the results of the key informant survey and group discussions, showed that according to quantities of GFI = 0.91, CFI = 0.93, NFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.074, SRMR = 0.061 and Hoelter (CN) = 178.54 in outpatient services and where GFI = 0.89, CFI = 0.91, NFI = 0.86, RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.053 and Hoelter (CN) = 158.93 for inpatient services, seven factors (F) (dignity, informed choice, confidentiality, patient training and informing, access to services, quality of basic

  9. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  10. Bone Quality in Children with Severe Neurological Impairment and Intellectual Disability: Diagnostic methods and determinants of low bone quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mergler, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis addresses bone quality in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID). In clinical practice severe problems concerning bone health are encountered in this group of severely disabled children.

  11. Long-Term Vitamin D3 Supplementation Does Not Prevent Colonic Inflammation or Modulate Bone Health in IL-10 Knockout Mice at Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Glenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an idiopathic disease that can impair bone metabolism. Low vitamin D status has been implicated in its progress. This study used interleukin (IL-10 knockout (KO mice, that develop an intestinal inflammation when housed in a non-sterile environment, to determine if supplementation with vitamin D3 throughout life could mitigate inflammation and attenuate the lower bone mineral content (BMC and density (BMD, and bone strength. Female IL-10 KO mice were randomized 25 or 5000 IU vitamin D3/kg diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, offspring received the same or opposite diet as their mother until age three months. Body weight growth was similar among groups within a sex. At three months of age, there were no differences in inflammation and gene expression in the colon of offspring. Male offspring exposed to continuous 25 IU vitamin D3/kg diet had lower (p < 0.001 colonic VDR expression and those exposed only to low vitamin D3 until weaning had higher serum IL-6. There were no differences in femur or vertebral BMC, BMD or bone strength. In summary, long-term exposure to vitamin D3 did not attenuate intestinal inflammation or preserve bone mineral or bone strength. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D3 does not exert anti-inflammatory effects in this mouse model that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs--A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Serge; Body, Jean-Jacques; Bruyère, Olivier; Bergmann, Pierre; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cooper, Cyrus; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Gielen, Evelien; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Rizzoli, René; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes with a dairy-free diet. Despite the established benefits for bone health, some people avoid dairy in their diet due to beliefs that dairy may be detrimental to health, especially in those with weight management issues, lactose intolerance, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or trying to avoid cardiovascular disease. This review provides information for health professionals to enable them to help their patients make informed decisions about consuming dairy products as part of a balanced diet. There may be a weak association between dairy consumption and a possible small weight reduction, with decreases in fat mass and waist circumference and increases in lean body mass. Lactose intolerant individuals may not need to completely eliminate dairy products from their diet, as both yogurt and hard cheese are well tolerated. Among people with arthritis, there is no evidence for a benefit to avoid dairy consumption. Dairy products do not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if low fat. Intake of up to three servings of dairy products per day appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health. PMID:26445771

  13. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  14. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  15. An exercise-based randomized controlled trial on brain, cognition, physical health and mental health in overweight/obese children (ActiveBrains project): Rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Mora-González, José; Migueles, Jairo H; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Gómez-Vida, José; Escolano-Margarit, María Victoria; Maldonado, José; Enriquez, Gala María; Pastor-Villaescusa, Belén; de Teresa, Carlos; Navarrete, Socorro; Lozano, Rosa María; de Dios Beas-Jiménez, Juan; Estévez-López, Fernando; Mena-Molina, Alejandra; Heras, María José; Chillón, Palma; Campoy, Cristina; Muñoz-Hernández, Victoria; Martínez-Ávila, Wendy Daniela; Merchan, María Elisa; Perales, José C; Gil, Ángel; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Aguilera, Concepción M; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Catena, Andrés; Ortega, Francisco B

    2016-03-01

    The new and recent advances in neuroelectric and neuroimaging technologies provide a new era for further exploring and understanding how brain and cognition function can be stimulated by environmental factors, such as exercise, and particularly to study whether physical exercise influences brain development in early ages. The present study, namely the ActiveBrains project, aims to examine the effects of a physical exercise programme on brain and cognition, as well as on selected physical and mental health outcomes in overweight/obese children. A total of 100 participants aged 8 to 11 years are randomized into an exercise group (N=50) or a control group (N=50). The intervention lasts 20-weeks, with 3-5 sessions per week of 90 min each, and is mainly focused on high-intensity aerobic exercise yet also includes muscle-strengthening exercises. The extent to what the intervention effect remains 8-months after the exercise programme finishes is also studied in a subsample. Brain structure and function and cognitive performance are assessed using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalographic recordings. Secondary outcomes include physical health outcomes (e.g. physical fitness, body fatness, bone mass and lipid-metabolic factors) and mental health outcomes (e.g. chronic stress indicators and overall behavioural and personality measurements such as anxiety or depression). This project will substantially contribute to the existing knowledge and will have an impact on societies, since early stimulation of brain development might have long lasting consequences on cognitive performance, academic achievement and in the prevention of behavioural problems and the promotion of psychological adjustment and mental health. Clinical trials. Gov identifier: NCT02295072. PMID:26924671

  16. Evaluation of a learner-designed course for teaching health research skills in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbenyega Tsiri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries the ability to conduct locally-relevant health research and high quality education are key tools in the fight against poverty. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel UK accredited, learner-designed research skills course delivered in a teaching hospital in Ghana. Methods Study participants were 15 mixed speciality health professionals from Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. Effectiveness measures included process, content and outcome indicators to evaluate changes in learners' confidence and competence in research, and assessment of the impact of the course on changing research-related thinking and behaviour. Results were verified using two independent methods. Results 14/15 learners gained research competence assessed against UK Quality Assurance Agency criteria. After the course there was a 36% increase in the groups' positive responses to statements concerning confidence in research-related attitudes, intentions and actions. The greatest improvement (45% increase was in learners' actions, which focused on strengthening institutional research capacity. 79% of paired before/after responses indicated positive changes in individual learners' research-related attitudes (n = 53, 81% in intention (n = 52 and 85% in action (n = 52. The course had increased learners' confidence to start and manage research, and enhanced life-long skills such as reflective practice and self-confidence. Doing their own research within the work environment, reflecting on personal research experiences and utilising peer support and pooled knowledge were critical elements that promoted learning. Conclusion Learners in Ghana were able to design and undertake a novel course that developed individual and institutional research capacity and met international standards. Learning by doing and a supportive peer community at work were critical elements in promoting learning in this environment

  17. A systems engineering perspective on the human-centered design of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, George M; Horst, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    The discipline of systems engineering, over the past five decades, has used a structured systematic approach to managing the "cradle to grave" development of products and processes. While elements of this approach are typically used to guide the development of information systems that instantiate a significant user interface, it appears to be rare for the entire process to be implemented. In fact, a number of authors have put forth development lifecycle models that are subsets of the classical systems engineering method, but fail to include steps such as incremental hazard analysis and post-deployment corrective and preventative actions. In that most health information systems have safety implications, we argue that the design and development of such systems would benefit by implementing this systems engineering approach in full. Particularly with regard to bringing a human-centered perspective to the formulation of system requirements and the configuration of effective user interfaces, this classical systems engineering method provides an excellent framework for incorporating human factors (ergonomics) knowledge and integrating ergonomists in the interdisciplinary development of health information systems. PMID:15694886

  18. Rationale and design considerations for a semantic mediator in health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoulet, P; Sauquet, D; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Lavril, M

    1998-11-01

    Rapid development of community health information networks raises the issue of semantic interoperability between distributed and heterogeneous systems. Indeed, operational health information systems originate from heterogeneous teams of independent developers and have to cooperate in order to exchange data and services. A good cooperation is based on a good understanding of the messages exchanged between the systems. The main issue of semantic interoperability is to ensure that the exchange is not only possible but also meaningful. The main objective of this paper is to analyze semantic interoperability from a software engineering point of view. It describes the principles for the design of a semantic mediator (SM) in the framework of a distributed object manager (DOM). The mediator is itself a component that should allow the exchange of messages independently of languages and platforms. The functional architecture of such a SM is detailed. These principles have been partly applied in the context of the HELIOS object-oriented software engineering environment. The resulting service components are presented with their current state of achievement. PMID:9865050

  19. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site. PMID:26188988

  20. Facility Design and Health Management Program at the Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Carrie L; Johnson, Eric W; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    The number of researchers and institutions moving to the utilization of zebrafish for biomedical research continues to increase because of the recognized advantages of this model. Numerous factors should be considered before building a new or retooling an existing facility. Design decisions will directly impact the management and maintenance costs. We and others have advocated for more rigorous approaches to zebrafish health management to support and protect an increasingly diverse portfolio of important research. The Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory (SARL) is located ∼3 miles from the main Oregon State University campus in Corvallis, Oregon. This facility supports several research programs that depend heavily on the use of adult, larval, and embryonic zebrafish. The new zebrafish facility of the SARL began operation in 2007 with a commitment to build and manage an efficient facility that diligently protects human and fish health. An important goal was to ensure that the facility was free of Pseudoloma neurophilia (Microsporidia), which is very common in zebrafish research facilities. We recognize that there are certain limitations in space, resources, and financial support that are institution dependent, but in this article, we describe the steps taken to build and manage an efficient specific pathogen-free facility. PMID:26981844

  1. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women ( 繁體中文 ) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Asian ...

  2. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Won, J. E.; Yun, Y. R.; Jang, J. H.; S. H. Yang; Kim, J. H.; W. Chrzanowski; Wall, I. B.; Knowles, J. C.; Kim, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctio...

  3. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  4. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  5. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  6. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  7. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  8. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of human osteoporotic, osteoarthrotic and rheumatoid arthritic cancellous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    Introduction: Osteoporosis (OP), osteoarthrosis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the most common age-related degenerative bone diseases, and major public health problems in terms of enormous amount of economic cost. RA is considered as a major cause of secondary osteoporosis. At late stage......, OP often leads to skeletal fractures, and OA and RA result in severe joint disability. Over the last a few decades, much significant research on the properties has been carried out on these diseases, however, a detailed comparison of the microarchitecture of cancellous bones of these diseases is not....... Discussion Quantification of the alterations in bone properties and quality will help to gain more insights into the pathogenesis of degenerative bone diseases and to target and develop novel approaches for the intervention and treatment, and for the design, fixation and durability of total joint prosthesis...

  9. The 2003 Australian Breast Health Survey: survey design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favelle Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. Methods The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30–69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Results Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4% had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1% reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9% had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. Conclusion The

  10. Cancer treatment-related bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sue A.; Guise, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone health may be impaired in many patients being treated for cancer. Primary tumors that reside in or form metastases to bone can result in compromised skeletal integrity. It has also been increasingly recognized that patients undergoing therapies for treatment of cancer are at higher risk of bone loss. These include androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer among others. Hypogonadism induced by many of these cancer treatments results...

  11. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolat...

  12. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  13. Design and biomechanical study of bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw%新型可注射骨水泥椎弓根螺钉的设计及生物力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑶瑶; 孙东; 罗飞; 张泽华; 代飞; 许建中

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨一种新型可注射骨水泥椎弓根螺钉(bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw,CICPS)的设计和生物力学性能,为骨质疏松脊柱疾病的内固定治疗提供一种安全有效的新选择. 方法 (1)在体外、骨质疏松松质骨模型和椎体标本内行骨水泥注射实验,X线片、CT观察骨水泥分布和钉-骨界面情况.(2)取10枚灌注骨水泥后的CICPS和普通椎弓根螺钉行剪切力试验.(3)在松质骨模型中用2~3ml骨水泥强化CICPS行轴向拔出力试验,与普通椎弓根螺钉进行比较. 结果 CICPS各个侧孔均有骨水泥流出,且仅分布于螺钉前部,弥散均匀广泛,未见骨水泥渗漏.CICPS的剪切力为(10600.8±360.1)N,普通螺钉为(15 458.1±311.4)N(P<0.05).CICPS的最大轴向拔出力为(209.3±13.3)N,普通螺钉为(27.0±5.0)N(P<0.05).结论 CICPS使骨水泥弥散均匀一致,减少骨水泥渗漏风险,并可显著提高骨质疏松椎体中椎弓根螺钉的把持力.CICPS具有良好的有效性和安全性,为其临床应用提供了理论基础.%Objective To investigate the design and mechanical properties of bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw (CICPS) so as to provide a safe and effective internal fixation for osteoporotic spinal disorder. Methods ( 1 ) Bone cement injection test was performed in vitro,and within osteoporotic cancellous bone models and osteoporotic vertebrae respectively.The distribution of bone cement and screw-bone interface were observed by X-ray films and CT.(2) Ten CICPSs already injected with bone cement and ten conventional pedicle screws were respectively examined by shear strength test.(3) CICPS in the cancellous bone models was augmented with 2-3 ml of bone cement.Then,the maximum axial pull-out strength of the CICPS was measured and were compared with that of conventional screws. Results Bone cement overflowed from each side hole of the CICPS and distributed only around the front of screws in an even and extensive

  14. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidt-Nave Christa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic

  15. Health economics of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Borgström, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Health economics is concerned about how the scarce resources should most efficiently be allocated to maximise the health outcomes. Health economic evaluation is a method for assessing costs and benefits of alternative treatment strategies for allocating resources to assist decisions aiming at improving efficiency. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased bone fragility...

  16. A systematic review of eHealth cancer prevention and control interventions: new technology, same methods and designs?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Michael A.; Rabin, Borsika A.; Gaglio, Bridget; Henton, Michelle; Elzarrad, M Khair; Purcell, Peyton; Glasgow, Russell E

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of eHealth programs in cancer and other content areas, but few reviews have focused on the methodologies and designs employed in these studies. We conducted a systematic review of studies on eHealth interventions on cancer prevention and control published between 2001 and 2010 applying the Pragmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) criteria and external validity components from the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) f...

  17. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas of physiological need. The mechanism by which cells are precisely targeted to areas requiring repair is both clinically relevant and poorly understood. The osteocyte has been assumed to play a role in sensing damage and signaling for its removal, due largely to its abundance throughout the mineralized bone matrix. However, until recently there has been little evidence that osteocyte function is modified in the vicinity of the microdamage. Here I outline the possibility that the targeted removal of bone containing microcracks might involve signals derived from the apoptotic death of the osteocyte. I shall discuss data that support or refute this view and will consider the possible molecular mechanisms by which controlled cell death might contribute to the signals for repair in the light of work involving cells in bone and other tissue systems.

  18. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Eric J; Hyde, Kelly L; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa N; Lyon, Aaron R

    2016-05-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorporated user/stakeholder perspectives at multiple points and resulted in an electronic behavioral health information system (EBHIS) specific to the wraparound care coordination model for youth with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. First, we review foundational HIT research on how EBHIS can enhance efficiency and outcomes of wraparound that was used to inform development. After describing the rationale for and functions of a prototype EBHIS for wraparound, we describe methods and results for a series of six small studies that informed system development across four phases of effort-predevelopment, development, initial user testing, and commercialization-and discuss how these results informed system design and refinement. Finally, we present next steps, challenges to dissemination, and guidance for others aiming to develop specialized behavioral health HIT. The research team's experiences reinforce the opportunity presented by EBHIS to improve care coordination for populations with complex needs, while also pointing to a litany of barriers and challenges to be overcome to implement such technologies. PMID:26060099

  19. DESIGNING ACCESS CONTROL MODEL AND ENFORCING SECURITY POLICIES USING PERMIS FOR A SMART ITEM E-HEALTH SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN MAHMUD,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks in medical applications are the edge component of the health care system. This type of network comprises a significant number of different sensor devices called smart items which are tightly connected and interacts continuously. Smart items measure the values of different health variables and send them through suitable communication interface. Measured data forms a crucial part of personal health information which must be protected from the aspect of integrity and patient privacy. This paper presents security concerns regarding an e-health application built on a wireless sensor network environment. We have designed security policies for the e-health scenario and enforced those policies through PERMIS (Privilege and Role Management Infrastructure Standards that uses RBAC (Role Based Access Control, X.509 and PMI (Privilege ManagementInfrastructure to implement authentication and authorization scheme. The concept of reference monitor has also been shown with an example policy implementation using ConSpec policy language.

  20. Rationale, design, and method of the Diabetes & Women's Health study – a study of long-term health implications of glucose intolerance in pregnancy and their determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B; Olsen, Sjurdur F;

    2014-01-01

    diabetes mellitus in two existing prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study II and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women who had a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in one or more of their pregnancies are eligible for the present study. After enrollment, we follow study participants...... public health interventions in relation to the transition of gestational diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To achieve the goal efficiently, we are applying a hybrid design enrolling and collecting data longitudinally from approximately 4000 women with a medical history of gestational...

  1. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  2. Bone disease in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Anastasia D; Lyritis, George P; Tournis, Symeon

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by emaciation due to self-starvation and displays a unique hormonal profile. Alterations in gonadal axis, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor I levels, hypercortisolemia and low triiodothyronine levels are almost universally present and constitute an adaptive response to malnutrition. Bone metabolism is likewise affected resulting in low bone mineral density, reduced bone accrual and increased fracture risk. Skeletal deficits often persist even after recovery from the disease with serious implications for future skeletal health. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying bone disease are quite complicated and treatment is a particularly challenging task. PMID:24722126

  3. Soft perches in an aviary system reduce incidence of keel bone damage in laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Stratmann

    Full Text Available Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White and brown laying hens (ISA Brown kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems.

  4. Evidence of an association between seasonal cycling of 25(OH)D and markers of bone health in UK South Asian but not Caucasian women living at 51oN

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, AL; Berry, JL; Gossiel, F.; Hannon, R; Eastell, R.; Lanham-New, SA

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to assess whether seasonal cycling of 25(OH)D (25-dihydroxy vitamin D) is associated with bone health. Method: A subgroup of 65 South Asian and Caucasian women who took part in the 2006-2007 D-FINES study was analysed. During this study they had blood drawn in four seasons for determination of 25(OH)D and serum c-telopeptide (sCTX)and in autumn and spring they had a DEXA scan (Hologic). Cycling of 25(OH)D was assessed by calculating the difference between the winter (nad...

  5. Prevalence of Work-Related Asthma in Primary Health Care: Study Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabell-Santacana, Ventura; Panadès-Valls, Rafael; Vila-Rigat, Rosa; Hernandez-Huet, Enric; Sivecas-Maristany, Joan; Blanché-Prat, Xavier; Prieto, Gemma; Muñoz, Laura; Torán, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Background : Occupational Asthma (OA) is the most frequent origin of occupational respiratory diseases in industrialized countries and accounts for between 5% and 25% of asthmatic patients. The correct and early diagnosis of OA is of great preventive and socio-economic importance. However, few studies exist on OA’s prevalence in Catalonia and in Spain and those affected are mainly treated by the public health services and not by the occupational health services, which are private. Objective : To determine the prevalence of OA in patients diagnosed with asthma in the Primary Healthcare system and to evaluate the socio-economic impact of OA in the Primary Healthcare system. Methods/Design : We will carry out an observational, transversal and multi-center study in the Primary Healthcare Service in the Barcelona region (Catalonia, Spain), with 385 asthmatic workers aged between 16 and 64 who are currently working or have been working in the past. We will confirm the asthma diagnosis in each patient, and those meeting the inclusion criteria will be asked to answer a questionnaire that aims to link asthma to the patient’s past employment history. The resulting diagnosis will be of either occupational asthma, work-aggravated asthma or common asthma. We will also collect socio-demographic information about the patients, about their smoking status, their exposure outside of the workplace, their work situation at the onset of the symptoms, their employment history, their symptoms of asthma, their present and past medical asthma treatment, and, in order to estimate the economic impact in the Primary Healthcare system, where they have been attended to and treated. Prevalence will link OA or work-aggravated asthma to the total of patients participating in the study with a asthma diagnosis. Discussion : The results will show the prevalence of OA and work-aggravated asthma, and shall provide valuable information to set out and apply the necessary personal and technical

  6. 21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone densitometer. 892.1170 Section 892.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A...

  7. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  8. An Evaluation of a Voluntary Academic Medical Center Website Designed to Improve Access to Health Education among Consumers: Implications for E-Health and M-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Hollingsworth, Nicole Rosella

    2012-01-01

    Academic Medical Centers across the United States provide health libraries on their web portals to disseminate health promotion and disease prevention information, in order to assist patients in the management of their own care. However, there is a need to obtain consumer input, consumer satisfaction, and to conduct formal evaluations. The purpose…

  9. The peak bone mass concept: is it still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönau, Eckhard

    2004-08-01

    The peak bone mass concept implies that optimal skeletal development during childhood and adolescence will prevent fractures in late adulthood. This concept is based on the observation that areal bone density increases with growth during childhood, is highest around 20 years of age and declines thereafter. However, it is now clear that strong bones in the youngster do not necessarily lead to a fracture-free old age. In the recent bone densitometric literature, the terms bone mass and bone density are typically used synonymously. In physics, density has been defined as the mass of a body divided by its volume. In clinical practice and science, "bone density" usually has a different meaning-the degree to which a radiation beam is attenuated by a bone, as judged from a two-dimensional projection image (areal bone density). The attenuation of a radiation beam does not only depend on physical density, but also on bone size. A small bone therefore has a lower areal bone density than a larger bone, even if the physical density is the same. Consequently, a low areal bone density value can simply reflect the small size of an otherwise normal bone. At present, bone mass analysis is very useful for epidemiological studies on factors that may have an impact on bone development. There is an ongoing discussion about whether the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of osteoporosis is over-simplistic and requires upgrading to include indices representing the distribution of bone and mineral (bone strength indices). The following suggestions and recommendations outline a new concept: bone mass should not be related to age. There is now more and more evidence that bone mass should be related to bone size or muscle function. Thus analyzed, there is no such entity as a "peak bone mass". Many studies are currently under way to evaluate whether these novel approaches increase sensitivity and specificity of fracture prediction in an individual. Furthermore, the focus of many bone

  10. Which intervention design factors influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kane, Sumit S; Ormel, Hermen; Tijm, Mandy M; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-11-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors influence CHW performance. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention design related factors influencing performance of CHWs. We systematically searched six databases for quantitative and qualitative studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health services in LMICs. One hundred and forty studies met the inclusion criteria, were quality assessed and double read to extract data relevant to the design of CHW programmes. A preliminary framework containing factors influencing CHW performance and characteristics of CHW performance (such as motivation and competencies) guided the literature search and review.A mix of financial and non-financial incentives, predictable for the CHWs, was found to be an effective strategy to enhance performance, especially of those CHWs with multiple tasks. Performance-based financial incentives sometimes resulted in neglect of unpaid tasks. Intervention designs which involved frequent supervision and continuous training led to better CHW performance in certain settings. Supervision and training were often mentioned as facilitating factors, but few studies tested which approach worked best or how these were best implemented. Embedment of CHWs in community and health systems was found to diminish workload and increase CHW credibility. Clearly defined CHW roles and introduction of clear processes for communication among different levels of the health system could strengthen CHW performance.When designing community-based health programmes, factors that increased CHW performance in comparable settings should be taken into account. Additional intervention research to develop a better evidence base for the most effective training and supervision mechanisms and qualitative research to inform

  11. Using the opinions of coronary heart disease patients in designing a health education booklet for use in general practice consultations.

    OpenAIRE

    Leathem, C.S.; Cupples, Margaret; Byrne, M C; Byrne, M; Corrigan, M.; Smith, S M; Murphy, A W

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study explored how coronary heart disease (CHD) patients’ views would inform the design of an information booklet aimed at providing patients and practitioners with a resource to help influence positively patients’ health behaviour outcomes. Methods Opinions of patients (N=23) with CHD about their information needs, particularly lifestyle advice, were explored using a qualitative approach in four general practices. This information was used in designing a booklet for a pilot st...

  12. Design and Analysis of Health Products and Services: An Example at a Specialized COPD Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, Christian; Rubio, Vicente Ortún

    2008-01-01

    Health care demands have increased dramatically in recent decades. With the introduction of major changes in the management of health problems, health care costs have spiralled. Today, in the interests of cost control, medicine is geared towards outpatient care whenever possible. In this process, the medical community has been obliged to adapt its traditional criteria to the dictates of national economies. Today the criteria for the organization and evaluation of the health services are based...

  13. Designing the framework for competency-based master of public health programs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Morgan, Alison; Gaidhane, Abhay; Syed, Zahiruddin Quazi; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Competency in the practice of public health is the implicit goal of education institutions that offer master of public health (MPH) programs. With the expanding number of institutions offering courses in public health in India, it is timely to develop a common framework to ensure that graduates are proficient in critical public health. Steps such as situation assessment, survey of public health care professionals in India, and national consultation were undertaken to develop a proposed competency-based framework for MPH programs in India. The existing curricula of all 23 Indian MPH courses vary significantly in content with regard to core, concentration, and crosscutting discipline areas and course durations. The competency or learning outcome is not well defined. The findings of the survey suggest that MPH graduates in India should have competencies ranging from monitoring of health problems and epidemics in the community, applying biostatistics in public health, conducting action research, understanding social and community influence on public health developing indicators and instruments to monitor and evaluate community health programs, developing proposals, and involving community in planning, delivery, and monitoring of health programs. Competency statements were framed and mapped with domains including epidemiology, biostatistics, social and behavioral sciences, health care system, policy, planning, and financing, and environmental health sciences and a crosscutting domain that include health communication and informatics, health management and leadership, professionalism, systems thinking, and public health biology. The proposed competency-based framework for Indian MPH programs can be adapted to meet the needs of diverse, unique programs. The framework ensures the uniqueness and diversity of individual MPH programs in India while contributing to measures of overall program success. PMID:23169401

  14. Bone Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonediseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  15. Bone Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonecancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  16. Testing the Theoretical Design of a Health Risk Message: Reexamining the Major Tenets of the Extended Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Thomas D.; Bracken, Cheryl Campanella

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the fear control/danger control responses that are predicted by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). In a campaign designed to inform college students about the symptoms and dangers of meningitis, participants were given either a high-threat/no-efficacy or high-efficacy/no-threat health risk message, thus testing the…

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Donegal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-11-23

    Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  18. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Todenhöfer; Arnulf Stenzl; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Rachner, Tilman D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL), antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs) in the castrat...

  19. From the bones : a journey of searching new uses for animal bones in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaoni, Jiao, 1986-

    2015-01-01

    This study is about using a design method to find new uses of leftover lamb bones from slaughterhouses in Iceland. As a Chinese designer studying in Iceland, I found great differences in the Icelandic and Chinese food culture, being curious about the fate of animal bone leftover from Icelandic livestock. I started investigate how and whether people use animal bones. To raise questions about the consequences of consumerism, I decided to use waste from the Icelandic food industry as my desig...

  20. Bone-Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, J.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Fehm, T.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates and denosumab are well established components of the therapy for osteoporosis and osseous metastases. Their relevance in the adjuvant situation for breast cancer patients is being discussed in part controversially due to the heterogeneous nature of the available data. In particular, it appears that post-menopausal women benefit from an adjuvant therapy with bisphosphonates. In the present contribution we discuss the clinical relevance of osteoprotective therapy in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. Above all the current AGO guidelines on osteo-oncology and bone health have been taken into consideration for recommendations to implement the available data. PMID:26166839